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Annals of Tropical Medicine & Public Health

Journal Papers (232) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Comparing the techniques of laminectomy , Abdulnaser Abdulqader Salih
CL- shortcut for classical laminectomy- is the standard lumbar spine stenosis (LSS) treatment and succeeds in 60.87% of patients. The goal of our study is to compare the clinical results of Transspinous- Split Laminectomy TSSL, which reduces paraspinal muscle destruction, and protects the alignment of vertebrates. The data consist of 50 patients which are divided to group A with 25 patients who treatment via transspinous split laminectomy and group B with 25 patients who treatment via classic laminectomy. The two groups were administered by the same surgeon and the process technique is chosen randomly. The sample does not contain pregnant patients and does not have any infectious diseases, malignant infections, previous treatment of spinal fractures or disc hemiation, and they have previous injury in the treatment of iatrogenic, spondylosis, spondylosis or radiation-documented instability.  The incision lenght and amount of hemorrhage were matched to group A and group B. The length of the incision was shorter in group A. Avoided circumference dissecting muscles in group A reduces the amount of hemorrhage. Paraspinal muscle atrophy (PMA) rating was lower in group A. The minimal muscle atropy is scheduled during dissection of minimal muscular atrophy in TSSL technique. The reduction of the values of postoperative Oswestry pain grade of patients compared to another group clinically verifies that adequate decompression has been alleviated. The smaller size of the incision, the less bleeding during the operation and the injury of the paraspinal muscle results in less pain after the surgery, and thus recovering faster. The minimally invasive method (TSSL) is a good alternative to the conventional of the traditional laminectomy.
2 Development of X-ray application in cancer treatment and the use of medical imaging techniques , Marwa H Abbas
Role of radiotherapy in palliative care of cancer patients. Radiotherapy plays an important role on palliative care of cancer patients. This type of therapy accounts for about 30 to 50% of all radiation delivered in a medical ward. The goal is to improve the patient's quality of life by providing rapid relief of symptoms which depends of each specific localization. The cause of the symptoms must be carefully identifed (agreement between radiological and clinical findings) in order to establish the precise target for radiation. Radiation dose and fractionation should be adapted to the patient's general status and expected duration of life in order to limit the duration of treatment and secondary effects
3 Correlation of FNAC lymph node cytology with CD4 count in HIV seropositive adults , Mukherjee Sumana, Mukhopadhyay Keya, Bhattacharya Pranab
Context: Lymphoid tissues are common targets of HIV infection. FNAC is the initial investigation of choice in these cases. Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of FNAC in HIV positive lymphadenopathy in our center Methods and Material: FNAC was performed in 155 HIV positive patients presenting with lymphadenopathy. Smears were stained with Giemsa, ZN, and PAS/Grocotts/PAP according to cytological findings. Statistical analysis: The data was analysed using the T Test. Results: Tuberculous lymphadenitis was the most common diagnosis (44%). Smear positive was found in 29% cases. Necrotizing granuloma and smear positivity was signficantly higher in cases with CD4 count less than 200. Reactive hyperplasia was significantly higher in the CD4 less than 200 category Conclusion: FNAC is very useful and gives specific diagnosis in most cases of HIV lymphadenopathy. Lower CD4 count significantly increase the smear positivity for AFB.
