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International Journal of Ophthalmology & Eye Science (IJOES)

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1 Amblyopia In Children 3-9 Years Old, With Refractive Anomalies During 2010-2011 In Prishtina, Shoshi MH, Shoshi A, Agim X, Fitore S, Fjolla S, Flaka S
Background. Vision screening in schools has a long history, the reason of which was and continues to be, the treatment of refractive anomalies. Early detection of vision problems has many advantages in education and in everyday life. Aim of the study. The screening of the refractive anomalies in pre-school and school age children (3-9 years), in the city of Pristina aimed the determination of the prevalence of refractive anomalies. Materials and method. This is a transversal project cross sectional, which has been conducted during 2010-2011. For the data collection we have designed a special questionnaire/form. We have selected the city of Prishtina for this work, Since the study was a zonal type of study, we have selected the city of Prishtina for this work. Our research included 1027 children of age 3-9 years old. Results. The prevalence of the eye refractive anomalies in children of age 3-9 years old results to be 11.7%, with variability from 9.7% to 13.7%, for 95% accuracy. In children of age 3-9 years old, myopia was encountered in 3.4% (or 34/103) of the cases , with variations from 2.3% up to 4.5%; hyperopia was found in 3.8% with variations from 2.6% up to 5.0%; astigmatism in 4.5%, with variations from 3.2% up to 5.8%, without significant differences based on age or gender. Conclusions. After a thorough analysis of the results, we came to the conclusion that screening of the refractive anomalies in children of age 3-9 years old is very important since their prevalence is apparent. Key words: screening, refractive anomalies, children 3-9 years old, Prishtina.
2 Photo Documentation In Ocular Trauma, Shahid E, Rasool R, Arshad S, Nisar S, Jaffery A
Objective: Aim of the study is to photograph different cases of ocular trauma to ensure the safety of an ophthalmologist in giving prognosis and avoiding problems which are faced in court of law in criminal cases. Study Design: Hospital based, Cross sectional descriptive study Place And Duration: Department of ophthalmology, Abbassi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi. From July 2013 to March 2014 Material And Method: Hundred (100) Patients of ocular trauma were enrolled in the study on basis of nonprobability consective sampling. Their photographs were taken with the help of camera Kowa Fx 50 R. Blunt and penetrating injuries were included. Anterior and posterior segment findings were photographed. Comatose, younger than 6 years, corneal abrasions and corneal foreign bodies were excluded from the study. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 16. Result: Among 100 patients (72) were males with male to female ratio of 3:1. Close globe injuries were (64) and open globe injuries were (36). lid cut 6%, subconjunctival hemorrhages 10%, corneal cut 28%, hyphema 10%, subluxated lens 4%, cataract 10%, traumatic aniridia 2%, Choroidal rupture 4%, Traumatic optic atrophy 2% and Commotio retinae 2%. Conclusion: Ocular photographs are the best evidence to be used in medico legal cases and compensatory purposes. The new aspect to be highlighted is to photograph every case of an ocular trauma to avoid unnecessary aggravation and harassment to the ophthalmologist in different criminal medico legal and compensatory cases. Keywords: Ocular trauma, photography, medico legal cases
3 The Correlation between Intracranial Pressure and Intraocular Pressure after Brain Surgery, Chunyu Tian1, Xiujun Peng1, Nan Li2, Liwei Qin1, Zengmin Tian3
Objective: This study was to explore whether the intracranial pressure (ICP) changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes are synchronized after brain surgery. We also want to see whether measurement of IOP could be used to monitor ICP. Materials and methods: We evaluated the correlation between intracranial pressure and intraocular pressure in 15 patients with meningioma admitted to our hospital. All patients required the intracranial pressure monitoring on clinical grounds. Intraocular pressures were measured by portable non-contact tonometer. We simultaneous recorded the intracranial pressure and intraocular pressure once a time per hour. Results: We found significant correlation between intraocular pressures and intracranial pressure in 60.0% (9/15) of the tested population. However, ICP and IOP showed significant correlation only in 4 (16.7%) out of 24 time points (P
