1 Diurnal Evolution of Solar Radiation in UV, PAR and NIR Bands in High Air Masses, Jackson H. W. Chang, Jedol Dayou and Justin Sentian
Solar surface insolation appears constant from an everyday’s point of view but this quantity has been found to be changing in small scale that may lead to climate change over an extended period of time. However, the factors impacting this variance are always a subject of much debate. In long term observations for low air masses, the variation is governed by cloud cover, aerosol loading, relative humidity as well as water vapor content. Parallel observations in high air masses for the variation of received solar radiation are rather lacking. To fill up the existing gap, this paper aims to investigate the diurnal evolution of solar radiation spectrum in UV, PAR and NIR bands in high air masses. In the current work, a total of 25 days of global and diffuse solar spectrum ranges from air mass 2 to 6 were collected using shadowband technique. It is found that the evolution pattern for all spectral components follows a high coefficient of determination with respect to global radiation. The result analysis also shows that variation of solar radiation is the least in UV fraction, followed by PAR and the most in NIR fraction. It is deduced that the broader amplitude of fraction in PAR and NIR because they incorporate variation of aerosol and water vapor. Decreasing trend in NIR fraction for constant UV fraction is likely associated to the increase of water vapor content. While reduction of PAR fraction for specific air mass interval is due to the increase in aerosol loading.
2 Bacteriophage Based Pathogen Reduction in Sewage Sludge, P. Dhevagi and S. Anusuya
Biological hazard in water resources in the form of pathogenic organisms are responsible for major outbreak in most of the developing countries. The goal which gains momentum is removal of pathogens. Every effort leading to reduction in sewage pollution and pathogenic microbes has to be promoted and implemented. This necessitates to search for novel approaches that does not harm the environment. One such novel approach is exploring the possibilities of bacteriophages for pathogen removal. Sewage sludge samples were collected from different locations of Tamil Nadu and analysed. The pH of the sludge samples varied from 6.26 to 8.23 and alkaline pH was observed in Coovum sample. Highest EC was recorded by Vellore sample (4.62 dSm-1). The total heterotroph population ranged from 11 × 106 to 24 × 1014/kg of dewatered sludge. Higher frequency of antibiotic resistant E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., Streptococcus sp. and Bacillus spp. were observed in all the places, which clearly indicated the extent of pollution. E. coli and Salmonella typhi showed resistance to almost all the antibiotics and intermediate resistance to 3 antibiotics. None of the sewage sludge samples had phages against MTCC culture. Phage treatment resulted in 100 % removal of S. typhi from sewage sludge.
3 Growth Characteristics of Seven Hydrocarbon-Degrading Active Bacteria Isolated from Oil Contaminated Soil, Jinlan Xu, Yitao Zhang, Tinglin Hung and Hai xin Deng
The growth characteristics of seven strains isolated from oil contaminated soil, as well as their respective degradation efficiency for various hydrocarbons were investigated. Factors that can impact biological oil degradation efficiency were revealed in a series of experiments. The results indicate that isolated strains could rapidly degrade crude oil, showing high activity in the first 13 h of bioremediation. These strains could grow in paraffin wax, which indicates that these strains could degrade long chain hydrocarbons. Some of them (SY22, SY23, SY24, SY42, SY43) were able to use short chain hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons as substrate, so these five strains are the preferred ones for the bioremediation of oil contaminated soil. Suitable pH for the growth of these five strains was in the range from 7 to 9. NH4NO3 and oil concentrations should range from 1000 mg/L to 1500 mg/L in order to achieve optimum conditions for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. Adding organic matter such as starch and glucose accelerated oil and PAH degradation capability of the SY22, SY42 and SY23 strains. The presence of metal ions, such as Ni2+ and Co2+ in soil decreased the crude oil degradation efficiency of these strains, while metal ions, such as Fe2+ and Mn2+ did not affect the oil degradation activities.
4 Dead Fungal Biomass of Rhizopus Arrhizus for Decontamination of Hexavalent Chromium: Biosorption Kinetics, Equilibrium Modelling and Recovery, Kshama A. Shroff and Varsha K. Vaidya
The kinetics and equilibrium of biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution was carried out using the dead physico-chemically treated biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus in a batch system. The biosorption characteristics of Cr(VI) ions were studied with respect to well-established parameters including pH, temperature, rotational speed, biosorbent dosage, initial metal ion concentration and contact time. The uptake of Cr(VI) decreased with an increase in pH and biomass concentration whereas it increased with an increase in the Cr(VI) concentration, temperature and rotational speed. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 180 min. The adsorption data were analysed using the first and the second-order kinetic models as well as intra-particular rate expressions. The first-order equation was the most appropriate equation to predict the biosorption capacities of the fungal biosorbent. The sorption data obtained at pH 2.0 conformed well to both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The reusability of the biosorbent was tested in five consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles and the regeneration efficiency was above 95%. From the practical viewpoint, the abundant and inexpensive dead fungal biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus could be used as an effective, low cost and environmental friendly biosorbent for the detoxification of Cr(VI).
5 Numerical Studies on Smoke Natural Filling in an Underground Passage with Validation by Reduced-Scale Experiments, Yeqiu Wu, Angui Li, Jiangyan Ma, Ran Gao, Jiang Hu, Bin Xiao and Peng Zhang
The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming more common and reliable as a tool for kinds of buildings fire safety design, but it is not easy to be validated. In this paper, Fire Dynamics Simulator v5.0 is used to investigate the spill plume and the resultant natural filling in the underground transport passage of main transformer of a hydropower station due to the adjacent main transformer hall fire. Ceiling jet temperature decay along the transport passage and smoke layer interface height are simulated. Series of scale model experiments are carried out using pool fires placed at the centre of the main transformer hall. The data obtained from these experiments are later used in a validation study of the FDS simulated results. The FDS simulated results are also compared with the expressions proposed in the literature. The results show good agreement between experimental and numerical predictions. And through suitable adjustment of the constants of the exponential equation, good agreements are also found between the predicted data and calculated results.
6 Chemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Coral Islands of Lakshadweep Archipelago, India with Special Reference to Kavaratti Island, Najeeb K. Md and N. Vinayachandran
This paper discusses the unique hydrochemical environment of Lakshadweep Archipelago, a cluster of coral islands, where groundwater exists in the form of a thin freshwater lens over the saltwater, having restricted lateral movements. The influence exerted by the shape of these tiny islands on the stability of the water in the lenses and the tendency of this water to mix with seawater are elucidated. The factors which influence the chemical evolution of groundwater in these islands, such as the geochemistry of the coral aquifer, mixing of sea water, dissolution of CaCO3, marine aerosols and cation-exchange processes are discussed. Mixing of seawater was found to be the predominant process controlling the configuration of freshwater lenses in these islands, as reflected in the ion-ratio studies and the major ionic species observed. The hydrochemical facies, identified with the freshwater lens, represents various phases of mixing. Metabolism of the biological organisms and diagenesis of the lime shells in the corals are responsible for the relatively higher concentration of trace metals, such as strontium and iodide in this aquifer system.
7 The Reclamation Soil Suitability Study of the Highway Dumping Site Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method, Huang Yuhan, Chen Xiaoyan, Ding Linqiao, Zhang Songsong, Weng Min and Huang Yanxiong
Because the highway temporarily covers large areas, this article proposes fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate the suitability of the reclamation soil in the highway dumping site. According to the impact factors of the land reclamation and the field survey, combining with the principle of fuzzy mathematics, we chose eleven influence factors, including weather conditions, soil physical properties, and soil chemical properties as evaluation factors. In this paper, we regarded nine dumping sites in Chengdu-Chongqing Expressway double-track (Chongqing section) project as samples to make the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The results indicate that the reclamation soil suitability in Chengdu-Chongqing Expressway double-track (Chongqing section) dumping sites is relatively good. It provides a useful reference value for the reclamation soil suitability evaluation of the national highway dumping sites.
8 Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Under Pastures in Arid region, Ahmed Hasson and Muhsin Jweeg
Two sites in Iraq were chosen to study the affect of annual pasture and perennial grasses (C4). The perennial grass pastures had SOC stocks, 1.6 (Baghdad) and 1.4 (Babylon) times that of the annual pastures. Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) pools were 1.90, 2.97 and 2.88% for annuals, perennials and tagasaste at Baghdad site. At Babylon the SOC pools were 2.7, 4.70, and 3.71% under annuals, perennials and tagasaste respectively. Estimated total C sequestration contribution to the resident soil organic C pool was 2.8 times greater for perennials and 2.7 times for tagasaste than annual pasture at the Baghdad deep sandy duplex site and 1.2 times greater for perennial pasture and 1.2 times greater for tagasaste than annual pasture at the Babylon deep-sand site. Both the sites were sampled to a depth of 1.6m. Perennial grasses in this region generally produced more above ground biomass than annual pastures. However, the differences in biomass input are unlikely to be large enough to explain the high rate of sequestration of these perennials. We hypothesise that the perennial grasses promote fungi such as mycorrhiza that convert a greater proportion of labile carbon to stable humic forms than under annual pastures.
9 Effects of Perennial Vegetation on Runoff and Erosion for Field Plots on Loess Plateau in China, Zhang Tiegang, Peng Li, Zhanbin Li and Xiaoding Guo
Vegetation is one of effective methods for soil and water conservation. How to select suitable vegetation species is a key problem in the practice. In this study. through 7 years observations on the rainfall, vegetation cover, total runoff and sediment in the plots, results indicated that the benefit of the vegetative cover on runoff and sediment dominated on all plots. The accumulative sediment yield from bare plot was 7 times to that from Astragalus absurgens + Caragana korshindkii plots, also over 4 times to that from the Medicago sativa, Medicago sativa + Caragana korshindkii and Astragalus absurgens plots. Among all the vegetation types, Caragana korshindkii was the most efficient in reducing the runoff, and the combination of shrub and grass also had better effect in reducing the runoff. The accumulative runoff from bare plot was 2.57 times to that from the C. korshindkii, and over 2 times to that from M. sativa, M. sativa + C. korshindkii, A. absurgens + C. korshindkii and Vicia amucena + C. korshindkii. This study is of great importance for the selection of suitable species for vegetation reconstruction in arid and semi-arid areas.
10 Evaluating the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste in Coimbatore City, Tamilnadu, P. Shanthi, P. Meena Sundari and T. Meenambal
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems of Indian cities. Improper management of municipal solid waste (MSW) causes hazards to inhabitants. Various studies reveal that about 90% of MSW is disposed of unscientifically in open dumps and landfills, create problems to public health and the environment. This paper presents an assessment of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Coimbatore city. The quantity and composition of MSW vary from place to place, and bear a rather consistent correlation with the average standard of living. Field investigations were carried out for quantification, analysis of physico chemical composition, and characterization in disposal site. Studies carried out in these places have revealed that there are many shortcomings in the existing practices used in managing the MSW. These shortcomings pertain mainly to inadequate manpower, financial resources, implements and machinery required for effectively carrying out various activities for MSWM. Various adopted treatment technologies for MSW are critically reviewed, along with their advantages and limitations. The study is concluded with a few fruitful suggestions, which may be beneficial to encourage the competent authorities/researchers to work towards further improvement of the present system.
11 Analysis of Microbial Community in the Anaerobic Phosphorus Sludge Using Molecular Techniques, Guanhua Gao, Hongwei Rong, Chaosheng Zhang, Kefang Zhang and Peilan Zhang
Through anaerobic culture test, from the six different anaerobic phosphorus removal sludge, it was found that Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASBR) sludge is the most appropriate sludge source to remove phosphorus in the liquid medium, followed by Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) sludge and chicken manure. Microbial community structures in the six different sludge sources were investigated by 16S Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method when the anaerobic systems operated steadily. The DGGE fingerprints were analysed by the software Quantity One to obtain the information of the microbial species in the six different sludge sources, which showed that there was a high diversity in the bacterial communities, and the richness value of ASBR sludge was 0.59 whose number occupied more than half of the total bands, while The richness value reached highest (0.61) when it was chicken manure. The community similarity between ASBR sludge and EGSB sludge is the highest 71.7. In the bands strength schematic diagram, the No. 1, No. 8 and No. 18 band that existed in ASBR sludge, EGSB sludge and chicken manure might represent the colony related to the anaerobic phosphorus microbe.
12 Zinc(II) Removal by Chemically Treated Dead Biomass of Yeast Species, Geetanjali Basak and Nilanjana Das
In the present study, the dead biomass of the two yeast species viz., Candida rugosa and Cryptococcus laurentii were subjected to various chemical treatments to assess the effects of pretreatment on zinc(II) removal from aqueous solution. Yeast biomass was pretreated with anionic surfactants viz., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) and dioctyl sulphosuccinate sodium (DSS), alkali (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate), acids (hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and acetic acid), and organic solvents viz., methanol, formaldehyde and gluteraldehyde. Pretreatment of dead yeast biomass with anionic surfactants was found to improve the zinc(II) removal remarkably compared to all other treatments. Acid treatments resulted in significant reduction in zinc(II) removal efficiency. The pattern of zinc(II) removal efficiency of both the yeast species was found to follow the order: SDS (3 mM) > SDBS (3 mM) > DSS (3mM) > Na2CO3 (9 mM) ³ NaOH (9 mM) ³ untreated biomass > C2H5O8 (7 mM) ³ NaHCO3 (9 mM) > CH3OH (7 mM) > HCHO (7 mM) > CH3COOH (5 mM) > HCl (5mM) > H2SO4 (5 mM). Maximum zinc(II) removal was noted in case of SDS treated C. rugosa and C. laurentii which exhibited 84.7 % and 74.5 % zinc(II) removal compared to the removal efficiency of 65.4 % and 54.8 % obtained by untreated C. rugosa and C. laurentii .
13 Study on the Absorption Mechanism of the Sediment to Phosphorus in Yangtze River Yibin Section, Liu Ying, Li Yong, Jiang Yanxiong and Wang Dongmei
Through laboratory study, the isothermal absorption characteristics and dynamics characteristics of sediment to phosphate in Yangtze River Yibin Section were analysed. The study shows that the absorption curve of sediment is in good compliance with Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal absorption curves, which means that the sediment can absorb the phosphate spontaneously, and the absorption is done by polymolecular layer, for which the maximum theoretical absorption amount is 13.969mg/g, and the empirical constant n>1, which shows the sediment in Yangtze River Yibin Section has great absorption activity. Through analysis of primary and secondary dynamics model, it shows that the absorption of phosphorus is divided into fast absorption and slow absorption period, and the secondary dynamics equation can simulate the process more accurately. Under different sediment and water ratio, the relative error of theoretical equilibrium concentration and experimental equilibrium concentration calculated from the equation is less than 5%.
14 Impact of Textile-Dyeing Industry Effluent on Some Haematological Parameters of Freshwater Fish Oreochromis Mossambicus, G. K. Amte and Trupti V. Mhaskar
Haematological analysis was carried out in experimental fish Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to various concentrations of textile-dyeing effluents (both untreated and treated). Effluent samples of various concentrations were taken in order to perform acute toxicity studies with the test organism, Oreochromis mossambicus for the period of 96 hours. Hematological data were evaluated for parameters such as Hb, RBCs, WBCs, PCV, MCH and MCHC of the test species. The alterations of these parameters are discussed in the paper.
15 Study on Groundwater Environment Health Evaluation Based on Rough Set, Sheng Li, Wensheng Zhou and Jianfeng Cao
The paper puts forward the idea of groundwater environment health and constructs an evaluation index system for the groundwater environment health according to the connotation of groundwater environment health. The 17 evaluation indexes were simplified to obtain the most simple evaluation index system through the simplification function of the rough set, and then the weight of the evaluation index was calculated through the weight calculation function of the rough set, and the quantitative evaluation of groundwater environment health was carried out by means of a comprehensive index method. The evaluation results show that the attribute simplification and weight calculation of the rough set can be applied to the comprehensive evaluation of hydrogeology.
