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1 Determination of Maltose in Honey, Fujita I
Honey is an excellent nutritious food and is widely produced and marketed. However, there have been complaints that some marketed honey is adulterated with maltose. We quantified glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose contained in honey products in the marketplace, and showed that some had been adulterated.
2 Studies on Physico-Chemical Properties of Noni Fruit (Morinda Citrifolia ) and Preparation of Noni Beverages, A.A. Joshi*, Chilkawar P.M., Jadhav B.A
Noni (Morinda citrifolia linn) fruits are edible but they don’t have nice taste and flavor. In present inves-tigation attempts have been made to standardize the recipes for preparation of noni beverages i.e. RTS, Squash and Syrup and to study the physicochemical characteristics of noni fruit and techno economic fea -sibility of prepared beverages. The recipe for preparation of Noni RTS beverage was standardized by vary-ing the levels of juice, TSS. Study revealed that the final beverage i.e. RTS having 10% juice,140 bx T.S.S. and 2%ginger extract was found to be more acceptable. The effect of level of dilution on sensory quality of squash and syrup revealed that Squash and Syrup with 1: 3 and 1: 4 dilutions respectively were found to be more acceptable. The cost of noni RTS beverage, squash and syrup per litre was Rs.21.84, 53.84 and 59.94 respectively, shows that prepared noni beverages were cheap and cost effective.
3 Marine Alga Sargassum Horneri Component And Bone Homeostasis: Role In Osteoporosis Prevention, Yamaguchi M*
Bone homeostasis is maintained through a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Aging induces bone loss due to decreased osteoblastic bone formation and increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recog-nized as a major public heath problem. Nutritional factors may play a role in the prevention of bone loss with aging. Among marine algae of Undaria pinnatifida,Sargassum horneri, Eisenia bicyclis, Cryptonemia scmitziana, Gelidium amansii, and Ulva pertusa Kjellman which were gathered seasonally, Sargassum horneri (S. horneri) was found to have a unique anabolic effect on bone components. S. horneri extract had a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro, thereby increasing bone mass. The intake of S. horneri extract caused a preventive effect on bone loss in animal models for osteoporosis and in healthy human. S. horneri extract, which is a functional food, may be usefulness as an osteogenic factor in preventing osteoporosis in human subjects.
4 Evaluating the Efficacy of Olive, Apple and Grape Seed Extracts in Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Contamination on Organic Leafy Greens during the Wash Process, Buddhini P. K1, Jones J2, Ravishankar S3, Jaroni D1*
Powdered extracts of apple, olive, and grape seed were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing and subsequent short-term storage of organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested were, baby spinach, mature bunched spinach, romaine lettuce, and iceberg lettuce. The organic leafy greens were thoroughly washed and inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 (6 log CFU ml-1). Antimicrobial treatments of the extracts, prepared in phosphate buffered saline, at 1, 3, and 5% concentrations were used to wash contaminated leafy greens which were then stored for 3 days at 4°C. Surviving E. coli O157:H7 populations were enumerated on days 0, 1, and 3 of storage. Significant reductions (P
5 Development and Evolution of Antioxidant Rich Fruit Beverage, Dharti P1 and Dhvanika P2*
The purpose of this study was to developed and analyzes Antioxidant rich fruit beverages to determine antioxidant concentrations. It may provide protection differently against oxidative stress because they are different in antioxidant capacity .Fruits are used commonly in form of fleshy or pulpy, juice. fruit juices and beverages are most effective against disease related to such as reduced level of oxidative stress , obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, some forms of cancer and even biological aging, chronic inflammation , Cardiovascular diseases. Antioxidant analysis such as Total Phenol, Flavanoids, Total antioxidant capacity,Vit C, Anthocyanins content in Pomegranate, strawberry, Red grapes, orange, Dried Green Tea. Fruit beverages were prepared at different ratio. Its’ content of antioxidants shows highly significant different with each other.