4 Diagnostic Imaging Of The Vitreous By Optical Coherence Tomography, Hirotaka Itakura,
Recently, a new treatment to the vitreoretinal interface diseases, vitreous injection of enzymatic vitreous melting drug is beginning to take place. This is a treatment to release the adhesion between the incompletely detached vitreous and the retina. Because the vitreous is transparent, to observe the relationship between the vitreous and the retina using only slit lamp microscope is difficult, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is necessary for adaptation decision of the vitreous injection. How useful is the diagnostic imaging of the vitreous by current OCT
5 Biologic Therapy For Ocular Inflammatory Diseases: An Update, Marina Mesquida,
Uveitis comprehends a wide and heterogeneous group of intraocular inflammatory conditions potentially sight-threatening and variable therapeutic strategies have been proposed. Classical treatment with steroids and conventional immunosuppressive agents is often used as first-step. However, a number of patients may not respond properly or tolerate these medications with well-known side effects. Over the last two decades, advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis, as well as improved biotechnology, have enabled the development of a new class of drugs called biologics, which provide selective targeting of the immune mediators of the inflammation cascade. Biologic therapies were introduced as a new option for patients with autoimmune rheumatic conditions refractory to conventional therapy and due to their success have posteriorly been used in ophthalmology to treat ocular inflammatory disorders. These new agents may potentially provide more effective and less toxic treatment than conventional therapy. Biologic therapies include a wide variety of drugs with different mechanisms of action, including monoclonal antibodies against cell surface markers, cytokines and their receptors, or recombinant forms of natural inhibitory molecules. Although some results are based on investigations with insufficient clinical trials, the majority of biologics indicate preferable outcomes on refractory uveitis, with remarkable promise to increase the possibility of long-term remission. The development of these new drugs is one of the most revolutionary advances in recent years, and the promise of shifting paradigms makes it an exciting time for uveitis specialists worldwide.
6 Sub-Tenon Versus Peribulbar Anesthesia In Phacoemulsification A Comparitive Study, Dr. Erum Shahid,
Purpose: The purpose is to compare the effectiveness of Sub-Tenons anaesthesia versus Peribulbar anaesthesia for intraoperative analgesia and ocular akinesia during phacoemulsification surgery. Material And Method: This analytic study consisted of 100 patients with simple random sampling, 50 patients in each group. Patients in group A had phacoemulsification under subtenon anaesthesia and patients in group B had the same surgery under peribulbar anaesthesia. Their eye movements and pain during surgery were documented and analyzed .Pearson Chi square test was used to determine the statistical significance. Results: In the group A (Subtenon group) there are 35 (70%) males and in group B (peribulbar group) there were 26 (52%) males. The age range of the patients was between 50-70 years. Pain during surgery in group A is 3 (24%) whereas in group B it is 28 (56%).Eye movements during the procedure of subtenon anesthesia in group A is 13 (26%) whereas eye movements during peribulbar anesthesia in group B is 22 (44%). Chi-square test is used between the eye movements and pain of group A and group B. There p values are less than 0.005 which are significant. Conclusion: Sub-Tenon anaesthesia gains our full recommendation for prospective benefits and elimination of potential fatal hazards like globe perforation, retrobulbar hemorrhage, sub arachnoid injection, imposed by using sharp needle blocks. It calms patients fear of sharp needles which raises the anxiety levels even prior to surgery. This technique also provides almost immediate progressive surgery.