16 UV Photo-Fenton Treatment of Combined Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin and Chlorothalonil Pesticides Aqueous Solution, Augustine Chioma Affam and Malay Chaudhuri
The study examined the effect of the operating conditions of the UV photo-Fenton process on COD and TOC removal, biodegradability improvement and mineralization of combined chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil pesticides in aqueous solution. The optimum operating conditions for treatment of an aqueous solution containing 100 mg/L of chlorpyrifos, 50 mg/L of cypermethrin and 250 mg/L of chlorothalonil were observed to be H2O2/COD molar ratio 2, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 25 and pH 3. Under the optimum operating conditions, complete degradation of the pesticides occurred in 1 min. Biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) increased from zero to 0.38 and COD and TOC removal were 78.56 and 63.76%, respectively in 60 min. The treatment resulted in release and mineralization of organic carbon and nitrogen from the pesticide molecules as evident from TOC degradation (removal), and decrease in NH3-N from 22 to 3.9 mg/L and increase in NO3-N from 0.7 to 19.3 mg/L in 60 min. The study shows that UV photo-Fenton process is effective in pretreatment of combined chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil pesticides aqueous solution for biological treatment.
17 Analysis of Runoff Changes of Niqu River in Water Diversion Area of Western Route Project of South-North Water Transfer Project, Men Baohui, Lin Chunkun, Li Zhifei and Sun Boyang
The runoff data of Zhuba Station at Niqu river in water diversion area of Western Route Project (WRP) of South-North Water Transfers Project (SNWTP) from 1961 to 2010 were applied to estimate the coefficients of variation of hydrology, the peak pattern degree, and ample flow VS low flow, climate tendency rate and so on. The results were used to analyse the effects of hydrological regime on river discharge in the water supply area of the first stage project in WRP. The results demonstrated that: The annual river discharge is increasing in Niqu River which is the water supply area in the first stage project of WRP. The cumulative increased river discharge is 0.52×108m3 within 50 years which is 2.6% larger than the average value. The runoff increased each year in non-flood season and decreased each year in flood season.
18 Seasonal Variation of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Water in Vignasanthe Wetland of Tiptur Taluk, Tumkur District, Karnataka, K. C. Jagadeeshappa and Vijayakumara
The influence of seasonal variations in physico-chemical characteristics exert a profound effect on the distribution and population density of both animal and plant species. In the present paper we carried out the study to evaluate physico-chemical characteristics of water of Vignasanthe wetland located at Tiptur taluk of Tumkur Dist, Karnataka. The constituents monitored include temperature, pH, TUR ,EC, TDS, Cl, TH, Ca, Mg, Alk, NO3, PO4, Fe2+, Si, DO, BOD, CO2, SO4, COD and DOM. A significant variation in these parameters was observed throughout the study period and monthly comparisons were made as monsoon, premonsoon and postmonsoon. The results of present investigations were compared with earlier available literature and revealed that there is a fluctuation in the physico-chemical characters of the water. This is due to inflow and change in the temperature as season changes.
19 Assessment of the Forest Damage by Typhoon Saomai using Remote Sensing and GIS, Xiaoming Wang and Benzhi Zhou
Saomai (August 10, 2006) was one of the most significant typhoons to hit the coast in southeast China. Quantitative assessment of forest disturbances is important for improving management strategies. This study used remote sensing techniques to investigate vegetation changes after Saomai in Changnan county. Two landsat ETM+ satellite images were acquired before and after landfall. The results showed that averaged NDVI values decreased by 17.8% after Saomai. Elevation and relative aspect present strong influence on the typhoon damage. These results provide insight into the sensitivity of coastal vegetation from the interactions of both tropical cyclones and long-term environmental conditions.
20 Monitoring of Water Quality and Pollution Status of Godavari River in and Around Nashik Region, Maharashtra, Resham Bhalla and B. B. Waykar
Rivers are currently degraded by both natural and anthropogenic activities, which deteriorate the water quality, affecting the ecological balance, pushing them to brink of extinction in the process of unplanned development, giving rise to planning for suitable conservation strategies. On this background to know the present status of sources and degree of pollution of Godavari river, the analysis was carried out in terms of physico-chemical and biological parameters like temperature, turbidity, pH, free carbon dioxide, sulphates, phosphates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, phytoplanktons, zooplanktons and metals like sodium, potassium, zinc, copper, iron and lead at five locations S1 to S5 during the year November 2008-October 2009. Based on the analysis, quality and quantity of pollution, Nashik Municipal Corporation is suggested to device strategies to arrest further pollution of Godavari river and use of river water for drinking purpose after conventional treatment and disinfection.
21 A Comparative Economic Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Manure Consumption in Agricultural Production with Special Reference to Pondicherry Union Territory, S. Venkatasan and D. Murugan
Green revolution has resulted in over application of inorganic inputs such as fertilizer and plant protection chemicals. The post green revolution period has threatened the sustainability of Indian agriculture and raised a serious concern about receding groundwater level, loss of soil fertility, low diversity of production system and increasing cost of production. In view of these concerns, the modern-day agriculture gave birth to organic farming. The present study makes a comparative economic analysis of organic farming and inorganic farming under different sizes of land holdings in Pondicherry Union Territory. Since the organic manure consumption in agriculture results in increase in agriculture production, all the farms in the study region may use organic manure which may lead to reduction in the cost of production, and the same may be disseminated to the farmers through NGOs and other extension activities.
22 Studies on the Impact of Arpa River Check Dams on the Microenvironment of District Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, S. J. A. Bhat and S. M. Geelani
Bilaspur city is second largest city of the Chhattisgarh state and the River Arpa is the lifeline of this district. Arpa River has its origin from the lust dense forest area of Khondari-Khongsara. In 147 kms of the river length, it contributes more than 90 kms to the forest area, including Bilaspur city and irrigated lands of this district before meeting to Seonath river. The river is having catchment area of about 2022 sq. km. During rainy season its water level raises 2-3 meters up and in summer it moves 5 meters down. The river bed is mostly sandy with thickness of about 1.5 meter and few rock exposures at some places. More than ten check dams (Khondari, Belgahana, Lachhanpur, Rapta, Torwa, Darrighat, Sherwani, Kaneri, Mangla, etc.) have been constructed on this river. Earlier these check dams were constructed to overcome the problem of irrigation and for human welfare. But due to reduction in water level of origin site since last five years its water content is decreasing day by day and these check dams have become danger for the livelihood in the area. The maximum part of rain water gets stored in these check dams and is used by the people as a result little water reaches to Bilaspur city. Deforestation around the banks of Arpa river near the Bilaspur city has increased the pollution, thereby making the environment unstable. Study reveals that the sincere efforts need to be taken to manage the various check dams on the river for successful harvesting and recycling of rain water during monsoon season so that microenvironment of the city can not be adversely affected.
23 Isolation of Halotolerant, Thermotolerant and Phosphate Solubilizing Species of Azotobacter from the Saline Soil, Vishwas S. Patil, Sharmishtha V. Patil, H. V. Deshmukh and G. R. Pathade
Soil salinity is a major problem in Maharashtra. Attempt is made to isolate salt-tolerant, thermotolerant, nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilising Azotobacter spp. from the saline soil of Khodashi village in Satara district. Eight Azotobacter spp. were isolated from the saline soils. They were confirmed based on morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. They were tested for saline and thermal tolerance. The phosphate solubilizing potential of the these Azotobacter isolates was qualitatively evaluated by the formation of halos (clear zones) around the colonies growing on solid medium containing tribasic calcium phosphate as a sole phosphorus source. The results showed that phosphate solubilising, salt tolerant and thermotolerant Azotobacter spp. could be a promising source for the development of saline-alkali soil-based agriculture.
24 Studies on the Impact of Irrigation of Distillery Spent Wash on the Yield of Cotton (Gossipium hirsutum) and Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil Seed Plants, S. Chandraju, Siddappa and C. S. Chidan Kumar
Cultivation of Cotton and groundnut seeds was made by irrigation with distillery spent wash of different concentrations. The spent wash i.e., primary treated spent wash [PTSW] 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 spent wash were analyzed for their plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other physico-chemical characteristics. Experimental soil was tested for its chemical and physical parameters. Cotton and groundnut seeds were sown in the prepared land and irrigated with raw water (RW), 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 spent wash. The influence of spent wash irrigation on the yield of oil seed plants at maturity was investigated. It was found that the yield of oil seed plants was high in 1:3 spent wash irrigation than raw water and other dilutions.
25 Socio-Economic Aspects of Mangroves: Potential of Biogas Production, Sanjay S. Sathe and Leela J. Bhosale
In the present study, biogas generation from mangroves is carried out to test the potential of mangroves as a substrate for biogas digester. Initially active slurry of cowdung was added in the biogas digester to produce proper concentration of methanogenic bacteria. Then continuously the mangove powder was added daily to bring out concentration of 8% for a hydraulic retention time of 25 days. The produced gas was tested by simple burning test. The biogas contents were variable in different species of mangroves. Sonneratia alba has got highest values followed by A. marina var. acutissima and Avicennia officinalis. The waste from biogas digester is also useful to obtain good manure as it has adequate N, P, K values.
26 Biodiversity on Seed-Borne Fungi of Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides), D. N. Khairnar
Twenty three fungal species were found associated with seeds of eight cultivars of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides). Maximum fungi were reported from seeds of var. BJ-104 and ICMS -7703. Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium oxalicum were found pathogenic causing seed rot, seed discolouration and germination inhibition. Captan and Dithane M-45 proved best for bajra seed dressing.
27 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Hazardous Effluents from Different Paper Industries, Asif Hanif Chaudhry, Rehan ul Haq Siddiqui, Tanveer Akhtar Malik, Kazi Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Shafiq, Rashid Mahmood and Ghazala Yaqub
Annual paper production is measure of the development of a country. Paper is made from cellulose based raw material, after their chemical and mechanical treatments. There treatment discharge waste water into the environment which is carried along the water channels like drains. The water form these drains is used by formers for irrigation purposes. If this drained water contains harmful effluents it can badly affect crops. To over come or minimize this damage present study was carried out. Various parameters were checked using standard procedure recommended by American Public Health Association and the results were compared with National Environmental Quality standards (NEQs) of Pakistan. The value of average temperature, pH, TDS and chloride was in harmony with NEQs, whereas the values of the other parameters like TSS, BOD5, COD, Copper and iron were above the NEQs limits for effluents. The violation of the parameters from NEQs suggest that it is time to take steps to check the discharge of unreacted or in-complete treatment effluents into these drains and distribution, so to ensure healthy environment for future generations.
28 Influence on the Overall Performance of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. CSR-19 Cocoon Reared with V1 Mulberry Leaves Irrigated by Different Proportions of Spent Wash, S. Chandraju, Girija Nagendraswamy and C. S. Chidan Kumar
CSR-19 silkworm reared with V1 variety of mulberry plants irrigated by raw water, 50% pretreated spent wash (PTSW) and 33% PTSW. The different parameters such as raw silk (%), filament length (m), reelability (%), denier and shell ratio were determined at the maturity of cocoons. It was found that the parameters were better in cocoon irrigated with 33% PTSW compared to 50% PTSW and raw water irrigation. This concludes that the mulberry plants irrigated with 33% PTSW are enriched with more nutrients for the potential growth of mulberry plants which results in the potential cocoons.
29 Effect of Distillery Spent Wash on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Red Soil, P. Latha, P. Thangavel, G. Rajannan* and K. Arulmozhiselvan
Distillery spent wash contains nutrients and organic matter used in agriculture as a source of plant nutrients and irrigation water. Carbon and nitrogen play an important role in increasing the agricultural production. A laboratory incubation experiment was carried out to study the different concentrations of distillery spent wash on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The treatments consisted of T1-Soil alone, T2-Spent wash @ 20 kilo L ha-1, T3- Spent wash @ 40 kilo L ha-1, T4- Spent wash @ 60 kilo L ha-1, T5- Spent wash @ 80 kilo L ha-1 and T6- Spent wash @ 100 kilo L ha-1. Among the different levels, the amounts of NH4-N, NO3-N and carbon were greater in soil that received 100 kilo L of spent wash compared to soil alone. Results shown that application of spent wash not only adds mineral N and carbon to soil, but also promotes the mineralization of soil organic C and N, thus resulting in large amounts of carbon, NH4-N and NO3-N in soil.
30 Vermicomposting of Green Waste Using Earthworm Lumbricus Rubellus, T. R. Sethuraman and K. V. Kavitha
India produces huge volume of organic waste annually. This waste comes from agriculture, urban and industrial sources and also from domestic activities. Utilization of this waste material for productivity process is important for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study an attempt was made to convert the biodegradable green wastes into value added compost using an exotic earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus. The experiments were carried out in a plastic tray at 50% concentrations of green waste for a period of 60 days. Chemical analysis of worked substrates indicated step-wise increase of nitrogen and phosphorus. The increase of phosphorus and nitrogen were found to be high for green waste undergoing vermicomposting. During the composting period the organic carbon decreased from its initial value 7.12% to 5.09%. The results indicate that 50% concentration of waste mixed with bedding material was ideal for the vermicomposting.
31 Studies on Efficacy of Sewage Sludge as an Agricultural Supplement for the Assessment of Growth Performance of Brinjal (Solanum melongena var. Local long), F. A. Lone, Sabia Zaffar, Nousheen Qureshi, A. Q. Rather and N. A. Kirmani
Application of sewage sludge in agriculture is gaining momentum in many countries and is considered as an efficient waste management option. Sewage sludge is enriched with organic matter, nutrients and trace metals that can improve plant growth and soil fertility. In the present study an experiment was carried out wherein different concentrations of sewage sludge alone and in combination with different recommended doses of fertilizers (RDF) were used to assess the growth performance of brinjal (Solanum melongena var. Local long), a commonly cultivated vegetable of Kashmir valley. The field experiment was carried out during summer (Kharif) 2010 and involved five treatments (T1 = Recommended dose of fertilizers; T2 = 100% Sewage Sludge; T3 = 75% Sewage Sludge + 25% RDF; T4 = 50% Sewage Sludge + 50% RDF; T5 = 50% Sewage Sludge + 25% RDF) each with three replications. The data regarding chemical analysis of sewage sludge and pre and post experiment soil samples with respect to pH, EC, OC, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb is within permissible limits. The highest yield of brinjal was recorded in T1 (327.67q/ha), followed by 290.21q/ha in T4. Fruit quality parameters viz. carbohydrate and protein contents did not exhibit any significant variation between various treatments. On the other hand ascorbic acid content of fruit, foliar photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophyll) and morphological parameters recorded different values in different treatments. Results revealed that application of sewage sludge did not have any adverse impact on fruit quality and can be used for the improvement of plant growth and soil quality. By utilizing sewage sludge in agriculture, environmental degradation can be minimized.
32 A Comparative Study on the Effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Vigna radiata (L.), G. Chitra and P. S. Sreeja
The effect of liquid extracts of two seaweeds, Caulerpa peltata and Gracilaria corticata on seed germination, growth and pigment contents of Greengram (Vigna radiata L.) was studied. The extracts promoted seed germination at lower levels of seaweed liquid fertilizer application. The plant treated with 4% seaweed liquid fertilizer of Gracilaria corticata showed maximum shoot length, root length, number of leaves, number of fruits, number of root nodules, chlorophyll contents (a,b and total chlorophyll).