6 Pros and Cons of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Use In Cancers, Farid Menaa
7 Effect of the Vacuum Packaging on the Shelf Life of Lakerda, D. Kocatepe1, H. Turan2*, C.O. Altan2, G. Göknar2
In this research, shelf life of lakerda in stretch film (A group) and vacuum packages (B group) stored for56 days at 4±2°C after the ripening and dry salting was compared. The quality control of the packaged lakerda were carried out by analyses of pH value, water activity (Aw), TVB-N, TBARS, total mesophilic (TMB) and total psychotropic (TPB) bacterial counts. The initial pH, Aw, TBARs, TVB-N value, TMB and TPB counts of lakerda were; 6.02, 0.74, 6.02 mg MDA/kg, 17.31 mg/100g, 3.68LogCFU/g and 2.61 LogCFU/g, respectively. The lakerda packed with stretch film and vacuum packs, did not exceed the limits for acceptability 35mg/100g of TVB-N during the storage periods. While the TBARs values, TMB and TBP counts of B groups did not exceed the limits for acceptability 8mg MDA/kg and 6LogCFU/g, respectively, throughout the storage period, the TBARs value of A group exceed the acceptability limit at 14th day. According to the all analyses results, vacuum packaging compared to stretch film significantly increased shelf life of lakerda (P
8 Folin-Ciocalteau Reagent for Polyphenolic Assay, Gabriel A Agbor1,2, Joe A Vinson2 and Patrick E. Donnelly2
The chemistry of the Folin-Ciocalteu is described and two Folin assays (single and dual reagent) are described for the assay of phenols and polyphenols with respect to experimental detail and critically evaluated for pure compounds and for mixtures (plant extracts). The single reagent method was found to be more precise and sensitive. The problem of interferences in the Folin assay was evaluated for both methods. Interferences for the dual reagent methodology can be eliminated by a solid phase removal of phenols using a commercial resin (Oasys HLB) or polyvinylpyrrolidone resin (Polyclar AT). A new basic/acid hydrolysis combed with the Polyclar AT was used to measure the total phenols in a sample as previous methods measured only the phenolic groups not bound as ether or ester groups. A semi-automated method, microplate reader, is described as to the experimental procedure and applicability. Miscellaneous uses of the Folin assay including flow injection,urine analysis and a mixed standard are briefly described.
9 Preparation and Evaluation of Olive Apple Blended Leather, Arsalan Khan1, Alam Zeb2, Majid Khan2, Wasif Shah2
The aim of the study was to evaluate a suitable combination of olive and apple pulp for the preparation of olive apple blended leather, stored at ambient temperature. The treatments were T0, T1, T2 and T3. The samples were wrapped in aluminum foil and then packed in polyethylene plastic bags and evaluation was carried out for a total period of 150 days. Physiochemically analysis; acidity and moisture and sensory characteristics; color, texture, taste and overall acceptability (using Larmond Scale) were evaluated at 30 days interval. A significant decrease was recorded in moisture (from 13.60% to 11.53%), color (from7.20 to 4.60), taste (from 7.53 to 5.40), texture (from 7.23 to 5.13) and overall acceptability (from 7.33 to 4.85). A significant increase was recorded in acidity (from 0.67% to 0.84%). Among all the treatments T3 was found most acceptable both physiochemically and organoleptically.
10 Food Safety Practice and Associated Factors of Food Handlers Working in Substandard Food Establishments in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013/14, Gizaw Z1, Gebrehiwot M1 , Teka Z2
Introduction: Food borne illnesses comprise a broad spectrum of diseases and are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The global incidence of food borne disease is difficult to estimate, but it has been reported that 2.1 million people died each year from diarrheal diseases and contaminated food contributes to 1.5 billion cases of diarrhea in children each year, resulting in more than three million premature deaths. In developing countries, up to an estimated 70% of cases of diarrheal diseases are associated with the consumption of contaminated foods. Approximately 10 to 20% of food-borne disease outbreaks are due to contamination by the food handler. Objective: This study was conducted to assess food safety practices and associated factors of food handlers working in substandard food establishments of Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013/14. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study design was conducted to assess food safety practices and associated factors of food handlers. Four hundred three food handlers were taken randomly as study subjects and data were collected by observation by using standardized questionnaire and observational check lists. Ordinal logistic regression model was fitted to analyze the predictor variables. Results: The overall level of food safety practices (good – 30.30%, fair- 47.60% and poor – 22.10%) was reported. Of a number of predictor variables analyzed age, marital status, service year, monthly income, food hygiene and safety training, attitude, knowledge and depth of knowledge were identified as factors affecting food safety practices. Conclusion and recommendations: Compared to other similar studies, Low level of food safety practice (good – 30.30%, fair- 47.60% and poor – 22.10%) was reported. Therefore, Environmental health practitioners, the local Medias and the managers should do a lot to improve food safety practices of the food handlers. They should also design and implement food safety awareness creation programs.
