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International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Journal Papers (180) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Standardization of an Ayurvedic Pediatric Formulation “Balachturbhadrika Churna” , Sheetal S. Buddhadev and Sandip G Buddhadev
Ayurvedic formulations are gaining importance nowadays as they are economic, easily available and relatively free from side effects. It is important to bring the use of these remedies in existing frame work of scientific usage. Considering this, ayurvedic formulation “Balachturbhadrika churna” was standardized by using morphological, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical and chromatography parameters. Raw materials were checked for standardizing the formulation. Three market samples were collected and compared with prepared formulation.
2 Clinical Efficacy of Apamarga Tandula and Vyoshadi Guggulu on Sthaulya , Sudhir Turil , Ashish Reja , Pawankumar Godatwar and Reetu Sharma
Sthaulya (Obesity) is a disease which invites many other major and minor diseases. It has turned into a pandemic and needs attention from all, for its control. The present study was done to evaluate the efficacy of trial drugs Apamarga Tandula & Vyoshadi Guggulu in comparison to standard drug Sibutramine. Sixty subjects were randomly divided in three groups and Apamarga Tandula was given to group A, Apamarga Tandula & Vyoshadi Guggulu was given to group B and the standard drug Sibutramine was given to group C. Patients having clinical presentation of Sthaulya as mentioned in the ayurvedic texts (Prayatma lakshana) parameters as well as laboratory parameters viz., Hb, TLC, FBS, Cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL and VLDL, were assessed for its efficacy. The trial groups displayed a comparable result in the laboratory and Prayatma lakshana parameters. In variables such as FBS and LDL, the drug Apamarga Tandula was found to be better than the control drug. In a display of synergistic action, trial drugs Apamarga Tandula + Vyoshadi Guggulu showed the best results in all the parameters, much better than the control drug Sibutramine.
3 Simple Farm Techniques for Preservation of “Maranta arundinacea” Rhizomes , Padma Harshan, Geeta Sukumaran and Uttam Nagwanshi
Maranta arundinacea (Arrowroot or West Indian Arrowroot) is indigenous to the West Indies, where native people, use the powder. The Arawaks used the substance to draw out toxins from people wounded by poisoned arrows. Its name is thought to be derived from that practice. The name may also come from the native Caribbean Arawak people's aru-aru (meal of meals), for which the plant is a staple. Arrowroot has been used as an infant formula in place of breast milk or to help the baby adjust after weaning believed to be the easiest to digest. Because of its demulcent properties it has been used for various bowel complaints. Also, it is believed to be useful against poisoned wounds, including scorpion stings, snake bites, and spider bites and gangrene. Consuming fresh arrowroot juice mixed with water is said to be an antidote to vegetable poisons. Arrowroot is used as a herbal remedy to alleviate nausea and to replenish nutrients lost through diarrhea and vomiting. It’s a nutritious diet for people with certain chronic diseases, during recovery from an illness or for certain internal irritations including bladder irritation. The results of non-chemically grown arrowroots have been encouraging with a good production in less than a quarter acre of land that depicts a high economic viability with such practices. It can prove to be a remunerative medicinal plant with semi-processing to small and marginal farmers. Another very important feature observed was that the seeds were not treated with any fungicide or chemicals during preservation thus avoiding use of chemicals and keeping it healthy.
4 A Piloting Study on Godugdha Yukta Vaitaran Basti in Vataja Gridhrasi (Sciatica) , Sriram Chandra Mishra
Gridhrasi (Sciatica) is a major health problem related to locomotor system in both developed and developing countries. There is close association between low back pain and Sciatica. The prevalence data on low back pain and Sciatica shows the problematic status of the disease. As many as 90% of patients with acute back pain return to work within three months, but many experience symptoms of recurrence and function limitations. This hospital based observational piloting study on Godugdha yukta Vaitaran basti evaluates its therapeutic efficacy on Vataja Gridhrasi. For control study, Katibasti with sahacharadi tailam is taken which is a well known & proven procedure for lumbosacral disorders. The study was conducted on sixty clinically diagnosed cases of Vataja Gridhrasi (Sciatica) on the basis of various subjective & objective scientific parameters. Clinically and statistically improvements were observed after completion of therapy which was more in Vaitaran basti group rather than Katibasti group. Both drugs were well tolerated and patients were not forced to discontinue drug treatment out of drug intolerance. However in the series of trial 100 % recovery leading to Cure could not be achieved. This may be due to the reason that Basti chikitsa is said to be Ardhachikitsa. Godugdha yukta Vaitaran basti has been found to be an effective therapeutic regimen in the management of Vataja Gridhrasi.
5 Role of Navjivan Rasa and Ropana Tailm in the Management of Venous Ulcer , Dr. Kanchan M Borkar, Anantkumar V Shekokar and Sandhya A Kolekar
In modern aspect recurrence of venous ulcer, after conservative treatment, is very high. Direct venous surgery is difficult due to absence of suitable prosthetic graft and difficulty in reconstructing venous valve. The healing of wound still remains a major problem to the surgeon as well as to the patient. In Ayurveda the primary aim of the treatment is to give an effective and safe approach to this perplexing problem. Shonit Sanghat Bhedana, Marg Vivruanan, Bandh Chhinnana, Twak Mansa Sthirikaran, Lekhana, Lasikapuy and Shleshma Upshoshan are the Karmas (propertities)of Katu tikta Rasa . Therefore, we have selected Katu andTikta Raspradhana Kalpa which are Navjivan Rasa & Ropana Tailm for Antaparimarjan & Bahiparimarjan respectively medicaments of venous ulcer . In using Ayurvedic medicinal remedy we avoid surgery and its complication with saving of time and money. In the following article an attempt will be made for proper understanding of the historical aspect of the Dushta Vrana (Infected wound), its etiopathology, methodology of ulcer healing, in the light of Ayurvedic and modern knowledge. The clinical study was conducted on two patients who were selected randomly and divided in two groups. First experimental group treated with Navjivan Rasa and Ropana Tailm and second control group treated with Diosmin 300mg BID. The clinical assessment was done on the basis of grading criteria with basic symptomatology pain, local temperature, discharge, color and smell. Navjivan Rasa and Ropan tailm possess sufficient efficacy in Vran shodhana and Vran ropana and shows better results in healing of venous ulcer.
6 Quantitative Determination of Essential and Trace Elements in Indian Ayurvedic Medicinal Herbs by WD-XRF spectrometry , G.Y.S.K. Swamy and P. Sivanarayanan
Medicinal plants contain essential and trace elements, which are very important for the human body. India had a rich experience of health benefits through utilising many varieties of Ayurvedic medicinal herbs. Our emphasis in the current paper is on the characterization of five Medicinal plants (Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent., Leucas indica (L.) R. Br. Ex Vatke, Premna tomentosa (Willd.), Piper chaba (Hunter) and Hedychium spicatum (Buch.-Ham.) for their macro and microelement contents using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometry. The applicability of the method particularly for the simultaneous determination of sixteen elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb) in biological matrices has been evaluated in terms of the detection limit, precision and accuracy. The method was validated by analyzing five Chinese certified reference materials (NCS ZC73012 (cabbage), NCS ZC73013 (spinach), NCS ZC73017 (apple), NCS ZC85006 (tomato) and NCS DC73348 (bush, branches and leaves)) of vegetable standards. In general, good agreement was achieved between certified values and measured ones with recoveries ranging from 92 to 108%. The WDXRF method proposed proved to be an effective tool for the investigation and quality control processes of vegetation samples.
7 Development and Validation of RP-HPLC method for Lorazepam in Tablet Dosage Form , Dammalapati Srikantha and Rudra Raju Ramesh Raju
A reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for determination of Lorazepam in the tablet dosage form. The developed method was validated by measuring the parameters such as linearity range, precision, limit of detection (LOD), robustness, ruggedness, drug recovery and for the system suitability. In the HPLC method, acetonitrile: methanol (65:35 v/v) was the mobile phase, C18 column (250 mm x 4.5 mm x 5 µm), pH 4.3 and detection wavelength was 224 nm. The measured retention time of Lorazepam was found to be 4.68 minutes, which is the shortest time compared to the values reported so far. The limit of detection was 0.3µg/ml and the linearity was found to be in the range 10-100 µg/ml. The correlation coefficient value was 0.9998 and a low relative standard deviation (RSD < 1%) was obtained for linearity, precision and robustness. From the above observed parameters it can be concluded that the developed method satisfies to be a powerful tool in determination of Lorazepam drug in tablet dosage forms.
8 Concept of “Stree Shukra” in Ayurvedic Classics-Views and Reviews , Prasad Kulkarni and Pravin Joshi
There are many concepts in Ayurvedic science which are not yet fully understood & stree shukra is one of these concepts. There is very little description of stree shukra in classics. As there are seven dhatus in female sharir the exact role and physiology of stree shukra is essential to understand. An attempt is made to interpret the concept of stree shukra & understand the same.
9 Shilajatu The Panacea: A Review , Debasis Panigrahi and P.Suresh
Shilajatu is one of the most essential raw materials among various rasa dravyas described. It has been greatly acclaimed in classical as well as rasa literature as rasayan and extensively used in practice in the form of rejuvenating agent. In the present study the extracts of various classical and contemporary outcome regarding the shilajatu has been reviewed.
10 Concept of Sattva according to Dehaprakriti , Kewat Sheela Rajaram, Vaidya Asmita Amrut and P. B. Thakare
Ayurveda being a holistic medical science considers Sharira and Mann both as Vyadhiaashraya and for its examination Acharya Charaka has described Dashavidha Pariksha among which Prakriti Pariksha and Sattva Pariksha have their own importance. Among Prakriti, Dehaprakriti is formed by intensified Doshas & not only producing effect on every component of body but also on mind. Dehaprakriti is having influence on Sattva because Sattva is nothing but the reflection of our emotions & mind. Hence, in present study, an attempt is made to state the association between Sattva i.e. Mann & Dehaprakritti.
11 Effect of Tri - Doshas in Our Day to Day Life in Contest of Circadian Rhythm , Poonam Choudhary, Reetu Sharma, Ranjana Pande and Sushila Sharma
Circadian rhythm is the cyclical 24-hour period of human biological activity. Within the circadian (24-hour) cycle, a person usually sleeps approximately 8 hours and stays awake for 16 hours. During the wakeful hours, mental and physical functions are most active and tissue cell growth increases. During sleep, voluntary muscle activities nearly disappear and there is a decrease in metabolic rate, respiration, heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure. In Ayurveda, this concept is based on three Doshas- Vata, Pitta, Kapha - which predominantly govern our daily routine life. These Doshas maintain the integrity of our body by creating, assimilating & diffusing strength. In this article, efforts will be made to correlate the Doshic influence which affects the human body.
12 LIGHT ON OMEGA-3 & OMEGA-6 FATTY ACIDS , Roshani Verma and Kirti Kumar Akhand
Omega-3 & Omega-6 are essential unsaturated fatty acids. Acharya Charak has described about Sneha in Charak samhita, sutra sthana, and chapter 13/38-40. According to Acharya Charak, Haswa matra of sneha should be taken daily for all age groups. Similarly, Omega-3 & Omega-6 fatty acids found in various types of sneha (ghrita, taila, vasa, majja) like oil, butter, fishes, oily substances of different food materials also. The world is facing with many lifestyle disorders like Diabetes, Obesity, Hypertension, Cardiac diseases and many more diseases. These are due to unhealthy lifestyle and diet. In this article, we will highlight the concept of Omega 3 & Omega 6 fatty acids, which plays an important role in diet and many lifestyle disorders and how its ratio can cure us from many lifestyle disorders. Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) intake should be 1.6 gm/day in male and 1.1 gm/day in female. People should consume 2% of their total daily calories from Omega-3 fats. Omega-3 is helpful to reduce inflammation, prevent from excessive clotting, lower the level of cholesterol etc. Omega6 is helpful in growth, especially for brain and muscle development. With the help of correct ratio of Omega-3 & Omega-6 fatty acids, we can cure and avoid various diseases like Alzheimer’s diseases, Asthma, Diabetes etc. In this article, we will describe how to lower excess Omega-6 and how to increase your Omega-3 for obtaining the correct ratio of these fatty acids. People should always include foods like Akharota (walnuts), Alasi (Flax seeds), fishes, and vegetables in their regular diet. This topic has been chosen because it is easy for Ayurveda physicians to maintain the correct ratio of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids in patient’s regular diet as Pathya-Apathya concept.
13 A Study on Economic Importance of Crude Drugs In the Kanpur area of Indo-Gangetic Plains , Alpana Tewari, Archana Srivastava and Kumud Dubey
During the past decade, demand for medicinal plants and their products as well as health systems have attracted global interests. The value of medicinal plants as a source of foreign exchange for developing countries depends on the use of plants as raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry. The present study is aimed to survey Kanpur city to analyze the information regarding the availability of medicinal plants and to prepare its appropriate records concerning the source locality, plant parts used, economic value of herbs and present price trends. The results obtained from the study provided sufficient ground to believe that the traditional medicinal practice using native medicinal plants is still alive, functioning well and is economic significant.
14 A Review on Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) , Harish Kumar Singhal, Neetu, Amit Kataria and Jai SinghaYadav
Ashwagandha , commonly known as Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important medicinal plant which is used in indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. Due to its varied therapeutic potential, it has now become a subject of interest for modern scientific attention. Withania is widely claimed to have potent aphrodisiac, sedative, rejuvenating and life prolonging properties. It is also used as a general energy-enhancing tonic known as Medha Rasayana (‘that which promotes learning and a good memory’) and in geriatric problems. More than thirty five chemical constituents are present in the roots of Withania somnifera. The biologically active chemical constituents are alkaloids and steroidal lactones. To explore this drug and its properties we made an effort to collect literature mentioned in ancient textbook backed with recent research evidences. To achieve this, known database like pubmed, medline were selected for studies from 1988 to 2010. Data obtained in English language from clinical and experimental studies on Withania somnifera were considered. Various clinical & experimental studies proved its utility as anti-anxiety, anti stress, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antioxidant, antiageing, anticarcinogenic, antibacterial, adaptogenic, hemopoetic & immodulation activity along with cognition enhancing & memory improving activity with effect on Parkinson disease, neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction
15 Review of Anatomical and Physiological Changes of Ageing , Tawalare Kiran, Tawalare Kalpana, Pawar Jatved, Sharma Gopal, Sharma Mrityunjay and Ramteke Rachana
Aging is the process of life which includes progressive physiological and anatomical changes in various systems of body. The proposed study aims to describe various anatomical and physiological changes that occur in old age. Aging process brings about various changes in every system of the body such as cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, nervous, endocrine, reproductive and musculoskeletal. Through the critical analysis of the literature it is found that Ayurveda has given remedies to avoid jara (old age) state of life in the form of rasayan (rejuvenation) drugs, adopting dincharya (daily routine follow up), by avoiding suppression of various adharniya vegas (urges), yogic process and pranayama.
16 Pharmacovigilance -A Gateway to Safety and Efficacy of Ayurvedic Drugs , Anamika Shukla
Pharmacovigilance is awareness towards adverse drug reactions. As per the guidelines of WHO to AYUSH department of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; Government of India,implemented a pharmacovigilence program for Ayurveda, as a means to ensure the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines in year 2008. Continuing Medical Education and public meetings are being conducted to raise health professional's awareness of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drug. Main focus of pharmacovigilance is on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and other medication errors to minimize the risk of harm associated with pharmaceutical products. Instead it was not familiar in ayurvedic texts, but the commercialization has brought with it many challenges about safe use of ayurvedic medicines, bringing into focus the need for formal pharmacovigilance programs in the field. Pharmacovigilance system depends entirely on the alertness of physicians towards ADRs. Several challenges that preclude identification and reporting of adverse reactions to ayurvedic drugs can be identified related to detection, assessment and prevention of adverse drug reactions. Awareness should increase about the science of pharmacovigilance among ayurvedic physicians, patients and paramedical staff. Attempt should be pointed towards collecting safety data during marketing of formulation. Safety monitoring of medicines in common use should be an integral part of clinical practice. With the help of modern informatics we can make an effective attempt in this area
17 Toxicological Review on ‘Upavisha’ in Ayurveda , Gharde Subhash R and Inchulkar S R
In classical Sanskrit literature, Ayurveda was called "the science of eight components" (Sanskrit aṣṭāṅga) a classification that became canonical for Ayurveda. In Ayurvedic literature Upavisa are the group of drugs which were less toxic in nature and not so lethal but produce certain toxic symptoms on consumption or administrations. Our ancient Acharya suggests that the poison can become a very good medicine if it is administered properly. This review is a sincere attempt to summarize the information concerning about semi poisonous drugs described in Indian system of medicine in respect to their literary, pharmacological activity,their toxicological effect, fatal period, fatal dose, treatment, postmortem appearance and medicolegal aspect.
18 Role of Agnikarma in Garbhashaya Grivamukhagata Vrana (Cervical Erosion) , Rashmi Sharma
The woman is said to be three times more responsible than the male in the procreation. Apart from attending natural processes of menstruation, pregnancy, one of the most inconvenient diseases in woman is Garbhashaya Grivamukhagata Vrana (cervical erosion). Cervical erosion is a common condition seen in almost all women. It affects the whole efficacy of woman which may lead up to infertility. Most commonly used treatment for cervical erosion is cauterization and cryosurgery which have their own side effects like secondary infertility, per vaginal bleeding, stenosis etc. In Ayurveda, Agnikarma has been described in the treatment of Vrana. To evaluate the utility and therapeutic effect of Agnikarma in Garbhashya Grivamukhagata Vrana we made an effort to collect all the available literature mentioned in ancient Ayurvedic classics backed with recent research evidences. Modern science data was collected from various textbooks along with this known database which was available on google, pubmed was selected for present studies from 1994 to 2013.
19 Ayurveda and Pharmacy finding multivarious application of indigenous herbs and medicinal plants for traditional therapy , Subha Ganguly
The use of ayurvedic herbs is in practice in Indian traditional medicine from ancient era through ages. Worldwide research have proved medicinal herbs to possess anticancer properties and having potentiality in treatment of chronic bone ailments and systemic infections.
20 Synthesis and molecular modeling studies of some new derivatives of benzylidene-2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one , Mayank Bapna and Lalit Singh Chauhan
Imidazole derivatives have been synthesized widely as cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the following research synthesis of ten benzylidene-2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one derivative (2.1-2.10) was carried out, as selective COX-2 inhibitors, using the principle of ErlenmeyerPloch synthesis. In a two step synthesis the compounds were synthesized in high yield using microwave as an alternate source of energy. The structures of synthesized imidazole derivatives were proved by means of their IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectral analysis. The compounds were then analyzed using in silico docking and toxicity studies, for various parameters like hydrophobicity, hydrogen bonding, sitemap interactions, oncogenicity, teratogenicity and immunotoxicity. Among the synthesized compounds, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.8 and 2.10 exhibited significant glide score as an analgesic using 5COX as receptor and compounds 2.4, 2.5 exhibited maximum predictable toxicity.
21 Herbal approach toward Vatarakta (Gout), a Metabolic Syndrome: a review , Kushwaha Ashwani Kumar and Maurya Santosh Kumar
Gout is a multi-factorial disorder characterized by hyperuricemia, deposition of uric acid crystals in and around joints as well as in soft tissues. These days its prevalence is increasing due to changes in life style and therefore it has a noteworthy impact on the working population, their work, productivity and physical function. Conventional drugs used in the management of gout have some associated drawbacks. Therefore, it is essential to find out some alternative therapeutic approaches. The clinical features of gout such as sudden burning pain, swelling, redness and tenderness in joints come under the purview of vatarakta (gouty arthritis) in Ayurveda classics. Plant based medicine have gained upward attention in current scenario for the prevention and treatment of gout. In recent years many studies were done in search of new xanthine oxidase inhibitors with fewer side effects than available ones and have more precise effects. Therefore, this manuscript aims to perform an updated systematic review on the available information regarding medicinal plant as well as the classical Ayurvedic monoherbal therapy useful in the treatments of gout.
22 Anti Hypertensive Effect of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants , Bidhan Mahajon, Remadevi R
The prevalence of hypertension and its related conditions are gradually rising in the developing countries for several decades. At present hypertension has been globally acknowledged as most prevalent cardiovascular diseases with potent complications. As an upshot the need to control hypertension becomes very crucial. The use of conventional antihypertensive drugs has been associated with various side effects. Hence in the last three decades, a lot of concerted efforts have been channelled into researching of medicinal plants with anti hypertensive therapeutic values. Although the term ‘Hypertension’ (persistent raised arterial pressure) is not pragmatic in Ayurvedic classics but review of previous theoretical and clinical works on this topic, point out certain mode of involvement of dosha and dushya in the genesis of this malady. The knowledge regarding drugs is a most important factor in victorious practice. Then it becomes easy to select the suitable drug for a particular patient in particular condition. So to review the existing data is important. In present study Ayurvedic medicinal plants with reported antihypertensive property, are reviewed with their Rasapanchaka (Ayurvedic pharmacological properties). This effort will make available information for Ayurvedic scholars to opt antihypertensive drugs based on Rasapanchaka (Ayurvedic pharmacological properties).
23 Efficacy of Virechana karma and Vamana purvaka virechana karma in the management of Ekakushta w.s.r. Psoriasis – A comparative study , Rohit Mehta, VinayKumar KN, Kiran M Goud
Healthy skin is the reflection of healthy body where in the affliction of former will not only have an impact on somatic make-up but also on psychological and social aspects of an individual. Among various varieties of Kushta (leprosy), Ekakushta takes upper hand by the way of its chronicity, severity, involving large extent of body parts, difficulty in its curability and is often compared to Psoriasis, a chronic, non-infectious skin disease characterized by well defined, slightly raised, dry, silvery erythematous macules and typical extensor distribution. Ekakushta, as it is predominant of Vata - Kapha dosha, the first line of treatment that comes into picture is Vamana Karma (Emesis Therapy). The prime cause for the manifestation of Kushta is mostly Viruddha Ahara (unwholesome food) which has to be handled by administering Virechana Karma (Purgation Therapy) and Vamana Karma (Emesis Therapy). In toto, the line of treatment of Kushta speaks about both Vamana Karma and Virechana Karma. In this regard, an approach of treatment blended with both Vamana Karma and Virechana Karma may be more effective in treating the disease Ekakushta. Hence, a comparative study was taken up to evaluate the effect of Virechana Karma in Group A and Vamana poorvaka Virechana Karma {Kramataha Shodhana (repetitive purification)} in Group B in the management of Ekakushta w.s.r. to Psoriasis and the results were statistically analysed.