33 Effect of Urbanization on Groundwater Quality of Tirumangalam Taluk, Madurai , A. S. Kanagalakshmi and S. Nagan
Urban expansion is a major driving force altering local and regional hydrology. During the past several decades, groundwater quality has emerged as one of the most important and confronting environmental issues and it plays a significant role in the national economy through satisfying various water needs. It has special significance and needs greater attention of all concerned since it is a major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. In this paper, groundwater quality of water samples of eleven locations situated in Tirumangalam Taluk have been compared with respect to land use land change between 2002 and 2011. Groundwater samples were tested for nine physico-chemical parameters following the standard methods and procedures. BIS drinking water quality standards were adopted for calculation of Water Quality Index (WQI) to find suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the samples from the present study area reveals that the groundwater quality is getting deteriorated over a period of nine years and it creates negative impact on environmental quality.
34 Ecological Studies of Mir Alam Lake With Reference to Water Quality, Amin Hossaini Motlagh, K. Navatha and P. Manikya Reddy
The present investigation was undertaken to elucidate certain aspects of ecology of algae and physico-chemical characteristics of water with reference to water quality in Mir Alam lake. The lake provides a wide scope of identification of algal diversity existing in it. The lake is an important source of water for zoological park and, it is essential to assess the quality of water. The analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics indicates that the water is alkaline, and carbonates were recorded in high concentration. The dissolved oxygen is present in very low concentration, and organic matter, chlorides, phosphates and total hardness were present in high concentrations in the lake. The phytoplankton is dominated by Chlorophyceae. The species Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Crucigenia, Pandorina, Euglena, Phacus and Trachelomonas were dominant, and can be used as good indicators of water quality and pollution.
35 Effects of Acute Waterborne Cadmium Exposure on Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Acetycholinesterase in the Fish Crimson Red Snapper (Lutjanus Erythropterus), Xue-Feng Wang, Hai-Gang Chen, Zhe Zhang, Wen-Gui Cai and Xiao-Ping Jia
Fish are widely used as biological monitors of variations in environmental levels of pollutants. To understand how the fish antioxidant, neural systems respond to the oxidative stress under acute Cd2+ exposures (0.005 mg/L, 0.025mg/L, 0.05mg/L, 0.25mg/L), the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and lip peroxidation (MDA ) contents in the liver and gill, and acetycholinesterase (AChE) activities in the brain of Lutijanus erythropterus were measured respectively. The results showed that the hepatic SOD activities were induced significantly (p
36 An Optimization Study on Equilibrium Development Technology of Horizontal Wells in Edge Water Reservoirs, Cui Chuanzhi, Guo Qi, Geng Zhengling, Yang Chichen, Niu Shuanwen and Lu Zhiyong
In the production process of horizontal well, a pressure drop exists in horizontal wellbore from the toe to the heel, leading to different producing pressure drops at various points of horizontal section. And the water will early breakthrough in local horizontal section, which influences on the development effect of horizontal wells. Thus, it is required to combine the pressure drop characteristics in horizontal wellbore with reservoir heterogeneity and the location of horizontal section, in order to achieve equilibrium development of horizontal wells. The edge water reservoir was taken as an example in this study, where the reservoir simulation technology was used for analysing the influences of reservoir permeability difference along the horizontal wellbore, thickness difference along the horizontal wellbore and the angle between horizontal section and oil-water interface on horizontal well development. As a result, reservoir parameters policy limits were obtained for achieving equilibrium development of horizontal wells, providing a basis for the optimal design of horizontal wells in edge water reservoirs.
37 Study on Biological Decolorization of Textile Sewage in Kermanshah by Microbial Isolates from Environmental Samples, S. Zahmati, N. Bahador and M. Baserisalehi
Nowadays, drug, pulping, textile and other industries are developed in most of the countries and their non save sewages makes many problems for environment. One of the most important dangerous sewage is pigmented sewage, which has complex structures such as azo compounds. In Iran one of the main sources of pigmented sewage is textile manufacturing. Hence, in order to remove colour of this sewage, the present study was conducted to evaluate potential of some bacteria for dye decolourising. To perform this investigation 30 samples from soil and 10 from sewage were collected. All bacteria with potential of decolorization were isolated and identified using biochemical tests. Out of seven different isolated bacteria three were Gram positive and four were Gram negative. Optimization of decolorization for all bacteria was carried out in second step with respect to evaluation of bacterial activity at different temperatures (25-45°C), pHs (5-9) and dye concentrations (0.01-0.04g/L). The results obtained indicated that the best temperature for all bacteria tested was 35°C, pH 8.0, and dye concentration 0.02 g/L. Therefore, decolorization of pigmented sewage for elimination of dangerous compounds could be possible using bacteria.
38 Advances on the Applications of Fish Biomarkers in the Aquatic Toxicity of Heavy Metals, Xue-Feng Wang and Han-Qu Zhao
Heavy metal pollution has attracted worldwide concerns as it threatens both the aquatic organisms and the integrity of aquatic ecosystem. Moreover, human health has faced up the challenges due to its bioaccumulation through the food chains, among of which fish consuming has been one of the important ways. This paper reviewed the sources of trace metals in coastal waters and analysed the toxicity of trace metals and its toxic mechanisms to fish as well. Recent researches and applications of the biomarkers which can quantify the response fish to pollution stress mainly including the cytochrome P450 enzymes, heat shock protein, metallothionein, antioxidant enzymes and gentoxicology (DNA damage by comet assay), histopathological and morphological parameters were summarized. Finally, the paper discussed these questions to be solved in future: to improve the applications of fish biomarkers and to combine the chemical analysing method, biochemical assay and biomarkers response testing in assessing the risks of pollutants to aquatic ecosystem still need to be studied further.
39 Studies on the Removal of Acid Blue 25 from Wastewater Using Activated Carbon and Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as Adsorbent, P. Santhosh, A. Sridevi* and C. Dhandapani
Activated carbon has been widely used as an adsorbent. Curcuma longa (Linn.) may be an alternative of activated carbon. In the present investigation the study on removal of dye Acid blue 25 using Curcuma longa waste activated carbon as an adsorbent following the down-flow column adsorption technique with a view to assess the stability of the chosen adsorbent for design purpose. Batch kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out at different conditions like contact time, Acid blue 25 concentration and bed height of the adsorbent. The Bohart-Adams and Thomas models were employed for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium, and finally it has been observed that the experimental data fitted more accurately to the Thomas model for both the cases.
40 Water Conservation in Sugar Industry, Baban Gunjal and Aparna Gunjal
Sugarcane hot water balance shows that the water content of sugarcane itself is more than sufficient for internal processing. Surplus internal water is available for external use. By recycling, reuse and good house keeping, external consumption can be minimized. The polluted water is treated by anaerobic digestion-activated sludge process- pressure filtration and activated carbon. The treated water is recycled to reservoir to utilize for factory cleaning, washing, cooling water make-up, colony, gardening and irrigation. Alternatively, wastewater is made zero through bio-composting.
41 Impact of Forest Structure Simplification on Bird Species Richness in the Harena Forest of the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP), South Eastern Ethiopia, Anteneh Shimelis, Mitchell Pinard and Addisu Asefa
Human simplification of habitat in the Harenna forest mainly happens by permanently removing woody vegetation. We evaluated the impact of such simplification of habitat on bird species richness. Birds were counted using the point count method at points that were laid out along transect lines, and from their presence/absence, species richness was worked out. By establishing 50m by 50m quadrats at bird counting stations, we counted the number of basal remnants of cut trees and we measured vegetation structure variables such as % grass, % other herbs, % shrubs, % bush and % canopy (tree cover). Tree, bush and shrub covers did have significant positive correlation with bird species richness. As the magnitude of tree cutting increased species richness of birds declined significantly. Similarly with bird species richness, structural variables such as tree, bush and shrub covers did have significant negative correlation with the tree cutting variable. Due to this, we carried out Principal Component Analysis and the first component that was influenced mainly by tree cover and tree cutting variables significantly explained 84.7 % of the variation in bird species richness in a stepwise multiple regression analysis. Bush and shrub cover did also have significant positive contributions towards the explanatory value of the first component, thus, their positive contribution in explaining bird species richness is noteworthy. Results showed habitat simplification through tree cutting has significant negative impact on bird species richness.
42 Industrial and Environmental Application of High Volume Fly Ash in Concrete Production, R. Thangaraj and R. Thenmozhi
A large number of structural properties of plain concrete are improved with addition of admixtures to concrete. It is well known that the addition of fly ash to plain concrete improves workability, strength, durability, less permeable and more stable. In conventional concrete the flexural strength reaches a maximum value between 14 and 28 days. In high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete the strength keeps on increasing with age because of pozzolanic reaction of fly ash and strengthening of the interfacial bond between cement paste and aggregate. The use of fly ash as a partial replacement for Portland cement will usually reduce water demand and bleeding of HVFA concrete ranges from negligible to very low. Only few research works have been carried out earlier on flexural study on R C conventional beams without fly ash. Therefore in this investigation an attempt has been made to study any likely improvement on the effect of fly ash on the properties of HVFA concrete in R C beam elements with confinement of stirrups in compression zone. It has been suggested that the effective use of fly ash minimizes the disposal of fly ash, which also solves an environmental problem. This HVFA concrete is easy to pump, consolidate and finish the surface, free from cracks, reduces carbon-dioxide emissions, superior environmental friendliness, reduction in stone mining since it consumes less volume of Portland cement. The methodology adopted above improves ductility and improves the rotation capacity of the joints of framed structure, thus, improving the ultimate load carrying capacity. An attempt is also made to compare the load versus deflection of the HVFA concrete beams with conventional RCC beams and evaluated the performances of the proposed method of confinement. The results indicated that the confinement in the form of stirrups improves the ultimate strength and ductile behaviour of the concrete (IS 3812-1981). An attempt has been made in the present paper to highlight the utilization of fly ash in construction.
43 Studies on Natural Resources and their Significance Around Arpa River Basin in Chhattisgarh, S. J. A. Bhat and S. Maqbool Geelani
Chhattisgarh State is mostly dominated by tribal and backward people. The state has rich endowment of natural resources in terms of minerals, forests and water bodies. The state has a forest cover of around 44%, which represents diverse tropical flora and fauna. Mahanadi, Shivnath, Son, Arpa, Kharoun, Hasdeo and Indrawati are the main rivers. The main forest types that are classified on the basis of species composition include Sal forest, being the dominant species distributed throughout western and eastern Belghana. However, the teak forest are found throughout the Khondri range while the mixed forests are distributed in the southern Belghana where the species of bamboo, sal, muhua, bija, sisso etc. are prominent. The third important resource in aforementioned region is soil and the geology of watershed that determines the infiltration of water, percolation of water, and controls the runoff and soil erosion of the area. The most widely distributed soil types of the area are loamy sand, loam, clayey loam and clay. The black cotton soil and lateritic or red soil are widely dominating in parts of study area. It was inferred from the study that Arpa river basin is very rich in natural resources, which need their systematic management without overexploiting them so that socioeconomic standards of this tribal area can be uplifted in a productive manner.
44 Identification and Characterization of the Effectively Arsenic Tolerant Bacterial Strains from the Potential Arsenic Contaminated site in 24-Parganas (North) District of West Bengal, India, Debanjana Sengupta, Arup Kumar Mitra and Sudeshna Shyam Choudhury
Arsenic is a common menace in the state of West Bengal particularly in the district of 24-Parganas (North) and (South). The major source of arsenic being geologic in nature. Soil samples collected from one such particular location Baduria were tested for the presence of arsenic (As), and on an average the As content of the soil was 2.18mg/kg. Different bacteria were isolated by serial dilution and were also tested for As tolerance. On the basis of their tolerance, three organisms (viz. C-7, A-2, A-1) have shown remarkable percentage uptake of As 43%, 22.17% and 14% respectively, which was highest for C-7 strain. Azithromycin and Streptomycin were found to be more effective to control C-7 with an inhibition zone of 4.5 cm, but for A-2 and A-1 it was Azithromycin with inhibition zone of 3.8cm and 3.5cm respectively. These organisms were characterized and identified by 16S rDNA technique, BLAST results and the cluster analysis by NTSYSpc ver. 2.02e program, and found to be Bacillus sp. strain CCBAU 51490 (C-7) (GenBank Accession Number EF377314.1), Bacillus subtilis sub sp. subtilis strain DSM 10 (Genbank Accession Number NR_027552.1) (A-2) and Pseudomonas otidis strain MCC 10330 (Genbank Accession Number NR_043289.1) (A-1). They can be used in the treatment of As contaminated sludge generated industrially from As treatment plant. This can give a new insight in microbial arsenic trapping with minimum toxic implications in the nature.
45 The Study of Particulate Matter Concentration in Schools of Lahore, Anila Rose Yousaf and Nikhat Khan
Children spend a large part of their time in school. Air pollution due to high concentration of particulate matter in schools has a detrimental effect upon children and teachers health and achievement. This study was carried out to assess mass concentration of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) in schools of Lahore, Pakistan, by using portable Tactical Air Sampler (MinivolTM TAS) and questionnaire survey during working days of the schools, in 5 northern (downtown area), and 5 southern (suburban) schools of Lahore, from November 2010 to June 2011. Mean concentration of PM10 in sampling schools of northern and southern Lahore was 1433.04 µg/m3 and 293.9µg/m3 respectively, while that of PM2.5 was 153.8 µg/m3 and 54.79ìg/m3 respectively. In both the areas, concentration of PM2.5 was minimum at 6a.m. and maximum at noon. Concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 was higher in winter than in summer, but was found to be lower on rainy days. In winter, northern and southern schools’ mean PM10 was 1507.15 µg/m3 and 314.5438 µg/m3, and PM2.5 was 169.1µg/m3 and 59.5 µg/m3. In summer, PM10 was 1365.4 µg/m3 and 284.4 µg/m3, and PM2.5 was 137.8 µg/m3 and 44.5 µg/m3 respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in northern schools was significantly higher than in southern schools. It exceeded WHO and NAAQS of Pakistan. Questionnaire revealed that adverse impacts of high PM concentration are more rigorous at northern schools than at southern schools of Lahore. Suitable site selection and public cooperation are vital for reduction of particulate matter in schools of Lahore.
46 Dynamic Mechanics of Soil Erosion by Runoff on Loess Slope, Li Peng, Zhang Linhong, Li Zhanbin and Zheng Liangyong
In this research, soil erosion and sediment yield were calculated by runoff shear stress, runoff energy consumption and runoff power theory. Results indicated that a linear relationship existed between the average runoff shear stress and sediment yield. Soil erodibility in the experiment was 178.5g/(Pa•min), and the critical shear stress value was 0.54 Pa. Results from energy consumption implied that there was also a linear relationship between sediment transportation and energy consumption of runoff unit width: Dr = 14.61 (DE-0.37), which indicated that the soil erodibility was 14.61g/J, with a critical energy consumption of 0.37J/ (min•cm). Results from runoff power theory showed that sediment transportation increased with increase in runoff power, and the simple linear relationship was also regressed: Y = 8942.2x - 68.676. Generally, these three theories each showed certain advantages in describing the soil erosion processes on the slope, among which the results from energy consumption theory were simpler, more accurate, and proved more convenient in describing soil erosion on the slope.