11 A Review on the Biochemical, Antimicrobial and Organoleptic Studies on the Germination Profile of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana), Ashwini G.Rane1*, Jyoti D.Vora2, Priyanka J1
Finger millets (or ragi) are cereals and the staple food of the millions residing in the arid and semi-arid tropics of the world. The grains of finger millets, being nutritionally superior to wheat provide Carbohydrates, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins to poorest of the poor where the need is essential. Finger millet can be regarded as a functional food, to be taken as part of the usual diet in order to have beneficial effects that go beyond basic nutritional function, thus helping to reduce the risk of obesity, malnutrition, and premature aging. An important factor of the functional food which is required to reduce the risk of chronic illnesses is ‘proper intake and antibacterial activity’. Antibacterial is used to treat bacterial infections, Germinated finger millet seeds extract (12hour sample) has a bactericidal property against Escherichia coli and can be consumed for management of infectious diarrhoea. However prolonged use of certain antibacterial can decrease the number of gut flora, which may have a negative impact on health. Results indicate that potential exists to utilize finger millet as an alternative natural antioxidant and food preservative. Sensory evaluation was carried out to project the organoleptic appeal, which proved that ragi sample was very well accepted.
12 Preparation and Characteristic of Dextran-BSA Antibody and Establishment of it’s Elisa Immunoassay, Zhen-ming X1*, Li-sha F1, Da-feng L1,2, Lin Y1
The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a potential tool for the determination of dextran. In this study, dextran–BSA antigens were prepared by Reductive amination method, and were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and free amino detection. The effects of coupled reaction conditions such as different oxidation degree of dextran, the reaction time were investigated and the immunity of the resulting dextran-BSA neoglycoprotein antigens were evaluated through the interaction with standard dextran antibody. The immunogen was immunized with white rabbits to obtained polyclonal antibody respectively. A general and broad class-specific Elisa detection method was developed according to Elisa theory. The method was put to use for quantitative analysis of dextran in practical saccharose samples.
13 Assessment of Triticale (Triticosecale ) X Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Based on Morpho-Physiological, Grain Yield and Drought Tolerance Indices Under Non-Irrigated and Irrigated Environments, Kumar S1, Mittal R K1, Dhiman R1, Gupta D2,1
Wheat being important staple crop urges the need to evaluate and develop new drought-tolerant varieties to sustain its productivity under changing climatic conditions. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the differential morpho-physiological, grain yield and drought tolerance indices responses of 27 triticale x bread wheat genotypes along with eight checks under non-irrigated and irrigated environments in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on 12 important morpho-physiological and grain yield related traits along with revealed sufficient variability under two environments. Among various traits magnitude of heritability and genetic advance indicated that selection of flag-leaf area, spikes per plant and 1000-grain weight could respond to higher grain yield under non-irrigated environment. Seedling stage traits viz., germination percentage, root length, shoot length, seedling vigour index (SVI) and germination index (GI) under normal (0 bar) and simulated water stress with Polyethylene glycol at -8 bar indicated greater sensitivity of the genotypes to water stress. Five drought tolerance indices viz.,drought susceptibility index (DSI), tolerance index (TOL), stress tolerance index (STI), yield index (YI) and yield stability index (YSI) were also calculated to identify drought tolerant and stable genotypes based on their yields under two environments. Minimum value of DSI, TOL and yield reduction and maximum value of YSI were in harmony with each other to categorized RL 135-P1 RL 22-144 A, RL-110-1P1, RL 128-1 P1 and RL 118-P1 as top five promising drought tolerant and yield stable genotypes. These genotypes could potentially be utilized for drought tolerance wheat breeding program.
14 Kidney Function in Rats Treated With a High-Fructose Diet and Streptozotocin, Cristina Harumi Tozaki Azevedo1, Ellen de Oliveira Narciso Pitlovanciv1, Edson Andrade Pessoa1, Marcia Bastos Convento1, Nestor Schor1, Fernanda Teixeira Borges1,2.