7 Association Between Diabetes Mellitus And Glaucoma, Toshiyuki Oshitari
It has not been determined definitively whether there is a significant association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and glaucoma. Some population-based studies have shown a positive association between diabetes and glaucoma, and others have shown negative association between diabetes and glaucoma. However in many studies that showed a lack of a significant association between diabetes and glaucoma, the diagnosis of DM was made by self-presentation. On the other hand, DM was diagnosed by the serum glucose level or by glucose tolerance tests in the Rotterdam Study. The study concluded that the risk of open angle glaucoma was increased by more than three times in patients with diabetes than without diabetes. The results of a recent metaanalysis suggested that diabetes was a significant risk factor for open angle glaucoma. However, two of 12 studies included in the meta-analysis used only high intraocular pressure (IOP) as a definition of open angle glaucoma. Thus, patients with normal tension glaucoma were not included in the glaucoma group. More exact definitions of DM and glaucoma should be used to determine more accurately the association between DM and glaucoma. The results of these studies indicate that there is insufficient clinical evidence to conclude that there is a significant relationship between diabetes mellitus and glaucoma.
8 Daylight For Healthy Indoor Environment And Energy Benefits, Irfan Ullah
Recently, many researchers have been concerned to the interaction between environment and energy. Daylighting serves for both to improve indoor environment as well as to save energy utilization. It is clear throughout history that daylight has been an important element to affect health and lighting quality in the architectural designing. Different methods have been developed to bring daylight inside the building. Most of the methods have not been adopted because of their low efficiency and installation problems. What is the possible solution and current need to provide daylight in the buildings?
9 Scleral fixation Where are we?, Altan A. Ozcan
Correction of surgical aphakia with spectacles or contact lenses have some limits such as image size disparity, pincushion distortion, ring scotoma, and altered spatial perception, and implanting an intraocular lens (IOL) provides many advantages over both of these methods. There is yet no established consensus on the best IOL fixation technique in the absence of adequate capsular support. Options include anterior chamber IOLs (AC-IOLs) and suture fixated (SF) or sutureless posterior chamber lens implants (PC-IOLs).
10 Dry Eye Syndrome: A Multifactorial Disease, Ranjini Kottaiyan
Dry eye syndrome, a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface, is the leading cause for ophthalmology office visits, affecting around 60 million people in the United States alone. Due to a variety of factors, it is challenging to make a definitive diagnosis in the early stages of the disease. The ocular examination, including the fluorescein break up time and Schirmers test has been a critical part of the diagnosis algorithm. But these tests are severely limited owing to their relative invasiveness and lack of specificity. To overcome the limitations of the current gold standards, there is a growing need for the use of noninvasive tear imaging technologies like the thermal imaging.
11 Effect of Induced Refractive Error and Nuclear Sclerotic Cataracts on Ishihara Colour Plate Testing, Kelly D.Schweitzer
Objective: To determine the effect of induced refractive blur and nuclear sclerotic (NS) cataracts on Ishihara colour plate (ICP) scores. Design: Prospective evaluation of a diagnostic test Participants: Patients who presented to Hotel Dieu Hospital Eye clinic between January and March 2010 with either a lone diagnosis of nuclear sclerotic cataracts, or with no identified ocular disease with complete examination. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups: those having no identified ocular disease on examination, and those with a lone diagnosis of NS cataracts. The first group was refractively blurred with +3D, +6D, +9D and +12D lenses. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at near and ICP scores was obtained from both groups. Results: There were 20 patients in each group. BCVA at near and ICP values declined with increasing amounts of plus lenses as expected. With the application of the +3D, +6D, +9D, and +12D lenses, the association between ICP scores and BCVA at near decreased (-0.845, -0.678, -0.374, and -0.363 respectively). There was little clinical decline in absolute ICP scores until lenses of +9D (mean BCVA at near = 20/400) or greater were applied. The correlation between ICP scores and BCVA at near declines due to NS cataracts was -0.53. Conclusion: ICP testing is valid to BCVA at near of 20/100 when the acuity decline is due solely to NS cataracts. Further study is required to determine whether or not severe vision loss due to NS cataracts affects ICP scores and at what visual acuity. Keywords: Assessment; Cataracts; Colour Vision Defects; Colour Perception Tests; Low Vision