47 Application of Entropy Weight TOPSIS Method for Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Technology of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, Fu Jinxiang, Xie Lingwei, Ma Xingguan, Tang Jing, Zhang Rongxin, Bai Yuping, Tang Yulan and Gao Yunan
The paper aims to find out the best wastewater pollution control technology of high efficiency and low energy consumption in the Municipal wastewater treatment plants. The method of entropy weight TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) was used to build the estimate model for wastewater treatment technology of the plant. Choice of three municipal wastewater treatment plant processes is A/O, BIOLAK and A2/O. The close degree calculated by the entropy weight TOPSIS respectively is 0.4530, 0.4987 and 0.5176 in the treatment process suited for the municipal sewage treatment. The A2/O treatment process is the best, then is the A/O treatment and the worst is the BIOLAK treatment process. Entropy weight TOPSIS method, used in the assessment of the wastewater treatment technology is flexible, convenient, scientific and suitable for the assessment of sewage disposal technology.
48 The Effects of Yarrow’s (Achillea millefolium) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Proteins in Mice, Mehrdad Modaresi and Delaram Dadkhah
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) means thousands leaves plant and belongs to Asteraceae family. Yarrow is a perennial plant which grows in mountainous regions of Europe, North Africa and East Asia (including North Iran and Alborz heights). This plant has many health benefits like treating problems of digestive system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system (stimulating blood circulation and lowering blood pressure), and genital-urinary system. In this study, the effect of Yarrow extract was evaluated on immunity parameters of blood serum in little female laboratory rats (Balb/C race). At first, samples were divided randomly in five groups: three treatment groups, one control group and one placebo group. Each group had eight members and all groups were kept in similar conditions. Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared in three doses including 50,100 and 200 mg/kg and was injected in peritoneum every two days for twenty days. Normal saline was injected to placebo group. All measurements were done using protein electrophoresis method. Measured parameters were albumin amount, a-1 and a-2 globulin, b globulin, gamma globulin, albumin globulin ratio, and total protein. Results showed that the amount of albumin, b globulin and total protein were increased in all three doses. a-2 were decreased in all treatments and a-1 were increased in all three doses but this increase was significant for doses 100 and 200 mg. Albumin globulin ratio was increased also in all treatments but it was significant only for 50 mg. Gamma globulin amount was increased in 50 and 100 mg but decreased a little in 200 mg. Results of this study showed that Yarrow extract caused significant changes in blood immune parameters and can affect immune system of body even in absence of antigenic factors.
49 Water Environment Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Based on Improved Set Pair Analysis (SPA), Zhihong Zheng and Minghua Wei
Set pair analysis (SPA) is a method for the application on analysis of risks and project decision evaluation. This method combines qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. The previous SPA study only focused on three ranks evaluation. This paper presents an improved SPA method utilizing original relation degree malleability of SPA, and extends it to five ranks evaluation. The improved method can depict identity, discrepancy and contrary in more detail. In addition, this study combines fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate four main factors of surface water environment, instead of the discussion of i+, i–, j+, j– coefficient. It not only obtains evaluation result but also obtains probability distribution of each rank. In this paper, we apply the method to factual example and compare the results with synthesis index method, and gray associated analysis method. We conclude that the improved method can represent the true state of the object with extensive engineering application value.
50 Column Studies on Removal of Ag(I) from Electroplating Wastewater by Macrofungus Pleurotus platypus: Use of Modelling and Response Surface Methodology, Devlina Das, Vimala R. and Nilanjana Das
This study described the removal of Ag(I) from wastewater using macrofungus Pleurotus platypus in a packed bed column. The effect of operating parameters such as bed height, flow rate and initial metal concentration were investigated on removal of Ag(I) under optimized condition. The breakthrough curve profile signified that the breakthrough time and exhaustion time increased with an increase in bed height and a decrease in flow rate and initial metal concentration. The data were supported by 3D mesh diagrams and perturbation plots obtained from 2D factorial design. The column data were analysed using four models viz., BDST model, Emperical model, Thomas model and Yan model. The BDST model was found to be the best to fit the breakthrough curves at experimental conditions. The column was regenerated using 0.01 M HCl solution and sorption-desorption studies were carried out for three cycles. The obtained results implied that P. platypus may serve as suitable adsorbent material for the removal of Ag(I) from wastewater.
51 A Novel Application of Micro Electrolysis-Fenton Process on High-strength Acidic Dye Wastewater, Zhanli Chen, Xiangrong Sun, Zhenzhong Liu, Xiaohua Huang1, Rui Jia
A combined process, micro electrolysis-Fenton process was chosen as the pre-treatment performance of high-strength dyestuff wastewater. The software tool ANLYSIS CFX® was employed on simulation of the reactor. Meanwhile, comparative experiments were carried out and it was determined that the micro electrolysis-Fenton process was superior to the traditional one in terms of treatment effect. Optimal conditions were attained by experimental conditions changing. The results show that under optimal conditions, the BOD5/COD ratio could be increased from 0.08 to 0.46 and the COD removal rate could be more than 75%. This process was highly efficient in organic matter removal and biodegradability improving.
52 Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on the Phytoplankton Diversity of Rajaram Reservoir, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India, Supriya Gaikwad, Sachin Patil and Meena Dongare
The present investigation was undertaken to study the impact of anthropogenic activities such as Ganesh idol immersion and mattresses washing during the Navaratra festival on the phytoplankton diversity of Rajaram reservoir. The total number of phytoplankton recorded during this investigation is 120. Several of these algal species belong to the pollution tolerant genera. A few biological and diversity indices were also calculated, which indicate high level of pollution of the Rajaram reservoir. Therefore, it is an urgent need to conserve this reservoir for the future water resource.
53 Application of Sample Entropy on Measuring Precipitation Series Complexity in Jiansanjiang Branch Bureau of China, Liu Dong and Liu Meng
In order to describe the complexity characteristics of precipitation series in Jiansanjiang Branch Bureau of China, the complexities of monthly average precipitation series were measured by the sample entropy method and the regional differences of precipitation resources system complexity in the farms belonging to Jiansanjiang Branch Bureau were analyzed by utilizing the visualization function of ArcGIS technology. The measure and analysis results show that the complexities of each monthly average precipitation have obvious regional differences in Jiansanjiang Branch Bureau. The monthly average precipitation series complexities in Farm Hongwei and Farm Bawujiu are the strongest; in Farm Daxing, Farm Chuangye, Farm Qianjin, Farm Qinglongshan, Farm Yalvhe, Farm Qianfeng and Farm Shengli are in the middle; and in Farm Qindeli, Farm Qixing, Farm Honghe, Farm Qianshao and Farm Erdaohe are the weakest. Sample entropy can reflect the dynamic change degree of precipitation series and has advantages like less data needing and is stable, which provide a new way to research hydrological series complexity. The research achievements reveal the complexity and its areal variation of local precipitation resources system, and screen boundary parameters for structuring water resources optimization allocation models, and provide scientific basis for rationally utilizing and developing precipitation resources in Jiansanjiang Branch Bureau and even in the whole Sanjiang Plain of China.
54 Heavy Metals in Sediments of Inland Water Bodies of India: A Review, Neetu Malik and A. K. Biswas
In last few decades, due to the rapid increase in the population, industrialization and newer agricultural practices, the aquatic resources of India have been deteriorating. The pollution of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals is of a great concern due to their persistence, toxicity and accumulative behaviour. The heavy metals can change the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems and make them unsuitable for various purposes. They also pose a serious threat to human health. This paper reviews the heavy metal contamination of sediments of Indian inland water bodies. It also discusses the possible sources of pollution. Different standards for sediment pollution which are in use have also been discussed. It showed that environmental degradation has become a major societal issue in India due to uncontrolled anthropogenic activities, besides natural factors. There is an urgent need of creating awareness amongst the public of these problems and find preventive and remedial solutions for management. Expensive high-tech remedial measures are not suitable for the country, and hence emphasis has to be given on prevention. Indigenous research towards mitigation and remediation has to be encouraged, keeping in mind India’s unique problems of poverty, crowding and malnutrition.
55 Generation of Electricity from A Low Cost Microbial Fuel Cell, M. Ramalakshmi, S. Akila and S. D. Sharief
Using available resources, a dual chambered low cost microbial fuel cell was designed. Microbial fuel cell was tested for electricity production with microbial isolates like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes using corn steep liquor as substrate. From the values recorded using a multimeter, it was observed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was able to produce maximum electricity of I: 10.32 mA, V: 0.948 V, R: 91.88 W and P: 9.785 mW, at 45°C.
56 Morphological and Physiological Responses of Lemna minor to Aniline, Guangjun Wen, Weirong Bai, Zhongshi Hao, Wei Xu and Huyin Huai
The ecotoxicological effects of aniline on Lemna minor have been evaluated based on both morphological and physiological responses in this paper. The results showed a significant inhibition to frond number and area, growth index, and biomass of L. minor. The contents of both chlorophyll a and b went down significantly after exposure to aniline. Aniline shows an acute toxic effect on the vegetative growth of L. minor and the effect is correlated with its concentration. Aniline might impact the growth of L. minor through destroying its photosynthesis. The activities of CAT, POD and SOD shown different responses to aniline at different times, but higher concentration of aniline and persistence would be more harmful to L. minor according to the changes of the activities of antioxidant enzymes. L. minor could be used as an indicator to monitor the existence of aniline in water bodies.
57 Assessment of Water Quality Around Surface Coal Mine in India, V. Shinde, S. B. Nandgude and M. Singh
The present study highlights techniques to identify suitability of water for different purposes such as domestic, irrigation and industrial uses. Water samples from Olidih watershed in Jharia coalfield were collected in pre-monsoon (PRM) and post-monsoon (POM) seasons and analysed for different physico-chemical properties. Water Quality Index (WQI), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), percent sodium (%Na) and total hardness (TH) were determined on the basis of various physico-chemical parameters in order to ascertain the suitability of water for domestic, irrigation and industrial uses. The WQI for the study area found to vary from 23.86 to 166.72 in PRM season and from 22.14 to 146.44 in POM season. In 16.3% and 11.4% of watershed area, water is found unfit for drinking during PRM and POM seasons respectively. The calculated values of SAR and %Na indicate ‘excellent to permissible use’ of water for irrigation uses during both the seasons. High salinity, %Na and Mg-hazard values at some sites limit use for irrigation purposes. Box plots were plotted to represent seasonal concentration of the major ions which shows increasing trend of Ca, Na, NO3 and SO4 during POM.
58 Study on Bioactive Compounds Produced by Soil Origin Brevibacillus spp., S. Seyed Gholizadeh, M. Baserisalehi and N. Bahador
The purpose of this study was the evaluation of soil origin Brevibacillus for production of bioactive compounds. Nowadays bioactive compounds are considered the sources of new remedy in order to eliminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To perform the study, two strains of Brevibacillus with potent activity for production of bioactive compounds were isolated from 121 soil samples. Phenotypic and 16SrRNA sequencing identification of the isolates recognized them as Brevibacillus reuszeri (B12 bioactive compound producer) and Brevibacillus formosus (B22 bioactive compound producer). The bioactive compounds produced by the bacteria were partially purified and characterized based on their antimicrobial activities at various pHs and temperatures and proteinase K. Then, activity of the bioactive compounds was assessed against different pathogenic microorganisms. The results obtained indicated that activity of the compounds when treated with proteinase K was inhibited. The optimum pH for both the isolates was 7 and potent activity of the bioactive compound B12 was observed at 35°C while for B22 was at 40°C. Although, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcua aureus, E. coli and Salmonella typhi were sensitive, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) were resistant to the both bioactive compounds. Therefore, Brevibacillus with potent activity for production of antimicrobial metabolites, and fast growth character may be considered as a good probiotic agent for commercial industries.
59 Whole Soil Sampling to Compare Carbon Sequestration Under Perennial Pastures of Western Australia, Ahmed Hasson, Tim Wiley and George Woolston
Changing from annual to perennial pastures may be a key strategy for farmers to both adapt to, and help mitigate, climate. In this study organic carbon determined by Walkley and Black analysis of ‘whole soil’ samples (i.e., including roots) from annual and perennial pastures was used to determine the carbon stocks in the top 30 cm of soil. Samples were collected from old perennial pasture trial sites, and also from adjoining paired paddocks of annual and perennial pastures. Sequestration rates were calculated as the increase in carbon stocks of the perennials above the traditional annuals, averaged over the number of years since the perennials were sown. The results indicate that denser perennial pastures can sequester in the range of 5 to 10 t CO2e /ha/year. We hypothesise that the flux rates from particulate organic matter to the humus pool currently used for annuals in RothC may be too low for perennial pastures. These results are particularly encouraging as (a) all but one of the sites was on coarse sandy soils, and (b) all of the years since the perennials were sown were below average rainfall.
60 Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder: A Plant-Based Adsorbent for Removal of Textile Acid Azo Dye from Aqueous Solution, Malay Chaudhuri and Chan Xuan Hui
A plant-based adsorbent was prepared from Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and adsorption of two textile acid azo dyes, Acid Red 18 and Acid Orange 7, from aqueous solution was examined. Batch adsorption test showed that extent of dye adsorption depended on contact time, pH and adsorbent dose. Equilibrium adsorption was attained in 5 h and maximum adsorption occurred at pH 2. Dye adsorption followed pseudo second-order kinetics. Equilibrium adsorption data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Acid dye adsorption capacity of the Neem leaf powder was compared with that of other plant-based adsorbents and activated carbons. Neem leaf powder is effective in adsorptive removal of acid dyes from aqueous solution and textile dye waste.
61 Effect of Vegetation Cover Types on Soil Infiltration Under Simulating Rainfall, Huang Pingping, Sha Xue, Peng Li and Li Zhanbin
In this study, simulated rainfall was applied to study the process of runoff generation and water infiltration under the cover of herbaceous vegetation at the preliminary succession stages. Results indicated that at the preliminary succession stages, as soil texture was loose, water infiltration was high. With the vegetation succession and the accumulation of organic matter in the soil, both physical and chemical properties of the soil were improved, which made the soil texture tight, and water infiltration rates decrease. With the progress of the rainfall, parts of the microbiotic soil crust were destroyed by raindrop impact, and water infiltration rates were improved. This result indicated that the existence of microbiotic soil crust reduced the soil infiltration rate. Thus, it is of great importance to improve soil infiltration by destroying the microbiotic soil crust with proper measures such as grazing in arid and semi-arid areas.
62 Kinetic Model and Ecological Dose Values for the Inhibition of Effects of Cd2+ and Hg2+ on Soil Enzymes, Jinlong Yan and Guixiang Quan
Effects of Hg2+ and Cd2+ on the activities of urease, invertase and amylase in different periods and concentration were studied by indoor soil cultivating method. Results showed that the activities of soil urease, invertase, and amylase by heavy metals were inhibited markedly, but this inhibitory effect differed among enzymes. During the treatment of 45 days, the activities of urease, invertase and amylase were decreased with the increase of the concentrations of Hg2+. There were significant logarithmic correlations between the concentration of heavy metals and the inhibition ratios of the activities of these three enzymes (r2 > 0.902). The inhibitory effect was also characterized in the term of ecological dose value (ED50). It indicated that urease activity was more sensitive than the other two enzymes to heavy metals contamination. So, urease activity may be a suitable early warning index to be used in the characterization the soil pollution condition of heavy metals.
63 Experimental Study on Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat in Different Irrigation Methods, Shun Sheng Wang, Liang Jun Fei* and Chuan Chang Gao
In order to probe dry matter accumulation, grain yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat, the study has been conducted under three irrigation treatments by the different irrigation methods. The results show that winter wheat water consumption and the ground dry matter accumulation gradually increase under the different irrigation conditions, with the increase in the number of irrigations, while yield and water use efficiency increase at first and then decrease. Under the same irrigation times, the water consumption of winter wheat in bed-planting is lower than that in flat planting, and dry matter accumulation is higher than that of flat planting. Compared with the flat planting, the water quantity of bed-planting can be saved 40%, the production can increase by 5.5% to 11.3%, and water use efficiency can increase by 0.17 to 0.40kg/m3. On the basis of the experimental results, it is suggested that the bed-planting mode in combination with considerably deficit irrigation at winter, jointing and booting stages is worth extending the application in winter wheat production.