4 RnBeads 2.0: Comprehensive analysis of DNA Methylation Data , Methaq Hadi Lafta, Lekshmi Gangadhar
DNA methylation is a widely investigated mark with importance roles in development and disease. High-throughput assays enable genome-scale DNA methylation in large number of samples. Here, we desribe a new version of our RnBeads software-an R/Bioconductor package that implements start-to-finish analysis workflows for infinium microarray and various types of bisulfite sequencing RnBead 2.0 (https://rnbeads.org) provides additional data types and analysis methods, new functionality for interpreting DNA methylation difference, improved usability with a novel graphic user interface, and better use of computational resources. We demontrate RnBeads 2.0 in four re-runnable use cases focusing on cell differentiation and cancer
5 Dental Ergonomics: Awareness and practices among dental undergraduates in Saudi Arabia , Zakirulla M, AmerahBedah Muraih, Amjad Ali Al-Whlan, Ohood Saeed Al-merei, Rasha Hussain Al-zahrani, AbdulazizBedahAlshahrani
Aim: The present study aims to assess knowledge, practices, and conditions of work place regarding ergonomics among dental students in abha city, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on the sample size of 156 dental students (Males 91 & Females 68) from 5th, 6th year and internship year of the BDS program (Students involving clinical courses) in College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia. The survey was close ended, self administered questionnaire that focused on various positions while working was used as the data collection method. They survey was collected and organized into Microsoft Excell spreadsheets (Microsoft Inc., USA) , and was statistically analyzed utilizingg the Statistical  test used here was the chi-square and P vales less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: When studnets were asked about this question, 92% of students agreed with sitting dentistry, 5% practised standing dentistry, and 3% were not sure. Student's interest in learning and exercising he correct working posture: 93% of students said yes. Majority of students were interested in learning the right working posture. When the students were asked about the importance of proper posture in dental clinics, 90% of students said yes. Conclusion: Findings confirmed that there is a positive awareness of ergonomics among dental students. There is no statistical difference between males and females in knowledge and behaviour related to ergnomic principle among dental students.
6 Safety Disposal of Electrophoresis Gels and PCR contaminate with Ethidium Bromide and alternative methods , Methaq Hadi Lafta, Amal Raqib Shamran
Electrophoresis gel is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for the identification of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and proteins. This gel typically be agarose-based. This electrophoresis process utilized an organic fluorescence dye or inorganic such as silva ( which is EPA regulated material) to stain DNA or protein. Waste of the DNA identification process much be managed and disposed in a manner to protect public health and the environment. Purpose: To ensure safe, prudent disposal as well as reduce the amount of hazardous waste Material: This can be accompanied by choosing less toxic materials and work practical methods that minimize the quantity of waste generated as well as the toxicity of the waste material itself. In cases where safer materials or work practices cannot be employed, waste collection methods and regulatory agency requirement are followed. Background: There are a number of different protocol and alternative dyes used in the preparation of electrophoresis gels. Gels can be cast with or without dyes. The DNA/proteinc can be stained by adding the dye to the sample before electrophoresis; the gel can be placed in a dye solution after electrophoresis has been completed. Waste management: Waste disposal requirement will vary depending on the dye used and the methodology used to stain the cells. The electrophoresis waste of the DNA or protein product identification process must be managed and disposed in a manner that is consistent with the committment it has to protect public health and the environment. The following provides Lab managers/ generators with the proper procedures for managing and disposing electrophoresis-assocated gel wastes
7 In vitro Chick chorioallantoic membrane study of chitosan capped 5-fluorouracil conjugated gold nanoparticles , Akhila Rajan, PK Praseetha, Methaq Hadi Lafta, VN Ariharan, ST Gopu Kumar