12 Is There Blinding Onchocerciasis in Northern Uganda?, T.L. Lakwo
Background: Onchocerciasis is a filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus transmitted by female black flies which breeds in fast flowing rivers. Clinical manifestations is ocular or skin lesions. The long-term armed conflict in northern Uganda deprived research on onchocerciasis and no attempts have been made to establish the clinical manifestation of the disease in the region. Objective: To establish whether Simulium damnosum transmitted onchocerciasis in this region was blinding. Participants: Persons from thirteen endemic parishes in Pader district in northern Uganda were examined for clinical, parasitological and ocular manifestations of onchocerciasis. Results: A total of 675 persons were examined and microfilaria prevalence in skin snips was 28%, while nodules and onchodermatitis were 30% and 29% respectively. The commonest skin lesion was Chronic Papular Onchodermatitis (17.5%). However, the prevalence of both microfilaria in the anterior chamber of the eye and reversible ocular lesions was 4%. The reversible ocular lesions of onchocerciasis observed were punctate keratitis stage B (0.1%), punctate keratitis stage D (0.1%) and punctate keratitis stage E (3.7%). While 16.1% of the respondents had irreversible ocular lesions attributed mainly to Optic atrophy (6.4%) and sclerosing keratitis (5.2%). There was significant association between irreversible onchocerciasis lesions and visual loss (p< 0.0001). Conclusion: This study confirmed the occurrence of blinding onchocerciasis in Pader district, the first ever reported in indigenous populations in Uganda. Keywords: Blinding Onchocerciasis; Onchocerca Volvulus; Pader District; Northern Uganda; Simulium Damnosum
13 Cataract How Important Is Age of Intervention?, Mehul Shah
Purpose: To study effect of age of intervention on visual outcome following treatment of pediatric patients with cataract. Setting: Tertiary eye care centre in Dahod at the trijunction of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan states in central western India. Participants: 705 eyes of 1047 patients Methods: This is a prospective cohort study. We studied a consecutive series of pediatric patients with congenital, developing, or COMPLICATED cataracts who underwent surgery between January, 1999 and April, 2012 at our center. Patient demographics, cataract type, presenting symptoms, surgical intervention, postoperative visual acuity, and follow-up refractive changes were recorded. Primary Outcome measures: vision. Results: In total, 1305 eyes of 1047 children were included: unilateral cataracts were present in 786 (60.2%) eyes. There were 600 (46.7%) traumatic and 705 (53.3%) non-traumatic cases. Ages at surgery ranged from 1 to 215 months. Eyes were grouped by the age of surgical intervention performed: Group 1,5 years, including 528 (74.9%) eyes either by anterior or pars plana route IOL placement. The mean follow-up time was 117 days. Ultimately, 128 (18.2%) Group 1 and 213 (30.2%) Group 2 patients achieved a visual acuity better than 20/80 (P < 0.001). Age at intervention was significantly related (all P < 0.001) to visual outcome. Conclusions: Age of intervention affects visual outcome significantly (p
14 Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study: Effectiveness of Guidelines in Cases of Endophthalmitis Following Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, Mehul Shah,