64 An Analysis of Ambient Air Quality and Categorization of Exceedence Factor of Pollutants in Different Locations of Assam, Abhijit Barman
This paper tries to find out effect of air quality of five places in eight different locations in the state of Assam. The study is to analyse the air pollution concentration in the State. Basically, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM), suspended particulate matter (SPM) for three consecutive years 2007, 2008, 2009 were critically analysed. The annual average and Exceedence factor were also calculated in all different locations. In this study, it is observed that RSPM and SPM are high in four locations in 2007, five in 2008, and five in 2009. In critical category, we see two locations in 2007, three locations in 2008 and four locations in 2009. But, it is seen that the concentrations of SO2 and NO2 are below the prescribed limit of NAAQS of CPCB in all three consecutive years in all locations.
65 Biomass and Secondary Production of Earthworm Drawida willsi (Michaelsen) from a Tropical Agroecosystem in Ranchi, Jharkhand, Rohit Srivastava, D. K. Gupta, A. K. Choudhary and M. P. Sinha
Biomass variation, secondary production and turn-over of the earthworm Drawida willsi (Michaelsen) was assessed from a tropical agroecosystem site at Ranchi for 18 months. The total biomass ranged between 0.88 ± 0.33 and 29.55 ± 3.15 g dry weight m-2. Secondary production of 53.37 g dry weight m-2 yr-1 was obtained which in terms of calorific value amounts to 246.57 kcal m-2 yr-1. Biomass turnover value was 4.99.
66 Observations on the Effect of Copper on Growth Performance, Dry Matter Production and Photosynthetic Pigments of Ludwigia Perennis L., Sushma Jangid and S. K. Shringi
Effects of various concentrations of copper were studied on growth performance, dry matter production and photosynthetic pigments of Ludwigia perennis L. The growth of the plant showed significant negative correlation with increase in concentration of copper. Higher concentrations of copper caused maximum reduction of shoot and root dry weight over the control plants. The reduction in dry weight of root was higher than the shoot. The photosynthetic pigments also showed reduction with increasing concentration of copper.
67 Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Acmella Ciliata (H.B.K) Cassini and Ichnocarpus Frutescens (Linn.) R.Br. Against Two Pathogenic Bacteria, M. J. Daisy, A. R. Raju and M. P. Subin
In the present work, qualitative phytochemical analysis and in vitro antibacterial activity of the different component extracts of Acmella ciliata and lchnocarpus furtescens against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were studied. Extracts were prepared in methanol and water. Antibacterial activity was compared with control and standard antibiotic ampicillin. Both the plant species exhibited antibacterial activity against the test pathogenic bacteria. However, methanolic leaf extracts of Acmella ciliata was found to have maximum number of bioactive components and highest zone of inhibition against both the test bacteria and therefore as per the present study, methanolic leaf extract of A. ciliata is indeed the potential antibacterial agent against B. subtilis and E. coli.
68 Research on Building Wind Environment Based on the Comparison of Wind Tunnel Experiments and Numerical Simulations, Li Yang
With the continuous development of computer, computer numerical simulation is widely applied. In this paper, a combination of experimental and theoretical analysis, wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulation results are compared. It is anchored to the architectural wind environmental studies, explored the relationship between the environment and the building and the role of the environment on the building development, and the impact of the wind environment on the architectural design and the structural design, in order to restore the positive interactions between the environment and the building, and lay the foundation for the road to the sustainable development of the building.
69 Characterization and Valuation of the Domestic Solid Waste of Fidjrosse District in Cotonou (Republic of Benin) by Aerobic Composting, Cyrille Tchakpa, Patrick A. Edorh, Patient Guedenon and Michel Boko
This work proceeded in Fidjrossè district in Cotonou from November 2009 to December 2010. It consisted with a field investigation, with the characterization of the urban solid waste collected in this district, with valorisation by aerobic composting of the fermentable fraction of the waste. From work of investigation it arises that 25 % of households continue to throw their faeces on wild dumps while 13.33 % continue to make the incineration. 81. 67% of the surveyed households have a daily production of waste lower than 1 kg. The characterization of collected waste records in mass 50.19% of biodegradable matters; fine sand 32.18%; 0.63% of shells, carapaces of crabs and pearls; 0.13% of engraved and pieces of brick; 8.31% of plastics; 4% of paperboard; 1.58% of metal; 1.11% of textile and debris of mattress; 1.01% of glasses; 0.79 of shoes and leathers; 0.7% of used batteries; 75% of moisture for the fermentable fraction. On the whole, 262kg of fermentable waste was composted with an output of 65, 67% which is approximately 172kg of ripe compost. The physico-chemical characteristics of the compost obtained give inter alia values a report of ratio C/N of 11.69% and one rate of total phosphorus 0.062%. The real-mould of our compost has a heavy CEC and holds the nutritive mineral ions as the cations K+ and Ca2+ and phosphate so as to make available for plants for their growth and to improve the soil fertility of the site as well as its increased need for organic soil conditioner.
70 Investigation of the Removal Efficiency of Foulants by Anoxic/Aerobic Membrane Bioreactor Treating Pickle Wastewater, Hongxiang Chai and Shen Li
Pickle wastewater was treated by anoxic/aerobic membrane bioreactor. Three groups of experiments were designed under the condition of different feed loadings to research on treating pickle wastewater by mixed MBR with PVDF. In the case of normal temperature, the salinity was 2-3%, the bio-film density was 15% in both of the anoxic and aerobic zones; DO was 1mg/L and MLSS was 2000 mg/L in the anoxic zone; DO was 4-5mg/L and MLSS was 6000 mg/L in the aerobic zone. The ratio of the recycling mixture was 200%; the sorption pumps were turned off for 3 minutes in every 10minutes; the pressure gradient was 15KPa. According to the study of removal efficiencies of organic pollutant, it indicates that when the feed loading is 1.2 kgCOD/(m3.d), the removal efficiency is optimal. And the effluent concentrations of COD, NH4+-N and SS satisfy the requirement of the first class discharge standard of comprehensive discharge standard of sewage (GB8978-1996).
71 Adsorption of Reactive Blue and Direct Red Dyes on Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) - Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies, Parul Bhatt, Raj K. Vyas, Prabhat Pandit and Manisha Sharma
The present study deals with the adsorptive removal of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) and Direct Red 81(DR81) from their aqueous solutions. Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) was used as an adsorbent. Batch studies were performed to analyse various experimental parameters like adsorbent dose, pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. Optimum PAC doses for RB19 and DR81 were found to be 0.2 g/L and 0.3 g/L, respectively. Effective pH for RB19 and DR81 removal was found to be 2 and 7, respectively. In addition, high percent removal with decrease in initial dye concentration was observed. Quasi-equilibrium was attained in 3h for both dyes. Pseudo-second-order rate equation satisfactorily represented the adsorption kinetics for both the dyes. Langmuir and Temkin isotherms were found to best represent the equilibrium data for DR 81-PAC system whereas for RB19-PAC system Langmuir isotherm was found to be best suited. Furthermore, thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of both the dyes onto PAC was exothermic in nature.
72 Study on the Changing Law of Dissolved Oxygen and Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Baiyang Lake, Jianwei Ma, Junliang Liu and Shuxuan Liang
We studied the changing laws of dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved oxygen saturation of Baiyang Lake in the past few years. The analysis of dissolved oxygen was from two angles, they were monitoring value and saturability. The results showed that concentration of dissolved oxygen in Baiyang Lake was between 4.08 mg/L and 15.00mg/L, and concentration of dissolved oxygen in a day with the changes of light intensity showed a strong regularity, it was identical in changes of photosynthesis of aquatic plants. The volatility of changes of dissolved oxygen in summer and autumn were more than in spring and winter. The average values of dissolved oxygen were greater in winter than in spring and greater than in autumn and greater than in summer. This was related to water temperature, biomass and biological activities of lives. Dissolved oxygen saturabilities were close to 100% in spring and summer, so photosynthesis was stronger than oxidation in water. Dissolved oxygen saturabilities in autumn and winter nevertheless were less than 100%, and oxidation in water was in a dominate place. Following the comprehensive analysis, dissolved oxygen in Baiyang Lake was mainly affected by temperature, organic matter concentration and water-plants. The characteristics of photosynthesis were obvious in spring and summer and the oxidation in autumn and winter were obvious.
73 Levels of Accumulation and Release Mechanism of Pollutants in Sediments of Lihe River as a Water Conveyance Canal, Liqin Zhu, Cuiling Jiang, Youheng Wang, Yanmei Peng and Peng Zhang
Lihe River as an important water conveyance canal of diversion project from Luanhe River to Tianjin should convey 40-50 m3/s water in each spring and autumn. With the variation of water discharge, the sediments with poor viscosity and great suspension capability were very prone to re-suspension and pollutants release easily. In order to study the effects of pollutants release in sediments on river during water diversion period and set out proper protection scheme to prevent the second pollution, experiments were done to make clear the levels of accumulation and release mechanism of pollutants in sediments. First, compared with those in Haihe River, Wulihu Lake and Xuanwuhu Lake, the average content of organic matters of sediments in Lihe River was 0.21%, lower obviously, TP with the average value of 5.18 mg/kg was much higher, while TN reaching 2.99 mg/kg, a little higher than others. Second, water diversion indeed made pollutants in sediments release quickly and threaten water quality seriously. TN was the main pollutant, a high level in both river and sediments, which kept releasing with the maximum release amount of 9.16 g/m2 and intensity 4.2 g/m2/d and had a great negative influence. TP and Fe with the maximum release amounts were 0.248 g/m2 and 1.7 g/m2 with maximum release intensities of 0.248 g/m2/d and 1.7 g/m2/d respectively. They released fast and deposited also fast, and were the potential pollutants and the release amounts could not be neglected during the initial water diversion period.
74 Comparative Study on the Modelling of Mixing Length Distribution in the Sediment-Laden Flow, Ni Zhihui, Wu Lichun, Zhang Xujin, Yi Jing and Zeng Qiang
In view of the established mixing length model with lack of outside China applicability, different forms of flow must be adopted. Firstly, from motion mechanism of mixing-length of the sediment-laden flow, a new mixing-length distribution mode in vertical was deduced by combining flow turbulence theory with applied mathematics theory. Then, the existing typical experimental data were verified well, and by comparing linear distribution and parabolic distribution, the result shows that the distribution is superior to the latter two. Finally, its dynamics lead to mixing-length distribution characteristic is also discussed preliminarily, and influence of the sediment concentration on the distribution of the mixing-length. The established expression on the vertical distribution of the mixing-length is not only simple and explicit, but also better reflects the motion characteristics of the complex flow, for the foundation of further study on the velocity profile of the sediment flow.
75 Environment and Sustainable Development: A Study Among the Tribes of Eastern Ghats in Andhra Paradesh, V. Subramanyam and B. Veerabhadrudu
This paper provides the existing interrelationship between environment and sustainable development. In addition to this, it discusses about tribal ecology, livelihoods of tribes, issue of shifting cultivation and deforestation, Indigenous knowledge of tribals in protection, conservation and regeneration of natural resources and strategies for sustainable development of tribes in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh specific and other tribal areas, in general. All these aspects in the paper are explained with the evidence of an empirical case study of Eastern Ghats forest environment of A. P. in which around 27 hill tribes inhabits. These tribes are distributed in the tribal sub-plan areas of Visakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, East Godavari, West Godavari, Khammam, Mahaboob Nagar and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh. The paper comprises of both semantic and scientific explanations with ethnographic methodological descriptions. This paper forms the part of a Major Research Project Report “Environment and Sustainable Development : An Anthropological Study Among Tribes of Eastern Ghats in Andhra Pradesh” sponsored by I.C.S.S.R., New Delhi.
76 Study on the Properties of Calcined Waste Mussel Shell, Yijun Zhang, Shengyong Liu* and Peiran Chen
Mussel shell has been calcined on high temperature. Its main component calcium carbonate is decomposed into CO2 and calcium oxide. Calcium oxide is superbase catalyst for the transesterification reaction. By means of differential thermal balance, the decomposition characteristics of mussel shell have been studied. And of electron microscope, TEM shows grain morphology characteristics of calcination at different calcining temperatures. Organic matter has decomposed during 287°C-458°C. Decomposition of calcium carbonate starts from 600°C to 800°C, when it was balanced. By use of orthogonal analysis, the main influence factors of specific surface area have been optimized. The optimal process parameters are 950°C calcination temperature, 120ìm initial diameter and 1 hour holding time.
77 A Comparative Study on the Presence of Halophilic Vibrios in Edible Oyster, Crassostrea madrasensis from the Backwaters of Chennai Coast, C. Ganga Baheerathi and K. Revathi
Vibrios contribute the major part among water and foodborne pathogens in coastal ecosystems. The members of the family Vibrionaceae contribute 60% of the total bacterial population. The current work is aimed at the analysis of the presences of Vibrio species in edible oyster Crassostrea madrasensis along the coastal line of Chennai in Ennore, Royapuram and Muttukadu. The oysters were collected, and total heterotrophic bacteria were analysed using selective non-selective agar medium and further confirmed by biochemical tests. The predominant pathogenic halophilic Vibrio species were identified to generic level according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Among the Vibrios, Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi were the dominant species identified in Crassostrea madrasensis.
78 Performance Evaluation of Eco-friendly Green Concrete, A. Arun Kumar, A. S. Santhi and G. Mohan Ganesh
This study was aimed to minimize the use of natural river sand which is being used for several years in construction, and to utilize bottom ash from thermal power station as a partial replacement (30%, 60%, 100%) for fine aggregate. An experimental investigation has been carried out to find the compressive strength of the replaced eco-friendly green concrete with different curing methods. An equation recommended by ACI committee for conventional concrete was used to predict 56, 90 and 180 days compressive strength from 28 days compressive strength of the eco-friendly green (bottom ash) concrete that resulted with the difference between the experimental and predicted compressive strength to ± 12%. To minimize the percentage of difference, an empirical relationship was developed between the compressive strength of accelerated curing and normal curing (28, 56, 90, 180 days). It is concluded that empirical relationship predicts later age compressive strength with the minimum percentage of difference. This study of predicting later age compressive strength from empirical relationship will ultimately save time, material and most importantly assessing the quality of the design of construction.
79 Performance Evaluation of Eco-friendly Green Concrete, A. Arun Kumar, A. S. Santhi and G. Mohan Ganesh
This study was aimed to minimize the use of natural river sand which is being used for several years in construction, and to utilize bottom ash from thermal power station as a partial replacement (30%, 60%, 100%) for fine aggregate. An experimental investigation has been carried out to find the compressive strength of the replaced eco-friendly green concrete with different curing methods. An equation recommended by ACI committee for conventional concrete was used to predict 56, 90 and 180 days compressive strength from 28 days compressive strength of the eco-friendly green (bottom ash) concrete that resulted with the difference between the experimental and predicted compressive strength to ± 12%. To minimize the percentage of difference, an empirical relationship was developed between the compressive strength of accelerated curing and normal curing (28, 56, 90, 180 days). It is concluded that empirical relationship predicts later age compressive strength with the minimum percentage of difference. This study of predicting later age compressive strength from empirical relationship will ultimately save time, material and most importantly assessing the quality of the design of construction.