24 Role of Vasti Karma in Stree – Roga (Gynecological Disorders) , Neelam Kumari Singh, Alok Singh Sengar
To evaluate the utility and therapeutic effects of vasti karma in stree roga, an effort has been made to collect all the available literature mentioned in ancient ayurvedic classics. This article gives a detailed description of classical references of vasti. It discusses the probable mode of action and its application in different gynecological disorders. In ayurvedic classics all types of stree - rogas are included in the twenty yonivyapad (gynecological disorders) and vasti is the treatment modality indicated in all types of yonivyapad. The niruha and anuvasana vasti are the two main types of vasti are explained here.
25 Okara Gum: A natural polysaccharide based carrier for preparation of microbially triggered colon targeted drug delivery system , Rajesh A Keraliya, Chirag A Patel, Vipul Keraliya and Madhabhai M Patel
Colon targeted pulsatile systems are best for drugs which follow chronopharmacological behavior where, night time dosing is required, drugs have high first-pass effect and specific site of absorption in GIT. In this study, colon targeted pulsatile release tablets of atenolol was prepared using press coating technique to treat hypertension in the early hours of the morning. Pulsatile release of atenlol in colon was achieved by press coating of atenolol core tablet using biodegradable polysaccharides. A biodegradable polymer is a polymer in which the degradation results from the action of naturally occurring microorganisms such as bacteria, algae or fungi. The inability of GIT enzymes to digest certain plant polysaccharides (pectin, guar gum, okara gum) is taken as an advantage to develop colon specific drug delivery systems. The aim of this study is to find out the suitability of newer polysaccharide okara gum for colon targeting of atenolol by compression coating atenolol core tablet with okara gum. The minimum coat weight of okara gum require for colon targeting is optimized. OG4 press coated tablet having 250 mg coat weight of okara gum showed 6 hr lag time and near 7 hr T85%, which is applicable pulsatile drug delivery of atenolol for treating early morning hypertension.
26 A Clinical Approach of Ayurvedic Panchakarma Therapy , Anil Kumar Singh, Arvind Kumar Gupta, Pramod Kumar Singh and Manish
Panchkarma therapy is one of the important branches of Ayurveda which deals with purification of the provocated Doshas (physiological or pathological) from the body. The Doshas (toxins and waste materials) should be purified from nutural as well as from the nearest root of the body. Ayurveda advocates an unique approach of therapeutics by introducing the two fold therapy viz. Sanshamana (Pacification) and Sanshodhana (Purification). It is the only system of medicine in the world which proposes the need of under-taking the purification of biological system from gross channels up to the molecular levels aiming to clean the entire organism to render it suitable for self recovery and therapeutic responsiveness.
27 Evaluation of antiurolithiatic activity of Chlorophytum borivilianum extract using experimental animals , Timir Patel, Samir Shah and Jigar Patel
Urolithiasis, the most painful urologic disorder, refers to calculi or stone formation in the kidneys, ureter, and urinary tract due to imbalance between promoters and inhibitors of crystallization in urine. The worldwide incidence of urolithiasis is quite high and in spite of tremendous advances in the field of medicine there is no truly satisfactory mode of treatment available for treating renal calculi. For the management of urolithiasis, combination of surgical and medical approach using percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and antibiotics are employed. But these treatment causes undesirable side effects such as traumatic effects, residual stone fragments persisted, infection, acute renal injury, a decrease in renal function, hemorrhage and hypertension Ayurveda, an indigenous system of Indian medicine, offers vast scope for the successful treatment of urolithiasis. In Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda, many plants including Chlorophytum borivilianum has been claimed to be useful in of urinary tract infections and in kidney and bladder stones. In light of above findings our aim of present study was to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of Chlorophytum borivilianum extract (CBE) using experimental animals.
28 Good Manufacturing Practices: A pathway towards quality ASU medicines , Kaushal Arushi and Arora Ravinder
Ayurvedic medicines are being used from time immemorial for prevention and cure of human beings, therefore the efficacy and safety of these medicines is undoubted. However, the quality of these drugs is still a challenge as far as international norms are concerned.1,2 Few ayurvedic herbo-mineral medicines have been banned in western countries and many surveys have reported the adulteration of herbal medicines. Herbal drugs contain numerous groups of compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a problem in establishing quality control standards and standardization of herbal drugs1. Good manufacturing practice (GMP) is a system for ensuring that products are consistently produced and controlled according to quality standards. It is designed to minimize the production of adulterated and substandard medicines. GMP covers all aspects of production: - from the starting materials, premises and equipment to the training and personal hygiene of staff. GMP is the guidelines which, - governs the production, distribution and supply of the drug. These days, there is an increased concern for heavy metal toxicity with ayurvedic medicines. GMP also covers batch manufacturing records, distribution records and records of market complaints. Thus it ensures proper pharmacovigilance of ayurvedic medicines. It essential to produce high-quality and standardized medicines if we want global acceptance of Ayurvedic medicines which can be achieved by proper education and enforcement of GMP.
29 Ayurveda in Treatment of Bone Disorders in Human: A Review , Subha Ganguly
The human skeletal system becomes brittle, due to loss of bone density, which can lead to fractures and a compressed spinal column, thereby affecting posture and resulting pain in the back and the spine with increasing age. With alarming conditions, it affects other functions and organs in the body, causing associated symptoms of osteoporosis, constipation, degenerative arthritis, low back pain, insomnia, bladder and kidney weakness, frequent urination and dental problems. The incidences are more prevalent in older women. Ayurveda considers this deficiency disorder to be dominated by the air humour of vata.
30 Nasya – An Ayurvedic Therapeutic , Deepak Kumar Ahuja and Vandana
Nasya is a kind of Panchkarna treatment for body cleansing used in Ayurvedic medicine. Administration of drugs by the route of nasal cavity is termed as nasya, nāvana, nasya karma are synonymous to nasya. The nose is the gateway into the head, the sinuses and deeper into the lungs. Different types of nasya come under two main categories, which are Shamana and Shodana. Shamana nasya helps to pacify an imbalance and is generally more calming and nourishing to nervous system. On the other hand, Shodana Nasya helps to remove the imbalanced excess from the body, therefore more detoxifying and clearing for the channels of the head. In present review article, we have tried to understand the mode of action i.e. pharmacodynamices of Nasya kama.
31 Application of Kupara Marma chikitsa can play a potential role in management of cervical spondylosis: A review , Ashutosh Kumar Pathak, H. H. Awasthi and Ajai Kr. Pandey
In ancient literatures like Vedas and in classics of Ayurveda the concept of Marma was limited to the war science and Marma points were mainly considered as only fatal points i.e., trauma to them leads to debility or even death as these are seat of Prana (life energy). As Prana effects all aspects of a person that is – physical, mental, social as well as spiritual, so Marma may be assumed to be those important seats of psycho-neuro-endocrino- immunological pathways which may be influenced in order to regulate the physical, mental and spiritual functions. In the present era its applied aspect, that is, stimulation of these Marma by means of Abhyanga (massage), Mardana (Acupressure), Aroma therapy, Pranic healing, Herbs (lepa), Raktamokshan (blood letting) and Agnikarma (heat application),etc is utilised to treat disease but Marma chikitsa, a therapy practised by few practitioners to stimulate these Marma points directly by applying pressure, vibrating tendons, pinching or application of hot and cold pastes, oils and ointment on Marma depending on the type of Marma had emerged as new dimension in non pharmacological treatment of Ayurveda. The Kurpara Marma chikitsa can be used to alleviate the radiculopathic pain of cervical spondylosis as well as it has potential to modify the disease to maintain the homeostatsis of the cervical spine region.
32 Analysis of water quality using physico-chemical parameters and coagulation treatment to water of Kolavada Lake using PAC, natural coagulant and mixture of coagulants , J. K. Desai, P.J.Patel, P. P. Parekh and S. D. Patel
The present study deals with the physico-chemical parameters and effect of plant based coagulant, chemical coagulant and mixture of coagulants on water of Kolavada Lake, District Gandhinagar, Gujarat. Changes in physical and chemical parameters such as water temperature, transparency, turbidity, total dissolved solids, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and total hardness, chlorides, alkalinity, phosphate and nitrates were analyzed. Changes observed in all parameters after coagulants treatment. But all parameters were not within the permissible limits. The results indicate that the water of lake may be used for Irrigation.
33 Eficacy of Vatad (Prunus amygdalus l.) with special reference to Medhya karma , Kumar Arvind, Krishn Chand Arora and Sharma Mahendra Kumar
Ayurveda is of the view that Prajnaparadha is the root cause of all the diseases. Medha or Buddhi are the synonyms of Prajna as per Ayurvedic texts. Therefore it can be inferred that Medha has a great role in the prevention of diseases and maintenance of good health. Many references of various Medhya drugs in Ayurveda literature also confirm the importance of Medha, which incorporates Dhee, Dhriti and Smriti. Traditionally Vatad (Prunus amygdalus L.) is administered in all age group from childhood to old age for improving memory. But there is no reference of Medhya Karma of Vatad (Prunus amygdalus L.) in any Ayurvedic Samhita and Nighantu. This research work is aimed at scientifically evaluating the Medya effect, if any, of this drug. The effect of Medhya karma of Vatad found highly improved in 75% cases,Improved in 22.5% cases and not improved in 2.5% cases. Which means 97.5% of volunteers have shown improvement in the memory. This research study substantiates the traditional claim of Medhya effect of Vatad
34 Pharmacognostic Study of Acorus Calamus , Kaushal Arushi and Arora Ravinder
Acorus calamus is an aromatic marshy herb which is used in many Ayurvedic medicines. In Ayurveda, it is mentioned in the treatment of many diseases. Many drugs are sold in the market by the name of Vacha. In the present study, two samples of Vacha which are sold by the name of Ghor Vacha and Sugandha Vacha, are compared. Ayurvedic literature describes Ghor Vacha as the original Vacha i.e. Acorus calamus and Sugandha Vacha as its adulterant.5 In Ayurveda, Sugandha Vacha is called Kulanjan and its latin name is Alpinia galanga.5 A pharmacognostic study was carried out to standardize the original Vacha and differentiate it from the other drug/s. It was concluded that Vacha can be differentiated from the other drug by macroscopic and microscopic characters.
35 A comparative analytical study of Pravala bhasma and Pisti w.s.r. to Moola and Shakha , Kaushal Arushi and Arora Ravinder
Of various gems, Pravala is widely used by the Ayurvedic physicians in their day to day practice of life. The use of Pravala for internal purposes and for preparing various formulations can be observed. Internally as medicine, it is administered in the form of Bhasma and Pisti for curing ailments such as Amlapitta, Netra Roga and Hridaya Roga etc. The drug is being manufactured by various industries and hence the product is widely available in the market. But pharmaceutically it greatly varies from industry to industry and physician to physician with respect to its quality. Moreover, in the market, it is available in two forms viz. Pravala shakha and Pravala moola. The former is costlier than the moola. Some of the clinicians claim that Pravala shakha is more efficacious as compared to Praval moola, for which there is no rationale explained in the classical texts. The quality and standard for this drug therefore, is a question in this scientific and advanced era. The parameters like organoleptic, physical, chemical, qualitative and quantitative etc. place key role, by which quality of any dosage form can be determined. In the present study, the Pravala pisti is prepared by triturating with rose water whereas the Pravala bhasma is generally prepared by bhavna with ghritkumari and subjected to puta. Both moola and shakha bhasma and pisti are prepared by same methods and analysed on parameters like organoleptic, physical, chemical which include loss on drying, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble extractive, alcohol soluble extractive, pH etc, qualitative and quantitative tests. The results show that there was no significant difference between moola and shakha. However, the percentage of calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium etc. elements are more in Praval moola.
36 Panchakarma: a Recommended Therapy in Ayurveda for Blood Cleansing and Detoxification , Subha Ganguly
Purification in Ayurvedic treatments includes elimination of environmentally toxic substances such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB's) and pesticides from the body system without the risk of any side effect. Panchakarma therapy in modern Ayurvedic system of medicine finds an important implication in this regard.
37 Panchakarma: a Recommended Therapy in Ayurveda for Blood Cleansing and Detoxification , Subha Ganguly
Purification in Ayurvedic treatments includes elimination of environmentally toxic substances such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB's) and pesticides from the body system without the risk of any side effect. Panchakarma therapy in modern Ayurvedic system of medicine finds an important implication in this regard.
38 Ayurveda management of Pancolitis: A Case Study , Neha G. Tank
Pancolitis is a very severe form of ulcerative colitis. Pancolitis is a kind of inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD) that affects the entire internal lining of the colon. The precise causes of this inflammatory disorder are unclear, although physicians assume that autoimmune diseases and genetic predispositions might play a role in its progress. An individual with such a condition is expected to experience abdominal pain, recurrent episodes of bloody diarrhea, and persistent fatigue. Long-standing ulcerative colitis increases the risk for colon cancer. The treatment of ulcerative colitis involves medications and/or surgery. Since inflammatory bowel disease is currently an area of active and productive research, new treatments are anticipated which, it is hoped, will be of value in ulcerative/pan colitis. In such a scenario Ayurveda can be a ray of hope as it has some good remedies to cure this disease. In Ayurveda, Pancolitis can be corelated with Raktaj Atisaara and treated accordingly. The present study describes a complex case of Pancolitis where drugs like Hingvashtaka Churna, Shatavari Ghrita, Panchamruta Parpati etc along with Maatra Basti not only stopped the bleeding in stool but ,decreased the frequency of stool to 2 per day Panchamruta Parpati was used in increasing dose and the toxicity study is also done.
39 Vatsnabha– A Wonderful Poisonous Drug , Brijendra Singh Tomar and Archana Singh Vishen
Vatsnabha (Aconitum ferox) is categorized under the sthavara visha1 (plant origin). Aconite is a Greek word which means arrow poison. It was used as an arrow poison in Chinese history. Aconite based Ayurvedic medicines are commonly used by Ayurvedic physicians and traditional practitioners in primary healthcare. Even a strong poison can become an excellent medicine if administered properly; on the other hand even the most useful medicine act as a poison if not handled correctly. Vatsnabha is highly toxic in nature even then it is used as a medicine after purification and in therapeutic dose. In therapeutic doses it has capacity to treat many diseases therefore; it is used as an ingredient of various Ayurvedic formulations. Ayurveda proposes a traditional technique of shodhana (purification) to reduce the harmful effects associated with vatsnabha. The review gives us opportunity to understand the toxic effects, medicinal importance, methods of purification, therapeutic dose and antidotes of vatsnabha
40 Drug Dependence- A Curse to the Indian Society , Brijendra Singh Tomar and Archana Singh Vishen
Drug addiction is the curse to the Indian society. All the State and Union territory are affected but the condition is worst in Punjab. Statistics reveals that at least 25,426 people committed suicide due to drug and addiction related problem in last 10 years across India. This comes to an average seven suicides per day. Appalling truth is that suicide due to drug related problems exceeds dowry, poverty and money related suicides in India in mast of the last 10 years. According to official data from the ministry of Social justice and empowerment, India has an estimated 3.4 million drug abuse victims. The number excludes alcoholics, who figure at around 11 million in the country. India is highly vulnerable because it is sandwiched between two infamous drug routes and poppy growing areas, namely the „golden crescent‟ on the northwest and „golden triangle‟ on the northeast where drugs is easily available. The Government undertakes remedial measure like Integrated Rehabilitation Centre for Addicts (IRCA) that provides counseling, treatment and rehabilitation services to drug abuse victims. But the numbers of IRCA are only 401, which is an average of overwhelming 8478 victims per IRCA. Out of these 3.4 million drug abuse victims, only 0.3 million have registered themselves in these addiction centers, which is just 10% of total figure. So the whole responsibility cannot be left on Government, so health care professional should come forward to fight addiction.
41 Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) - Prevention and Management , Hiremath Jyoti, Kumar Ashwani, Sharma Om Prakash, Kaundal Ramesh and Kumar Gaurav
As computers become part of our everyday life more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular problems related to computer use. Today we are living in a highly sophisticated environment and computer is one of the most developed technologies which are used in present time by the children, the young and the old. More and more people are sitting in front of computer for long hours. Computer is a highly visually demanding task, but the eyes are unable to adjust themselves for long sittings in front of computer, which lead to discomfort coined as Computer Vision Syndrome- An emerging pandemic of 21st century. CVS include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. No remedial measures for the prevention and cure of this pathology prevail in the domain of modern medicine except using ocular surface lubricants, computer glasses, and counseling for judicious computer use1 . This opens the door to the other systems of medicine including Ayurveda and Yoga to suggest experiments and contribute alternative modalities to alleviate or to check the sufferings of the computer users.
42 Chymopapain, A hope for IVDP (Intervertebral Disc Prolapse) Patients – an alternate to the Surgery , Satender Tanwar, Shailaja S.V and Kiran M. Goud
Chemonucleolysis is a non-surgical treatment for a bulging disc that involves the injection of an enzyme called chymopapain into the vertebral disc with the goal of dissolving the inner part of the disc, the nucleus pulposus. The chymopapain extract from the papaya plant having property to dissolve the property of dissolves the dislocated disc causing compression on the spinal nerve and gives the symptomps of sciatica. Chymopapain is a proteolytic enzyme isolated from the latex of papaya (carica papaya). It is a medication used to treat herniated lower lumbar discs in the spine. The treatment seemed to offer a less invasive, lower-cost alternative to surgery while achieving comparable success. Although many patients experienced excellent outcomes, chemonucleolysis with chymopapain was found to cause serious side effects at a higher-than-expected rate. The nonspecific enzyme digested structures in addition to the disk nucleus, leading in the worst cases to hemorrhage, pain, and paralysis. In some patients, chymopapain triggered serious allergic reactions, including fatal anaphylactic shock. Serious side effects from the use of chymopapain include anaphylaxis, paralysis of the legs or death. Due to the above reasons twenty years later—in January 2003—the FDA halted the sale and distribution of chymopapain in the United States. After taking above concept in due consideration the oil can be extracted from the papaya plant and can be tried in the form of kati basti and kati pichu to get the better result in case of IVDP and prove to be less invasive, costeffective and one of great achievement in the field of Ayurvedic medicine if come out with successful results. Hence, there is scope for the above said conceptual study to make it EBM (Evidenced Based Medicine) and new advancement in the field of medicine.
43 Withania coagulans Dunal; A Promising Herb , Vidhi Bapna (Kumath)
During last few years the graph of people suffering from diabetes is growing fast .The disease is very dangerous as it takes over the important vital organs of the body. All the medicinal systems globally are trying to fight the ailment. Role of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes can be very promising. Many medicinal plants have been scientifically proved to have hypoglycaemic effect. This paper discusses a lesser known medicinal plant ‘Withania coagulans’ which have anti diabetic potential.
44 Concept of Rakta Dhatu , Prashant Rajiv Madankar, Sampada S. Sant
The basic physiology of Ayurveda mostly consists of three fundamental things, i.e. three Doshas, seven Dhatus and three Malas. Out of these, Dhatus mainly perform the function of holdingtogether the bodily elements. Meanwhile Rakta Dhatu is one of the important Dhatu out of seven Dhatu’s. As compared to modern science, which merely describes it as blood, the composition, nature and functions described in the functions of Raktadhatu are very broad and any kind of imbalance in it affects the whole body. Ayurveda covers Raktadhatu in much wider aspect. Ayurvedic texts reveal that Rakta dhatu has much broader concept than blood.
45 Syndrome ‘X’ - Current Global Pandemic with a hope to cure in Ayurveda , Vinay Tiwari, Kamal Kishore, Midhun Mohan, Satender Tanwar, Kiran M. Goud
There was an era when the mortality rate was high due to the infectious disease in the population. Thanks to Sir Alexander Fleming who led to the discovery of the Antibiotics and gave weapon to fight against the pathogens. There was greater reduction in the mortality rate due to infectious disease after discovery of antibiotics. But in the latter half of the 20th century newer developments of various disorders called as metabolic disorders and life style disorders were seen in the population. Metabolic disorders which aroused due to imperfect food habits and lack of exercise. Life style disorders, which a human being acquires due to his life style patterns and day to day activities. The metabolic disorders do not occur as single but the person suffers from two or more set of features currently called as Syndrome X or metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is premorbid state that drags the patient into various other disorders, if no proper steps are taken to prevent and manage it. Ayurveda means the life science which explains about the preventive as well as curative aspects of diseases and way to stay healthy and disease free. The metabolic syndrome – similar set of features has been explained about the Acharyas 1000yrs back not only the aetiology, pathogenesis and complication but also about the preventive and curative measure which is unique, effective and evidenced based till now. In this conceptual study the attraction is drawn to help wider group of population who are prone and presently defined under Syndrome X with a great hope of prevention and cure with botanicals and various formulations explained by our Acharyas after extensive research and experimentation.
46 Concept of Krimi in Ayurveda – A Progressive Review , Saroch Vikas, Amandeep
Despite decades of dramatic progress in their treatment and prevention, infectious diseases remain a major cause of death and debility and are responsible for worsening the living conditions of many millions of people around the world. In spite of lot of advances in the field of microbiology, we are unable to answer challenges mentioned above. Hence, an effort has been made to compile the management strategies of Ayurveda to find answers for the above problems. Compilation of management strategies depicted in Charaka Samhita, Harita Samhita, Bhela Samhita and Bhaisajyaratnavali helps the researchers to plan study design and to find a solution for microbial management challenges. Extensive search of texts Charaka Samhita, Harita Samhita, Bhela Samhita and Bhaisajyaratnavali was done by the author while composing a book entitled Kala-azar in Ayurveda and the materials were segregated, consolidated and edited from that book. Charaka mentioned twenty varieties of krimi along with their management and they are broadly grouped under external (ectoparasite) and internal (endoparasite). Each krimi is described in respect to etiology, habitat, form, shape, color, type, clinical features and treatment. Many eliminative and alleviative therapies are described in Charaka Samhita for the effective management of krimi. Krimighna mahakasaya (aksiva, marica (piper nigrum), gandir, kebuka (costus specious), vidanga (embelia ribes), sindhuvara (vitex nigundo), kinahi (albizzia lebbeck), goksura (tribulus terrestries), vrsaparnika, musakarni (merremia emerginata), jambir, rasona, camel‟s milk, butter milk, yavaksara, etc. are useful in eradicating krimi. Embelia ribes acts as ascaricidal, anthelmintic, carminative, diuretic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and febrifuge. With the advent of antimicrobial agents, some medical leaders believed that infectious diseases would soon be eliminated and become of historic interest only. Nevertheless, we now realize that as we developed antimicrobial agents, microbes developed the ability to elude our best weapons and to counterattack with new survival strategies.