Objective: To validate Endophthalmitis vitrectomy study guidelines in cases of post-operative endophthalmitis following Manual small incision cataract surgery. Setting: Tertiary eye care centre in western central India Participants: 36 eyes with endophthalmitis following Manual small incision cataract surgery. Methods: We enrolled all post cataract endophthalmitis patients following manual small incision cataract surgery with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Treatment planned according to severity as in Endophthalmitis vitrectomy study, all eyes are given intra vitrealvancomycine+ceftazidim injection using standard protocol and dosages. Patients who have visual acuity more than hand motion were treated only with intravitreal injections and patients who had only perception of light undergone vitrectomy. Patients who were not ready for surgical intervention excluded from analyses of visual outcome. Patients were followed up according to standard schedule and protocol. Results: Our cohort consisted of total 36 cases of acute post-operative endophthalmitis following manual small incision cataract surgery within six weeks. Our cohort consisted of 20(55.6%) male 16(44.4%) female;the age range was 44 - 85 years with mean age of 56.9 +/- 19.5 years. The mean duration of presentation and duration following cataract surgery was 6.7 +/- 8.1 days and 7.1 +/- 10.9 days respectively. Visual outcome 11 eyes (42.3%) regained vision more than 20/40 and 15 eyes (57.7%) regained more than 20/60, 20 eyes(76.9%) regained more than 20/200 and 23 eyes (88.4%) regained more than 20/400 Conclusion: Results and recommendations of Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study are very effective and useful in treatment post cataract surgery endophthalmitis by manual small incision cataract surgery Keywords: Endophthalmitis; Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery; Vitrectomy For Endophthalmitis; Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study
15 Intravitreal Bevacizumab Followed by Ranibizumab for Neovascular Age Related Macular Degenerat?on, Nilay Yuksel
Purpose: To compare the outcomes after switching from intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) to intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) in patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (ARMD). Material and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with neovascular ARMD, who were switched from treatment with Pro Re Nata (PRN) IVB to PRN IVR, was conducted in a university clinic. IVB (1.25 mg/0.05 ml) and IVR (0.5 mg/0.05 ml) were used. Retreatment criteria were defined based on an activity scoring (AS) system developed in our clinic. An AS was calculated for each lesion at each visit. AS results and the number of injections before and after switching treatment to IVR were compared. Results: 32 eyes of 31 patients with neovascular ARMD were included in the study. The mean follow-up period was 12.34.7 months. The mean duration of IVB treatment was 8.13.1 months followed by 4.21.6 months with IVR. At the beginning of the study the mean AS was 8.9, (Visual Acuity) VA : 0.99 logMAR, and Central Foveal Thickness (CFT): 312.781.1?. A month after the last IVB injection, AS became 5.1, VA: 0.69 logMAR, and CFT: 210.480.4? (p0.05). Conclusions: This study shows that the improvement in AS, CFT, and VA, achieved with the PRN IVB treatment, seems to be maintained after switching to IVR. Keywords: Activity Scoring; Age Related Macular Degeneration; Bevacizumab; Ranibizumab.
16 Amblyopia In Children 3-9 Years Old, With Refractive Anomalies During 2010-2011 In Prishtina, Mire Hoxha-Shoshi
Background. Vision screening in schools has a long history, the reason of which was and continues to be, the treatment of refractive anomalies. Early detection of vision problems has many advantages in education and in everyday life. Aim of the study. The screening of the refractive anomalies in pre-school and school age children (3-9 years), in the city of Pristina aimed the determination of the prevalence of refractive anomalies. Materials and method. This is a transversal project cross sectional, which has been conducted during 2010-2011. For the data collection we have designed a special questionnaire/form. We have selected the city of Prishtina for this work, Since the study was a zonal type of study, we have selected the city of Prishtina for this work. Our research included 1027 children of age 3-9 years old. Results. The prevalence of the eye refractive anomalies in children of age 3-9 years old results to be 11.7%, with variability from 9.7% to 13.7%, for 95% accuracy. In children of age 3-9 years old, myopia was encountered in 3.4% (or 34/103) of the cases , with variations from 2.3% up to 4.5%; hyperopia was found in 3.8% with variations from 2.6% up to 5.0%; astigmatism in 4.5%, with variations from 3.2% up to 5.8%, without significant differences based on age or gender. Conclusions. After a thorough analysis of the results, we came to the conclusion that screening of the refractive anomalies in children of age 3-9 years old is very important since their prevalence is apparent. Key words: Screening, Refractive Anomalies, Children 3-9 Years Old, Prishtina.