Introduction: Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed ß-(1→4)–linked D–Glucosamine (DE acetylated unit) and N–D–Glucosamine (acetylated unit). It is made by treating the chitin shells of shrimps and other crustaceans with an alkaline substance, like sodium hydroxide. Chitosan has a number of commercial and possible biomedical uses. Chitosan's properties also allow it to be used in transdermal drug delivery. Aim: The aim of the work is to deliver therapeutic compound to the desirable site in the treatment of diseases. Methods: Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared using the ionin deletion method. 5' Fluorouracil (5'FU) loaded Chitosan nanoparticle (5FCN) was synthesized and tested for its angiogenic activity on  cell lines by a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. ConclusionL The angiogenic activity of 5-FU loaded chitosan nanoparticles provided a platofrm for treating cancer with biopolymer nanomaterials. The combination of nanoparticles with Chitosan in the form of Nano composite matrices provided the highsurface area required to achieve a high loading of enzymes, drugs, and a compatible micro-environment to facilitate stability
8 Application: Coating of Nanoparticles to minimizing harmful environmental pollution by chemical fungicide , Rana Ibrahim Khaleel
Field experiment carried out for evaluationusing nano-silver solutions to reduce environmental pollution by fungicide. Four concentrations of AgNPs (100 ppm, 50 ppm, 25 ppm, and 12.5 pmm) were prepared by diluting the original stock solution with distilled water. From the concentration were ready used in coated orange fruit compared with fungicide and uncoated fruit as control treatment. The fruits were kept in box carton (40x40x30cm) and incubated under room conditions for 28 days to study the formation to green mold and black fungal and shelf life for fruit stored. The result showed high infection recorded in uncoated fruit compared with other treatment with values reached ( 86.66 and 91.1) for green modl and black respectively, while ppm recorded completely inhibition infection (0%) for fungal decay index. Also coating fruit with 100 and 50 ppm recorded significant different reached (3.8 and 3.9%) after four weeks from storage. Nanotechnology applied could play a fundamental role for this purpose and research in packaging fresh fruit and minmized environmental pollution by chemical fungicide
9 Genetic detection of hepatitis B virus by PCR technique among children under 7 years in Hilla city, Iraq , Amal Raqib Shamran, Tsahel H Al Dulaimi, Ammar S Khamis, Rula Dhahir Abdulmohsin
Hepatitis disease is mean the inflammatory and destruction of the liver. Its commonly caused by viral infection, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is one of the main resone of liver destruction, it spread when people come in contact with the blood, open sores, or body fluids of someone who has the (HBV), 3.5% of global population is chronic infected with HBV although the incidence of HBV infections is decreasing owing to vaccination and to a lesser extent. Hepatitis is a serious public health problem distressing many of people worldwide. Inadequate data is available on this issue in Iraq. This study was carry out with the aim of determining the genetic sequencing in human and risk factors of hepatitis Bvirus (HBV) among the general population and among blood donors. Methods: Blood samples from volunteers; have been detected the hepatitis-gen by PCR ,we see that the 48 out of 250 children patients ( 19.2% ) among 5months to 5 years , in this study population the biggest percentage were 45.83 % in aged 3-5 years while the second percent was 31.25 % in aged month-1year,while it was 12.5% in age 1-3 years and 10.41% in age 5-7 years, table (1) ,in this study we see that male were 22 out of 48 ,45% while the femal were 26 out of 48 ,55%.
10 Comparison of APGAR Score in neonates born after elective spinal versus general anaethesia , Idrees Jameel Khalaf
BACKGROUND: ten point Apgar score has been used to compare the effect of spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia on Apgar score of neonates born by elective caesarean section. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized prospective study. SETTING: This study was conducted in the Department of pediatrics-Haweejha general Hospital/Kirkuk/Iraq., between December2017toJune2018. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this study was achieved on sixteen women bestowing for Elective lower segment caesarean section. Thirty mothers were given general anaesthesia and other 30 mothers received spinal anaesthesia. The Apgar score was recorded at 1 minute and 5 minute interim after each delivery. RESULTS: Out of thirty mothers, who received general anaesthesia, 25 patients (82.3%) give birth to neonates having Apgar score ≤ 6 at one minute after birth and the remaining 5 neonates (17.7%) had Apgar score of ≥7. On the other hand out of 30 mothers who received spinal anaesthesia only 10 mothers give birth to neonate having Apgar score ≤ 6 at one minute after birth, who improved at 5 minutes interval, and their Apgar score were ≥7.It had been found that those neonates who were born under G.A were ten folds more likely to have Apgar score less than or equivalent to 6 at first minute compared to those with spinal anaesthesia, the odds ratio=10 and 96%assurance interval of the odds ratio (2.95-35) and p=0.00025 which is highly significant, G.A had greater risk on newborn at the first minute.