47 Preventive Health Measures in Ayurveda , Guru Sharan Pal
Ayurveda emphasizes on preventive treatment rather than curative treatment. Acharyas have described ritucharya, dincharya, etc. for prevention of physical, mental and social problems. Modern medicine also accepts that prevention is better than cure. Prevention is only treatment in many diseases like obesity, diabetes, hypertension, AIDS, etc. Preventive and Social Medicine (PSM) is a growing branch in modern medicine. A vast physical, mental and financial damage can be controlled to do small investment in preventive health measures.
48 Conceptual Study of Medoroga with special reference to Sthaulya (Obesity): A Review , Naresh K. Kumawat, Dharmendra K. Sharma, Dhannajay
The world wide latest report of W.H.O. for prevalence of obesity states that around 250 million cases of obesity are reported every year afflicting about 7% of adult population. Obesity is a common health problem and its prevalence is increasing globally. Obesity may be defined as an abnormal growth of adipose tissue due to an enlargement of adipocytes (hypertrophic obesity) or increase in number of fat cells (hyperplasic obesity) or a combination of both. Abnormal accumulation of Meda Dhatu in body is known as Medodushti. Medodushti includes several numbers of other Medovikaras, which are collectively known as Medoroga. Ayurveda considers Sthaulya roga as a disease due to atisantarpana-over nutrition. Body is made of seven dhatus i.e. rasa, rakta, mamsa, meda, asthi, majja, shukra. Obese patients are nourished excessively by meda dhatu and other remaining dhatus get malnourished. Kapha gets accumulated in between when Kapha is increased in abnormal fashion, fat metabolism and Agni are hampered and person becomes obese.
49 Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Cilnidipine and Chlorthalidone in their Combined Dosage Form , Mayank Bapna, Bhoi Khushbu Girishbhai
A simple, rapid and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the Simultaneous Estimation of Cilnidipine and Chlorthalidone in their combined dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Zorbax Bonus RP (250×4.6) mm, 5 µ column with an isocratic mixture of 0.05 M KH2PO4 Buffer (pH 6.5) : Methanol in the ratio of 50:50 v/v, respectively. The mobile phase was kept at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min with injection volume of 20μl and wavelength of detection 225nm at room temperature. The retention times for Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine was found to be 8.107±0.1min and 4.337±0.1min, respectively. The linearity was obtained in the range of 50-150μg/ml for both Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine with correlation coefficient 0.9993 and 0.9996, respectively. The proposed method was found to be linear, accurate, precise, stable, robust and specific and was successfully applied for the determination of investigated drugs in combined dosage form.
50 Food safety in Ayurveda: A Short Review , Todkari Dinesh Prakash, Swapna B. Zerikunthe
Aahar Kalpana (Dietary Guidelines) is a unique concept described in Ayurveda classics. Aahar plays a decisive role in development, sustenance, reproduction and termination of life. In 2015 WHO (World health organisation) highlighted the challenges and opportunities associated with food safety, under the theme “From farm to plate, make food safe”. In this regards there are many guidelines given in Ayurveda texts which has its contemporary relevance. The present paper focuses on the ethics in dietetics (Ayurvedic view), food hygiene, importance of food in life and some concepts in Ayurveda relating to the food which is to be discarded.
51 Ayurveda in Public Health w.s.r. Non Communicable Diseases and Life Style Disorder , Alok Shukla, Vinay Tiwari, Kamal Kishor, Midhun Mohan, Satender Tanwar, Kiran M Goud
As per WHO - Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity1 . Public health is "The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals2 . The main aim of Ayurvedic science is to maintain the health of healthy individuals and cure the diseased one3 . As Ayurveda is recognized as foremost life science and describes ways to prevent and manage lifestyle disorders, the world is being attracted towards its potential. Ayurveda provides better solution in the forms of proper dietary management, lifestyle advises, Panchakarma like detoxification and bio-purification procedures, medicaments, and rejuvenation therapies. The holistic approach of Ayurveda, treating the patient as a whole, meaning intervention targeted toward complete physical, psychological, and spiritual well-being makes this science a wonderful option in lifestyle disorders. This conceptual study carried out to highlight the importance of the Ayurvedic principles and implementing in the day to day life to keep away from the various NCD & LSD.
52 Role of Praval Panchamrut in Amlapitta , J. Pawar, Sandeep B. Kale
This study aims to study the effect of Pravalpanchamrut (PP) in the management of Amlapitta. It is the disease which occurs due to vitiated pitta dosha. It is caused due to improper digestion of food which is the result of faulty food habit.When pitta is increased in the body by amlaguna it is called as Amlapitta. According to Ayurved PP is sheetal, pittashamak and it is indicated for Amlapitta, chhardi, raktapitta, mootravikar, jwara etc. PP contains calcium carbonate (CaCO3) which rapidly neutralizes oesophageal acid and may prevent reflux, suggesting another mechanism of action independent of acid neutralization.These useful properties of PP and need of time for the management of Amlapitta made this experiment successful.
53 Concept of Food , Bijay Kumar Gupta
Food plays a decisive role in the development, sustenance, reproduction and termination of life. Through centuries, food has been recognized as an important factor for human beings, in health and diseased state. Man has always been interested in food and the history of man to a large extent has been a struggle to obtain food. It is difficult to suggest the right food for all as it may vary from person to person depending on his nature. Therefore food is of supreme significance in the maintenance of healthy body and mind. The ancient science of Ayurveda gives due importance to food and its dietic regulation from long ago. Concept of food (Ahara) is one of the prime and novel concepts of Ayurveda. Since long Ayurveda has believed that food is a milestone in a person‟s health and recently modern science has also adhered to the above concept. Ayurveda gives prime importance to the prevention of diseases by elaborating the right lifestyle for a healthy today and healthier tomorrow. This is meant for strengthening the immune system of the body. Right diet and regimen are essential component of this right lifestyle. Diet is the science of food and its relationship to health. It is concerned primarily with the part played by nutrients in body growth, development and maintenance. Dietetics is the practical application of the principle of nutrition. It includes the planning of food for both the normal and sick persons. A set of dietetic codes has been prescribed by Ayurveda. When food is taken judiciously, according to the codes of dietetics then only the benefits of ahara can be achieved. Any aberration in diets leads to ill health.
54 Palash (Butea monosperma lam. Kuntze.): A Review , Neelam, K.N. Dwivedi, B.Ram
The traditional system of medicine together with folklore medicine continue to play a significant role in our health care system. Palash is a commonly used herb in Ayurvedic medicine. The botanical source of Palash is Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze. It is a medium sized deciduous tree which is widely distributed throughout the greater part of India. Palash belongs to family Fabaceae and is popularly known as „flame of the forest‟. The plant is traditionally reported to possess astringent, bitter, alterative, aphrodiasiac, anthelmintic, antibacterial and anti-asthmatic properties. Bark yield red juice known as „Butea gum‟ or „Bengalkino‟. The widespread uses of Palash in traditional system of medicine have resulted in their extensive chemical analysis for their bioactive principles. This article briefly reviews the botany, chemistry and pharmacology of Palash.
55 Role of Snehana and Svedana in Vatavyadhi , Gupta Neelam, Singh Jasmeet, Bharati Sarvesh Kumar, Singh A.K.
An imbalance in Dosh equilibrium is termed as ‘Roga’. Among Tridosha, Vata is responsible for all Cheshtas (activities) and most of the diseases. General treatments of Vatavyadhi are Snehana, Svedana, Mridu Samshodhana, Basti, Vatahara Aushadha, Ahara and Vihara. Snehana and Svedana are specific line of treatment for Vatavyadhi besides being the chief Purvakarma procedure for Panchakarma therapy. Sneha Dravya possesses Drava, Sukshma, Sara, Snigdha, Manda, Mridu and Guru properties which are just opposite to those of Vata, therefore, it alleviates the Vata. Snehana therapy is administered to a person in two different ways, external applications as Abhyanga(massage), Unmardana(rubbing), Lepa(paste), Pariseka(pouring of oil), Janu vasti, Kati vasti, Griva vasti, Moordha tail, Shiropichu,Shirodhara, Shiro vasti, Gandusha(gargling), Akshitarpana(application of medicine over the eyelids), Karnapoorana(filling the ear with oil) etc. Internal application has been divided into three varieties on the basis of their effect viz., Brimhana, Shamana and Shodhana. Both external and internal Snehana are effective in Vatavyadhi. Svedana is the process by which perspiration is induced in the body which removes stiffness, heaviness and coldness of the body, by opening of the blocked channels. Acharya Charaka has classified Svedana in two groups- Agni Sveda and Niragni Sveda.
56 A review on Agnikarma and its Physio-anatomical Effects , Gaurav Soni, J. Manohar, Sandeep Langhne
The art of healing of the ailments has been known from the time immemorial. Many indigenous ways and methods have been followed for the relief of suffering of mankind since Vedas. Agnikarma is one among the Para surgical procedures which have been mentioned in Ayurvedic literature. Acharya Sushruta has preached, practiced and documented the details of Agnikarma which is followed by many renowned authorities till date. Agnikarma is mainly indicated in Ruja Pradhana, Vata and Kaphaja vyadhis. „Agnikarma‟ was an asset of Ayurvedic surgeons which has been used widely in the clinical practice since time immemorial. The profound influence and utility of Agnikarma becomes clear from the extensive descriptions about this Para – surgical procedure in various Ayurvedic texts belonging to both Saṃhita and Saṃgraha period. Dahana Upkarana, Agnikarma classification, Dagdha Bheda, Samanaya- Vishesha Lakṣaṇa, Pluṣṭa dagdha, Dur dagdha, Ati dagdha, Agnikarma Kala, Agnikarma Anaraha and Agnikarma Vidhi etc i.e. nearly every aspect is defined broadly in Classical texts. The various therapeutic modalities of tissue heating that produce tissue heating differ from one another in their effects due to the site of tissue heating rather than any difference in its nature. Living tissues appears to be affected by temperature changes so need arises to study the various actions of Agnikarma on principles of Physiology and Anatomy of Contemporary Science to prove the worth of procedure in more scientific way so that lost trust in procedure is regained both by clinicians and academicians, thus proving at par knowledge of use of heat or Agni as part of treatment since Samhita Kaala in this modern era.
57 A Retrospect on Prakriti and Lifestyle , Sharma Pooja, Sodhi Danisha, Gupta Vikas, Dadhich N.K.
Ayurveda may be interpreted as a science in which the knowledge of life exists or which helps a man to enjoy a longer duration of life. If we look at different people in the world around us, we observe that all of us are not simply alike. In Ayurveda every individual is in unique form. Not only each individual has different size and shape but its physiological and even psychological characters are different. This is because they have prevalent Panchmahabhuta, Dosha or Triguna at the time of birth which decides their constitution. Once this fundamental constitution is set, it is like permanent stain on white cloth. Once this preponderance is decided, every tissue and every system in the body has this predominance in them and hence they function according to that. If proper care is not taken then, this slight predominance may lead to certain disorders. This is all because of Prakriti (constitution). According to this predominance every individual needs certain type of food, drinks and behavior to keep him healthy and „way of life‟ redirects here. The term „lifestyle‟ can denote the interests, opinions, behaviors and behavioral orientations of an individual group. The lines between personal identity and the everyday doing that signal a particular lifestyle become blurred in modern society. Through this article, I have made an endeavor only to evaluate inter-relationship between Prakriti and lifestyle or any other type of effect of lifestyle using on individual Prakriti.
58 Clinical Evaluation of Shunthi (Zingiber officinale) in the Treatment of Urdhwag Amlapitta , Jatved J. Pawar and Geeta K. Varma
Amlapitta manifests when a person, in whom pitta has been vitiated-uses food and drink that are incompatible, spoiled, very sour and that are capable of causing vitiation of pitta and increases drava and amlaguna of pitta. Another basic cause of amlapitta according to charakacharya is ajirna (indigestion). The increasing rate of amlapitta presents a constant challenge to the research workers of Ayurveda. In this clinical study, Shunthi (Zingiber Officinale) churna has been used in 33 patients having symptoms of urdhawagamlapitta viz., amlodgar, tiktodgar, utklesh, chhardi, udarshool. According to Ayurvedic text, Shunthi is aampachan and dipan helps in improving ajirna. Madhurvipak and grahiguna of Shunthi reduces amla and dravaguna of vitiated pitta. This study has revealed a highly significant effect of Shunthi churna(P <0.001) in the management of urdhwagamlapitta.3wX
59 Physico-chemical Standization and Heavy Metal Analysis of Ashwagandha Churna , Satya Prakash Chaudhary, Anil Kumar Singh and K.N. Dwivedi
Different samhitas of Ayurveda have described Ashwagandha as a very important plant in the Ayurveda and herbal medicine. In Ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha is used in different disease like arthritis, anxiety, tumors, tuberculosis, leukoderma, bronchitis, backache, fibromyalgia, menstrual problems, hiccups, and chronic liver disease etc. Physical and chemical analysis and detection of heavy metals finds an important place in standardization of Ayurvedic drugs in order to make its global acceptability. In present study two market samples and one sample of locally grown plant of Ashwagandha has been taken for physical and chemical analysis in terms of loss on drying, ash values, extractive values, detection of heavy metals like lead (Pb), Cadiume (Cd ), Zinc (Zn), and Mercury (Hg) etc.
60 Scope of Ayurvedic treatment in Hepatic Cirrhosis: A Review , Soni Anamika and Soni Surendra
Cirrhosis and Chronic liver diseases are the leading causes of death in developing countries, though the prevalence is increasing in developed countries. There is an irreversible damage to liver parenchyma; it becomes fibrotic and yellowish/ orange in color. Alcohol consumption and chronic viral Hepatitis are the common causes. There are no drugs and related treatments available for the said disease. Ayurveda is a complete and holistic system of medicine in which a number of drugs with multifold beneficial actions are available and can prove to be beneficial for the patients, though a massive research is required to prove the beneficial effects of drugs.
61 Malaria, A Widely Prevalent Mosquito-Borne Infection in Humans and Recommended Herbal Therapy , Subha Ganguly , Satarupa Roy
Malaria is an infectious vector-borne disease spread by mosquito bite to humans and other animals caused by Plasmodium group of protozoan parasites. The disease is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, headaches, fatigue and vomiting. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if there is no ongoing exposure to malaria.
62 A Comparative Clinical Study on the Efficacy of Madhukadi Choorna and Shweta Bhasma in Shweta Pradara , Poonam Bhojak, Suvrna.P, J.G.Mitti and M.C.Patil
Background: In Ayurvedic literature, regarding the Shweta Pradara, there is no separate chapter allotted in Brihatrayee, but all Acharyas of Brihatrayee have described Shweta Pradara in term of Yoni Srava as a symptom in many Yoni Rogas. Shweta Pradara is a condition characterized with white vaginal discharge may or may not be associated with pain, burning sensation and discomfort. Thus it seems to be a description of leucorrhoea Aims and Objectives: Clinical evaluation of the comparative efficacy of the Madhukadi choorna and Shweta Bhasma in specific cases of Shweta Pradara. Study Design: It is a random comparative clinical study which will be conducted on two groups with 10 patients each who will complete the treatment all along the study period. The patients will be selected from the Out Patient department of DGMAMC&H (Shri Danappa Gurusidappa Melmalagi Ayurveda Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Gadag for respective clinical trial. Assessment Criteria: Based on the subjective and objective parameters like Yoni srava, Yoni Vedana, Yoni Kandu, Vaginal smear, Vaginal pH etc. the Criteria of assessment are set aside. Results and Interpretations: Among both the groups, Group ‘A’ responded well to the treatment and Group ‘B’ responded satisfactorily. It is well understood based on the mode of action of the individual constituent of both the compound formulations.
63 Analysis of Madhuraskandha’s Rasayana Drugs through Pharmacognostical, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Parameters , Sushama Bhuvad, K Nishteswar
Acharya Charaka has classified drugs based upon the Rasa; as Rasaskandha in the context of Asthapana Bastidravyas. The drugs included in the Skandha are not only based upon their Rasa but also according to their Vipaka and Prabhava. Madhurarasadravya attributes actions like Rasayana, Balya, and Jivaniya Karma. Charaka had stated another therapeutic classification containing dashemani dravyas. In these groups of drugs, Rasayana karma may be attributed to Jeevaniya, Balya, Brihmaniya, Vayasthapanadashemani groups. In the present study, a list of ten Rasayana drugs was drawn by comparing Vayasthapana gana and Madhuraskandha drugs i.e. Atibala, Vidari, Kantakari, Eranda, Gokshura, Guduchi, Shalaparni, Jivanti, Shatavari and Punarnava. These drugs were evaluated by Pharmacognostical, Physicochemical and Phytochemical studies. The microscopical study of the powder showed the presence of starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical parameters showed that water soluble extractive value is more than alcohol soluble extractive value. Majority of these drugs showed presence of Carbohydrates, Reducing sugar, Amino acids, Proteins, Tannin, Steroids, Triterpenoids, Anthraquinone, and Saponin. These can be used as standard parameters to generate purity and quality of the herbal drugs.
64 The Effects of Pranayama on Pranvaha Srotasa: A Review , Shyam Babu Singh and Mahendra Prasad
In our world people are facing many cardiovascular and respiratory disorders like bronchial asthma, bronchitis, tuberculosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases along with cardiac diseases. Death due to cardiovascular, lung and blood diseases is 41% in 2010. Yogic practices have always been proved to increase vitality even at cellular level. This article summarizes the physiological effects of Pranayama on Pranvaha Srotasa with their probable explanation.
65 Yoga – The Holistic Therapy for Lifestyle Disorders , Shailendra Pradhan
In this article an introduction of Yoga and its scientific analysis from Maharshi Patanjali is provided. How mind-body harmony could be achieved through practice of yoga is illustrated by the scientific approach of Yoga. According to MaharshiPatanjali, the main goal of Yoga is to free your mind from all suffering in order to finally achieve universal consciousness. To reach this state, Patanjali advocates the practice of astanga yoga meaning the eight-fold path. In this article, one of the eight fold path, “asana”, which refers to the practice of postures for achieving stability and firmness of the body both physically and psychologically, is emphasized. In this article there is no attempt to illustrate all the different steps of performing Yoga-Asanas. However, the benefits of practicing the major asanas can provide a path to a curative and preventive measure for all physical and/or psychological issues. Thus the practice of YogaAsanas with proper breathing taught by an expert can provide mind-body balance. Yoga considers that when the whole body has lowered life force, the result is a lowered vitality level, poor health and susceptibility to various diseases. No disease would occur if the body's life force were high enough to fight against it.Yoga is the union of mind and body with spirit.
66 Pharmaceutically important uses of Chameli (Jasminum grandiflorum Linn): A Review , Shailendra Pradhan
Jasminum grandiflorum Linn (Chameli / Yasmin; Oleaceae) is innate to Tropical and warm Temperate regions and cultivated in France, Italy, China, Japan, India, Morocco and Egypt. The plant is recognised to possess positive effects as odontalgic, thermogenic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, emollient, anthelmintic, deobstruant, suppurative, tonic, in fixing loose teeth, ulcerative stomatitis, leprosy, skin diseases, ottorrhoea, otalgia, wounds, corns and aromatherapy. Pharmacological actions of the plant reported so far are spasmolytic, antiinflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytoprotective, chemoprotective, wound healing and anti-acne activity. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethnobotanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological actions reported so far from J. grandiflorum.
67 Folk-lore Herbotherapy of Ghazipur District, (U.P.), India , B. Ram, Sarvesh Kumar Bharati, K Agrawal3 and A.K. Singh
This contribution is an enumeration of 20 medicinal plants used in popular by rural people of Ghazipur district. The villagers of the district seek their nearby plant wealth for the treatment of their daily life melodies to chronic diseases. Viz. fever, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, jaundice, leucorrhoea, skin diseases, mumps, scorpion stings, snake bites etc.
68 Role of Leech Application in the Synthesis of Healthy Collagen in Non-Healing Ulcers (Jalauka Awacharan in Dushta Vrana) , Devendra Prasad Mishra
Wounds form a very extensive and important class of the disease. Although a very extensive research work has been done on the nature of healing processes, yet the fundamental understanding of the mechanism of wound healing is not fully explored. However, the work done on the general pattern of the process of healing and on some of the factors which aid in wound healing are utilized in present study. Healthy collagen formation is one of the important factors for the process of wound healing. Therefore, keeping these points in mind a sincere review of Ayurvedic and Modern literature was done. Leech application was mentioned by Sushruta and Charaka in the management of non- healing Ulcers (Dushta Vrana). Therefore a clinical study was done with patients divided in Leech applied group and control group, histobiochemical analysis was assessed on 'modified numerical scale of "Ehrlach and Hunt". Thorough observations and results were evaluated on chi-square statistical calculations it was found that Leech application is statistically significant in the synthesis of healthy collagen.
69 Preliminary Antimicrobial Screening of Compounds (Emblica Officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Piper longum Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) , Sapna Chaudhary, Kanhaiya Agrawal and Vinod Kumar Joshi
Evaluation of antimicrobial effect of hydroalcholic extract of polyherbal drug Amalakyadi gana of sushruta samhita in sutra sthana 38th chapter containing Amalaki, (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.,) and Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) mentioned as Sarvajvarahara (to alleviate all kind of fever). It is Caksusya (Beneficial to eye), Dipana (enhances the agni), Vrsya (Aphrodisiac) and Kapharocakan (Eversion of food due to Kapha). The antimicrobial activity of newly synthesized compound was first screened by disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC(American Type Culture Collection) 27893, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25323 (Gram-positive) and four fungal strains namely Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida tropicalis ATCC 750, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 according to the guidelines of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 1997). The Zone of inhibition (in mm) was formed maximum in Staphylococcus aureus (250.35) in comparison to Standard drugs (10μg/disc) - 24(Ampicilin). In other microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Candida krusei, C. parapsilosis and Plesiomonas shigelloides , the zone of inhibition was observed as follows; 16±0.57, 12±0.47, 12±0.39, 11±0.68, 11±0.67, 11±0.29 and 10±0.41, respectively
70 Portrayal of Asthi Sharir in Pre- Samhita Kaal , Gaurav Soni, J. Manohar and Sandeep Lahange
History of mankind is inseparably intertwined in the history of India. Asthi has been given ample importance from commencement of life. Asthi due to its hardness was used firstly as weapon for killing and self protection, as in Bone Age. As per Hindu Mythology, Asthi Visarjaan, which is one of the Sanskar to be performed at the last, confirming the definition of Asthi as per Seers- “as the last entity to be remained after cremation or after demolition of other body parts.” Due to different principles, faith‟s and way of learning, there are basic difference in osteological knowledge of ancient India and modern time. There is enough evidence of knowledge of Asthi Sharir (osteology) in the ancient India but in Sutra Rupa or in dispersed form. Starting from Pre-Vedic period, Vedic Period and Post-Vedic period all have somewhat description of Asthi Sharir but not in mannered way. Atharveda and Puranas especially in Agni Purana there is descriptive knowledge of Asthi’s. Thus, a study was needed to glorify the ancient knowledge of Asthi Sharir in this scientific world. Here evidence are presented to show that the Indians were the first scientific cultivators of the most important and essential department of medical knowledge namely Osteology i.e. Asthi Sharir.