80 Resource Utilization of Returned Rapeseed Straw and Its Effect on Soil Fertility and Crop Yields, Hu Hong-xiang, Ma You-hua, Wang Yu-fang and Di Yun-fei
In order to study the decomposition characteristics of returned rapeseed straw in the process of resource utilization and the effect on soil fertility and crop yields, different treatments of soil with returned rapeseed straw were conducted using the nylon net bag method of field trials. Different treatments include varied amounts of straw, depths to be buried in soil, and addition of straw decomposing bacteria. The results showed that the decomposition ratio of rapeseed straw increased with time and the decomposition rate of rapeseed straw was faster in the first 30 days and then slowed down until the end of 120 days. Straw decomposition rate was negatively correlated with the amounts of returned rapeseed straw. The decomposition rate of rapeseed straw on the soil surface was faster than that buried 20cm below the soil surface, which is also faster than that 10cm below the soil surface. Decomposition ratio of rapeseed straw with addition of decomposing bacteria was higher than without decomposing bacteria. The returned straw improved the physical and chemical properties of soil and increased the soil nutrient content and rice yields. The study provided the basic parameters for controlling the rapeseed straw decomposition rate, which improved the agricultural eco-environment.
81 Relationship Analysis Between Cultivated Land Resource Change and Economic Growth: A Case Study in Sichuan Province, China , Liangqian Fan, Fenghui Chen, and Hongbing Luo
Based on the statistics in Sichuan province during 1978-2010, the dynamic process of cultivated land area change and economic growth was analysed firstly. And then, the regression model between cultivated land area and pre capita GDP was established. At last, the cultivated land area under different levels of economic growth was predicted according to the established regression model. The results were that the cultivated land area in Sichuan province showed the decreased trend and the decreased trend can be divided into three phases, slowly decreasing phase, drastically decreasing phase and eased phase, in the past 33 years. The cultivated land area and pre capita GDP were negatively correlated and the correlation equation was a logarithmic decreasing function in Sichuan province. With the gradual increase of the per capita GDP, the cultivated land area will decrease slowly in the future, but the decreasing trend may be stabilized. Combined with the development status of Sichuan province, the results indicated that the contraction between the cultivated land area and pre capita GDP can be mitigated or even eliminated with scientific land management strategy, input increase and technological transformation. On the basis of the study, the protection suggestions were proposed from the point of view of avoiding occupation and degradation of cultivated land.
82 Spatio-Temporal Variations of Urban NO2 Concentrations in China, Fangshu Gao, Ying Peng, Guoxiang Wang and Yi Qian
The spatial and temporal characteristics of NO2 concentration were analysed from 31 cities in China over a six-year period (2003-2008). Urban NO2 concentrations were in the range of 12-73µg/m3, and its pollution levels had an expanding trend in the temporal variations during 2003-2008. Spatially, there was an evident difference for urban NO2 concentration in the three regions of the eastern, central and western China. NO2 concentrations in cities had a significant reduction in eastern China, an obviously heightened trend in central China and a small heightened trend in western China due to the combined effects of industrial structural transformation and industrial upgrading, as well as control measures.
83 Pesticide Exposure and Cancers in Barpeta District, Assam - A Case for Control Study, M. Hazarika and R. Hazarika
Occupational exposure of carcinogenic pesticides in agricultural fields of Barpeta district, Lower Assam, is a matter of concern. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between exposures of carcinogenic pesticides and occurrence of cancer in the agricultural region of Barpeta district. A structured questionnaire was employed in a field based case-control study to gather information on demographics, occupation, pesticide exposure, agricultural practices, family history and medical history along with smoking habit. One hundred cases of different cancers were identified in the field. The control (100) were chosen from the same environment in terms of age, sex, smoking and other food habit. To control confounders, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. To assess the dose-respond relationship between exposure and disease, the chi-square test for trend was used. One hundred (100) historically confirmed cancer cases were detected from the year 2008-2010. Sex and age matched one hundred controls were included in the study. Pesticide exposure independently associated with different types of cancer in the region. Lung cancer (OR = 1.138, 0.790-1.48, P = 0.769), Throat cancer (OR = 1.426, 0.564-3.78, P = 0.735), leukaemia (OR =1.167, 0.261-5.909, P = 0.056), stomach cancer (OR = 1.069, 0.281-4.385, P = 1.00). Pesticide exposure strongly associated with cancer after controlling smoking. Cancer was associated with pesticide exposure after controlling the confounders. Smoking and eating during pesticide application were identified as modifying factors for increasing the risk of cancer. The poor pesticide work practices identified during this study. Proper training and educational campaigns are essential for handling pesticides.
84 Study on Management of Sugar Cane Industry Solid Waste Using the Technique of Composting, C. Thamaraiselvi and M. Vasanthy
Sugar industries play a pivotal role to improve the economy of our country. For the management of sugar industry solid waste (press mud and bagasse) an effort was taken. The press mud and bagasse mixed with garden waste and cow dung were subjected to the process of a composting (anaerobic decomposition) in 1:1:2 ratio. One set of component was moistened with water (A) and another one was moistened with spent wash (B). As spent wash is characterized with high BOD and COD along with high nitrate, phosphate, potassium and other minerals, it was selected for moistening the organic waste. After the experimental period (95 days) the reduction of organic matter and C:N ratio was considerable. The amount of N,P,K in compost A was found to be 2.4%, 0.71% and 2.14% respectively. The N.P.K value of compost B was found to be 2.8%, 0.85% and 3.59% respectively. All these nutrients have considerably increased in compost B than compost A. The C:N ratio of both the composts was around 11:1, which has been reduced from the initial of 25:1 ratio. The identified organisms Pseudomonas sp., Streptococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were involved in the composting process of A. Besides these organisms, compost B also has Seratia sp. Hence, from these observations, it is clear that the press mud and bagasse in combination with garden waste and cow dung may be utilized for the production of compost successfully. This technique further minimizes the environmental hazards that could have been caused by press mud and spent wash if they were disposed off as such in the environment.
85 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Raw Powder and Chemically Activated Carbon of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flowers, Renny Mariam Mathew, M. Arthy, M. P. Saravanakumar and C. Balamurali Krishna
Adsorption using low cost adsorbents is one of the cheapest methods that can be used for removal of hexavalent chromium from water. In this study, a comparison has been carried out on adsorption using raw Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers and activated carbon prepared by impregnation of the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers are low cost adsorbents available throughout the year and easily biodegradable, and hence cost effective. Impregnation of the flower powder with different ratios of sulphuric acid was carried out. Adsorption using carbon is found to be more efficient as compared to the raw flowers. The optimum adsorbent dosage for the carbon was found to be 200mg/100mL, and for the raw flower 400mg/100mL. Both, Langmuir and Freudlich isotherms were studied and from the values of coefficient of determination obtained, it was concluded that the Langmuir isotherm fits well. Kinetic studies were also conducted. This included the pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetics. The qe,cal values obtained for pseudo first order kinetics for the carbon and raw flower were 7.799 mg/g and 29.459mg/g respectively. This showed a large variation from the experimental value. But for the pseudo second order kinetics only a slight variation from the experimental value was observed. Hence, it was concluded that the adsorption process followed pseudo second order kinetics.
86 Recovery of Nutrients from Wastewater by Struvite Crystallization, Ajit Kumar, Ashutosh Das, Mukesh Goel, K. Ravi Kumar, B. Subramanyam and J. S. Sudarsan
Discharge of untreated domestic wastewater often leads to eutrophication of receiving water body and create a septic condition, and accelerate sewage sickness in case of land-disposal. However, since domestic wastewater is recognized as nutrient rich water, the recovery of nutrients using a chemical precipitation and crystallization technique may provide value added product struvite, which is a slow releasing fertilizer. This research work shows the techno-feasibility struvite precipitation as an attempt for improving water quality, with simultaneous recovery of struvite as byproduct.
87 Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metal Distribution in Waters and Green Mussels of Ennore and Royapuram Estuaries, Tamilnadu, India, V. Gayathri and K. Revathi
The objective of this study is to comparatively analyse and assess the heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of Ennore and Royapuram, Tamilnadu, India. Ennore coast receives untreated/treated effluents from Manali Industrial belt, which houses many chemical Industries. Royapuram mainly receives domestic sewage. Analyses of water and mussel samples were done by ICP-AES. During summer all the dissolved heavy metals exhibited maximum values. The result shows that concentrations of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead were above the permissible limits.
88 Comparative Study of the Quality of Bottled Drinking Water Called Kawthar from Some Commercial Treatment Plants in Taiz City, Yemen, Wadie Ahmed Al-Shargabi and Raya Al-Ansi
Water supply in Taiz city contains high concentration of different elements so it is not suitable for drinking purpose, therefore, the people in the city depend upon commercial water from different units of water treatment. This type of water is commonly called Kawthar. Water quality with regards to pH, Cl2, HCO3, hardness, Ca, Mg, NO3, TS, TASA (total anions of strong acids), coliform group and E. coli was tested. There were variations in some physico-chemical characteristics in the samples but the concentration of these parameters was within the permissible limit of WHO. The reason for this is that all waters used for the treatment were brought from groundwater of good quality from outside the city. Bacterial parameters did not show any growth in coliform group and E. coli and in MPN test show results within the permissible limit, except in K7 and K8 samples. Relation among water quality parameters reveals a significant positive correlation between pH and TASA, TS, SO4 and hardness. Total hardness shows a positive correlation with TS. SO4 shows a positive correlation with TASA.
89 A Finite Difference Model on Atmospheric Pollution and its Application, Changjun Zhu, Ming Liu and Wenlong Hao
In view of near-ground atmospheric problem, near-ground atmospheric pollution model was established. Because the applicability of analytical solutions is extremely limited for such conditions, and the distribution and transport of pollutants in air are controlled by geographical conditions, numerical techniques are essential for air pollution modelling. In this paper, finite differential method is used to establish plane two-dimensional numerical model of near-ground atmospheric pollution belt, and truncation errors associated with finite-difference solution of atmospheric pollution were corrected based on the Taylor analysis. The results indicate that this method provides the references for the forecast of pollutants and the management and evaluation of air resources.
90 Fuzzy Evaluation and Analysis of Surface Water, Jihong Zhou, Yuanzhi Li and Xumin Tian
The comprehensive evaluation of the monitoring data of surface water in Handan City, based on the model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, was made in this paper. According to the monitoring data, selecting seven evaluation factors, namely, permanganate index, BOD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, fluoride and dissolved oxygen, weight matrix has been established for each factor, and the weight of each factor was obtained in the assessment of water quality. Then using the membership function in fuzzy mathematics, computed the data measured, and obtained the corresponding water level. The result of the evaluation shows that the water quality of Handan city is V level, severely polluted, and it becomes a security risk to the residents’ drinking water. Besides, it can be used as the scientific basis for water quality control.
91 Effects of Forest Communities and Various Depths on Soil Enzyme Activities in the Hyrcanian Forest, Sima Bargrizan, Mohammad Matinizadeh* and Anoushirvan Shirvany
Detailed information on soil quality can be ascertained by measuring soil enzymatic activities, which are often affected by soil biological chemical processes and depth. This study investigates the activity of four enzymes, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and dehydrogenase in three various tree communities; Parrotio-Fagetum, Parrotio-Carpinetum, and Parrotietum at 0-20 cm depth with and without rhizosphere and 20-40 cm depth in the Kheyrud forest, Northern Iran. We found the higher enzyme activities in rhizosphere than without rhizosphere in all the communities. Soil enzyme activities decreased with increasing soil depths. There was a significant difference in acid phosphatase between 0-20 cm without rhizosphere and 20-40 cm. These findings were attributed to the observation that root propagation was reduced across the depths. Alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase, both showed a significant difference in activity among the communities, but acid phosphatase and urease did not. Microorganisms producing alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase were found to be significantly affected by the vegetation. Alkaline phosphatase activity in both depths and dehydrogenase at 0-20 cm with and without rhizosphere were greater in Parrotietum than those of Parrotio-Fagetum and Parrotio-Carpinetum. It appeared that the microbial community in Parrotietum was much greater than the other two types.
92 Water Quality Modelling of a Stretch of River Kshipra (India), R. C. Gupta, Ajay K. Gupta and R. K. Shrivastava
River Kshipra is receiving a large volume of untreated sewage daily in its stretch of Ujjain city and the status of water is pathetic during low flow season. A stream water quality model QUAL-2Kw was used in the present study to simulate the contributions from different sources and sinks of dissolved oxygen and to understand the interactions among them. The model was calibrated and validated and the simulated results are in general agreement with measured water quality in River Kshipra. It was established through this study that the QUAL-2Kw model can be used for future river water quality management options for River Kshipra with reasonable accuracy.
93 Photocatalytic Degradation of Hazardous Dye Acridine Orange Using Semiconductor Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Under Visible Light, David Swami and Pramod Pandit
Inordinate population growth and advanced technological development, at one hand bettered the life of human and on the other hand it is greatly damaging the environment. In the present work the study of hazardous synthetic dyes, especially used in textile and leather industries, has been carried out. These dyes in wastewater are principal cause of pollution in water bodies of human use. The most effective decomposition of Acridine Orange dye was observed with catalyst amount 300 mg/100 mL with 3.8 × 10-5 mole dm-3 initial dye concentration at pH 9. The rate of reaction increases as the concentration of H2O2 increases and reaches the optimum at 9 × 10-6 mole dm-3. As the irradiation time increased, dye molecules got degraded and the estimated COD value decreases from 184 mg/L to 0 mg/L, and CO2 value increases from 55 mg/L to 242 mg/L in 6 hours of illumination.
94 Toxic Effects of Aluminium and Fluoride on Planktonic Community of the Microcosms, Neha Upreti, Shweta Sharma, Subhasini Sharma and K. P. Sharma
Aluminium and fluoride were found toxic to phytoplankton, periphyton and zooplankton in the microcosms raised in the greenhouse. The toxicity of aluminium was relatively higher than fluoride, more particularly, during winter season. There were significant reduction in counts of phytoplankton (49-80%), periphyton (algae = 40-68%, zooplankton = 35-75%) and zooplankton (5-77%) in the treatments in comparison to controls. As a result, Reciprocal Simpson index, Equitability index and Shannon-Weiner index decreased. Such changes will affect energy flow in the microcosms.
95 Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Coal Industry, Qian Hong-wei and Yin Xiang-ju
The application of strategic environmental assessment of coal industry to improve industrial environment and adjust industrial structure is urgently needed. First, a combination of practical situations of coal industry and theory-based dynamic method of strategic environmental assessment, would enable a further development of related strategic environmental assessment that could be applied more effectively when deals with coal industry in practice. Second, based on modern ecological theory, strategic environmental assessment could help reveal the influence of coal industry on ecological and environmental aspects and associated mechanisms. Third, strategic environmental assessment, as well as traditional prevention and control research, could be used as indicators of the development trend of coal industry. Our results showed that when strategic environmental assessment was applied to coal industry, it could provide a strong methodology guidance and help reveal potential mechanisms. On the other hand, from the perspective of model ecological theory, strategic environmental assessment could reflect the applicability and feasibility of related theories in practice.
96 Heavy Metals in Deep Seated Groundwater in Northern Anhui Province, China: Quality and Background, Linhua Sun, Herong Gui, Weihua Peng and Manli Lin
Forty-five deep seated groundwater samples from three aquifers in two coal mines (Wolonghu and Baishan), northern Anhui Province, China have been measured for four kinds of heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni) concentrations for evaluation of quality and, establishment of environmental background values by using model based objective methods. The results suggest that these groundwater samples are of excellent quality relative to the quality standard of groundwater established by Chinese government, and most of them can be used for drinking directly according to their low concentrations of heavy metals. Moreover, they are considered to be representative of “pristine” state because they are far away from anthropogenic contribution and therefore, they can be used for environmental background estimation. The thresholds of Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni between natural and abnormal or anthropogenic are calculated to be 17.4, 64.9, 3.9 and 71.1mg/L by using model based objective methods, respectively.