11 Frequency of norovirus in Egyptian children with gastroenteritis and coninfection with rotavirus , Nabil Abd El-Aziz Mohsen, Ayman Emil Eskander, Azza Ahmed Aboul Enein, Carolyne Morco Ibrahim, Mohammed Ali Abd El-Hafiz
Pediatric gastroenteritis is a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity worldwide, especially in developing countries. Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of different pathogens including bacteria, viruses and parasites. Among the viruses; rotavirus has been extensively studied. As the rotavirus vaccination coverage improves, the causative agent’s shift may be more towards the Calciviruses (Norovirus, Sapovirus). The present paper aimsmainly providing useful epidemiological data on the gastroenteritis associated with norovirus and rotavirus among Egyptian children aged less than five years and to determine the frequency and confection with these two viral agents. In the present paper, and from Jan., 2016 to Dec., 2016, a hundred stool specimens obtained from Egyptian children of age less thanfive years had been attended the outpatient clinic of pediatric gastroenterology unit of Children Hospital, Cairo University were tested for rotavirus and norovirus using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that the isolated Rota virus infection was 38%, isolated norovirus infection was 7% and the combined norovirus and rotavirus confection was 5%. 67.5% of rotavirus cases were males and 72% of cases aged less than one year while 58% of norovirus were females and 58% of cases aged above one year. Therefore, rotavirus is still the most frequent cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in Egypt. In spite of low prevalence of the norovirus, it is found in Egypt and is considered the second most frequent cause of viral gastroenteritis. Perhaps with time and improvement in the means of investigations, the real norovirus prevalence in Egypt may be elucidated.
12 Resistance of Trypanosoma congolense forest isolates to isometamedium chloride and diminazene aceturate in West Democratic Republic of Congo , Kabamba MW, Sumbu J, Lombe B, Tsilenge G, Badibanga D, Natoro C, Telamanu E, Nsalambi S, Malekani J, Mamoudou A, Pyana P, Domy P, Masumu J
Resistance to trypanocides is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan African countries where African animal trypanosomiasis occurs. An investigation was carried out over a four-year period to assess trypanosome resistance to trypanocides in the western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using the standard mouse test. Eight strains of Trypanosoma congolense Forest, two from Kimwenza and one from N'Djili Brasseries in the City of Kinshasa Province, three from Mbanza Ngungu in the Province of Central Kongo and two from Mushie in the Province of Mayi Ndombe, were isolated from pigs and cattle. Following the amplification in mice, 105trypanosomes of each strain were inoculated in three groups of six NMRI mice. Twenty-four hours later, the first group was treated with 1g of isometamidium chloride (ISM)/kg BW/mouse, the second group was treated with 20mg of diminazene aceturate (DA)/kg BW/mouse while the third group was left untreated and served as control. All these mice were followed up for the development of parasitemia for a period of two months. At the end of the experiment, only the N'Djili Brasseries strain was resistant to ISM at a dose of 1 mg / kg bw. When multidose test was applied, no resistance was observed in groups of mice treated with high doses (from 2 to 20g ISM/kg bw/mouse). This study shows for the first time the occurrence of trypanosome resistance strains to ISM in DRC. The DRC becomes the 20th sub-Saharan country of the chemoresistance of trypanosomes to trypanocides has been reported.
13 Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a Nigerian child: A review of the literature, Adaobi Uzoamaka Solarin, Montunrayo Oluwabukola Adekunle, Rita Obiageli Obaze, Omodele Oluwayemisi Jagun, Daniel Ogbaro
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening, underdiagnosed hematologic disorder that occurs from unregulated immune activation, extreme inflammation, and tissue damage. The major cause of mortality in HLH is a delay in diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment which occurs due to the variability of the clinical manifestation of this disease entity. We present a case of a 17-year-old adolescent who presented with fever, painful facial swelling that partially resolved with the initial use of intravenous dexamethasone. Diagnosis of HLH was finally made and he had complete resolution of symptoms following appropriate treatment. With careful search, there is no report of HLH in Nigeria and the possibility of missed diagnosis and underdiagnosis cannot be ruled out. This case report of HLH is the first in Nigeria and due to the rarity of the disease the need to raise more awareness is imperative as a high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis.