15 Metabolic Syndrome in Basic Research: How to Study It, F.T. Borges1,2 , N. Schor1*
16 Polyphenol-rich fruits attenuate impaired endothelial function induced by glucose and free fatty acids in vitro in human endothelial cells, Claire Chang1, Archana Kangath2, Britt Burton-Freeman2, Lauren S. Jackson1, Indika Edirisinghe2*
Elevated concentrations of plasma glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) are associated with impaired endothelial function increasing risk of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies suggested that fruits rich in polyphenolic compounds modulate endothelial cell migration and capillary-like tube formation via a redox-sensitive mechanism. We hypothesized that polyphenol-rich extracts of strawberry (SB) and wild blueberry (WB) would attenuate relatively high concentrations of glucose and/or FFA–mediated impaired cell migration and capillary-like tube formation in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs treated with high FFA and combinations of glucose and FFA showed significantly reduced cell migration and capillary-like tube formation compared to the PBS control (p
17 Chemical Composition And Nutritional Evaluation Of Leea Guineensis Seed, Ajiboye B.O1*, Oso A.O1, Kobomoje O.S2
The proximate composition, minerals, fatty acids and amino acids profile of Leea Guineensis seeds were investigated. The results of the proximate analysis revealed that Leea Guineensis seeds have crude protein of 22.30 ±0.45%, crude fiber of 14.38±1.20% and ash of 6.96 ±0.16%. The results also shows that Leea Guineensis seeds is a good sources of dietary minerals especially potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and copper. Fatty acids profile of the seeds revealed that the seed lipids contained higher concentration of linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. Also, amino acids profile of Leea Guineensis seeds showed that it essential amino acids such as threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucne, tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine. Leea Guineensis seed is therefore considered to be a good source of essential nutrients that would be useful for both animal and human being
18 Evaluation Of Chlorine Efficacy Against Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Survival And Cross-Contamination During Continuous Produces Washing Processwith Water Quality Change, CangliangShen*
Chlorine is widely used by fresh-cut produce processors to reduce pathogens and prevent cross-contamination. However, limited information is available on efficacy of chlorine preventing pathogen survival and the cross-contamination during washing of produce in consideration of wash-water quality change.A study of chlorine against Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival and cross-contamination was conducted simulating produce processors’ washing process. Spinach was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and manually washed with uninoculated iceberg lettuce in water with initial free chlorine (FC) of 40mg/L. A total of seven cycles of consecutive washing were conducted until FC ?0.5 mg/L. After every 1 min wash, water and produce were collected to enumerate the surviving E. coli O157:H7 and test water qualities. Water qualities were impacted by consecutive washing and significantly affected the survival and transference of E. coli O157:H7. A reduction of 0.7-0.9 log-CFU/g was observed on spinach. The pathogen survived in wash-water (0.15-13 MPN/ml) and cross-contaminated onto lettuce (11-33 MPN/g), when wash-water’s residual FC was
19 Serum levels of Magnesium, Copper and Zinc in Young Couples, M.H. Salmani1,3*, M. Vakili2, M. Abedi3, S. A. Mozaffari3
Metal ions are required for essential body functions but are toxic in excess. These have been examined critically as a potent factor in various human diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer. This study was conducted to estimate the level of magnesium, copper and zinc in serum of young couples. The 60 young couples (30 males, 30 females) with the mean age 23.18 ± 4.31 years were included in this study. Serum elements level was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy technique at calibration mode. The mean concentration of elements magnesium,copper and zinc in serum were (26.93± 3.83, 1.61± 0.31 and 7.18± 0.62 mg/l) respectively. We observed he normal levels of magnesium, zinc, and copper in serum of young couples, as compared with normal range. The analysis of data was shown the dependency of serum concentration levels of magnesium, copper and zinc with age and sex.
20 Chromium Status, Assessed By Hair Analysis, In Women With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, C. L. Magson1, R. Knight2, S. J Haswell2, E. A. Masson 3, S.W. Lindow4*
Aims: To assess chromium status using human scalp hair in females with Type 2 Diabetes and a control group of women. Methods: The participants were two groups of women aged between 35 and 70: 35 women with Type II diabetes (study group) and 30 women with no history of diabetes (control group). Samples of scalp hair were collected and the chromium content analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: No significant difference was found between the levels of chromium in the hair samples of the women in each group. Chromium was found to be higher in the diabetic group than the control group. (0.59 Vs 0.52 ?g/g). The two groups had a similar weekly diet, apart from alcohol, chocolate, cream and milk; significantly more controls consumed these products. Conclusion: There was no evidence of chromium deficiency in women with type 2 diabetes.