71 Bronchial Asthma: An Ayurvedic View , Shyam Babu Singh and Poornima Mansoria
Prevalence of Bronchial asthma is increasing globally; According to W.H.O statistics, bronchial asthma affects 300 million people; and 255,000 people died of asthma in 2005. Asthma prevalence increases globally by 50% every decade, especially children are affected by this disease. In Ayurveda it is known as Tamaka-swasa, a type of Swasa having Vata and Kapha dominancy and involvement of Prana, Udaka and Anna-vaha Srotasa. It can be treated upto a wide extent by following some dietary regulations, Shodhan and Shaman Chikitsa and by doing regular Pranayama and meditation.
72 Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis) Literary Review and a Prospective Case Study with Panchakarma Therapy , Swapnil S. Singhai
Frozen shoulder is a clinical syndrome of pain and severely decreased joint motion caused by thickening and contraction of the joint capsule. The peak incidence is between middle aged and is higher in women than men. In Ayurved, the symptoms, etiopathogenesis resembles with Apabahuka. It is a disease characterized by morbid vata dosha localizing around the shoulder joint and thereby causing loss or dryness of shleshaka kapha as well as constricts the siras at this site leads to loss of movements of the arm. Ayurvedic classics explain the treatment as Navan Nasya, Snehapana, Swedana and Shamanaushadhi. The purpose of this case study is to review the literature of frozen shoulder and to determine that the Panchakarma therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that can enhance the speed and degree of recovery, minimal risk and high patient acceptance in preference to other methods of treatment of frozen shoulder. Treatment includes Skandha Basti with Mahavishagarbha Taila for 20 minutes followed by Patrapottali Pinda Swedan and a Nasya of Mashadi Taila in dose of 8 drops for seven days. Along with this oral medication of Parijata Guggulu tablets in the dose of 1 gm three times a day was given for one month. Despite the limitations of this case study, it demonstrates that the panchakarma therapy may be an effective option in the treatment of frozen shoulder.
73 Physico-Chemical Study on Alambushadi Churna Tablet , Saroj Kumar Debnath, Sudhaben N. Vyas
It is being now globally recognized that medicinal plants play a major role in providing health benefits to human beings. Maximum Ayurvedic medicines are plant based drugs. The complex composition of medicinal plant based drugs has a major challenge for quality control. Physicochemical study is the most important part for standardization of the medicinal plant base drugs. One important Ayurvedic drugs i.e. Alambushadi Churna tablet had been selected from Ayurvedic famous book named Bhava Prakasha for the Physico-chemical study. It is mainly used in the treatment of disease Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). The Physico-chemical study revealed that the Alambushadi Churna tablet contained more moisture, less inorganic constituents and more water soluble constituents
74 West Syndrome and its Ayurvedic Management , Vivek B Singh, Supriya B Kurane and Deepnarayan V Shukla
West syndrome is a rare epileptic disease having the triad of infantile spasms, a pathognomonic EEG pattern (called hypsarrhythmia), and developmental regression - although the international definition requires only two out of these three elements. This means that it is an electroclinical epileptic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to find out an effective remedy to reduce the number of seizures and also help the child to attain development. The concept of using ghruta preparation in the this syndrome has been studied and various other ayurvedic panchkarma treatment which is useful in treating the disease.
75 Medicinal Properties and Therapeutic uses of Takra (Buttermilk) and its Preparations , Lakshmi Anoop
Takra or Buttermilk is prepared by churning the curd / yoghurt. It is a good after-drink especially after consuming food made of pulses, vegetables and grains. It stimulates the power of digestion and has special importance in the treatment of many disorders like hemorrhoids, IBS and other abdominal disorders. It is either administered alone or in combination with different herbs. As buttermilk has immense health benefits and destroys various maladies, its usage is recommended in Ayurveda. When buttermilk is used judiciously, it alone can prevent and treat various disorders. Buttermilk resembles the moon, jasmine and conch shells by its hue. Buttermilk is ambrosia to humans as it provides nourishment and strength. The preparation of buttermilk, its properties, benefits and forms of administration in different health problems are well explained in Ayurveda texts.
76 A Case Discussion on Lumbar Spinal Stenosis , Sushama G. Kuware and D. K. Puri
Introduction: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is an abnormal narrowing of spinal canal at lumbar region, resulting in a neurological deficit that reports pain, weakness, numbness in legs while walking, or the combination thereof. The classical presentation of patient with LSS include lower back pain, radiating leg pain (unilateral /bilateral) that is relieved by rest and bending forward. Low back pain (LBP) is second only to upper respiratory illness as a cause of visiting a physician. The prevalence ranges 10.1-8.9% and mostly affects the age group of 35 to 55years. Chief complaints of patient: Fourtytwo-year old female patient came to us with complaints of low back ache, leg pain while walking and inability to sit in erect posture for long duration. She alsohad difficulty in continuing her daily work as a homemaker. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda explains thisdisease under the title vatavyadhi as katishoola andkatigraha. The treatment available for the disease in modern medicine is not very satisfactory. The present study was aimed at establishing the holistic approach of management by Ayurveda. Therefore,abhyang, swedan, katibasti, tiktakshirbasti followed by erandmuladi and sahachar tail basti along with specific yoga posture and diet were selected for the present case. Results: After treatment patients recovered symptomatically, the backache was very mild and intermittent. In addition, the patient was able to keep erect posture and to carry out the daily routine. Conclusion: The treatment regimen given was effective and showed substantial improvement in the patient.
77 Significance of Go ghrita in Lifestyle and Psychological Disorders , Sud Sushant, Kateriya Girish
Ghrita is used since ancient times including the vedic kala. Ghrita is described in Ayurveda as Sapta dhatu vardhak, Ojo vardhak and is suggested to take in day to day life. A brief glance at the qualities of go-ghrita shows that it has been described as Buddhivardhaka-augmenting intelligence, Smritivardhaka-enhancing memory, Deepana-improves appetite and is useful in the treatment of Unmada, Apasmara, Murccha and Mada. It is also useful in the diseases affecting the nervous system in particular. The anti-oxidants in Go ghrita make it a miraculous Rasayana and thus useful as a wonderful anti-ageing therapy. Mind and body are intimately associated with each other. The function of body organs depends on mental makeup of an individual and vice versa. Ayurveda has indicated the use of cow‘s go ghrita i.e., go-ghrita in all types of lifestyle and psychological disorders. Beyond maintaining a healthy mind, go ghrita is also prescribed for anxiety, depression, dementia, insanity, epilepsy and other disorders of consciousness. Go ghrita older than one year is especially good for healing the mind. Go ghrita takes nutrients from your food and delivers them through fat permeable membranes like in the brain. Go ghrita taken regularly in small doses is invaluable as it not only increases the digestive capacity but also it has nourishing property. Hence, go-ghrita takes the deserved credit, with several beneficial effects on human body and mind and thus holds an important position in Ayurvedic chikitsa.
78 Review of Premature Graying of Hair (Akala Palitya) and its Treatment in Ayurveda , Sagar Sharma
Premature graying of hair (Akala Palitya) is a burning issue as large number of population especially young men and women in present times are suffering from this disease. Hair forms an important anatomical structure of the body which not only has protective function but also adds beauty to the face. Increased industrialization and urbanization has posed greater danger of Akala Palitya due to pollution, contamination of water, air and due to other intrinsic factors. Hair has a tendency to lose its natural color with advancing age. It is therefore natural for the hair to turn grey with age. But premature graying is a morbid condition and it makes even the young looks older. This causes a great deal of concern to the effected persons. Concept of Akala Palitya has been mentioned in Ayurvedic Lexicons along with its prevention and treatment.
79 Role of Krishnadi Churna in the Management of Tamak Shwasa With Reference To Bronchial Asthma , Sarve R.N, Danga S.K., Bende Yogita, Babita Singh and Gulhane J.D
Tamak Shwasa is such type of disease in which recurrent attacks of Shwasa are hampering the life of patients and it is troublesome disease, because most of Acharyas have described it as Yapya to treat (C.C.17/9 and C.C. 17/62). Bronchial asthma mentioned in modern medicine closely resembles with Tamaka Shwasa. Work exposure to flour or cotton dust, animal fur, smoke and wide variety of chemicals has been linked to increased risk of asthma. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of Krishnadi Churna in the patients of Tamak Shwasa and to compare effect of `Krishnadi Churna’ with standard bronchodilator drug Deriphylline in Tamak Shwasa. Materials and Methods: Patients suffering from Tamak Shwasa and attending the O.P.D. and I.P.D. department of Kayachikitsa, Government Ayurvedic Hospital, Nagpur were selected randomly. Patients were investigated as per proforma prepared for the study. Discussion and Conclusion: In this study, none of the remaining 49 patients of Tamak Shwasa were ‘cured’. However, 21 patients (70%) from trial group markedly improved and 4 patients (13.33%) were improved after completing the treatment. In case of control group 18 patients (60%) were markedly improved (symptoms relieved between 50-75%) and 6 patients (20%) were improved symptomr relieved more than 75%
80 Shigru (Moringa Oleifera Lam.): A Critical Review , Prakash Sanjay and Dwivedi K.N.
Cirrhosis and Chronic liver diseases are the leading causes of death in developing countries, though the prevalence is increasing in developed countries. There is an irreversible damage to liver parenchyma; it becomes fibrotic and yellowish/ orange in color. Alcohol consumption and chronic viral Hepatitis are the common causes. There are no drugs and related treatments available for the said disease. Ayurveda is a complete and holistic system of medicine in which a number of drugs with multifold beneficial actions are available and can prove to be beneficial for the patients, though a massive research is required to prove the beneficial effects of drugs.
81 Medico-legal Aspects of AIDS , Bijay Kumar Gupta
As the incidence and awareness on AIDS increases among the public, the ethical, legal and regulating mechanism s are becoming more significant. Effort to protect individual rights while safeguarding the public from a fatal communicable virus are presenting many unprecedented legal question in public health, education employment, insurance, medical law, family law, civil rights etc. An effort is made here to discuss briefly on ethical and legal aspect of AIDS in the contest of developing country like India. At present there is no legislation particularly integrating all issues concerning HIV and AIDS. There can be no valid or effective response to HIV/AIDS without respect for the human rights, fundamental freedom and the dignity of human beings. Effective prevention, care and support for HIV/AIDS is possible in an environment where human rights are respected and where those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS live a life without stigma and discrimination. The protection of human rights is essential to safeguard human dignity in the context of HIV/AIDS. Efforts need to be made to train all medical and other auxiliary medical health care workers to create a congenial environment where HIV/AIDS patients are admitted and treated without any fear and scare.
82 A Double Blind Study for Improving I.Q. of School Going Children with Guduchi , Kirti K. Rathod, V. K. Kori, K.S. Patel, Rajagopala S. and Arun Khatri
Background: In this era of global competition, the competition spirit starts from the very beginning of the childhood of every individual. Even to get admission in a reputed school, the child has to go through various examinations. The early childhood is the phase in which the child perceives and retains unknown words, skilled processes etc. If any drug can enhance this process of grasping, retention and recalling, it will provide a great help to the paediatric population. In Ayurveda a class of drugs is mentioned as „Medhya Rasayana’ for this purpose, Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Willd. Miers) is one such drug. Material and Methods: A double blind randomized placebo controlled Clinical study was conducted on 71 students to evaluate the effect of Guduchi Ghana in improving Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) of school going children. Indian Adaptation of Wechsler‟s Intelligence Scale for Children (IAWISC-IV) modified by Dr. Arthur J. Malin was used as an I.Q. assessment tool. Twenty nine students in group „A‟ and Twenty Seven students in group „B‟ completed the course of intervention. Paired „t‟ test and unpaired „t‟ test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Guduchi Ghana capsules showed statistically highly significant increase in Verbal I.Q. score, Performance I.Q. score and Full scale I.Q. scores and Placebo-Wheat flour Capsules showed statistically significant increase in Full scale I.Q. score. When compared placebo Guduchi Ghana capsules showed statistically highly significant increase in Verbal I.Q. score, Performance I.Q. score and Full scale I.Q. scores.
83 Efficacy of Jalaukavacharana in Bhagandari Pidika: A Single Case Study , Deepa kulkarni, Nita Kedar, Subhash Raut
“Apakwastu pidika pakwastu Bhagandara” In Bhagandari pidika the predominant Doshas are Pitta and Rakta. . If left untreated leads to Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano). In the earlier stage swelling occurs at perianal region unsuppurative in nature but if not treated properly abscess and fistula is formed. The Father of Indian Surgery Aacharya Sushruta has mentioned the management of “Apakwa Bhagandari pidika” with first eleven Upkramas of the vrana. Vistrawan Karma (Blood letting) is one of them. This single case study was conducted to assess the efficacy of Jalaukavacharana in Bhagandari pidika. It found to be very effective treatment in the management of Bhagandari pidika which is the earlier stage of Bhagandara (Fistula in ano).
84 Review of Kushtha Hetu according to Bruhatrayi , Prashant Parauha and CH Sadanandam
Our nature is full of surprises but for every incidence there is at least one causative factor. This rule cannot be changed and that’s why for retrogression of every disease itʼs etiology is important. In most of the instances hetus are directly responsible for the disease but sometimes not. It is therefore, important to take a view of the disease in etiological manner. In Ayurveda the causative factor of any condition is classified as ‘Hetu’. Its importance can be noticed simply because in every samhita the hetu of any disease has been described firstly while describing the disease and other factors are told after it. We all know that skin covers our whole body and disorders of skin are great matter of interest. In samhitas the disorders of skin are designated as ‘Kushthas’. Kushtha denotes the change in appearance, texture and functioning of the skin. It is a term used for broad meaning and our ancient scholars have divided kushtha in various types according to its doshik involvement and power of affecting the body. Although it is a disorder of skin but due to its vast extension, other systems of body also get affected by the disease. Knowledge of hetu is important to restrict the occurrence and progression of disease.
85 An Analytical Study of Swarnmakshik bhasma in View of its Efficacy and Safety , Barkha J Tirpude
Bhasma kalpana is backbone of Rasaushdhi which are consecrations from Rasacharyas. Swarnamakshik is one of the important dravya’s classified into Maharas varg and is chemically known as Chalcopyrite. In the present study Swarnamakshik bhasma prepared, and analyzed to develop the standard manufacturing procedure. Each unit operative procedure was considered as an independent process and an attempt was made to validate each procedure. Raw Swarnamakshik and Hingul were taken according to classic text grahyatwa. The sample with higher percentage of Copper was taken for study. X-Ray diffraction technique was used to test its chemical components. Shodhan (Purification) and Maran (Incineration) was done as per references. The black reddish coloured (rakt krishnabh) Hingulmarit Swarnamakshik bhasma was obtained after subjecting to 9 puta. Finally, bhasma was subjected to physical and chemical analysis. In atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) Copper found to be 0.17%, Iron 61.92% and Sulphur 1.42%. Its Ph value was 5.9 and Ash Value was 98.88%.
86 To Reveal the Identity of Nrutyakundaka Beeja - A Review , Tonge Madan B
The exact identity of various Ayurvedic Dravyas is always a burning issue for Ayurveda practitioners. For the same Acharyas made a suitable adjustment in terms of Pratinidhi Dravyas as well as Abhava Dravyas. Still some Dravyas mentioned in Samhitas were granted according to the ability and knowledge of different Acharyas in their own way. One of this type of Dravya is Nrutyakundaka Baaja, which is still to be revealed. The exact identity of the Nrutyakundaka Beeja is still not clearly established and still in ambiguous state. It was used by traditional healers in different way, nearly for the same purpose of treatment. This paper reviews the references and importance of Nrutyakundaka Beeja through Samhita and Nighantus because Nighantu is considered as latest among classical work in Dravyaguna Shastra. The traditional knowledge is transferred through oral teachings and the lack of clear documents creates gaps in the system. That’s why there is a need for the extensive study of ancient literature to adopt and implement modern techniques to study the identity and medicinal properties. Current literature review was performed by collecting relevant information from Ayurveda literature. The traditional knowledge of healing system and literature study paves the way for more productive benefit. Also much more extensive studies have to be carried out to get the knowledge of identity and pharmacological properties of Nrutyakundaka Beeja, in future.
87 Low Back Pain: It’s Prevention and Management through Yoga and Ayurveda , Suryawanshi Pradipkumar R., Suryawanshi Pradipkumar R., Shweta V Musale and Rucha Shinde
Backache is one of the most common and widely prevalent ailments. These days due to sedentary living habits and hazardous work patterns its occurrence is increasing day by day. The psychological conditions associated with emotional stress, which bring about spasm of the muscles, may also cause backache. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) affects millions of people worldwide. There are several treatment options for chronic low back pain, although no single therapy stands out as being the most effective. It is estimated that 80% of all people will experience at least one episode of Back pain in their lifetime, with point prevalence ranging from 15% to 39%, 70% of patients with an episode of Low Back Pain recover with one month, and 90% within 3 months, only 4% patients will have symptoms larger than 6 months. According to Ayurveda degeneration is a process that occurs mainly due to ageing and in Ayurveda vata is the dosha that is mainly dominant during old age and 90% of degenerative disorders are due to vitiated vata dosha. Specific procedures such as Basti, Podikizhi, Navarakizhi, Pizchil etc. pacify the deranged vata externally where as internally some vata pacifying medicines are also administered to the Panchakarma procedures such as Katibasti; may also be employed. The primary goal of Yoga therapy for low back pain (LBP) is the relief of pain and functional limitation caused by a chronic lower back disorder. This is achieved by minimizing, healing, and ultimately correcting underlying physical malfunctions through a series of anatomically correct postures.
88 Ayurvedic Treatment of Psoriasis: A Case Report , Parveen Kumar and Smita Kumari
Twacha is a vital component of human body. It reflects both, the state of well being and disease state. A structural and functional insult to twacha compromises its main function of protection; produces discomfort symptoms as well as has a cosmetic concern. Ek-kushtha is a condition where disfigurement of the skin along with other features like- itching, scaling and discharge are cause of worry for the patient. Genetics, dietary, lifestyle related, environmental and behavioural/psychological factors play major role in pathogenesis. Vitiation of all three doshas is major contributing factor in the manifestation of the disease. Ayurveda advocates holistic approach of shodhan, internal drug administration and external application in the treatment protocol. In this article, a patient treated with similar treatment protocol is presented as a case study.
89 Clinical Evaluation of the Anti-inflammtory Action of Ayurvedic Remedies in Arthritis w.s.r. to Shotha - A Review , Vd. R. M. Sonwane, Vd. Amit Gajarmal and Vd. D.S.Chothe
Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda encompasses all aspects of living-health and sickness. Like other pathological conditions inflammation has been documented mainly in the Brihata Trayee and Madhava Nidana. Inflammation and the oedema associated with it have got the attention due to it in Ayurveda as a pathological manifestation. It is known by different names in different contexts namely Shotha, Shopha, Svayathu, Utsedha and Samhata are the terms used in Ayurveda. This paper seeks to present a review on clinical evaluation of the antiinflammatory action of Ayurvedic remedies in Shotha, exploring the relationship between inflammation and Dravya Prayoga (medicine), based on Ayurveda principles.
90 Clinical Evaluation of Kebuka oil in the Management of Cervical Dystocia , Sipika Swati, Prateek Agarwal and Neelam
Labour (Childbirth, Delivery, Parturition, Confinement etc.) is a physiologic process during which the products of conception (i.e., the fetus, membranes, umbilical cord and placenta) are expelled outside of the uterus. This is achieved with changes in the biochemical connective tissue and with gradual effacement and dilatation of the uterine cervix as a result of rhythmic uterine contractions of sufficient frequency, intensity and duration. In cervical dystocia,cervix fails to dilate. Cervical dystocia if not diagnosed and treated can lead to maternal/fetal morbidity and even the mother’s mortality. According to Ayurveda, the whole process of Prasava is completely based on Prasuti Maruta or Apana Vayu. It has got precise role in stimulation, regulation of myometrial contractions and expulsion of fetus in normal labour. Kebuka (Costus speciosus) due to its tikta – kashaya property, aggravates vata. Kebuka acts through its garbhashaya sankochak prabhava. It helps in easy delivery because one of the most common cause of garbhasanga (cervical dystocia) is inadequate uterine contraction. Kebuka rhizomes are rich in diosgenin starch, which is hygroscopic in nature, due to which it absorbs water and soften the cervix. This study has revealed a highly significant effect of Kebuka taila in cases of cervical dystocia. In this study only functional cervical dystocia has been included in which increase in uterine contraction gives positive results.
91 Critical Analysis of Etiology of Sthaulya (Obesity) , Durgesh gupta, A.C.Kar
Nidana (etiology) is defined as the factors, which cause the disease. Treatment becomes easier by knowing the causative factors of a disease. In this light, it has been clearly stated that Nidana Parivarjanam’ is one type of Chikitsa for the most of diseases which is described in Ayurvedic literature. Obesity has been described as Sthaulya or Medoroga in Ayurvedic texts. This article revolves around the nidana of Sthaulya described in various texts of Ayurveda. An attempt has been made to understand Sthaulya (Obesity) through Modern and Ayurvedic perspective. In this article etiological factors for Sthaulya (obesity) are analysed.
92 Menopausal Syndrome and its Management in Ayurvedic Perspective: A Review , Soni Anamika and Soni Surendra
Approximately sixty million women in India are above the age of 55 years. With the increase in life expectancy, majority of women spend one third of their lives in the postmenopausal age. The health problems cropping up during this period and related to estrogen deficiency are now obvious and well understood. The term ‘Menopause’ is defined as the permanent cessation of menstruation at the end of reproductive life due to loss of ovarian follicular activity. Menopause normally occurs between 4th to 5th decade of life. In India, the average age for menopause is 47 years. In Ayurveda, it is the age of Swabhawika (physiological) dominance of Vata, decline in Kapha Dosha and Dhatukshaya. Dhatukshaya is a physiological phenomenon during the late middle and old age. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the main line of management in modern medicine which is very expensive and as many risks. Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and Madhuyashti (Glycerrhiza glabra) are widely accepted as a source of Phytoestrogens due to its 'Isoflavones' content.