17 Photo Documentation In Ocular Trauma, Erum Shahid
Objective: Aim of the study is to photograph different cases of ocular trauma to ensure the safety of an ophthalmologist in giving prognosis and avoiding problems which are faced in court of law in criminal cases. Study Design: Hospital based, Cross sectional descriptive study Place And Duration: Department of ophthalmology, Abbassi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi. From July 2013 to March 2014 Material And Method: Hundred (100) Patients of ocular trauma were enrolled in the study on basis of nonprobability consective sampling. Their photographs were taken with the help of camera Kowa Fx 50 R. Blunt and penetrating injuries were included. Anterior and posterior segment findings were photographed. Comatose, younger than 6 years, corneal abrasions and corneal foreign bodies were excluded from the study. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 16. Result: Among 100 patients (72) were males with male to female ratio of 3:1. Close globe injuries were (64) and open globe injuries were (36). lid cut 6%, subconjunctival hemorrhages 10%, corneal cut 28%, hyphema 10%, subluxated lens 4%, cataract 10%, traumatic aniridia 2%, Choroidal rupture 4%, Traumatic optic atrophy 2% and Commotio retinae 2%. Conclusion: Ocular photographs are the best evidence to be used in medico legal cases and compensatory purposes. The new aspect to be highlighted is to photograph every case of an ocular trauma to avoid unnecessary aggravation and harassment to the ophthalmologist in different criminal medico legal and compensatory cases. Keywords: Ocular Trauma, Photography, Medico Legal Cases
18 The Correlation between Intracranial Pressure and Intraocular Pressure after Brain Surgery, Chunyu Tian
Objective: This study was to explore whether the intracranial pressure (ICP) changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes are synchronized after brain surgery. We also want to see whether measurement of IOP could be used to monitor ICP. Materials and methods: We evaluated the correlation between intracranial pressure and intraocular pressure in 15 patients with meningioma admitted to our hospital. All patients required the intracranial pressure monitoring on clinical grounds. Intraocular pressures were measured by portable non-contact tonometer. We simultaneous recorded the intracranial pressure and intraocular pressure once a time per hour. Results: We found significant correlation between intraocular pressures and intracranial pressure in 60.0% (9/15) of the tested population. However, ICP and IOP showed significant correlation only in 4 (16.7%) out of 24 time points (P
19 Glaucoma knowledge in a black community in Toronto, Jin YP,
Background: Black people are at high risk of glaucoma. Routine eye exams are the only way of identifying early glaucoma for treatment and blindness prevention. Public education on glaucoma risk factors and detection may be an important public health strategy to encourage those at high risk to have their eyes checked. Purpose: To evaluate glaucoma knowledge (including presentation, risk factors and detection) and associated socio-demographic factors in a black community in Toronto to aid the development of future public education programs. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire surveys from 5 black people centered churches or organizations. Results: The mean age of participants (n=201) was 48.7 years. Most participants reported glaucoma can cause blindness (88.6%) and run in families (76.0%). However, only few participants (4%) correctly reported glaucoma affects peripheral vision. Over 1 in 4 participants (26.7%) reported incorrectly glaucoma always causes eye symptoms. Less than half of the participants knew black people are at higher risk of glaucoma (48.7%) and glaucoma most likely affects people 40 years or older (46.2%). A history of parents or siblings with glaucoma was not associated with better knowledge of three established glaucoma risk factors (40 years or over, African origin and positive family history). Participants 40 years or older did not have greater knowledge than those under 40 that older people are at higher risk of developing glaucoma (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.26). Participants with and without postsecondary education equally reported that eye examinations are the only way to identify glaucoma (PR=1.02, 95% CI 0.72-1.46). Poverty was associated with lower levels of knowledge of the aforementioned three glaucoma risk factors and that glaucoma is identified through eye examinations. Conclusion: Glaucoma knowledge in Torontos black community is inadequate. Education about glaucoma presentation, risk factors and detection should be prioritized in this high-risk group. Key words: African Origin; Family History; Glaucoma Knowledge; Socio-Demographics; Toronto
20 Willingness to Pay for Cataract Surgery Among Outreach Site Patients in South West Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Berhan S. Demissie
Background: Cost recovery for cataract surgery will have significant input towards a sustainable eye care system; therefore it is important to assess the willingness to pay of patients with cataract blindness for cataract surgery. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in two outreach sites in South West Ethiopia to determine their willingness to pay for cataract surgery. Consecutive patients who had mature senile cataract and came to two outreach program sites were included in the study. Results: A total of 134 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 62.5years (SD=9.4). The majority, 86 (64.2 %), were males making the male to female ratio 1.79:1. A total of 102 (76.1%) participants of the study said that they were willing to pay for their cataract surgery. Males were more willing to pay as compared to females (83.7% vs. 62.5%, p=0.006). Those with low socio-economic conditions were less willing to pay (p< 0.05). Willingness to pay was not associated with the age (p= 0.25), literacy (p=0.66), religion (0.3), or family size (0.43) of the participants. On multiple logistic regression analysis, however, only being a female and also having a low socioeconomic status were significantly associated with not willing to pay. Conclusions: A good proportion of the rural residents were willing to pay for their cataract surgery. Being female and having lower socioeconomic status are associated with not willingness to pay. Keywords: Cataract, Willingness To Pay, Jimma, Ethiopia.