21 Quality Evaluation Of Bread Incorporated With Different Levels Cinnamon Powder, Dhillon G K*, Amarjeet K
Cinnamon powder was substituted (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 %) in wheat flour for bread making. Baking, sensory and storage quality of bread were analyzed and compared with white bread. Cinnamon powder was found to have high total phenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. The highest TPC (0.94 mg GAE/DW) and antioxidant activity (27.67%) were observed in the bread containing highest level of cinnamon powder (4%). But loaf volume and sensory scores were less at this level of incorporation. Results suggested that among the studied samples, bread with 2% of cinnamon powder showed improved baking and textural properties with maximum overall acceptability by panelist and had a shelf life of 6 days at room temperature (30±5°C).
22 Measurement Of Activity Concentrations Of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs In Some Common Spices Consumed By Inhabitants In Accra Metropolis, Ghana, C. Kansaana1*, E. O. Darko1, O. K. Adukpo1, A. Faanu1, E. Shitsi2, N.S. Opata2, L. Tettey-Larbi1
A spice is a vegetable substance of indigenous or exotic origin which is or has a hot, pigment taste, used to enhance taste of foods or to add to them the stimulant ingredients contained in them. Knowledge of radioactivity levels in human diet is of particular concern for the estimation of possible radiological hazards to human health. In this study, the radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in some selected natural and processed spices of different brands in the Madina District of Accra Metropolis were determined and the ingested doses via food consumption were also assessed using gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in the natural spices were 0.81 ± 0.2 BqKg-1, 0.98 ± 0.4 BqKg-1, 2.19 ± 0.9 BqKg-1 and 0.06 ± 0.01 BqKg-1 respectively. For the processed spices, the average activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were 0.18 ± 0.1 BqKg-1, 0.3 ± 0.1 BqKg-1, 1.3 ± 0.8 BqKg-1 and 0.02 ± 0.01 BqKg-1 respectively. The levels of 137Cs observed in the samples are within the range of ‘background’ concentrations. The estimated total annual effective dose received from 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs, due to consumption of natural (fresh) and processed spices by the inhabitants of Madina in the Accra metropolis was 8.47 µSvy-1 and this is far below the average radiation dose of 0.29 mSvy-1 received per caput worldwide due to ingestion of natural radionuclides provided in UNSCEAR (2000) report. The results indicate insignificant radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of spices via foods.
23 The Effect Of Some Fruits Addition on the Nutritional, Microbiological And Sensory Qualities of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolour) Based Pito, Adelekan Aminat. O*, Arisa Ngozi. U, Alamu A, Adebayo Yetunde.O, Omolara O
The effect of enrichment with fruits (Orange, Banana and Pineapple) on the nutritional, microbiological and sensory properties of sorghum based Pito was studied. Proximate, physico chemical, microbiological, vitamin and mineral content of the fruity Pito were analysed using the standard procedures. Results showed a significant increase in protein, fat and carbohydrate content of Pito as the fruits were added. Enrichment with fruit also caused an increase in physico chemical, mineral and vitamin contents of Pito. The viscosity of Pito increased upon the addition of fruits with Banana Pito having the highest viscosity.(3.9 x 10-3 Pa.s), the Orange Pito had the highest vitamin C content (3.56mg/100g). The microbial load of Pito was affected by fruit addition, fungal and bacteria load increased significantly with the addition of fruits. As storage days increased, the control (Commercially purchased Pito) had the highest microbial load (9.80x10-6 cfu/ml). There were significance difference in the taste, aroma, appearance, colour, flavor, mouth feel and overall acceptability of all the Pito samples (p
24 Studies on Effect of Different Extraction Methods on The Quality of Pomegranate Juice And Preparation of Spiced Pomegranate Juice, Priyanka P1, Sayed H.M2, A.A Joshi3*,Jadhav B.A4, Chilkawar P.M5
The present investigation was carried out to standardize the method of extraction of juice and to study the effect of extraction method on yield and quality of pomegranate juice. Also the efforts were also made to standardize the recipe for preparation of spiced pomegranate juice by using selected processing techniques and explore the prepared product for commercial use. Further efforts were made to evaluate the chemical quality of prepared pomegranate juice enriched with spices for their nutritional and organoleptic quality. The juice was also analysed for shelf life study on both i.e. at room as well as refrigeration temperature and techno-economic feasibility of spiced pomegranate juice was also assessed.