93 Conductometric Measurments of 3-(2-hydroxy-3-nitro-5-methyl) phenyl-6-amino-1,2,5- thioxazine in 50% Ethanol–Water Mixture at Different Temperatures , D.T.Tayade ,S.S. Padhen, A.B.Wadekar and S.A.Waghmar
Recent research work deals with the conductometric measurement of 3-(2-hydroxy-3-nitro-5- methyl) phenyl-6-amino-1,2,5-thioxazine at different temperatures by keeping constant concentration(0.1M) .These measurements provide information regarding with solute-solvent interaction, effect of temperatures and effect of dilution and solvent. The various thermodynamic parameters viz. ∆H 0 ; ∆S0 and ∆G0 for the ion pair formation are determined from the value of ion association constant at constant concentration (0.1M). These also revealed that solvent-solvent, solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions and the effects of various substituent’s.
94 Critical Analysis of Gridhrasi , Anil Kumar Joshi and Teena Jain
The science of Ayurveda is based on the fundamental of Tridosha (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) which are responsible for health and disease. Vata Dosha has the chief dominance among these three vital factors of the body. The prime cause of Gridhrasi is the vitiated Vata so it is included in Vata Nanatmaja Vyadhi. Various aetiological factors for the derangement of Vata have been mentioned such as excessive walking, exercise, sleeping on an uncomfortable bed, withholding of natural urges, trauma to vital organs, excessive riding on fast moving, jerky vehicles, unwholesome dietary habits etc. All these factors are so easily accessible to Today’s men that almost everybody is sized in their flow, leading to increasing incidence of diseases like Gridhrasi. The localization of the vitiated Dosha in Gridhrasi is described in a particular order in which pain starts from Sphik and then radiates to Pada along with Stambha, Toda etc. In all applied considerations, the Vata system of Tridosha represents neuroscience in Ayurveda. This study has been planned to evaluate the role of Shodhana and Shamana drugs in the management of Gridhrasi (sciatica).
95 A Combined Study on the Effect of Drakshadi Gutika and Yoga Modalities in Amlapitta , Venkatesh M Illal
Background In this modern era there has been an unprecedented increase of incidences related to GI system due to marked change in life style. Diet pattern, behavioral pattern, mental stress & strain, these multiple factors leads to a clinical condition known as the Amlapitta. Symptoms of Amlapitta as explained in Ayurveda are near clinical entity with symptoms of gastritis; a gastro intestinal disorder mentioned in modern science. Methodology of intervention Forty five patients of Amlapitta were selected and divided into three groups by random sampling method. Clinical symptoms were given suitable grading according to its severity and assessed based on pre and post data gathered through pre-designed research clinical proforma. Results showing ‘p’ value less than <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant in this study. Interpretation Drakshadi Gutika is combined formulation prepared by Draksha having Madhura rasa, Madhura Vipaka, SheetaVeerya, MruduGuna. Haritaki having Lavana Varjita Pancha rasa Kashaya pradhana, Madhuravipaka, Vikrutadoshanulomana, Aamapachana, and Sita having Madhura rasa, sheetaveerya, trupti karaka, indriyaprasadaka. These factors exhibit Pitta shamana, and Pitta rechana property. Among Asanas, Pavanamuktasana is the asana of choice for the clinical condition that are related with the gastrointestinal tract. Among Shatkriyas, Kunjalakriya is the best possible wash to the digestive system from stomach to the mouth. After completion of the studies it could be concluded that patients of Group B were significantly better than the patients of Group A and Group C at P< 0.05. Hence by considering overall results in the present study the effect of KunjalaKriya with pavanamuktasanawas was found more beneficial.
96 Physicochemical Analysis of Simhanada Guggulu Pil , Saroj Kumar Debnath and Sudhaben N. Vyas
It is being globally recognized that medicinal plants play an important role for providing health benefits to human beings. Maximum Ayurvedic drugs are plant based drugs. The complex composition of plant based drugs has a big challenge for quality control. Physicochemical analysis is the most important part for standardization of the plant base drugs. One most important Ayurvedic drug i.e. Simhanad Guggulu pill had been selected from Ayurvedic famous book named Bhaishajya Ratnavali for the Physicochemical analysis. It is mainly and commonly used in the treatment of disease Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Drug preparing and Physicochemical analysis both had been done in the Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The Physicochemical study revealed that the Simhanad Guggulu pill contained sterol, less moisture, more inorganic constituents and less water soluble constituents.
97 A Clinical Study on the Role of Vamana Karma and Nimbadivati in the Management of Ekakushtha w.s.r. to Psoriasis , Kuldeep Singh, A. J. Ravat and N.P. Joshi
At the door –step of 21st century with a machine like routine, fast-food and fast hectic life of scientifically modernized world human is being confronting with a variety of diseases. This type of food habit, less sleep, stress, pollution accelerates the disturbance in the body especially on the skin. In present era the skin diseases become a major hazard for mental health more than physical as it distribute the cosmetic harmony. Psoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious disease that affects mainly the skin. The cause of Psoriasis is not exactly known, but it is believed to have an autoimmune, genetic component and it can be triggered by a prolonged injury to the skin.. Factors that may aggravate Psoriasis include stress, withdrawal of systemic corticosteroid, excessive alcohol consumption, and smoking. There are many treatments available, but because of its chronic recurrent nature Psoriasis is a challenge to treat. Present available treatments have many hazardous effects therefore, to treat it safely and effectively Vamana therapy is used. It plays a significant role without any side effects. And we have found very significant result in all parameters of Psoriasis like itching, scaling erythema and thickness of sale and also seen in improvement of sign of Psoriasis like Auspitz „sign and Candle Grease sign
98 An Easy Way to Prepare Kupipakwa Rasayana by Muffle Furnace , Sima Ashok Kurule and Pallavi Mundada
Rasaushadhies are more popular due to their low dose, palatability and short acting nature. Murchana process increases disease curing ability of Mercury (Parad). Kupipakwa rasayana is one of the most important murchana which is prepared in specially designed glass bottle (kachkupi) in sand-bath (valukayantra) with a particular heating pattern (Kramagni). Kupipakwa Rasayana is more potent than all mercurial preparations due to it’s ushna, tikshna, and laghu guna properties, hence it is popular with Ayurved physicians. But it’s preparation is complex and require precision. Preparation of Kupipakwa rasayana by traditional methods requires more time, manpower, fuel and efforts which make it more laborious. With the help of modern technology Kupipakwa rasayana can be prepared easily in limited time with less manpower and efforts by using muffle furnace. In the present paper an easy way to prepare Kupipakwa rasayana with greater temperature control has been discussed.
99 Management of Uncontrolled Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus with Virechana Therapy: A Case Study , Vishakha R Wetal and Swati A Chorghade
Background - A majority of diabetics are unable to keep sugars under control despite adequate medication and follow ups. In some cases, even treatment with insulin does not help in sugar control. 40% of diabetics who carefully control their blood sugar nevertheless develop neuropathy and nephropathy. The case of uncontrolled type2 Diabetes Mellitus, was managed with Virechana, one of the Panchakarma therapy, as indicated in ‘Brihat-trayi (major and prime texts of Ayurveda). Management --Pachan (internal medicines to facilitate proper digestion )– Hingvashtak churna- 1gm x three times before food with warm water for two days was given. Internal oleation with Triphala ghrita in increasing order for four days (oleation stopped, as symptoms of proper oleation achieved) was followed. Daily assessment for symptoms of oleation was done. External oleation and sudation was done with Sesame oil. Virechana drug - Abhayadi modak - 500mg with decoction of Triphala 150ml was given on empty stomach. Results and Conclusion – BSL fasting and pp before Virechana was 240mg/dl and 431mg/dl. After seven days, one manth and four months, fasting sugar was 190mg/dl, 153mg/dl and 169mg/dl respectively while post prandial sugar was 265mg/dl, 180mg/dl and 228 respectively. HbA1, HbA1Cand MBG after seven days of Virechana was 10.9%, 8.4% and 215 respectively and after quarter to five months months it was 9.2%, 6.97% and 153 respectively. There was significant increase in HDL cholesterol from 37 mg/dl to 63mg/dl. Thus Virechana therapy has significant therapeutic value in Type2 Diabetes Mellitus.
100 A Review of Dhatu Pradoshaja Vikara , Shyam Babu Singh1 *and Poornima Mansoria
Human body is composed of Dosha, Dhatu and Mala among which Dhatus are more important structurally as they hold the body and perform specific functions like Prinana, Jivana, Lepana etc. Any kind of deformity in Dhatus can affect body to a large extent and could be a result of various disorders. Knowledge of involved Dosha, creating any structural or functional disturbance in any particular Dhatu could be beneficial in the field of treatment. Our ancient seers have mentioned many disorders in which a particular Dhatu is affected and named them as Dhatu-Pradoshaja Vikara. In this article an attempt is made to review and understand the concept of Dhatu-Pradoshaja Vikara.
101 Clinical efficacy of Laghumanjishthadi Kwath in the Management of Kitibh Kushtha w.s.r. to Psoriasis , Pallavi Suresh Mundada, Sakshi Sharma, Sima Kurule and Manoj Raut
Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease, in which skin cells replicate at an extremely rapid rate. It is characterized by sharply defined erythematous lesions with dead cells building up on the skin; forming thick and flaky patches called plaques. Psoriasis, although not fatal, can be painful and profoundly disruptive to one‟s life. The disease is common, chronic and costly both in monetary terms and quality of life with no reliable solution all over the world. Majority signs and symptoms of psoriasis resemble with those of kitibh kushtha, a type of kshudra kushtha, mentioned in Ayurveda. So a study with aim to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Laghu Manjishthadi Kwath (ref. Brihat Yog Tarangini) in management of kitibh kushtha with special reference to psoriasis was carried out on 30 patients diagnosed with psoriasis, of either sexes with age more than 18 years, without any other co morbidity or medication. The drug was found to be significantly effective in pacifying all the signs and symptoms of psoriasis (itching, blackish discoloration, erythema, scaling, dryness, plaques /keratosis, discharge and fissuring). The study provides strong evidences that prove keratolytic, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of the drug without producing any side effects.
102 Anatomical Changes in the Body Related to Galagaṇḍa , Teena Jain, Anil Kumar Joshi and Sunil Kumar Yadav
Thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck below the Adam’s apple. It is part of a complex network of glands called the endocrine system, which is regulates nearly all body functions, including metabolic, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, nervous, and reproductive systems either directly or indirectly. The thyroid gland manufactures hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism (the process of creating and using energy). Thyroid problems are among the most common endocrine disorders presently seen worldwide. Patients with thyroid disorders suffer either from hypofunctioning or from hyperfunctioning of the gland. Whereas the former leads to a decrease in the concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones, the latter increases the same. These two dysfunctions are commonly referred as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, respectively. Hypothyroidism is a clinical syndrome resulting from a deficiency of thyroid hormones, which in turn results in a generalized slowing down of metabolic processes. In the pride of India i.e. Āyurveda there is no clear-cut evidence of hypothyroidism, but on the basis of its clinical presentation, it can be explained under the heading of Galagaṇḍa. Ācārya says that, Vāta and Kapha aggravated in the neck and having accumulated in Manyā and along with Meda produce glandular enlargement with their characteristic symptoms. It is known as Galagaṇḍa. Galagaṇḍa has been defined as the swelling, big or small, which hangs like scrotum in the neck.
103 Importance of Murchhana Samskara in the Preparation of Medicated Oil – An Analytical Study , Pankaj Rai
Indian system of medicine i.e., Ayurveda is serving man kind since long. A wide range of dosage forms are available in Ayurveda that makes it more effective and popular. Snehakalpana (medicated oil/ oil preparations) are an important secondary dosage form described in Ayurvedic pharmaceutics and it has a broad range of medicinal uses in different medical conditions. For the preparation of medicated oil Tila Taila (Sesame oil) is generally used. Watery content in oil causes rancidity factors (amadosa) which is an important factor in the decomposition of fatty acids of oil leading to decrease in life span of medicines prepared with oil. Murchhana is a pretreatment process to remove rancidity factor (amadosha) and simultaneously enhancing therapeutic quality of medicine. In the present study, an attempt is made to authenticate the consequences of murchhana process for preparing medicated oil. The parameters like specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value are analyzed to validate the importance of murchhana process. i.e., All the analytical values obtained are discussed in this paper.
104 Shalmali (Bombax Malabaricum DC.): Aphrodisiac drug of Ayurveda , Rajput Pawan, Parashar Shalini, Rama mohan Rao G and Sridurga Ch.
Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine uses drugs obtained from plant, animal and mineral sources for the maintenance of health and also for the treatment of various diseases. Shalmali (Bombax malabaricum DC.) is one such important medicinal plant used in Ayurveda. All parts of this plant like flowers, exudates, thorn, leaves and root are useful in treatment of various ailments. The roots of Shalmali are having aphrodisiac property. Numerous Vajikarana yogas containing Shalmali are mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. The present paper is an attempt to review few such formulations of Shalmali, best Vajikarana dravya of Ayurveda.
105 An Overview and Approach towards Herbal Drug Research in Ayurveda , Danga. S.K., Chetan Gulhane, Babita Singh, Ahuti Rai and Sarve R.N.
Herbal medicine is the main component of the traditional system of medicine. In earlier times the Ayurveda Physician (Vaidya) were themselves collecting herbs and other ingredients for treating the patients and were used to prepare the medicines required to patients. In many communities and regions herbal medicine is an available, affordable, effective and culturally-acceptable health care modality. According to Ayurveda, a drug should have all the qualities with many properties and having ability of preparing its many formulation without disturbing the basic properties. Efforts should be made to upgrade the research capability of standardisation & quality control of herbal medicines & it is also become necessary to prove the efficacy of various Ayurvedic formulations on modern scientific parameters.
106 Consequences of Different Medium in the Pharmaceutical Processing’s of Metals and Minerals w.s.r. to Abhraka Shodhana – An Analytical Study , Pankaj Rai, Laxmi Narayan Gupta and Neeraj Kumar
Shodhana is an important intermediately process of purification and detoxification by which physical and chemical blemishes along with toxic materials of metals and minerals are eliminated & substances are subjected for further pharmaceutical processing. It is an important intermediately pharmaceutical process during conversion of metals and minerals into bhasma (ash). Abhraka is an important mineral used in ayurvedic pharmaceutics. It is used in the form of bhasma to treat many diseases. Various liquid media are described for the shodhana process of abhraka (biotite). Shodhana of abhraka was done in the specific mediums i.e. cow‐urine, decoction of triphala and badari separately. To find out the significance of these media X Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy study and energy dispersive x‐ray analysis of abhraka were carried out. X Ray diffraction findings shows that different media are not changing main compounds of abhraka after shodhana processes. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) study reveals that the plate late structure of abhraka not only remains intact but also became more granular and appears to be microcrystalline along with reduction in particle size after shodhana process. Energy dispersive x‐ray analysis (EDAX) reflects the compositional variations of elements.
107 Vardhamaan Pippali Rasayana: – A Hope for LRTI w.s.r. Bronchiestasis – A Case Study , Satender Tanwar, Shailaja S. V. and Kiran M Goud
Respiration is the process by which oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide is given out. Respiratory disorders are the one among the leading cause of the death. The whole respiratory system is divided into the two parts i.e., URT and LRT and on the basis of that it is classified as URTI and LRTI; upper and lower respiratory tract infection. Bronchiectasis is a defined as abnormal and irreversible dilatation of the bronchi and bronchioles developing secondary to inflammatory weakening of the bronchial walls.The most characteristic clinical manifestation of bronchiectatsis is persistent cough with expectoration of copious amounts of foul smelling purulent sputum. Post infectious cases commonly develop in childhood and in early adult life. The most characterstic Wheezing and nail clubbing may also occur. Those with the disease often get frequent lung infections. Bronchiectasis may result from a number of infective and acquired causes, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, immune system problems, and cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis eventually results in severe bronchiectasis in nearly all cases. The cause in 10-50% of those without cystic fibrosis is unknown. The mechanism of disease is breakdown of the airways due to an excessive inflammatory response. Involved bronchi become enlarged and the ability to clear secretions is diminished. These secretions increase the amount of bacteria in the lungs; results in the airway blockage and further breakdown of the airways. It is classified as an obstructive lung disease, along with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The diagnosis is suspect based on a person's symptoms and confirmed using computer tomography. Sputum cultures may be useful to determine treatment in those who have acute worsening and at least once a year. The case taken here was a rare clinical study on grounds of Ayurvedic principle by using the Vardhmaan Pippali rasayana in patient of bronchiectasis. The classical usage of the VPR is carried out by following the ascending order and the n descending to baseline with strict dietary regimen as explained in the classic. Significant improvement was noticed in the symptom of the patient in the span of 60 days and patient is under follow period to check the efficacy of drug in a longer run.
108 A Clinical Evaluation of Kushtha (Saussurealappa.–C.B.Clarke.) on Shukradushti w.s.r. to Seminal Parameters and Sexual Health Parameters , Dharmendra P Jani and B. R. Patel
Kushtha is a well-known plant since Vedic era. It is botanically known as Saussurea lappa– C.B.Clarke. belonging to the family Asteraceae. In present study roots of Saussurea lappa were procured from Dehradun and Gokshura fruit from periphery of Jamnagar and authenticated in Pharmacognosy laboratory of I.P.G.T. and R.A. Clinical study was designed as randomized, prospective, single blind, controlled, parallel and exploratory. In present study 28 patients were randomly divided in two groups. Group A was treated with Kushtha Churna, 1 gm /twice with lukewarm water and Group B (Control) was treated with Gokshura Churna, 2 gm /twice with lukewarm water for 60 days each. Total 25 patients completed the treatment; 13 in Group A and 12 in Group B. The assessment was done on the basis of changes in classical sign and symptoms of Shukradushti, seminal parameters and sexual health (parameters) observed before and after treatment. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. Encouraging results were found in Shukradushti, semen parameters and sexual health parameters.
109 Benifits of Herbal Medicine in Spinal Cord Disorder- A Review , Dattu D. Karande, M. B. Shende and D. S. Chothe
Medicinal plants have always been a part of mankind. Many herbs specifically support and nourish the nervous system and some of them beneficial in spinal cord. The most common cause of spinal cord injury is road traffic accident that causes injury to the spinal cord. Due to this several number of patient loss their daily routine work. The purpose of this systematic review is to collect the evidence based information of ayurvedic herbs useful in spinal cord disorder and represent in systematic manner
110 Agni-Beyond Digestive Fire – An Exploratory Study , Satender Tanwar and Pradnya Chittawadgi
NIRUKTI / DEFINITION- Agni in Ayurvedic classics can be referred as following, अन्गाति उर्ध्वगत्ति अति l अिौ स््नामग्रतिन्गेिेजो भेदेll (्ा्स्पियम) That which having the tendency to move forwards and it is considered to be the type of TEJAS.
111 Ayurvedic Approach on Anatomical Basis of Endocrine Disorders: A Review , Dhannajay, Naresh K. Kumawat
An estimated 108 million people in India suffer from endocrine and metabolic disorders. The disorders relating to endocrine system can be grossly divided into functional abnormalities and structural abnormalities. While functional disorders like hypothyroidism, DM type 1, etc. are very common in present day clinical practice, some of the common structural abnormalities result in diseases like thyroid adenoma, undescended testis etc. Thorough understanding of the anatomical organization of the endocrine system can help in the clinical diagnosis of these conditions leading to early detection. The management of many of the above disorders involves surgical measures which also require a well off anatomical understanding. Role of Ayurveda in the determination and development of organ are many factors such as Prakruthi (constitution of the body), Nature of Shukra (nature of sperm) and Shonita (nature of ovum), Garbhashaya (nature of uterus), Season (fertility time), Food and deed of mother, Panchamahabhutha (five basic element of nature).
112 Role of Pādābhyaṁga in the Health of Human Beings , Teena Jain and Sunil Kumar Yadav
Āyurveda is considered to be the mother of all forms of modern medicine. Pañcakarma is based on central concepts of Āyurveda, and used in Āyurvedika medicine to treat almost all diseases. Our skin is the largest organ of our body though we do not aware of it. It is also the most important and rich source of healing substances. It is very sensitive to the touch therapy, particularly to the Abhyaṁga with powder, oil, aromas or just to the gentle touch. Abhyaṁga is one type of external oleation therapy. Literary meaning of the Abhyaṁga is to produce some motions. Rubbing or stroking after applying ghṛta, Taila, etc. on the skin, helps in their absorption. A person should resort to Abhyaṁga every day if he wants to keep himself healthy. In classics, Abhyaṁga has been mentioned as the part of dinacaryā i.e. daily routine. It is very useful before performing physical exercise. It promotes healthy growth in the young, helps adults maintain health and vigour, and is an aid in preventing the onset of degenerative diseases in the aged. The Āyurvedika approach to health and wellbeing involves balancing the energies in the polarities (head and feet). Pādābhyaṁga has a very special place within Āyurvedika tradition. Pādābhyaṁga is considered most helpful in the prevention and treatment of illness. It is suggested that Pādābhyaṁga is practiced as a daily ritual, especially before going to sleep at night.
113 Critical Study of Asthapana Basti , Alok Singh Sengar, Neelam Kumari Singh
Ayurveda is based on the fundamental of tridosha. Vata, pitta and kapha are considered as chief factors responsible for health and disease. For achieving healthy life Ayurveda describes a well known procedure which is known as Panchakarma. Among these Panchakarma basti is a well known best procedure for Vataj disease. Vasti is the Karma in which, the medicine prepared according to disease and it administered through rectal canal which reaches up to the Nabhi Pradesh, Kati, Parswa, Kukshi. Vamana and Virecana cannot be used in old persons, children and in weak. In such a condition Asthapana Basti alone is the best therapy. Asthapana Basti stabilizes the Age (Vaya), normal functions of Dosa, Dhatu and Deha i.e., strength of the body. The present review article deals with Asthapana basti as described in Bhrihattrayee (Charak samhita, Sushrut samhita, Ashtang hridyam).. In this paper we study the different aspects of asthapana basti which is mentioned in Sushruta-Samhita, Ashtang-Hridaya, Charaka-Samhita.