97 Study on the Technology of Vortex Clarification and its Application in Wastewater Treatment, Tong Zhengong
After a brief introduction to the core parts of vortex coagulation technology, like the characteristics of vortex reactor, and its working mechanism with contact-flocculation and vortex coagulation, this paper emphasizes that the critical point of the vortex clarification technology is the micro vortex coagulation. Also it tells us the application of clarification tank in wastewater reuse plant. After alteration of the standard clarification tank in which the micro vortex reactor has been put into the first and second flocculation areas and the inclined pipes into the sedimentation area, the treatment scale of the vortex clarification tank is increased, and the effluent turbidity of the tank is lower than 3 NTU, the effluent turbidity of finished water is lower than 1 NTU and the investment of per ton micro-vortex water is lower than 50 Yuan RMB. The paper argues that in comparison to other coagulation reactors, micro vortex reactor deserves wide application for its various advantages, such as its higher coagulation efficiency, shorter reactivity time, better quality of finished water, stronger adaptive capability, and more conveniences in construction and the like.
98 Effects of Planting Patterns on Leaf Area Index, Ground Dry Matter and Yield of Summer Maize, Shun Sheng Wang, Chuan Chang Gao and Xing Wang
In order to probe the influence of different ridge tillage planting mode of summer maize, the study has been conducted on leaf area index, ground dry matter accumulation and yield of contrast. The results indicate that in the whole growth period of summer maize, leaf area index of ridge tillage cultivation is increased relative to that in traditional flat cultivation. The maximum difference is 0.43. Leaf area index of trapezoidal ridge tillage cultivation is higher than that of V-ridge, with the biggest difference of 0.23. Ground dry matter accumulation and yield of ridge tillage cultivation are higher than traditional flatten culture, and the planting mode of trapezoidal ridge tillage is better than V-ridge tillage. On the basis of the experimental results, it is suggested that the trapezoid ridge tillage planting of summer corn is suitable to extend widely in the western region of China.
99 Biodiversity of Algal Flora in River Chambal at Kota, Rajasthan, Meera Bhatnagar and Nilima Bhardwaj
Phytoplankton, represented mainly by algae, form a significant part of the food web and, therefore, information on their population is important in wetland management. Phytoplankton are very sensitive to any environmental change since they quickly response to any alteration or changes in the environment. The plankton population observation or biological analysis is reliable tool for biomonitoring to assess the status and quality of aquatic bodies. The present study is aimed to determine the algal diversity and quality of water in Chambal river at Kota, Rajasthan. The algal and water samples were collected at monthly intervals from different areas located in upstream and downstream of the River Chambal. In the present study Palmer’s biotic index has been used to assess the quality of water. The algal flora of four sites of river revealed 70 species belonging to four classes.
100 Analysis of Fluoride Ion Concentration From Salt Pans of Marakkanam, Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, R. Sundarakumar and S. Ponnusamy
Fluorine is an important trace element that forms fluoride compounds. Fluoride as salt is known for both positive and negative effects on human health. Deficiency of fluoride leads to dental caries and excess causes a severe disease called fluorosis. Intake of fluoride rich food is also responsible for fluorosis. WHO recommendation for the permissible limit of fluoride is 1.5 mg/L. The saline water and salt samples collected from Marakkanam, Villupuram District were studied with special reference to the fluoride content. The samples were drawn in the pre-monsoon period comprising eight days during May 2011. The findings revealed that the concentration of fluoride was between 0.9 mg/L and 1.4 mg/L, which is within the permissible limits. The concentration of fluoride ion increased in the salt water till the start of crystallization, which subsequently decreased with an increase in salt formation.
101 Study on Snowmelt Runoff Under Climate Change Effect in Tianshan Mountain in China, Meng Xian-yong, Ji Xiao-nan, Liu Zhi-hui, Chen Xi and Fang Shi-feng
A major proportion of discharge in the Juntanghu river basin is contributed by its glacier-fed river and snow catchments situated in northern mid-slope of Tianshan Mountain, Northwest China. The Mann-Kendall trend test based on the 50 years data (1961 to 2011) were used for analysis of the climate change trends and the application of the SWAT model under different climate change scenarios show that watershed hydrological cycle would alter under different climatic scenarios. This suggests that the reservoirs will be necessary for large flow storage to meet the need of the flood control, water supply, etc.
102 Adsorption Studies on the Removal of Chromium (VI) from Wastewater Using Activated Carbon Derived from Water Hyacinth, P. Santhosh and C. Dhandapani
In this study, Cr(VI) is removed from Wastewater using activated carbon derived from water hyacinth as an unconventional adsorbent. The aquatic plants commonly referred as aquatic weeds found in rivers, lakes and water logged areas pose a number of problems in water resource utilization. This work deals with one such weed “water hyacinth” which was selected to prepare activated carbon. The physical and chemical characteristics of the activated carbon prepared were determined. The study determines the parameters that influence adsorption process such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage. The suitability of Freundlich and Langmuir models was investigated for each chromium sorbent system. The Lagergren’s constants were calculated for different initial concentrations of metal ions.
103 Environmental Economic Dynamic Dispatch Modelling and Simulation Including Wind Farms, Yuhong Zhao, Yunhui Zhang and Jinyun Guang
Large-scale integration of wind power has brought profound challenge to traditional power generation dispatch. It becomes necessary to effectively coordinate the operation of wind power and traditional power sources. Traditional economic dispatch to minimize the fuel cost no longer meets the need for environmental protection when emission reduction is mandatory. Based on the optimal dispatch in traditional power system, the concept of “energy-environmental efficiency” was introduced to modify the optimal dispatch model in wind power integrated system, and the multi-objective optimal dispatch model was proposed on the basis of comprehensively considering the minimum of the resource consumption, the best energy-environmental efficiency and the highest system stability. A hybrid particle swarm and simulated annealing optimization algorithm with fuzzy technology was presented to solve the optimization model. Compared with traditional economic dispatch, the model proposed in this paper is reasonable and can better protect the ecological environment.
104 Study of Algae from Freshwater Reservoirs of Warangal (A.P), India, B. Kumaraswamy, L. Dup Singh, M. Ramesh Babu and B. Digamber Rao
A total of 105 algal members were reported from two freshwater reservoirs of Warangal (A.P.) including phytoplanktonic and euplanktonic algae belonging to 71 genera, in which 21 Cyanophyceae, 28 Chlorophyceae, 18 Bacillariophyceae and 4 Euglenophyceae genera were identified. Waddepally reservoir was observed with 67 species followed by Bhadrakali reservoir with 83 species of algae under investigation. This is a first report of freshwater algae from Warangal, as the previous reports were related to only Cyanophyceae from paddy fields and wet soil samples.
105 Study on the Molecular Weight Distribution in Ganjiang River, Zhengong Tong
Using the method of ultrafiltration, the raw water of the Nanchang section of Ganjiang River and the water after conventional treatment was estimated to determine the molecular weight distribution. The results showed that the raw water of Ganjiang River has a molecular weight distribution with large edges and small middle parts, which meant that the organic matter of the water mainly centralized in a scope where the molecules were larger than 30ku or less than 1ku, and the middle size matter occupied a relatively small proportion. In winter low-water season, there was little organic matter in the river and the small organic matter molecules played the dominant role. Meanwhile, in the season of high-water, the amount of organic matter increased, whereas the small organic matter molecules decreased and the large organic matter molecules became dominant. The ordinary water purifying process of Nanchang city was just to remove the large molecules of the organic matter mainly, which led to an unsatisfying result where the small molecules were barely removed.
106 Study on Modelling of Site Quality Evaluation and Its Dynamic Update Technology for Plantation Forests, Yanrong Guo, Yanyun Han, Baoguo Wu and Yang Liu
Differential site index models were constructed using both the algebraic difference approach (ADA) and the generalized algebraic difference approach (GADA) in this study to evaluate the site quality of forest land without the site index table. Data related to China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) were selected to fit the differential site index models and then the optimal model was chosen. The optimal model was determined using an accuracy test and residual analysis, and then the dynamic update technique of the optimal model was studied by MATLAB and .NET. The results showed that Richards’ differential site index model (SI = 19.171 × (Ht /19.171)ln(1-exp(-0.067×20))/ln(1-exp(-0.067 At))) had the best prediction performance. The ADA and GADA could be used to evaluate site quality without the site index table and the differential site index model could provide prompt dynamic updates.
107 Environment Protection Evaluation of 30 Provinces in China Using Gray Relational Analysis, Lang Wang, Qier An and Jinghua Sha
This paper evaluates the environment protection level of 30 Provinces in China using grey relational analysis based on 10 indicators which can be divided into 3 groups: waste discharge, environmental remediation and resource utilization. Evaluation has been done on both integrated and separate according to 3 kinds of indicators. Result shows that the best provinces in environment protection are Zhejiang, Tianjin and Beijing while the worst provinces are Ningxia, Qinghai and Xinjiang. The level of environment protection in the eastern coastal areas is relatively higher, and the level of environmental protection in northwest regions is relatively low. Provinces that have higher GDP per capita are likely to have higher environment protection, and vice versa. Most provinces are unbalanced in the 3 aspects and few provinces managed a full range environment protection. Cities are found to be better in waste discharge and resource utilization while resource-based provinces are on the contrary.
108 Research on the Return Water Flow Velocity of a Water Source Heat Pump System, Fei Liu, Dongliang Zhang and Guangliang Zhuang
The water temperature field of the lake water source heat pump air-conditioner system in Guilin Ronghu is simulated in this paper basing on the numerical simulation software of CFD. The effects of the return water velocity are discussed. The paper comes to the conclusions that the effect of the return water’s velocity on the influenced lake water area and the temperature field is great, and using the suitable return water’s velocity can reduce the disadvantageous to ecological environment.
109 Study on the Eco-Control System of Sustainable Expressway Landscape, Leichang Huang, Fucun Cao, Shilin Shen, Ying Chen and Xun Gu
With the quick urbanization and rapid economic globalization, expressway, as the most important portion of the highway networks, has been developed at an astonishing speed, which brought on increasingly severe ecological environmental problems although contribution greatly to human. Therefore, it is necessary how to promote economic development and at the same time to control the negative impact of expressway, which means it should be a sustainable expressway landscape, an expressway with human and nature in harmony. In this paper, the characteristics and the faced changes of a sustainable expressway landscape have been analysed. The eco-control system for the sustainable expressway landscape was constructed including both the theory control system and the technology one, adopting ecology, landscape, planning, cybernetics and related expressway theory to a whole new theory guiding the control process. It is an integration among the series of engineering technologies, the methods and guarantee of a sustainable expressway landscape. The technology control is in three layers, i.e., master control from two sides of planning and key nodes, subsection control mainly for the detailed expressway attribute of inside and outside elements, management control crossing the whole living process cycle of expressway. The eco-control system of sustainable expressway landscape would be implemented from three scales: macro-planning control, meso-design control and micro-engineering and technical control.
110 Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking and Agricultural Purposes in Vamanapuram River Basin, South Kerala, India, Veena M. Nair and R. B. Binoj Kumar
Groundwater quality determination is essential for assessing its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. In the present study 104 open well water samples were collected during both pre and post-monsoon seasons to evaluate the groundwater quality of Vamanapuram river basin. Samples were analysed for different physico-chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, salinity, Na+, K+, TH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43- and HCO3- following standard procedures. The acquired values were compared with BIS standards to recognize their aptness for domestic use. From the Piper plot dominant hydrochemical facies identified is Na-Cl for both seasons. Alkalies (Na and K) exceed alkaline earths (Ca and Mg) and strong acids (Cl and SO4) exceed weak acid (HCO3) in both seasons. To determine the suitability of water for agricultural use, chemical indices like sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, residual sodium carbonate and permeability index were calculated. RSC and PI have revealed that all samples are safe for irrigation. As per Wilcox’s diagram and USSL classification, majority of samples are suitable for irrigation except those from the coastal area of Anchuthengu which is unsuitable for drinking as well as irrigation purpose.
111 The Effect of Selenium on the Blood Radioimmunological Indexes Induced by High Dose of Fluorine, Jiayong Zou, Xinying Lin, Jianchao Bian, Qiuli Zhu, Xiaoyan Zou
Endemic fluorosis is prevalent in China, which can seriously impair the bones, teeth and cardiovascular system. The study was intended to explore antagonism of selenium (Se) on high dose fluorine (F) inducing plasma 6-Keto-prostaglandin F1a,Thromboxane B2 and Endothelin-1. Twenty male rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: High F group (NaF,100mg/L), Se group (Na2SeO3,1mg/L), High F + Se group (NaF,100mg/L; Na2SeO3,1mg/L) and Control group (without fluorine and selenium). The ear vein blood was collected for measurement of serum selenium and fluorine at the end of 0, 3rd and 6th months. At the end of 6th months, plasma 6-Keto-prostaglandinF1a (6-K-P), Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and Endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected. Serum fluorine was increased in high F group and serum Se was increased in Se group. Plasma 6-K-P was decreased, while the plasma TXB2 and ET-1 increased with the development of fluorosis. Compared with the high F group, the plasma 6-K-P was higher (p
112 Impact Analysis on the Energy-Saving and Land-Saving Properties of Green Buildings with Different Per Capita Floor Space of Residential Buildings, He Yueer, Peng Shini and Liu Meng
China has published “Green Building Action Plan”. Developing green building is necessary to shift urbanization mode in China. “China Evaluation Standard for Green Building” has set per capita residential land index as the prerequisite for residential buildings. Absolutely, per capita residential land index depends deeply on per capita floor space of residential building. In China, national and local “Evaluation Standard for Green Building” raise demands of per capita residential land index. According to those requirements, this paper conducted a case study and calculated changes of residential construction land area with different set values of per capita floor space of residential building. This paper also built a residential building model and utilized simulation to analyse annual building energy consumption. Results indicate that per capita floor space of residential building decreases accordingly while per capita residential land index reduces, and every 5% increase in per capita residential land index translates into about 7 percent decrease in construction land area. On the aspect of energy consumption, per capita floor space of residential building reduces 17.2% only. While annual energy consumption reduces 17.45% in return. It is concluded that controlling per capita floor space of residential building is important to maintain the energy-saving and land-saving properties of green building.
113 Studies on Potential Water Resources Crisis Based on STIRPAT Model: A Case from Zhejiang in China, Liange Zhao, Jie Lin and Xueyuan Wang
Zhejiang province in China is confronting with pressing problems for how to rationally develop and sustainably use water resources. Due to the large population base, water resource per capita in Zhejiang is not plentiful, although it is a place abundant in water. As in the 2011, water resource per capita in Zhejiang province is 1,362 m3. In view of this, Zhejiang province should be regarded as an area of moderate water shortage. The paper introduces the STIRPAT model to describe and further explore linkages between water consumption and population as well as other socio-economic factors to select out major ones affecting water resources consumption for 11 prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang province. Based on the empirical results, paper tries to propose suggestions for long-term water management in Zhejiang province.