25 “Standard of Identity” for Probiotic Supplemented Foods, S. Sarkar*
26 Emergence Of A Quality Assurance Program For Probiotic Supplemented Foods, S. Sarkar*
In recent year consumer’s inclination towards natural and health-promoting foods have led to projection of probiotics as a new ingredient in functional food market. In absence of any worldwide regulation, probiotic containing foods available in the market are often of poor quality and did not meet the desired level of viable microorganisms, required for exhibiting health benefits. Presently, no globally accepted regulations for probiotic containing foods have been established, resulting in discrepancies in views, perception and quality of foods. In the present article an endeavor has been made to highlight the legislative views of different countries around the world regarding probiotic foods and prerequisites for identity of a product as a probiotic food have also been delineated.
27 Assessment And Comparison of Diet Quality And Physical Activity of African-Caribbean, South Asian and Caucasian Groups in The UK, Sara Diana Garduño-Diaz1*, Santosh Khokhar2
Background: Nutritional advice from public health campaigns in most Western countries does not include specific recommendations for minority groups. In this study we aimed to evaluate and compare diet quality and physical activity between the major ethnic groups residing in the UK. Methods: Adherence to recommendation, measured using a Diet Quality and Physical Activity Index (DPI) derived from national recommendations, was measure among participants (n=210) of African-Caribbean-, South Asian- and Caucasian ethnicity currently residing in the UK. Results: Significant difference in total DPI score between ethnic groups was not found. Components of the obtained score varied with a higher consumption of dairy products among African-Caribbeans and Asians, oil for cooking was preferred more frequently by Caucasians as was breakfast consumption and frequency and duration of physical activity. African-Caribbeans scored highest in fish, fruit/vegetables and liquid consumption. Conclusion: While the overall diet quality of ethnic minority groups may not be significantly different from the mainstream population, differences in individual diet components should be considered as part of the national nutritional advice of countries with heterogeneous populations
28 Effect of Oregano Herb on Dough Rheology and Bread Quality, Dhillon G K 1*, Ahluwalia P1*, Kaur A 11
The effect of addition of oregano at 1, 2, 3 and 4 % in formulation was examined in order to obtain herbal, antioxidantenriched bread with good baking, textural, nutritional and sensorial properties. Oregano was found tobe rich in crude fibre (17.43%), total phenol content (87.80 GAE/100g DW) and antioxidant activity (84.80%)which strengthens its use as a functional food. Farinograms obtained after addition of oregano suggested that oregano increased water absorption and dough development time. A significant decrease in dough stability was also observed. Therefore, little modifications were done in baking procedure to prepare oregano bread. Increasing levels of oregano increased the baking absorption and specific volume of the bread. From sensory point of view 2% level of oregano in the bread was selected as best. Oregano bread was high in total phenolics content (TPC) and radical scavenging activity (RSA). Result suggested that oregano up to 2% level in bread can be added without any major change in baking and sensory properties along with better shelf life.
29 Biological Inhibition/Toxicity During the Anaerobic Digestion of Wastes From Food And Agricultural Industries, Rajinikanth Rajagopal
30 Craving and Food Choices in Patients Under Treatment for Smoking Cessation, Aline Silva de Aguiar Nemer2*, Marcela Melquíades de Melo1, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra Luquetti2, Ana Lúcia de Almeida Vargas1, Gláucia Renata Sousa Rodrigues1, Maria Alvim Leite2, Maíra Barros Louro2
Introduction: The fissure, described as a strong desire to use the substance, and fear of weight gain affect the motivation of the individual to quit smoking. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of abstinence and craving in food choices and nutritional status (NS) of patients after one month of treatment for smoking cessation. Methods: Longitudinal study where we applied questionnaires to asses craving, dependence, alcohol consumption and food intake to decrease craving. The NS was assessed by BMI, waist circumference (WC) and abdominal circumference (AC). Evaluations were performed at baseline and after one month of treatment. Results: Among 23 participants who started treatment, 17 completed one month follow-up with 41.2% (n = 7) abstinent. After a month of treatment, the craving was lower among those abstinent compared to smokers. The most consumed foods to reduce the craving were, firstly, fruits followed by coffee, water and candies. Most subjects presented overweight (mean BMI 27.9 ± 6.9 kg/m²), and increased cardiovascular risk (WC: 89.0 ± 14.2; AC: 96.4 ± 15.0). After one month of monitoring, these parameters have not changed significantly. Reducing cravings and maintenance anthropometric parameters are aspects that can positively influence in the treatment success. Conclusion: Smokers in treatment for one month for smoking cessation showed a decrease in nicotine craving. Abstinence did not change the anthropometric parameters. The fruits were the most consumed foods to reduce the craving.