114 A Review on Management of Hridroga w.s.r. to Ayurveda , Tripathi Arun Kumar, Singh Deshraj, Tiwari Akanksha
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) comprises of the group of heart disease and the vascular system. The major conditions are Coronary heart disease (CHD), Hypertension and Congenital heart disease. The WHO has drawn attention to the fact that CHD is our modern “epidemic” i.e., a disease that affects population, not an unavoidable attribute of ageing. India is currently leading towards becoming a heart disease capital of the world. This puts a tremendous pressure on available resources of medical and surgical management. Treatment of cardiovascular diseases in elderly is not easy and there is a need for the development of drugs which can be used safely for a longer period. Many of the clinical features of “Hridroga” described in Ayurvedic classics are similar to that of cardiovascular diseases and can be adequately managed by classical herbs. This article aims at what are the risk factors and causes of cardiovascular diseases, their prevalence and with its possible prevention in Ayurveda.
115 Chemical Characterization and Antibacterial activity of Swarna Jibanti (Coelogyne cristata Lindl.) , Achintya Mitra, Sreya Dutta, Dhirendra Nath Mandal, Kumkum Bhattacharyya, Dipankar Bhattacharyya and Jayram Hazra
Ayurveda has a long therapeutic history since the time of immemorial which is still vulnerable as it is serving many of the ailments for large number of the population. Swarna Jibanti (Coelogyne cristata Lindl.) is being used as a single plant or as an ingredient for certain polyherbal formulations since the period of Veda for promoting the healthy life and rejuvenation. As it belongs to orchids and not widely available in the market, considering the huge demand in the industry, there is always chances of adulteration as no quality control profiles are ready in-hand. The standardization profiles and chemical characterization through pharmacognostic evaluation and chemical assays, viz. HPLC, LCMC, HPTLC profiles were carried out that can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species. Swarna Jibanti is anti-infective, potentiates immunity and antibacterial activities. The standardization of Swarna Jibanti was carried out pharmacognostically through cellular and chemo-taxonomic profiles. A module of standard operating procedure along with of pharmacognostical studies and chemical characterization has been developed with the help of modern sophisticated tools. The antimicrobial activity of the test drug in different solvent system has been carried out which reveals its significant activity against certain microorganisms. The standardized Swarna Jibanti was found to be potent antimicrobial against certain microorganisms.
116 Role of Kalabasti in Pakshaghata w.s.r. to Hemiplegia – A Case Study , Shital Shivaram Pawar, Shankar Lahuraj Mane and S. R. Saley
Pakshaghata is a severe blow to the sufferer’s life. The patient not only suffers physically but also goes through a severe mental depression due to inability. It is characterized by loss of function and mobility of half of the body either Rt. or Lt. pain and disturbed speech. It can be correlated with Hemiplegia of modern medicine. A case is described of 62 year, old male farmer by occupation, complaining of weakness in Lt. Upper and lower limb, unable to stand without support. C.T. brain shows chronic ischemic changes in Lt. occipital and Rt. Temporal lobe. With these complaints patient was admitted in our institute. Basti is the ultimate route of administration for obtaining both systemic and local effect in vatavyadhi. Pakshaghata is one of the vatavyadhi hence kalabasti is selected for present case. At the same time he was also on medication with physiotherapy. Patient was in our institute for 1 month and showed substantial improvement.
117 A Review on Role of Vyayama (Physical Exercise) in the Prevention and Management of Madhumeha (Diabetes Mellitus-Type 2) , Megha G. Pandya
Diabetes mellitus is a life style disorder prevalent in both developed and developing countries and has increased alarmingly, giving the disease the dimension of an epidemic. The aim of present study is to review the role of Vyayama(physical exercise) in the prevention and management of diabetesmellitus. In Ayurveda, the role of Vyayama(physical exercise) has been described elaborately as a part of Dinacharya(daily routine)and in the prevention as well as management of Madhumeha (diabetesmellitus). One classical quotation i.e. "Withdrawing of luxury to create happiness" mentioned by AcharyaVagbhatta is very classical for preventing D.M. During recent years, the association between physical activity and type 2 diabetes mellitus management has been assessed by a number of studies. Today, the beneficial role of exercise has been fully documented and exercise should be incorporated systematically in the prevention and treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus.
118 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effect of Ayurveda in Current Scenario , Priyanka Triwedi and Anamika Shukla
ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral and developmental disorder of childhood, characterized by emotional problems, low self-esteem with inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Its incidence is 3-5 % globally. Conventional modern treatment with stimulant drugs lead to many side effects. There is need to develop alternative treatment with safe and effective medicine. Exact cause of ADHD is unknown but there are no. of factors which can contribute to the appearance and progression of this disorder including specific inherited genes, food additives, and environmental factors like harmful habits during pregnancy. Ayurveda includes herbal and nutritional supplementation, meditation, yoga and abhyanga for the treatment of physical and psychological disorder, therefore there should be some parenting tips with yoga for ADHD children to reduce stress like Suryanamaskar, Pranayam, Vrikshasana, Meditation and medicines suggested are MedhyaRasayana, Brahmi (Bacopamonnnieri), Shankhpushpi (as nervine tonic and mind soother), Sarpagandha (reduce hyperactivity). Some researches explored the effectiveness of massage and exercise therapy on reducing symptoms and medication doses in ADHD school age patients.
119 Logical Establishment of Doshatva of Shonita –Review Article , Sharma Girdhar Gopal
The tridosha theory is a fundamental principal in Ayurveda classics, but in the context of dhatu, Rakta has given especial importance in evidence, for this various references are found in different samhitas, where rakta has been kept along with Dosha. All these references are collected and discussed in this article to justify the vitality of rakta in the present scenario.
120 Legal Aspect of Abortion for Health Care Professionals , Brijendra Singh Tomar
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that worldwide 210 million women become pregnant each year and that about two-thirds of them, or approximately 130 million, deliver live infants1 . The remaining one-third of pregnancies end in miscarriage, stillbirth, or induced abortion1 . Of the estimated 42 million induced abortions each year, nearly 20 million are performed in unsafe conditions and/or by unskilled providers and result in the deaths of an estimated 47,000 girls and women1 . This represents about 13 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths1 .While the incidence of abortion in India is unknown, the most widely cited figure suggests that around 6.7 million abortions take place annually. According to government data, only about one million of these are performed legally. The remaining abortions are performed by medical and non-medical practitioners. Levels of unsafe abortions are very high in India, especially given that abortion is legal for a broad range of indications, and available in the public and private health sector. Therefore an attempt is made to make aware the health care professionals about the various provisions of laws related to abortion so that they can play a major role to aware society.
121 Review of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and its Ayurvedic Management , Poornima Mansoria, Shyam Babu Singh and Anita Sharma
Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the leading poisoning happening worldwide. Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless and tasteless gas which is easily mixed with other gases and by inhalation produce several complications. In blood CO is attached to hemoglobin resulting in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin which causes mitochondrial dysfunction by binding cytochrome oxidase. Symptoms of CO poisoning are related to the percentage concentration of carboxyhemoglobin. The management of CO poisoning in modern medicine is to increase the oxygen concentration at cellular level and in Ayurveda some like Vamana, Kawalgraha and Shirovirechana are carried out for the same.
122 Physiological effect of Avapidsnehana and MutralDravya on Renal Calculi (VatajAshmari) , Kawarkhe Santosh Dnyanbarao, Ramesh M. Bansode, and S. S. Sant
Diet plays an important role in pathogenesis of kidney stones .Mutrashmari– Urolithiasis is a consequence of complex physiochemical processes which involves sequence of event in the formation of any urinary stone i.e., consequence of imbalance between stone promoters and inhibitor in the kidney. Urinary stones are the major cause of Morbidity. Increased incidence of Urolithiasis in this industrialized world is associated with improved standards of living and is strongly associated with race, ethnicity and religion of individuals due to its specific life style and bad habit of food intake. The identification of common, modifiable risk factors for Urolithiasis may result in new approach for treatment and prevention. With these objectives, in this study,the Avapidsnehapan, Abhayarishta and Pashanbhedchurna are used widely for the management of Mutrashmari. These have Vedanashamaka(Reduced pain/Spasm), Mutrala(Diuretic property) and Ashmaribhedaka (Lithotriptic) properties in them. In the present work, we tried to study the combined effect of Avapidsnehapan, Abhayarishta and Pashanbhedchurna with respect to disintegration/ expulsion of the calculi.
123 Clinical Study of Compound (Emblica Officinalis Gaertn.), Terminalia chebula Retz., Piper longum Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) with special reference to its role in Jvara (Fever) , Sapna Chaudhary and Vinod Kumar Joshi
The existence of medicine shows its prehistoric antiquity. The knowledge regarding medicinal value of plant was been collected in a course of several centuries. Ayurveda reveals that we had a rich knowledge of the use of medicinal plants from very ancient times. The ancient scholars have described the medicinal properties of plants through their deep observation, analysis of observation and after words clinical assessment in patients. Amalakyadi gana is one of the formulation of Sushruta samhita 38th chapter of Sutra sthana, which is said as Sarvajvarahara (to alleviate all kind of fever) and Amalakyadi gana consist of four drugs i.e., Amalaki, (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.,) and Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.). Pathophysiology of the disease Jvara reveals that it is caused due to Vikrita Pitta, Agnimandya and Srotorodha. Most of the drugs are having Laghu guna, Usna virya and Madhura vipaka therefore acting act as Pitta Shamaka, Dipana, Pachana, Srotoshodhana.
124 A Comparative Clinical Study of Lekhana Basti and Shamana Sneha (Triphaladi Taila) in the Management of Sthaulya (Obesity) , Shital G. Bhagiya, Ram B. Shukla, Falgun P. Patel
Obesity is not merely a cosmetic problem but a severe threat to health which causes Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Osteoarthritis etc. According to Ayurveda, it can be co-related to Sthaulya following the methodology given by Acharya Charaka. It’s a serious problem and needs a permanent solution. Ayurveda, the 5000 year old science of healthy living has solution to this current problem. In the Ayurvedic perspective, these should be a major shift in awareness. Ayurveda does not treat obesity; it treats a person who is obese or overweight. There are many treatments available but Panchkarma is said to be very effective treatment for any diseases, so present study was carried out to evaluate efficacy of Lekhana Basti which was described by Acharya Sushruta. In another group Shamana Sneha in the form of Triphaladi taila was taken for study which is also described in Samhita. Both groups played significant role in all parameters of obesity without side effect. We found highly significant results in Weight Gain, Kshudra-Swas, Gatra gaurav, Atikshudha, Ati pipasa etc. and also in objective parameters like chest, abdomen, arm, mid-calf circumference etc. in comparison of two groups Lekhana Basti is Effective therapy in the management of sthaulya.
125 Role of Vyayama in the Prevention of Hridroga w.s.r. to Heart Diseases , Rajiv Amal, Jigisha Patel, M V Patel, S N Gupta and K B Patel
Charaka described 107 marmas in the body. Among these Basti, Hridaya and Murdha are three marmas considered as pradhanabhuta marma. If Vatadi dosha are vitiated through the nidana sevana, these three vitiated doshas also vitiate the prana and its ashraya sthana – marma are also responsible for the development of different diseases. Vyayama has direct effect on the causative factor of dosha dushti, which ultimately affects vital organs like Basti, Shira, Hridaya etc. According to modern concepts exercise improves muscle tone, work capacity, appetite and blood circulation, which helps the heart muscle to become strong and more efficient. In addition, the entire circulatory system works more efficiently due to vascular dilatation and cholesterol reduction. Exercise reduces fatigue, weight, reduces stress, anxiety and depression, which are the ultimate causative factors of heart disease. Vyayama is a one of the best concept for prevention of diseases of Hridaya (heart).
126 An Overview and Approach towards Intellectual Disability and its Management in Ayurveda , R.C.Harinkhede,D. B. Chavan, P.L. Patil and V.U.Gawai
Intellectual disability (formerly called mental retardation) refers to a group of disorders that have in common deficits of adaptive and intellectual function and an age of onset before maturity is reached. Three criteria must be met to establish the diagnosis of intellectual disability: significantly sub average intellectual function, significant impairments in adaptive function, and onset before 18 yrs of age. Though Ayurvedic literature does not describe it clearly as a separate disease entity but it throws light on the aetiopathogenesis, presentation, along with prophylactic and some specific measures for management of such disorders. After summarizing scattered references on intellectual disability, it is clear that genetic factors (beejadosha), improper diet (apathya), suppression of natural urges (vegadharana) and gynecological disorders (yonidosha) during pregnancy play important role in the development of fetal disorders (garbhavikrati) and mental disorder (manasikvikara). Currently available treatment in conventional system of medicine is palliative while in Ayurveda medhya drugs (memory boosters and enhancers) are described for such disorders which are quite safe and free from side effect. In the present review article author did an effort not only to highlight etiopathology but also management of intellectual disability supported by various studies in the field of Ayurveda.
127 Physiological Impression on Ojas and its Pathological Glimpse , Dadhich N.K and Sharma Pooja
Ayurveda is essentially the science of life. Ayurveda has scientific background and will provide stimulus to new and original renovation from the remodelling of theories and concept. One of the basic fundamental concept or view of Ayurveda is Ojas. Ojas that balances almost all assiduous essence of nutrients and zeal level in body. Everyone is known with the term of immunity that is compared with Bala or Oja in Ayurveda. Ayurveda is science of life i.e., of Ayu. For longevity of Ayu, Aahara is important. Its Ayurvedic concept of Karya-Karna Sidhanta in this Aahara is Karya & Karana is Ojas. Oja is sara of the all the Dhatu’s (tissues) and important part of all the Dhatu’s from Rasa to Shukra Dhatu’s. It gives all the positive ponders of the life and is precious for living. All livelihoods are harboured and sustained by Ojas & if it diminishes or shrinks it leads to abandonment of life. Numerous authors and saints have mentioned about Ojas therefore we have different concepts on Ojas. Hence, this review article endeavours to make clear understanding of Ojas as saints said in texts with its normal and abnormal points.
128 Mamsa Dhatu: an Image of Nutritive Buildcon of Body , Aniket A Shilwant and Niraj F Mandod
Mamsa is one of the seven constructive build icons of body namely dhatus. It is widely accepted by all the Ayurvedic scholars who named it as Pishit, Taras, Palal, Raktateja, Medaskruta, Kravyam, Aamisha and so on. It helps in formation of Mamsa dhatu in the body with its principle site in body as muscles, tendons and skin. It maintains the metabolism of Mamsa dhatu in body by Mamsadhara kala which is also concerned with the same. Irrespective of Panchabhautik origin, Mamsa dhatu has Prithvi mahabhuta in its dominance, Vasa (Omentum) and Tvacha (Skin and its layers) as its Updhatu (Accessory tissue) and Kha mala as its excretory product. The well build musculature of a person indicates good and proper nourishment of the individual. This excellence of a Mamsa dhatu seen in such a person is resembled by Mamsa sara purusha with its specific symptoms. Mamsa dhatu is formed by the metabolic process over Rakta dhatu by the respective Dhatwagni viz., Mamsadhatwagni. Thus any kind of abnormality or deviation in this process leads to disorders oriented with Mamsa dhatu and certainly having an impact over upcoming Dhatus in series. Abnormality of Mamsa dhatu prominently shows emaciation, muscle wasting type disorders impairing overall health of human health, thus leading to lack of immunity and surrendering to any disease easily. So it carries an important role for sustenance and longevity of life.
129 Kriyakalpa- Ayurvedic Therapeutics in Netra Roga , Jitesh Marote and A B Deshmukh
Ayurveda is science of life and its basic aim is to maintain health of human beings and cure the illness. It is one of the oldest scientific medical systems in the world, with long record of clinical experience. Eye is most important organ in the body, which is Adhisthana of Darshanendriya. We must protect and take loving care of this delicate organ, because good vision is necessary for social as well as intellectual development of individual. Diseases of eye, nose, ear, throat comes under the heading of Urdhwajatrugata Vyadhis. Among all of them Acharya Sushruta in Uttartantra described eye anatomy, eye diseases and its treatment more in detail as compared to other Indriyas. Kriyakalpa is main therapeutic procedure of Netra Roga, described in separate chapter in Uttartantra of Sushruta Samhita. In this review article details about Kriyakalpa, their indication, types, mode of action and its importance in Netra Roga Chikitsa will be discussed.
130 Review of Saamanya Shodhan (Common Purification) of Metals (Dhatus) , Jyoti Brijesh Gavali
Metals are in use as medicines since centuries. These metals have to undergo various types of processing before it is used in medicines. One of these processes is saamanya shodhana (common method of purificationwhere the thin (kantakvedhi) sheets of metals are subjected to heat and immediately quenched in different organic liquid media. This method is common to all the metals like gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, zinc, lead, and alloys like brass and bronze. In this process thin sheets of metals are heated and quenched in different liquid media for a specific number of times repeatedly. This introduces the organic properties in the metals as well as reduces its particle size and reduces/removes toxic properties from the metals. The effect of this is that microcracks develop in the metal, and the metal loses its physical properties of malleability and ductility. Toxic properties if any are reduced to the minimum (tolerable). In summation the shodhana causes reduction in particle size, introduction of organic elements, removes impurities and reduces toxicity of the metals. The different liquid media are variable in nature and components. Micro fractures are caused on the surface of the metals due to imbalance in the tension and compression forces. Depth and size of these fractures depend on the tensile stress, stress concentration, temperature, and surface energy according to fracture mechanics (Griffith’s theory). Difference in nature of the fluids may cause addition to the stress. These factors cause particle size reduction of the metals.
131 A Conceptual Study of Dry Eye Symptom Complex as a Purvaroopa of Netraroga in Over Users of Computer , Nilakshi S. Pradhan1 * and Pravin M Bhat
In today’s lifestyle a man can have all sorts of facilities available at finger touch. Though due to this, life of man is becoming luxurious but it has some ill effects on health. Extreme interference of electronic instruments, change in food habits and daily regime, all these have decreased physical capacity of man. In Ayurveda it is described that Atiyoga of Chakshurndriya is responsible for various eye complications, such as Dry eye symptom complex. Purvarooopa’s of NetraRoga are described by Sushrutacharya. Present study is conceptual study and tried to correlate association between Purvaroopa’s of Netra Roga and Dry eye symptom complex in over users of computer.
132 Scientific View towards Suvarnaprashana in Alternative Medicines , ChetanGulhane, Deepali Gulhane, Danga SK , Ashita Surve and Kalpana Dhuri
Knowledge of metals and chemicals were known to Indians since the time of Vedas. In Rugveda it is said that Gold is the semen of Agni. It is the vigor and virility of Agni. Gold increases vigor and virility. Internal use of Gold was in vogue from the time of Atharvaveda. Correction of Agni (metabolic enzymes of body) is the main aim of Ayurvedic treatment. During that time it was used for Medhajanan (to improve cognition) for children and for begetting the desired sex of child for pregnant lady. Suvarnaprashana is one of ‘Samskara’ (rituals) in which a child is made to lick Gold, Suvarnaprashana improves intelligence, improves immunity and prevents bacterial and viral infections, digestive fire and physical power. It gives long, spiritual, holy and saintly life. Researches on Gold and Gold compounds in modern medicine and in alternative medicines, supports the Suvarnaprashana concept of Ayurveda.
133 Role of Virechana (Therapeutic Purgation) in the Management of Ekakushtha (Psoriasis) -A Case Study , Megha G. Pandya, Hetal D. Vyas and Rita H. Khagram
Psoriasis is consider as type of Kushtha (skin diseases) and may be well correlated to various varieties of Kushtha, among them Eka-kushta, Kitibha are the commonest due to the resemblance of signs and symptom. Here, Ekakushtha is accepted as Psoriasis because the description and characteristic features of it are co-related with description of Psoriasis than any other type of Kushtha. Effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of Psoriasis in contemporary medicine may have long-term toxic side effects, which makes alternative system of medicine a good choice because it overcomes the said limitations. The mainstay of treatment in Ayurveda for Kushtha is shodhana (bio purification), which eliminates the vitiated doshas. Virechana (therapeutic purgation) is less stressful procedure than Vamana (therapeutic emesis) and has less possibility of complications. So, the present work has been under taken to study the role of Virechana (therapeutic purgation) in the management of psoriasis- A case study. After treatment patients recovered symptomatically, the itching and scaling was relieved completely, burning was very mild and intermittent. But, there is mild improvement in nail changes. So, it is concluded that Virechana (therapeutic purgation) was effective and showed considerable improvement in the patient of Psoriasis.
134 Comparative Physicochemical Study on Alambusadi Churna Tablet and Simhanad Guggulu Pill , Saroj Kumar Debnath, Abichal Chattopadhyaya and Sudhaben N. Vyas
It is internationally recognized that medicinal plants play a major role for providing health benefits more safely to human beings. The complex composition of medicinal plant based drugs has a major challenge for quality control. Maximum Ayurvedic drugs are plant based drugs. Physicochemical analysis is the most important part for standardization of the medicinal plant based drugs. Two most important Ayurvedicdrugs i.e., Alambushadi Churna tablet and Simhanad Guggulu pill had been selected from Ayurvedic famous books named BhavaPrakasha and BhaishajyaRatnavali, respectively for comparative Physicochemical study. These two Ayurvedic drugs are mainly and commonly used in the treatment of disease Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis). Preparation and Physicochemical study of both these drugs was carried out in the Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. This comparative Physicochemical study revealed that Alambushadi Churna tablet contains more moisture, less inorganic constituents and more water soluble constituents than Simhanad Guggulu pill and hardness as well as disintegration time of Alambushadi Churna tablet was less than Simhanad Guggulu pill.
135 Concept of Aahar According to Prakruti , Manisha V. Jaybhaye and Sampada S. Sant
Ayurveda is a medical system that deals not only with body but with the mind and spirit as well. Ayurveda emphasizes on consuming healthy and nutritious diet. Diet is considered to be a vital for a human body as it provides the basic nutrients. Unfortunately in modern era the concept of Hita ahara which are having a great influence on once health is being ignored. Today fast food chains become a global phenomenon. Eating habits have changed dramatically for example combining food. As a result man has to pay penalty. Doshaj Prakruti is useful to understanding the entire make-up of an individual, what their strength and weakness are, how they respond to different food. Acharya charaka described that every individual must have diet according to Prakruti to remain healthy.
136 Critical Ayurvedic Evaluation of Determinants of Deha Prakriti , Kumari Monika, Sharma Naresh Kumar, Dhiman Kamini, Meena Kedar L .and Vardhan Prabhakar
Ayurveda is one of the oldest systems of medicine of the world with principal concepts of tridosha and prakriti. The dehaprakriti (body constitution) of person is named according to the innate predominance of dosha at the very time of conception. Deha prakriti is the leading factor which determines the pattern of susceptibility of an individual to different diseases, their prognosis, course and complications. Hence, the ayurvedic concept of dehaprakriti is helpful in maintaining health, understanding disease and its management. Also, the ultimate aim of Ayurveda i.e., attainment of PurusharthChatushtaya viz. dharma (gooddeeds), artha (wealth), kama (desires), moksha (salvation)is possible only if person is healthy and knowledge of one’s own prakriti can be helpful in maintenance of one’s health by following proper diet and regimen. Ayurveda confers the psychosomatic constitution, as dehaprakriti, which is represented by a vibrant description of the physique, physiology & psychological make-up of an individual. The dehaprakriti is essentially genetically determined and is likely to be influenced by a variety of environmental factors to some extent. The approach of ayurveda on the subjects of determinants of dehaprakriti is quite comprehensive and vivid. The article enumerates the factors, which together lay the psychological and physical make up of an individual. The review has been prepared with the help of analysis of ancient classical texts and journals.