21 Snapshots for intra- and inter-ocular differences at retinal proteins levels, Thomas Chuen Lam
We attempted to study the intra- and inter-animal variations of protein expressions in chick retina using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The posterior retinas of 10 day-old chicks were harvested. The proteins were extracted and 2-DE protein profiles between two eyes of the same individual and among different animals were compared and analysed using Melanie gel analysis software. Computerised Melanie gel analysis showed a high similarity of 83.1 2.1% (mean SEM, n=3) between the protein profiles of right and left retinas from the same animal. However, this percentage dropped to 64.1 3.1% (Mean SEM, n=3) when comparing between different animal samples. We have shown that there were good similarities in intra-animal comparison but poor in inter-animal comparison. We have documented the caveat in comparing the protein profiles between different animals where apparent differentially display protein could actually be a false positive signal. The finding highlighted the potential usefulness of the proteomic approach in basic eye research where comparison between control and experimental tissues could be carried out in the same animal, rather than using different animals. Keywords: Proteomics; 2De; Retina, Chicks.
22 Anatomical Differences of Corneal Surface Parameters, Pavel Bene
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze possible anatomical differences of corneal surface parameters in the sample of population and between the genders. Methods: This study is presenting the sample of population which has consisted of 1354 subjects, 794 female and 560 male eyes. Subjects were chosen randomly. To determine and evaluate all values of corneal surface parameters, auto refractor keratometer with Placido disc (KR 8100P, Topcon, Japan) and the program Software Corneal Analyzer, Version 3.0 were used. The results were registered and then processed statistically. Results: From a large amounts of data, tere are chosen only the results in this study that showed statistically significant (p
23 Comparative Study Of Visual Outcomes Following Corrective Vitrectomy: Non-Traumatic Versus Traumatic Etiologies, Mehul A. Shah
Introduction: Nucleus drop is a rare and serious complication. We investigated visual outcomes following corrective surgery, and compared outcomes between surgeries that followed traumatic injuries and those where the etiology was nontraumatic. Method: A retrospective cohort study was performed using information collected from medical records regarding cases of vitrectomy performed for nucleus drop. Patients were grouped into traumatic and non-traumatic cases. After pars plana vitrectomy and nucleus removal with use of a phacofragmatome, all data were collected according to a standard follow-up format. Results: Our cohort consisted of 37 eyes of 37 patients. Mean patient age was 58.8+/-9.35, ranging from 31 to 75 years (Table1). Of these cases, 12 (32.4%) were traumatic and 25 (67.6%) followed cataract surgeries. We found that vision in 15 (40.4%) cases improved to more than 6/24 and in 5 (13.5%) it did not improve (>1/60). Conclusion: Visual outcome following corrective vitrectomy for nucleus drop may be satisfactory if managed well; no significant difference in outcome was noted based on etiology.