31 White Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)): Antioxidant Properties And Beneficial Health Effects, T. R. Dias, G. Tomás , N. F. Teixeira , M. G. Alves, P. F. Oliveira*, B. M. Silva*
Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, next to water. It can be categorized into three major types, depending on the level of fermentation, i.e., green and white (unfermented), oolong (partially fer-mented) and black (fermented) tea. Each type of tea has a distinct composition, dependent on how the leaves are processed, as well as maturation, geographical location and agricultural practices. White tea (WT), the least processed tea, is one of the less studied and is ascribed to have the highest content of phenolic compounds. Tea polyphenols, especially catechin derivatives, are potent antioxidant agents, with positive effects on human health. Antioxidant components have aroused great interest because of their ability to scavenge free radicals, thereby inhibiting OS. During the past years, oxidative damage induced by reactive species has been linked to the development of several human diseases such as CVD,DM, neurodegenerative disorders and certain types of cancer. Therefore, tea antioxidants may be of great value in preventing the onset and/or the progression of OS mediated diseases, when endogenous defences are insufficient against reactive species. The possible beneficial health effects of WT are being investigated and have received consider-able attention in recent years. In this review, we aim to explore the new findings concerning WT effects on health.
32 Role of Dietary Soybean Genistein in Osteoporosis Prevention, Masayoshi Yamaguchi1*, Ying Hua Gao-Balch2
Bone homeostasis is regulated through osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Osteoporosis, which is induced with its accompanying decrease in bone mass with increasing age, is widely recognized as a major public heath problem. Bone loss may be due to decreased osteoblastic bone formation and increased osteoclastic bone resorption. There is growing evidence that nutritional and food factors may play a part in the prevention of bone loss with aging and have been to be worthy of notice in the prevention of osteoporsis. Genistein, which is contained in soybeans, has been shown to have a stimulative effect on osteoblastic bone formation and a suppressive effect on osteoclastic bone resorption, thereby increasing bone mass. This factor has a regulative effect on protein synthesis and gene expression, which are related to bone formation in osteoblastic cells and bone resorption in osteoclastic cells. Oral administration of genistein has been shown to prevent on bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an animal model for osteoporosis, indicating a role in the prevention of osteoporosis. Intake of dietary soybean genistein has been shown to have a preventive effect on osteoporosis in human subjects, suggesting a role in the prevention of bone loss. This review discusses a role of dietary soybean genistein in osteoporosis prevention.
33 Comparative Effects Of Processing On The Cyanide Content Of Manihot Esculenta , Glycine Max And Zea Mays, Onyeike E.N, Nwaichi E.O*, Ibigomie C.E
The effects of varying processing treatments on the cyanide content of Manihot Esculenta,Zea Mays and Glycine Max were determined using picrate kit method and the following mean concentrations in ppm were obtained: 0.10, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.01, 0.00, 0.02,0.00, and 0.00 for Cassava, Garri, Fufu, Tapioka, Soybean, Vitamilk, Raw maize, Roasted maize, and Boiled maize respectively. There were statistically significant differences (P ? 0.05) among all raw samples analysed for the observed phytotoxin (Cyanide) levels. The results obtained from the processed and unprocessed food products generally showed a marked difference (P ? 0.05) in cyanide levels between raw and processed food products and this implies that food processing has a marked effect on the cyanide content of different food types indicating success in degradation of cyanide by heat. Heat treatments therefore reduced the cyanide content (approximate-ly 100%) in tested food crops thereby making them suitable and safer for consumption outside creating variety.