137 Prognostic Effect of Amavatari Ras in the Management of Rheumatiod Arthritis vis-a-vis Amavata , Indra Pal,Akanksha Tiwari and N. P. Rai
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Ayurveda can be correlated with amavata, adisease of multiple joint pain and swelling. The main pathogenic factor in this disease is ama, which is formed duegastro-intestinal disturbance. When this ama gets seat of joints it causes amavata. In rheumatoid arthritis some inflammatory mediators and antibodies appear in blood, which are identified as diagnostic as well as prognostic marker like rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sediment rate (ESR), anti- cyclic citrullinated phosphate antibody (anti-CCPab). For these clinical trials twenty six patients of RA were selected from kayachikitsa OPD and IPD,Sir Sundar Lal Hospital BHU, Varanasi, India to study the effect of trial drug Amavatari rasa on these inflammatory mediators. Drug was proved to be effective in lowering the titre of these mediators and symptoms of RA were also improved
138 Pharmacognostical and Pharmaceutical Evaluation of Balachaturbhadra Vati - A Well-Known Drug for Paediatric Disorders , Suhas A. Chaudhary, Shingadiya Rahul K., Patel K. S., Kori V. K., Rajagopala S., Harisha C.R. and Shukla V. J.
It is important to treat every disease in childhood period at the earliest as it may hamper the proper growth and development of child. Recurrent cold can correlate with disease Pratishyaya in Ayurveda, which is a causative factor for another disease as it can produce Kshaya. Due to diseased condition in childhood, school absenteeism and expenditures of medicine are the burden on the family that ultimately affects the civilization. Balachaturbhadra Churna is a compelling medicine for the childhood disorders. But due to bitter taste and short shelf life, the powder form converts to tablet form by introducing Balachaturbhadra Vati. The present work was planned to standardize the finished product Balachaturbhadra Vati to conform its identity, quality and purity. In pharmacognostical work Annular vessels, Compound Starch grains, Group of stone cells with yellow content, Prismatic crystals of Ativisha; Annular vessels, Fragment of annular vessels, Fragments of sclary form, Silica deposition, Starch grain with hylem of Musta; Black debrice, Oil globule, stone cell of Pippali; Dark brown content, Fibres, Scleroids of Shringi were observed. Organoleptic features of BCV are solid in consistency, light ash grey colour, bitter odour, bitter-astringent taste, round and bi-convex in shape were observed. The pH value of BCV was 8, Acid insoluble ash was 1.89 %w/w, Water-soluble extract was 26.2 %w/w, Loss on drying was 5.66 %w/w, Ash value was 9.4 %w/w, Alcohol soluble extractive (%w/w) was 12.72 %w/w and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography at 254nm and 366nm resulted into 4 and 1 spots, respectively.
139 Role of Daruharidra Rasanjana Pratisaran in the Management of Krimigranthi w.s.r. to Blepharitis- A Literature Review , Manisha Maruti Mastud and Kalpana S.Wakode
Ayurvedic approach for treatment of Krimigranthi (Blephrities) is to treat symptoms and prevent recovery of this disease. Krimigranti is one of the Sandhigata Netraroga which is characterised by itching, irritation, mild discomfort, occasional pain, watering and falling of eye lashes. This condition can be correlated to Blephrities which is one of the most common inflammation diseases of the lid margin. It is very common eye disorder which affects people of all age groups and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eye sight. In Ayurveda the treatment comprises of Swedana, Bhedana and Pratisaran. In present study Daruharidra Pratisaran was selected in the form of local therapy, because Daruharidra has property of quick wound healing which is useful in the treatment of pain and itching related disorder related to eyes and also having anti-inflammatory, anti-toxic property that tackles the above condition and hence selected for the present study.
140 Scientific Interpretation of Vaman , Praveen Lendal, C.D. Vaikos, P.G. Sali
Vaman is sanshodahan chikitsa (biopurification treatment) in which vitiated doshas (toxins) are eliminated from body through kaphamoola sthan. It is useful in healthy as well as ailing persons. It is neglected due to fear of complication. The present paper endeavor to interpretation of Vaman karma (procedure) in a scientific way which helps the physician to propagate vaman as treatment on a large scale for respiratory disorders, skin disorders, obesity, prediabetic and much more
141 An Observational Study on Role of Katibasti and RasnadiGuggul in the Management of Katigatvata , C.S.Tanmane, Sandhya N.Wagh and A.S.Charde
Katigatvata/katishool is the emerging problem arising due to the adaptation of modern life style. Many patients are suffering from this condition, having no suitable treatment available in the modern medicine except analgesics and surgery. However, in Ayurveda medicine there is better management described in texts for katigatvata. The clinical study was conducted in 30 patients of katigatvata treated with Ayurvedic Herbal medicine RasnadiGuggul and Katibasti with Dashamul oil. All the patients were divided into 3 groups of 10 patients each. Group A of 10 patients were advised RasnadiGuggul 500 mg twice a day for one month. Patients of Group B were administered katibasti with Dashmool oil for 21 days. While patients of Group C were recommended Tab RasnadiGuggul 500 mg twice a day for one month along with katibasti for 21 days, simultaneously. It was observed that patients of Katigatvata of Group C treated with herbal drug RasnadiGuggul and Katibasti showed maximum percentage of improvement as comparative to Group A and Group B. No side effects were noted in any of the patients during the trial period.
142 Combined Effect of Kshar Basti and Panchasama Churna in Amavata With Special Reference to Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Report , Dipali G. Nagpure, S.I. Pathan, V.E. Gogte, Minakshi S. Joshi and Mukunda B. Bargade
Amavata is one among the most crippling disorders, one of the most hazardous disease to patients and challenging to physician. It can be compared to Rheumatoid Arthritis (R.A.) based on similarity of signs and symptoms. Ayurveda literature has a wealth of resource information regarding the measures providing treatment and preventing complications of this disease. Chakrapani has recommended role of kshar basti in amvata chikitsa- adhyaya 25. Panchasama churna has been mentioned by Sharangdhara as shooloharam param in Churnakalpana adhyaya. In this case report, combined effect of kshar basti and panchasama churna was tried in a patient of R.A. and assessment was done on the basis of disease activity score 28 by American Association of R.A., as well as symptoms as per described in Madhav Nidan. Results of the treatment were encouraging.
143 Ayurvedic Management of Shayyamutrata (Enuresis): A Literature Review , Sachin R. Bhagwat and V.U.Gawai
Shayyamutrata (Enuresis) is an involuntary discharge of urine. In most of the cases the chief cause of enuresis is behavioral and emotional factors. It can also occur due to the urinary tract infection, food allergies, obstructive sleep, apnea, chronic constipation etc. The prevalence of enuresis is about 15-25% of children at 5 years of age, 8% of 12 years old boys and 4% of 12 years old girls. Srotovarodha and vitiation of Sadhaka, Tarpaka Kapha, Pachaka Pitta, Manovaha Srotas and Atinidra are the factors responsible for development of Shayyamutra. Ayurveda suggest importance of pharmacological as well as psychological treatment for the disease. This article describes some ancient view on Shayyamutrata.
144 Combined Approach for Treatment of Cancer w.s.r to Dietary Recommendations , Nitin Sharma and Rakesh K.Nagar
Cancer is the most dreadful of all the diseases. Typically growing in the form of tumors, new tumors emerge as cells take root and grow in different parts of the body. Classical ayurvedic texts have several references to cancer. It combines a number of approaches such as changes in lifestyle, herbal remedies, exercise and meditation to strengthen and purify the body and mind and increase spiritual awareness. Herbs offer great potential to stimulate the healing process and can even destroy cancer cells. Dietary patterns, foods, nutrients and other dietary constituents are closely associated with the risk for several types of cancer. Evidence suggests that diets high in fiber containing foods, rich in fruits, vegetables and grain products, carotenoids, vitamin C are associated with a reduced risk for cancer.
145 Role of Matra Basti with AhacharadiTail in the Management of Gridharasi (Sciatica) , Rita Khagram and Megha Pandya
A change in lifestyle of human beings has created several disharmonies in his biological system. With the advancement of busy, professional and social life, improper sitting postures in offices and factories, jerking movements during travelling and sports; all these factors create undue pressure on the spinal cord and play an important role in producing low backache and sciatica. According to Charaka Samhita, Gridhrasi comes under 80 types of Nanatmaja Vatavyadhi which is characterized by its distinct pain emerging from buttock and going towards the heal of afflicted side. On the basis of symptoms it can be well co-related with “Sciatica” in modern terminology. In spite of the different types of treatment modalities mentioned in ancient and modern medical sciences, they have some or the other shortcomings and drawbacks. Considering all these, the present study was taken up with the objective of evaluating the role of Matra basti in the management of Gridhrasi. Due to promising results of Rasna Guggulu practically proven in Gridhrasi, it was chosen as control group. Total 24 patients of Gridhrasi were randomly divided into two groups. The patients of Group-A (13 patients) were given Matra basti with Sahacharadi Tail for 14 days and the patients of Group-B (11patients) were given only Rasna Guggulu. All the patients responded favorably to the treatment in both the groups, but with Marta Basti, the therapy has shown better relief in most of the cardinal and associated signs and symptoms of the disease.
146 Review on Kasturi: A JantavaDravya (Animal Product) , Kumar Sanjeev, Ram Bhuwal and Dwivedi Kamal Nayan
The name of Musk is known to the entire mankind but today, only a few persons have the privilege to smell its odor. There is a perfume so famous that everyone on earth knows its name but it is so rare that only very few living human beings can boast at having ever smelled it. All kind of deer do not have “The Musk” The musk found in which deer, that is Known as Kasturimrig (Sanskrit), Hiranmuski (Unani). The Musk comes from a small deer that has two fangs; he uses to scratch forest lichens on which it feeds. Musk has been a key constituent in many perfumes since its discovery, being held to give a perfume long-lasting power as a fixative. Practitioners of Indigenous Systems of Medicine claim to obtain beneficial results with musk in various disorders viz. Visha (Toxicity), Chardi (Vomiting), Daurgandhya (fetid smell), Kilas (leucoderma).
147 An Ayurvedic Review of Shigru from Kosha and Nighantus Efficacy and Safety , Brijesh kumar, Kanhaiya Agrawal, Anil Kumar Singh
Ayurveda is the life science and indicate knowledge of appropriate and inappropriate. It has many treasures of life that make man disease free, healthy and long living. From Vedic to modern era, all the researches have been directed by the eminent scholars to achieve the same. Ayurvedic form of Materia Medica i.e., Nighantusand Koshacould help significantly in this direction. There are many Nighantusthat have been written from 5th century A.D. till 20thCentury A.D, in which synonyms, properties and medicinal uses of different plants were described. Various aspects of Shigru are discuss in a chronological order from Kosha, Nighantusin this work.
148 An Observational Clinical Study of Navayasalauha Tablets w.s.r. to Iron Deficiency Anemia , Joshi Nirali B. and Shankar M. B.
Sanskrit word Pandu means pale or Sweta Peet Varna. The disease in which whole body becomes pale is called Pandu roga. The main cause of Pandu roga is related to diet. In short, Pandu roga is related to Anemia in modern system of medication. It is more resembles to Iron deficiency anemia. Insufficient dietary intake and improper absorption of iron are the causes of Iron Deficiency Anemia which presents with the significant symptoms such as feeling of weakness, tiredness, and shortness of breath, palpitations, Koilonychia, Glossitis, Dysphagia and altered sensation of taste. Allopathic iron preparations are gastric irritants and having common side effects like nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea and black stool. Ayurvedic herbo mineral formulations are the better alternative to treat iron deficiency anemia. Navayasa loha, a herbo mineral compound contains loha bhasma as one of the ingredient mixed with other herbs. Loha bhasma helps to increase iron content in blood by its nano particulate size, better absorbs of iron and lesser side effect on GIT. Hence Navayasa Lauha was selected as an alternative medicine in iron deficiency anemia. The present work was carried out to check the effectiveness of Navayasa Lauha in iron deficiency anemic patient.
149 A Review of Dhatu Sarata , Pithadiya Archana C, Makwana Dhawal and Dhole Archana N
Examination of ‘Saratva’ indicates ‘Bala’ of an individual. One cannot function without ‘Bala’. For both aims of Ayurveda, namely, maintenance of health and if diseased, to cure the disease and come back to homeostatic condition, physician needs to know his ‘Bala’. Sara means essence of Dhatu or extrme/excellent quality of Dhatu. Qualitative, quantitative and functional assessment of tissues or seven Dhatus is called Dhatu Sarata. Charaka has advised to examine Sara of every Dhatu to understand strength of Dhatus as well as strength of mind.
150 Study of Apana Vata and its Correlation with Arsha , Rashi Sharma and Vipin Kumar Pandey
The subject of ayurveda is physical aggregation of vikaras of panch-mahabhoota and termed as Sharir. It is composed of six dhatus, i.e; Panch-Mahabhoot and the sixth one of non-physical entity that is Atma, Purush or Sharir. Tridosh are considered as the primary and essential constitutional factors of the human organism. These fundamental factors maintain the integrity of human body. Doshas are the body constituents which are responsible for maintenance of the physical integrity of the body. Sharir Vayu is that force which keeps the kapha, pitta, dhatus and malas in motion; like the wind that propels the cloud from place to place in the sky. Functions of apan vata are to retain and eliminate the feces, urine, semen, menstrual blood and fetus when required. Vitiated apana vata coming in contact with anorectal folds gives rise to arsha or haemorrhoids (piles).
151 Role of Apamarg-Kshar Tail in Dushta-Vrana , TikeshwarKaranjekar, Anubhuti P. Manwar, Subhash Y. Raut and Arun M. Lakhapati
A wound is a break in the integrity of the skin or tissue often, which may be associated with destruction of structure and function. Wound is simply a disruption of any tissues. In surgery wound is primary pathology and infection is the most common complication of wound healing. It is encountered in every surgical speciality. Infection leads to cellular and vascular response to bacterial injury. In Ayurveda, infected wound can be compared to dushta-vrana. Vrana is a sarva-sharirgatvyadhi with tridoshaj pathology. Various treatment modalities are described in classical texts of Ayurveda. Ancient Acharyas emphasized the use of Kshar in the treatment of dushta-vrana specially Apamarg-kshar. It also gives symptomatic relief to the patient.
152 A Case Study of Vamanatwa w.s.r. to Short Stature in Children , Rutu V. Patel, S. Rajagopala and S.N.Gupta
Normal growth and development of the child depends upon the environmental factors and genetic endowment. Environmental factors are divided into two categories, one is the proper nutritional supplementation and the other is the child’s diseased condition. If the child does not get proper nutrition and disease free condition then the child cannot achieve proper growth, the reason behind this condition is the indigestion of the food taken by child. Short stature is considered as the height of the child is below 3rd percentile. According to Ayurveda,Vamanatwa is related with VatikaNanatmajaVikara. In the present case of short stature, the patient was found having the Ajeerna, the treatment given was only related to Ajeerna and the child started to gain height. During the whole course of treatment child gained a total of 14 cm of height along with subsidence of other symptoms. This particular case study shows the importance of Agni, and management of Ajeerna in disease manifestations.
153 Concept of Ama w.s.r. to Free Radicals as a Causative Factor of Diseases , Bijita Chutia and Khagen Basumatary
Majority of the endogenous disease begins with the formation of ama in the body. It has tremendous capacity to vitiate the doshas and disturbing the homeostasis (Dhatu-samya). Ama is the resultant of improper digestion or partially digestion of the food particle due to hypofunction of jatharagni and also due to accumulation of mala in the body. It may be considered as partially or incompletely metabolised dhatu in case of dhatvagnimandya. Ama is not a single entity but is a generalized term, which can be applied to many malformed substances in the body. This ama is responsible for the production of various diseases. In modern parameters, ama is supposed to be deadly free radical. Free radical is an atom/molecule that contains one or more unpaired electron, which requires neutralization by free radical scavengers. Thus it exists in an incomplete metabolic state which is also the state of ama described as avipakvam (incompletely digested/metabolised). The present article attempts to understand the concept of ama as well as free radicals as a causative factor if diseases. Free radical theory is one of the biggest clues which help us in understanding the phenomena involved at the molecular level of ama. The above speculation leads to the conclusion that the earlier Ayurvedic concept of ama can be explained to the modern man by justifying it with the help of biochemical parameter called free radicals.
154 Shirodhara – An Ayurvedic Therapeutic , Dhananjay V. Patel and Sarika Patel
Shirodhara is an allied Panchakarma procedure, which has got worldwide popularity because of its simple administration and efficacy in variety of disorders. Pouring of liquid on head in Shirodhara is designed to relieve the psychological stress and mental fatigue. Acharya Vagbhata has considered it under the broad heading of Moordha Taila. He recommended it for the prevention of Khalitya, Palitya, etc. disorders. A variety of material is used for the Shirodhara procedure depending on the disease and involved pathological factors. In the present review article, attempt has been made to understand the mode of action i.e. pharmacodynamics of Ayurved technique Shirodhara along with its therapeutic utility.
155 An Ayurvedic Approach in the Management of Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Study , Seema Vitthal Rathod, Subhash B. Jamdhade and Suryaprakash K. Jaiswal
Parkinson’s disease known in Ayurveda as Kampavata is a neurological disorder affecting 1 % of population. It is degenerative disorder of central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. It is most common extrapyramidal crippling disease. On the basis of sign and symptoms, Parkinson’s disease is described under Vatavyadhi, Nanatmaja disorders in Ayurveda. Symptoms like Kampa (Tremor), Stambha (Rigidity), Chestasanga (Bradykinesia and Akinesia), Vakvikriti (disturbance in speech) etc were described in different contexts of Charaka and Susruta Samhita. Because of non-availability of curative treatment, this disease has remained as a great problem in the aging society. A 62 year old male patient presented with complaints of resting tremors in upper limb (pin – roll type) , slow limited movement, difficulty with walking and balance, sleeplessness, depression and face appearing without expression brought by relatives to outdoor patient department ( OPD ) of L.K. Ayurved Hospital, Yavatmal. Previously patient taken treatment of Allopathic as well as Homeopathy since one year but did not show any sign of improvement.So patient was admitted and treated with Ayurvedic treatment. Along with this special exercise and diet plan was also advised to patient. This case study is about management of known case of Parkinson’s disease with multimodality treatment in the form of Panchkarma procedures with non-invasive, non-steroidal, cost effective and safe Ayurvedic treatment.
156 Literature Review of Prognosis of Sushrutokta Asadhya NetraRogas , Varsha Devidas Ahire, A.B. Deshmukh and N. A. Khan
Acharya Sushruta has described netrarogas and their treatment in Uttartantra in first seventeen chapters. Kriyakalpas are explained in eighteenth chapter. He has described seventysix netrarogas among which fiftytwo are sadhya, seven are yapya, and seventeen are asadhya netrarogas. For Sadhya vyadhi Acharya has described treatment and treatment procedure in ten chapters according to dosha. Among these seventeen asadhya diseases, four vataja diseases are Hathadhimantha, Gambhirika, Nimesha, Vatahatavartma. Two pittaja diseases are Hraswajadya, Pittasrava. One kaphaja disease is Kaphastrava. Four raktaja diseases are Raktastrava, Shonitarsha, Ajakajata, Savranashukla and four sannipataja diseases are Puyastrava, Nakulandhya, Akshipakatyaya and Alaji, Two Bahya linganasha (Sanimitta and Animitta). But in dealing with other diseases Sushruta has mentioned that Adhimantha, if not treated properly or not in time may become asadhya. According to Sushruta commentator Dalhana, among all Lingnasha only kaphaja linganasha is sadhya, while other types of linganashas are asadhya. This study is based on compiling various asadhya netraroga described by Acharya Sushruta, and comparing them with modern diseases. The aim of study is to find out possible causes of asadhyatva of those diseases. The study concluded that asadhya netrarogas described by Acharya Sushruta are incurable in ancient era due to lack of advanced surgical technologies or poor visual prognosis. Improved surgical techniques made some of them surgically curable, but most of them are yet incurable. We have to re-evaluate the prognosis mentioned by Sushruta in modern era with outcome of treatment
157 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Godanti Bhasma against Balaposhaka Churna in Management of Balashosha w.s.r. to Protein Energy Malnutrition , Yogesh Shivaji Chavan and G Jai
Background and Objective: Today Pediatric malnutrition constitutes a major public health problem in India and other countries of third world. Lots of attempts have been made to minimize this at National level but these are not sufficient. Therefore, Indigenous system of medicine especially Ayurvedic rasashastra can play major role in providing health to children. Design: A Randomized controlled trial was conducted. Methods: Thirty participants were selected from nearby rural Govt. U. P. School Velliyakulam (Chertala) that satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were randomly divided in two groups. The trial drug Godanti bhasma is administered in study group and Balaposhaka churna in control group for duration of one month. Follow up was taken after completion of medicine and after three months. Assessment based on blood values and clinical features was done before and after the treatment. The results were statistically analyzed and compared in between two groups. After the treatment weight, height, mid upper arm circumference and S. Albumin was significantly increased in both the groups. In symptomatic evaluation both the drugs were significantly effective, but the trial drug was more effective on height gain and Serum Albumin than the control drug.
158 Global Market Analysis of Herbal Drug Formulations , Joshi Nirali B and M. B. Shankar
As per the WHO reports, about three-quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other forms of traditional medicines to treat disease. Even though marvelous advancement occurred in Allopathic system of medicines, there are many areas in which allopathic medicines have failed to prove its efficiency. Nowadays, people have more faith towards traditional medicines then modern medicines due to occurrence of many side effects of modern medicines. The prime most reasons for acceptance of traditional medicines are accessibility, associability and affordability in developing countries. As per WHO national policy on Traditional medicine and guideline of herbal medications report, business of herbal medicines have increased from US$ 707 million in 1999 to US$ 1,006 million in 2001 in 9 countries (Republic of Islamic, Bhutan, Czech, Republic of Iran, Canada, Madagascar, Pakistan, Sweden, Sudan and Malaysia). According to Global Industry Analysis, it is estimated that global herbal market will reach to $107 billion by end of 2017. This shows that Ayurveda is one of the most noticeable expressions of substitute medication practiced throughout the world.