114 Modelling of Grey Differential Model of River Water Pollution and its Application, Changjun Zhu and Wenlong Hao
Based on the grey theory, grey characters of river environment system were analyzed. The velocity and dispersion coefficient and attenuation in river were considered as uncertainty parameters and expressed as grey parameters. A grey differential equation of contaminant diffusion in river was built. And the equation has special structure. The truncation error of finite differential method in solving the model was corrected. According to the model, distribution values of pollutant concentration under sudden pollutant discharge can be obtained directly, which can provide abundant and useful water quality information for the plan and control of water pollution. It is shown that the calculated results obtained from the grey model are reliable and reasonable.
115 Acute Toxicity and Behavioural Changes in Channa punctatus (Bloch) Exposed to Rogor (An Organophosphorus Pesticide) , D. Sarma, J. Das and A. Dutta
Rogor is a commonly used pesticide in the agricultural field. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lethal toxicity of Rogor, an organophosphorus pesticide, in freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) and relative behavioural changes after exposing for 96 hours. The regression equation calculated as y = 9.551x + 6.173 and the LC50 value calculated for Channa punctatus was at 0.75 mL/L. During exposure, fish showed faster opercular activity, erecting dorsal and ventral fin, huge secretion of mucus from whole body, etc.
116 Research of Urban Thermal Environment Based on Digital Technologies, Li Yang
Digital simulation is a fast, effective and economical research method. Compared to traditional research method, it can not only save a lot of manpower and material resources but also can fill the blank of traditional research. In this research, we simulate Shanghai’s thermal environment in July under typical afternoon working conditions by the comprehensive application of Ecotect software and CFD software. The research enhances our understanding of the distribution and cause of “urban heat island effect”, and the climatic factors (wind velocity, temperature, solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, etc.) that are closely related to urban thermal environment.
117 Study on Phosphate Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Fe-Mn-Zn Trimetal Oxide Modified Fly Ash, Ke Xu, Tong Deng, Chunguang Li, Junling Niu, Juntan Liu and Weigong Peng
In this work the adsorption of phosphate using the Fe-Mn-Zn trimetal oxide modified fly ash was studied. The experimental results showed that the absorbent could effectively remove phosphate in the pH range 4 to 9 and the maximum phosphate adsorption was at pH 8.0. Kinetic study showed that the phosphate adsorption was well described by pseudo-second-order model. The removal efficiency of phosphate increased with the increase of adsorbent dosage and the decrease of the initial concentration. The adsorption of phosphate could be well described by Langmuir isotherm, the Langmuir constant Q0 was 19.22mg/g. Comparative phosphate adsorption study of the untreated fly ash and the modified fly ash showed that modification with Fe-Mn-Zn trimetal oxide could significantly enhance the phosphate adsorption of the fly ash. The Fe-Mn-Zn trimetal oxide modified fly ash was a potential adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from aqueous systems.
118 Enterprise’s Strategy Choice with Environmental Constraints, Chunjie Yu and Fengjun An
People and the government’s demands for enterprise’s environmental protection have become more and more strict. Enterprise faces a risk of environmental protection. Environmental constraints have become important factors which must be considered in enterprise strategic management planning. This paper elaborates the relationship between environmental regulation and the competitiveness of enterprise, expounds the factors which influence enterprise’s environmental strategy choice. It analyses the influence on enterprise competitiveness while enterprise adopts different environmental management strategies, and proposes different enterprise’s strategic choice countermeasures with environmental constraints.
119 Investigation on the Effects of Conventional Fossil Fuel to the Environment and Research on Renewable Fuels with Reduced Emission Using Biodiesel, Diethyl Ether and Hydrogen, C. Jegadheesan, P. Somasundaram, B. Meenakshipriya and U. P. Vignesh
The present world inevitably depends on conventional fossil fuel for a range of utilities like industrial production, electricity generation, transportation and domestic purposes. Regardless of its increased demand, the non renewable fuel resources are diminishing at an alarming rate. The environmental pollution effect of conventional diesel is frightening. The pollution effect of diesel begins from its production and lasts till its exhausts after combustion. The research work is carried on to find a suitable renewable fuel with reduced emissions as a substitute for downsized fossil fuels. The combination of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel and hydrogen is tested in experimental set up of CI engine with AVL gas analyser. The emission parameters like NOx, HC, CO and CO2 are measured. The experimental study analysis is made for various fuel combinations of hydrogen, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel and DEE comparing with conventional diesel. The emission reduction technique EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) is implemented and results are compared.
120 A Convergent Analysis on Economic Growth of Industrial Sector and Strength of Environmental Regulation, Zhang Cheng, Guo Bing-nan, Zhao Chun-ling, Zhang Yun-feng and Wang Jun
With the increasingly urgency of the environmental problems, researches on this field have become hot spot. However, there are a few scholar studies on the convergence in intensity of environmental regulation and the relationship between the differences of GDP per worker and those of intensity of environmental regulation. Based on this reason, this paper studied above issues by the panel data of industrial sectors of each province in China during 2000-2011, and got conclusions as follows: (1) Among the national group and four individual groups, only some groups existed absolute convergence in the two indexes of GDP per worker and the intensity of environmental regulation, but conditional convergence of the two indexes was existed in all groups. Specific to the convergence speed, the high-yield low-emission group per worker (group I) was slower than the high-yield high-emission group per worker (group II), the low-yield low-emission group per worker (group III) and the low-yield high-emission group per worker (group IV). (2) While the chasing group narrowed the gap in GDP per worker with group I, it was also narrowing the gap in the intensity of environmental regulation, but the convergence speed of the latter is slower than the former. However, the specific situations of the chasing group in 19 provinces are all different; there are four tendencies that are strong convergence, weak convergence, strong divergence and weak divergence.
121 Preparation for Nano-titania Catalyst and Its Application for Benzene Decomposition, Tao Zhu, Ling Lu, Yazhong Dai, Jinlan Zhou, Hanxiang Shi, Yuezhan Shi, Yurong Liu and Changsheng Liu
In the experiment, nano-titania film was prepared by sol-gel method. The raw materials and experimental conditions were optimized for preparing TiO2 thin film. We draw the conclusion as follows: n[Eth]:n[Ti(OBu)4] = 18(Mole ratio), n[AcAc]:n[Ti(OBu)4] = 1.2(Mole ratio), n[H2O]:n[Ti(OBu)4] = 2.5 (Mole ratio), pH = 3~5, hydrolysable temperature = 25~35°C, and heat treatment temperature = 450°C. Then the photocatalysts were packed into nonthermal plasma reactor, and a synergistic control experiment for benzene decomposition was carried out, that is, nano-titania photocatalyst with nonthermal plasma. The results show that benzene removal efficiency has an order of “with anatase photocatalyst in the plasma reactor > the mixture photocatalyst of anatase and rutileat > rutileat photocatalyst”, and the effect of degradation was visible by added photocatalyst in the plasma reactor. When concentration of benzene was 1500 mg/m3 and voltage was 30 kV, the removal efficiency was increased 19% higher with photocatalyst than without photocatalyst. Obviously, the synergistic effect of nano-TiO2 catalyst and non-thermal plasma is very effective for benzene decomposition.
122 Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Banasthali Village, District Tonk, Rajasthan, Kailash C. Sharma and Mithlesh Agrawal
A study on variation in groundwater quality in Banasthali village of District Tonk in Rajasthan was conducted. Sampling in pre monsoon of 2011 and 2012 at 10 selected locations from running tube wells and hand pumps was carried out and the samples were analysed for their physico-chemical characteristics. Analysis results were compared with BIS, WHO and ICMR standards of drinking water quality parameters like EC, pH, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, SO4-2, total alkalinity, NO3- and F-. The usefulness of these parameters in predicting groundwater quality characteristics has been discussed and it was found that the area under study was badly affected by salinity as well as hardness and fluoride contents. Higher values of RSC and SAR make the groundwater unfit for irrigation purposes. In this study, some important physico-chemical parameters of groundwater of the area were evaluated for the criteria of drinking and irrigation water quality.
123 Water Quality Analysis in Jining City Using Clustering Methods, Yunxin Zhang and Changjun Zhu
According to the existing water quality monitoring data from the monitoring sites in Jining city, the clustering analysis method of mathematical statistical analysis is employed to analyse and evaluate the water quality of Jining city. First of all, by using the statistical software SPSS, we aggregate and classify the monitoring sites; at the same time, the water quality objectives are aggregated and classified and the main water pollution indicators are selected. Finally we made a preliminary assessment of water quality situation in Jining city.
124 Studies on Molecular Distillation Disposal of Petrochemical Hazardous Wastes, Zhong Jun Fu, Feng Song, Run Sun and Hong Wang
n this paper, heavy residual oil and distillation residues of hazardous wastes are researched with molecular distillation separation reduction technology. The separation experiments were conducted at the condition of pressure of 15 Pa and the temperature of 260°C. Under the conditions, more than 20% heavy fractions can be recycled which can be the catalytic cracking raw material sources. The properties of residual oil, such as viscosity, density, carbon residue, sulphur content and other technical indicators are also analysed. There are very practical significance of molecular distillation technology in the recovery of high boiling point organic waste.
125 Aeromycological Investigations in the Ambient Air Over Some Crop Fields in Context to Pathogenic and Allergenic Fungal Bioaerosols, Avinash V. Karne
Aeromycological investigations were conducted with the help of continuous volumetric Tilak air sampler over jowar, wheat and groundnut fields which gave continuous air sampling for fungal bioaerosols for three consecutive Rabi seasons. Altogether 46 bioaerosols were trapped in the sampler over jowar fields of which 20 types (74.4%) were pathogenic and 25 types (81.5%) were allergenic in nature. Similarly 50 bioaerosols were recorded over wheat fields of which 21 types (71.7%) were pathogenic and 25 types (85.8%) were allergenic. In the atmosphere over groundnut fields 47 bioaerosols were recorded of which 21 types (71.6%) were pathogenic and 26 types (81.9%) were allergenic in nature. From these three different crop fields total 30 types of bioaerosols were recorded of which 27 belonged to fungal spore types while remaining three types belonged to other types. Though more bioaerosols were encountered, but this paper reports only pathogenic and allergenic bioaerosols.
126 Vague Reservoir Water Quality Evaluation Method Based on Distance, Feng Hao, Hongxu Wang and Fujin Zhang
This paper provides the distance-based vague set pattern recognition method for research on water quality evaluation problems using the new formula of the distance between vague sets, and shows with examples that this method not only is simple in calculation, but also provides the results following the practical situation.
127 Starch Metabolism During Leaf Senescence in Two Rice Varieties on Exposure to Aluminium, M. Muthukumaran and A. Vijaya Bhaskara Rao
Rice (Oryza sativa) is an important food crop in India as well as in other Asian countries. It is well known that compounds of heavy metals are known to harm land plants, and plant parts and aluminium is one such an element causing toxic effects in plants particularly in plant growing in marshy and acidic soils. Senescence is characterized by the results of many sequential molecular events and these are influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. The present study was carried out systematically on the toxic effects of aluminium in the detached rice leaves during leaf senescence with reference to starch metabolism and its associated enzymes. In our study reducing and non-reducing sugars were increased and starch content decreased. Significant increases were observed in reducing and non-reducing sugars and their associated enzymes such as starch phosphorylase and sucrose synthase in both Aduthurai 43 (ADT-43) and Pro Agro 6129 (PA 6129) varieties and decreased activity of a-amylase was observed with the increasing periods of exposure and increasing concentration of aluminium in leaves of rice varieties in detached leaves during leaf senescence. However, the shifts in the non-reducing sugars were greater in ADT 43, when compared to PA 6129. The shifted carbon partitioning from non-soluble carbohydrate to soluble carbohydrates significantly contributed to osmotic adjustment in ADT 43 and it indicates that it is tolerant to aluminium toxicity.
128 Geochemical Assessment of Groundwater Along Thandava River Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India, K. Krishna Kumar, Y. Israel* and P. Sowjanya
Groundwaters under the influence of the river basin and of the reservoir sources undergo vibrant fluctuations due to various geochemical and geophysical characteristics along with seasonal impacts. To understand these influences, a geochemical assessment was made to reveal the groundwater quality and other geophysical characteristics. 117 water samples were interpreted for two seasons along the Thandava River basin. All the major cations, anions along with physical characteristics were assessed. The correlation of geophysical and geochemical parameters revealed the factors controlling the groundwater quality along the basin and in and around the reservoir. An in-depth assessment was also made for the geochemical evolution and flow pattern of the groundwater to understand the geomorphology of the basin and for the recommendations to be made for the safeguard of this natural resource unaffected from various anthropogenic activities in and around the basin and the reservoir.
129 The Impact of Monochromatic Light on the Growth and Pigment Production of Cladophora crispata (Chlorophyceae), K . Lalitha Kumari, T. Malathi, D. Snehalatha, T. Aseervadam and B. Digamber Rao
The effect of monochromatic light, red, yellow, green and blue has been studied on the cultures of Cladophora crispata against white and total darkness with reference to the growth, morphological variation and pigment changes. Maximum growth was observed under white light. Red light favoured the growth while blue light and darkness retarded totally its growth.
130 Effect of Environmental Acidic pH on Oxygen Consumption of Fish, Cyprinus carpio (L.), U. Srineetha, M. Venkata Reddy and M. Bhaskar
The present study was aimed to investigate the total oxygen consumption of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio during exposure and acclimation to sublethal acidic pH (5.0) medium. The oxygen consumption of fish significantly depleted in all the days of exposure to sublethal acidic pH 5.0 starting from first day to fourteen days of exposure. The rate of total oxygen consumption depletion was higher on first day. From the second day onwards a gradual decreasing trend was observed in the depletion up to 14th day of exposure. The unit oxygen consumption of fish on exposure to sub-lethal pH medium exhibited significant depletion when compared to control. The rate of depletion was maximum in the initial days of exposure and was reduced gradually in twelfth and fourteenth day of exposure. But, at day 14th not significant decrease was observed in both the parameters of the experimentation. This observation indicates that the fish was capable of regulating their metabolic modulations and physiological functions through acclimation process to be the possible reason for the successful survival of fish in acidifying water. The reduced oxygen consumption of fish on exposure to sublethal acidic medium confirms the prevalence of hypoxic condition in the surrounding medium.
131 Carbon Sequestration in the Standing Trees at Campus of Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Kanchan Dubal, Pradnya Ghorpade, Meena Dongare and Sachin Patil
Trees remove atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis, that stores a tremendous amount of carbon in their structures. They act as a major CO2 sink which captures carbon from the atmosphere and stores it in the form of fixed biomass. Therefore, growing trees in the urban areas having a potential role regarding the accumulation of atmospheric CO2 in the form of biomass. Thus, the present investigation was carried out to calculate the carbon sequestration of 38 standing tree species in Shivaji University campus. The biomass and total organic carbon of standing trees is estimated by the non destructive method. The population of Gliricidia maculate is more in the university campus but it sequestrates the carbon in very less amount (0.329 tones/year) while the Ficus racemosa species sequestrated more carbon (65.367 tones/year).
132 Investigation on the Bioremediation of Metal Pollution of Water and Soil Environment in Yongding River, Long Rishang, Men Baohui, Zhao Yawei, Wang Anze, Hu Sha and Wu Shuaijin
The Yongding River is the mother river of Beijing. However, due to the environmental pollution caused by economic development, the water and coastal environment of this river has suffered from great destruction. The ecological restoration of the Yongding River is imperative. Phytoremediation and microbial remediation have made certain achievements in the aspect of river pollution control, but both have their own advantages and disadvantages. How to make best use of their respective advantages depends on the collocation and combination of plants and microbes. Based on field research and former literature, we proposed the method of plant-microbe associated bioremediation to restore the water environment and remove heavy metal pollution in soil of the Yongding River. This attempt provides new ideas and methods for the restoration of the ecological environment of the Yongding River.