159 An Insight of Physiology of Speech Production , Aniket A. Shilwant and Niraj F. Mandod
Speech production is one of the highest functions of humans through which we all communicate one another, express our thoughts and views about any particular thing. Speech production is a multiphase phenomenon. It is an outcome of combined efforts of your acoustic signals, articulatory system and the musculature attached to respective organs and which is not possible with nervous assistance. An appropriate and well assisted outcome of all the above structures is, transferred thoughts into verbal notations. However, Ayurveda has a different approach towards speech production viz. Vaka pravrutti. The efforts to put sound as an outcome is initiated by Vata dosha but the other two also accompany it to bring out the fruitful result. The Vaka pravrutti is an outcome of physical and psychological impact as per Ayurveda. It has also mentioned the circulating channels (strotas) through which sound is produced and travels as well viz. Swarvaha strotas. The description of mechanism of speech production as per ancient Ayurvedic scholars needed to be studied along with modern parlance with time. So there arises a need to study more about the physiology and its neurological axis to understand and incorporate the speech symptoms as a diagnostic tool thus giving a healthy outcome of it.
160 Essentials and Principles of Yoga , BhanuPratap Singh, Deepa and Om Prakash Dadhich
According to Ayurveda mind, body and soul are the tripod of life and their balanced state is responsible for health and imbalance for diseases. Yoga is the only method which creates harmony by balancing all these components into equilibrium state. Yoga is becoming very popular in all parts of the world. Yoga is an exact science. The science of yoga has its roots in Upanishads, Vedas, Bhagvad-gita, Hathyogapradipika and the Yoga sutras of Patanjali. Yoga is the finest resource for achieving physical, mental, social and spiritual well being. The impact of yoga on the life of people are-holistic development of personality, control of negative thought waves in the mind, creation of positive attitude, vast intellect, decision based on deep thinking, strengthen spiritual power, helps in sorting out psychological problems born out of tensions, conflicts etc., strengthen will power, understanding the purpose of life. Yoga helps in developing total personality in an integrated and holistic manner if it is done by proper following to the principles and essentials of yoga. This article is about some essentials and principles of yoga practice so anyone can get full benefits by following the above.
161 Evaluation of Stability Study of Laxative Ayurvedic Formulation Constac Plus Granulation , Priyanka Jagtap, Akash Mohanrao More and Bhushan Bhagwat Kulkarni
The aim of the stability testing is to provide proof of how the quality of a finished product varies with time under the influence of a variety of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and light. The present study was conducted to evaluate accelerated stability (Temperature: 40 °C ± 2, Relative Humidity (RH): 75% ± 5) and real time stability (Temperature: 25 °C ± 2, Relative Humidity (RH): 60% ± 5) of Constac plus granulation. A study was conducted as per ICH guideline Q1A (R2). The variation in the organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbial load constants of the Constac plus granulation (fine granulation) was observed during 0 (initial), 1, 3 and 6 months. Results of different physico-chemical parameters were taken into consideration to evaluate intercept and slope. Study shows that there was no change in color, odour and taste of Constac plus granulation up to storage of 6 months at accelerated condition. Formulation was suitable at accelerated condition up to 6months storage. It can be extrapolated that shelf life of Constac plus granulation is 26.54 months. The real time stability data of Constac plus granulation showed very good stability up to one year.
162 Importance of Nyayas on Body’s Well-Being – A Conceptual Study , Amardeep Kour, Gupta Vikas and Sodhi Danisha
The human body is constituted by the requisite combination of seven dhatus and the degeneration and decay of these dhatus affect the body’s natural phenomenonas. To maintain the Swastha state, particularly the samdhatu state arresting the degeneration and decay, intake of nutritious food is essential. The food has to be properly digested, assimilated and then the nutrients have to be incorporated into the dhatus to achieve the Samdhatu state. For incorporation of the nutrients into the dhatus and to achieve Samdhatu state, important for body’s well-being the Nyayas i.e., Ksheera Dadhi Nyaya, Kedari Kulya Nyaya , Khalekapota Nyaya , Ekkala Dhatuposhana Nyaya has been explained with due importance. Thus through this research paper a light has been thrown on the importance of Nyayas on body’s well-being.
163 Pharmacological Approach of SwasaharaMahakasaya in the Management of Swasa (Ayurvedic View) , Deepanjali Bora and Niten Barman
The disease Swasa has been described vividly in the Ayurvedic classics. Ayurveda has given importance to it as a disease as well as a symptom. All the aspects, starting from the nidanas to the chikitsa are well explained in Charaka samhita, Chikitsasthan, seventeenth chapter. The chikitsa has been dealt in two ways depending upon the rogibala. The patients having good built, that is, balwana rogi and having the predominance of kapha dosha should be treated with shodhana chikitsa and after that shaman chikitsa is to be done. In the patients of poor built, that is durbalarogi and having the predominance of vatadosha, they should be treated with shamanatherapy, drugs having alleviated properties of vata. Also the children, females, very old persons are advised shamana therapy. Here, an attempt has been made to evaluate the pharmacological mode of action of swasaharamahakasaya in the management of the disease, swasa, as shaman chikitsa. The pharmacological study was done as far as possible by taking references from various Ayurvedic books. Later a co- relation was made among the properties of swasaharamahakasaya and the chikitsasiddhanta of swasa mentioned in CharakaSamhita. It was found that the relation could be well established. Details has been summarised in the paper
164 A Critical Review on the Concept of Swabhavoparamvad in Relation with ‘Apoptosis’ and ‘Homeostasis’ w.s.r. to ‘Jara’ (Physiological Aging) , Khagen Basumatary and Hasina Ferdouse
Acharya Charak while mentioning ‘Jara’ said that, it is a Swabhavajavyadhi and is Nishpratikriya. The same follows the concept of ‘Swabhavoparamvad’. Here, Swabhava means natural and the meaning of uparam is destruction, so the word swabhavoparam stands for natural destruction. After birth, growth and senility ultimately leading to death are inevitable process. It is correctly stated that aging begins before birth and continues throughout life at different rates, in different races for different individuals and for different tissues of the body. It involves two opposite processes that simultaneously come into operation i.e. growth and atrophy. In an organism, aging represents structural and functional changes over its entire life span. It is a universal phenomenon characterized by progressive deterioration of cells and organs due to accumulation of macromolecular and organelle damage. The continuous removal of worn out components and replacement with new synthesized one ensures cellular homeostasis and delays aging process. While, apoptosis is, without question, critical for homeostasis, it is conceivable that even normal apoptotic processes might, over-time lead to normal aging phenotypes or agerelated pathologies. So, here in this review I am going to establish the fact that homeostasis and apoptosis are important for normal maintenance of health as well as healthy aging, in Ayurvedic point of view as both the terms ‘homeostasis’ and ‘apoptosis’ comes under the definition of ‘swabhavoparam’.
165 A Clinical Study of Effects of Gomutra (Cow’s Urine) on Renal Failure Patient According to the Concepts of Ayurveda , Tripti Lokesh
Gomutra (Cow’s Urine) is being used in many disorders and it is explained in Ayurveda as a treatment for many disorders. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious condition associated with premature mortality, decreased quality of life, and increased health-care expenditures. Untreated CKD can result in end-stage renal disease and necessitate dialysis or kidney transplantation. Risk factors for CKD include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. In renal failure there is raised level of blood urea, creatinine and RBCs in urine. It can be compared with Paitik Mutrakrichra (~Dysuria due to Pita Dosha)/Adhogatta Raktapita (~blood from lower orifices)/Paitik Prameha (~frequency due to Pita Dosha)/Rakataja Mutrakrichta (~Dysuria with blood). A Clinical study was done on known patient of CKD on OPD basis, Gaur Brahman Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Rohtak, Haryana. There was a rise of serum urea and serum creatinine after administering Gomutra. It is concluded that Gomutra should not be used in renal failure.
166 A Critical Analysis of Properties and Effects of Viru.Dha (Sprouts) as per Ayurveda , Tripti Lokesh and Poonam Kaleramana
Eating sprouts is gaining momentum in the name of nutritious and enzyme rich food which can help to gain abundant of nutrients, fats, vitamins etc. and boost digestion. Ayurveda says eating raw Viru.Dha (Sprouts) are highly unhealthy causing vitiation of Doshas (Vata, Pita, Kapha), Vishtambhi (heavy to digest), Vidahajanak (burning sensation), Shool (colicky pain), Drishtidushnam (weaker eyesight), causer of diseases like Vatarakta (~ Gout), Grahni (~IBS), Arsha (piles), and Sotha (inflammations on body). Many incidences of deaths are reported due to food poisoning by sprouts, being rich in microbes like salmonella and E.coli. But Ayurveda quotes that there is nothing on this earth which cannot be used as medicine. Sprouts can be useful but after a very careful processing. Eating of raw sprouts is prohibited in Ayurveda.
167 Concept of Vikaravighatabhava-Abhava in Purview of Etiopathogenesis of Disease , Khagen Basumatary and Bidyapati Sarangthem
The Ayurvedic concept of etiopathogenesis has its own perspective which follows the complex principle of specific association among Nidana, Dosha and Dushya. Acharya Charaka has meticulously explained the essence of diagnostic methodology, along with the variations in the process of development of disease in Nidanasthana. The specific variations of Vikaravighatabhava-abhava that occur due to the specific features of Nidana-Dosha-Dushya interpret the various aspects of origin and development of disease. In this concept, Caraka clears the incubation period, mild or severe form of disease, acute or otherwise conditions of disease, resistance of the body against disease and susceptibility of the body to disease. Vikaravighatabhava means presence of factors which resist the genesis of disease and Vikaravighatabhavaabhava means absence of resistance to disease. This very concept can be applied to all the diseases and is the main aspect of etiopathogenesis. By acquiring the knowledge of this principle one can master the disease genesis process and treatment process. This article will provide the platform for understanding the basic framework of genesis of a disease in full perspective.
168 Role of Agnikarma in the Management of Calcaneal Spur - A Case Study , Gadhari Anup Bhimrao, Raut Subhash Y. and Lakhapati Arun M.
Ayurveda is one of the most ancient sciences of human refinement. Shalyatantra is one of the branches of Ayurveda which consists of various treatment modalities mentioned in different disease conditions. Agnikarma is one among them. In Agnikarma, therapeutic burning is done with various types of tools at specific sites. This ensures complete cure of disease and avoids recurrence. Agni by it Ushna, Snigdha gunas pacifies Vata and Kapha and mechanically burns the unwanted tissue. In western medical sciences it is used under the heading of therapeutic burn or cauterization. In the present study a modest attempt has been made to evaluate the role and mode of action of Agnikarma in the management of Calcaneal spur. This case study concludes that Agnikarma is a very effective, easy and simple procedure that can implied as outpatient procedure for treating calcaneal spur.
169 Effect of Bhoomyamalaki (Phyllanthus Niruri) Kashaya in Neonatal Jaundice – A Case Study , S. U. Chavan and V. U. Gawai
Neonatal jaundice is yellowish discoloration of sclera, mucus membrane and skin due to increased level of serum bilirubin in the blood. Incidence of Neonatal Jaundice is 60 to 80 % of total births in India. According to the modern science ‘Neonatal jaundice’ is managed by Phototherapy and Exchange blood transfusion method as per the level of serum bilirubin and weight of the newborn. A patient of neonatal jaundice was treated with Bhoomyamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri) kashaya 1.75 ml orally. Dose is calculated according to the Clark rule. Bhoomyamalaki has properties of virechana and pittanasak, so ayurvedic treatments with Bhoomyamalaki (phyllanthus niruri) kashaya was effective in case of Neonatal jaundice. The article focuses on details of a case of ‘Neonatal jaundice’ in opd and ipd of PG. department of kaumarbhritya of Govt. Ayurved College and Hospital Nanded.
170 Standardization of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) , Singh J, Gupta S. J and Singh A. K.
India has a rich heritage of plants as medicines; Indian systems of medicines utilize 80 percent of the material derived from the plants. Large numbers of plants are utilized in various systems of medicine practiced in India and local health traditions for the treatment of human diseases since time immemorial. The use of Tulsi as source of medicine in human has been in vogue since antiquity. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn. Gurke.) has been used for thousands of years in Ayurveda due to its diverse healing properties. Tulsi is legendary and the ‘incomparable one’ from India. It is one of the holiest and most cherished of the many healing and healthy giving herbs of the orient. Morphological and anatomical characters play a vital role in crude drug standardization. However, a proper documentation of medicinal plants of Ocimum spp. is lacking and many times adulterants are passed as genuine drugs. In present investigation, the Ocimum sanctum has been selected for the standardization due to its medicinal importance.
171 Critical Appraisal of the Concept of Shodhana and Sadyashodhana among the Panchakarma , Satyajit P. Kulkarni, Milind M. Godbole and Sanjay S. Jadhav
Shodhana or Panchakarma is the very important part of the Ayurvedic treatment. The period during which Charak Samhita was written, it would have been practiced in greater proportion. There is detailed description about Panchakarma or Shodhana in Charak Samhita, Sushrut Samhita and Ashtang Sangrah (and Ashtang Hridayam). These texts are called as Brihat Trayi . Sharangdhar Samhita and Bhavprakash described Panchakarma concisely as compared to the Brihat Trayi texts. Every disease is told to be treated with Shodhana first1 and Shamana thereafter. The Kalpa sthana and Sidhi sthana of Charak Samhita are solely dedicated to the Shodhana. Thus being an important treatment modality Shodhana is very useful in achieving both the goals of Ayurveda i.e., for maintaining health in the healthy and to treat the disease in the diseased one. This paper deals with theory part of the Shodhana to be applied in the healthy and the diseased. The paper also highlights the difference in implementing the Shodhana in the diseased and healthy one.
172 Comparison of Antihistaminic Activity of Sirisha and Bhumyamalaki with determination of Target Organ in Guinea Pig , Beena Tiwari, Neeraj Tripathi, Bulusu Sitaram and M. Paramkush Rao
In the present era human beings have to live polluted atmosphere. This has led to increase in allergic reactions directly or indirectly. These allergic reactions are manifested in the form of atopic dermatitis, hyper responsive bronchus, rhinitis etc. These days bronchial asthma is more common in every age group which is increasing by 50% every decade. Sirisha and Bhumyamalaki, both the drugs are mentioned in the Ayurveda for the management of the asthma. Guinea pig was taken to find out effect of drug on lung tissue of bronchus and lung alveoli. Histological analysis of the lungs from non-sensitized Group I showed normal lung histology. Treatment with Sirisha and Bhumyamalaki has shown reduction in tissue oedema, epithelial cell hypertrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cell and airway lumen plugging thereby decreasing inflammation and broncoconstriction, which leads to normal lumen size. However, treatment with Sirisha and Bhumyamalaki were shown significant reduction in inflammation in comparison with standard Ayurvedic formulation. Sirisha has better result on bronchospasm as compared to Bhumyamalaki and infiltration in the lung tissue was well minimised by Bhumyamalaki in compare to the Sirisha.
173 Review of Pakshaaghaata w.s.r. to Cerebrovascular Accidents and its Management , Arun Gupta and Katara Pankaj
Pakshaaghaata has been classified under three types in Ayurveda i.e.,SuddhaVaataja, Anyadosha Samsrista and Kshayahetuja. A number of disease processes in modern science manifest as Pakshaaghaata. Cerebrovascular accident is the commonest disease manifesting as Pakshaaghaata. Virechana, SarvaangaAbhyanga, BaaspaSweda and some herbo-miniral formulations show better result in the disease Pakshaaghata due to CVA (cerebro-vascular accident). In this present review manuscript alternative Ayurvedic approach in the managing of hemiplegia is discussed in a systematic way.
174 An Amazing Anti -Inflammatory and Analgesic Oil Formulation , A.H. Ansari
There has been a great role of oil extracted from various herbs as an Analgesic and other therapeutic uses in Ayurveda. Turpentine oil and mustard oil when mixed in equal ratio becomes very effective against body and joints pain.
175 A Critical Review on Ghrudhrasi Vata Nadi with special reference to Dosha, Dhatu and Srotasa , Vrinda P. Kadu
'Sciatica’ is the name given to a painful condition in which pain originates from the buttock and radiates into the lower extremity along its posterior or lateral aspect. Many Ayurvedic authors have described Ghrudhrasi as sciatica. However, Sciatica is not a single disease entity, but a symptom complex which can be caused by any one of the several diseases affecting the sciatic nerve or its roots. Vatadosha is concerned with all types of movements in the body. Pitta is concerned with Pachana and hence it is essential for proper formation of dhatus which forms the structure of Vatanadi. The manifestation of Ghrudhrasi is due to the impairment of apanavayu,vyanavayu, samanvayu, shleshakakapha and kledakakapha along with general vataand kaphadosha. In other words, we can say that in the manifestation of Ghrudhrasi vyadhi above causative factors are equally involved.
176 Critical Approach on Abhyanga (External Oleation) , Udaya Ganesha B and Bhgyashree.N
Abhyanga is one of the poorvakarma of panchakarma. Abhyanga is not merely a body massage but it has strong systemic action too. It plays major role in bringing the morbid materials from tissues to gastro intestinal tract thereby aids in panchakarma to eliminate it out of the body through shodhana (purificatory measures). Thus abhyanga is part and parcel of penta bio purification.
177 Modern Instrumentation Techniques in the Characterization of Bhasma - A Review , Sakhitha K. S. and K. Shankar Rao
Safety and efficacy of Rasa medicines has been a topic of discussion since a long time. Issues are also raised regarding the heavy metal contents in rasa preparations. No doubt, preparation of rasa medicines by stringently adhering to our classical methods has always resulted in quality products. Bhasma preparations are one of the unique dosage forms where metals and minerals are converted in to safe and effective remedies through a series of pharmaceutical processing methods envisaged by the ancient Acharyas. They had their own parameters which guaranteed quality, safety and efficacy of prepared Bhasma. Though these methods are excellent and time tested and the bhasmas passing all these tests are indeed of high quality, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the structural and chemical aspects of various bhasma and also the complex reaction taking place between the metallic ions and the phytoconstituents of plants used in the pharmaceutics of bhasma. It is here that the importance of adopting modern technology can be looked up on. Modern analytical instrumentation methods play an important role in the characterization of bhasma. Utilizing XRD, advanced spectrometric techniques like AAS,ICPMS etc for analysis of bhasmas can put aside some of the allegations faced by the rasa medicines and at the same time elevate this ancient science of metallo - therapeutics to the level of global acceptance. Present review highlights various instrumentation techniques that can be incorporated for the characterization of bhasma preparations.
178 Determination of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Emblicaofficinalis Gaertn., Terminaliachebula Retz. And TerminaliabelericaRoxb. , Samiksha P. Dandekar and Dayanand P. Gogle
The present paper reports about the free radical scavenging activity of Emblicaofficinalis, Terminaliachebulaand Terminaliabelerica. The fruits of the above mentioned plants were used in the present study. The study attempts to focus on the antioxidant potential of the selected plant materials. We have undertaken this study by using the most reliable 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method followed by the Hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The highest DPPH scavenging activity as per the IC50 values was found to be in Emblicaofficinalis (51.00 ± 1.42µg/ml) while Terminaliachebula and Terminaliabelerica showed (115.29 ± 1.86 µg/ml) and (165.29 ± 2.94 µg/ml), respectively. The highest Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was found in Emblicaofficinalis (10.04 ± 2.92 µg/ml) while Terminaliachebula and Terminaliabelerica showed (39.65 ± 3.36 µg/ml) and (47.36 ± 2.08 µg/ml), respectively. Among all the plants studied, Emblicaofficinalis was found to be the best one with lowest IC50 values in DPPH method as well as Hydroxyl radical method, thus indicating highest free radical scavenging activity. Hence, Emblicaofficinalispossess more antioxidant potential as compared to the other two plant materials.
179 Pharmacognostical Investigation of ErythrinaVariegata Linn (Fabaceae) , Avinash T. Gatade, Azmina A.K. Masurkar, Rupali A. Gatade and Dhara J. Gandhi
Herbal drugs constitute a major part in all the traditional systems of medicine. One of the traditionally acknowledged plant Erythrina variegata, commonly known as Indian coral tree belonging to the family Fabaceae has been widely used forayurvedic therapies. Due to the scarcity of standardization reports of this valuable medicinal plant the pharamacognostic, morphological, microscopical and chemical characterization studies of the leaves of Erythrina variegata Linn,syn were performed. Anatomical investigations of theepidermal study of leaves revealed sessile glandular trichomes on both the epidermis of the leaves. Paracytic and anisocytic stomata only on the lower epidermis of the leaf were observed.The Fluorescence analysis of leaves powder of E. variegata Linn,syn revealed a range of colours from dark green, yellow to brownish black under short Ultra Violet (UV) light. Various quantitative parameters like ash values, extractive values and moisture content that can be used as quality control parameters for E. variegata Linn,syn were determined. The air dried leaf powder methanolic extract fingerprinting pattern was developed by using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) technique which showed eight well resolved components.The pharamacognostic studies carried out for E. variegata Linn,syn and presented here provide referential information for the identification of this crude drug and will also help in distinguishing it from its adulterants.
180 Study the Effectiveness of Vaitarana Basti in Amavata: A Clinical Trial , Vishakha Rajesh Wetal and Rajendra Huprikar
Background - Amavata is madhyammargashrit (pertaining to bones, joints and vital point) disease. Aggravated Vata and Ama are the core factors taking part in the pathogenesis of Amavata. Basti (therapeutic medicated enema) is important treatment for Vatadosha and Vaitarana Basti (VB) is indicated in Amavata. Thus it was chosen for the study. In this study, a total 21 patients of Amavata were registered and all patients completed the treatment. Method - As Vaitarana is a Kshar-basti, Basti treatment was started first with Matrabasti(oil enema of 60ml dose) of sesame oil to gain pakvashayasnigdhata (oleation of bowels). After that one MatraBasti was followed after every two VB. Total seven Bastis were given to every patient. Basti was instilled as explained in texts (pre Basti management, Basti procedure, postBasti management). Results–Pain assessment was done with Oxford Pain Chart and results were analyzed statistically, using students‘t’ test. Calculated p-value was p<0.001. Hence VB provided significant pain relief in Amavata. It was observed that there was 50% relief in bodyache and all other symptoms of Amavata on fourth day of VB while up to seventh day total relief was obtained for these symptoms. Total recovery was achieved in 38.1% patients followed by good relief in 57.14% patients. Conclusion–VB proved highly significant in Amavata.