14 Changing Trends of lower respiratory tract pathogens: A five year study , Shenoy Padmaja A, Purandare Mrughandha K, Chawla Kiran
Context: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are one of the most common problems encountered by physicians posing huge impact on health care system. Among the diverse respiratory bacterial etiological agents, Gram-negative bacilli predominate in developing countries. Antimicrobial resistance among the respiratory pathogens is a raising concern leading to prolonged hospital stay and high morbidity/mortality. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the common bacterial aetiological agents causing LRTIs and to study their changing trends of antibiotic resistance pattern. Settings and design: Retrospective study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2016 in Department of Microbiology, tertiary care teaching hospital, Manipal. Methods and materials: Respiratory specimens including Broncho alveolar Lavage (BAL), Endotracheal (ET) aspirate and sputum samples were processed for Gram stain and culture. The respiratory pathogens were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing following standard techniques. Statistical analysis used: Obtained results were analysed by SPSS version 16. Changing trends of antibiotic resistance was studied by linear regression. Results: Of the 22095 samples received, significant bacterial growth was observed in 6766 (30.6%) specimens. Gram-negatives (5581, 82.5%) outnumbered the Gram- positive isolates (1156, 17%). Among the Gram-negative bacilli (5581, 82.5%), non-fermenters were (3297, 59%) predominantly isolated followed by members of Enterobacteriaceae (1622, 29%). Among the non-fermenters, Acinetobacter baumannii was the frequent isolate (1696, 51.4%) showing significant increasing trends of resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam (R2= 0.85 and P value 0.03) and maximum increase in antibiotic resistance was observed in the year 2016 (77%). Conclusion: Significant upsurge in the resistance trends of common antibiotics in LRTIs calls for judicious usage of antibiotics & strict infection control practices.
15 A descriptive cross-sectional survey among the International Islamic University Malaysia’s student on e-waste generation and public health problem in Malaysia, AK Azad, MA Islam, NK Sunzida
Objective: The main aim of the survey was to assess the respondent’s opinion on the factors influencing the generation of e-waste and its impact on public health in Malaysia. Methods: The research project involved a cross-sectional survey of International Islamic University’s students conducted in 2017 at Kuantan campus in the Pahang state, Malaysia. Along with info on demographic individualities, data were collected on several factors (agreement with questionnaire items regarding) using a 4-point Likert scale, with 4 representing “agree”, “strongly agree”, “disagree” and “strongly disagree,” respectively. Results: A total of 296 students completed the questionnaire. The age group of 18-22 covers 46.96% of all respondents and 61.82% was females. In ethnicity of respondents, 86.82% Malay and 30.07% were from rural area and rest of them were urban area. The volume of e-waste is raised due to the excess supplies of electrical appliances (71%), update their devices (65%.), additional electrical devices (59%), keeping the unused electrical appliances (71%), wholesalers selling bad quality appliances (45%), mechanic should not add and drop of their devices (71%). Regrettably 83% of the respondents doesn’t have appropriate knowledge of e-waste. 51% students agreed and 38% strongly agreed that there is no noticeable campaign on e-waste for public awareness. According to the 93% students’ opinion, individuals, the suppliers, industries and even the institutions are not aware to reduce e-waste. But a little 20% think that government does provide facilities for electrical device disposal. In public health perspective, e-waste contains a lot of hazardous chemical (strongly agreed 77% and rest 23% agreed). Fortunately, the serious health hazards led by e-waste (86% strongly agreed and 14% agreed). E-waste leads to infertile land, cancer, lung diseases and so others strongly agreed 70% and agreed 22% respectively. Conclusion: Findings suggest to organize the awareness programme in institutional, organization and educational institutional level to reduce generation of e-waste and its risk.
16 Clinical and Functional Parallels of severe uncontrolled ashtma in children , Natalya L. Potapova, Inessa N Gaymolenko
Context: Over the past 20 years in the Russian Federation the prevalence rate of asthma symptoms was 5.3% in 13- 14 year-old adolescents and 4.7% in7-8 year-old children. Lack of control or partial control over the symptoms of the disease is recorded in more than half of the patients and is the risk of adverse outcomes. The purpose is toidentify the markers of severe uncontrolled progression of bronchial asthma in children. Place, time and rationale: The study was conducted in the Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital of Chita in 2015-2017. Materials and methods: In total 112 children aged 1 to 18 years were surveyed. For an in-depth study, 68 children with wellcontrolled asthma and 32 patients with uncontrolled asthma progression were selected. The statistical analysis used: Comparison of independent groups by the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and Cramer’s contingency coefficient, calculation of the odds ratio (OR) were used as statistic processing techniques. Differences were considered statistically significant at p
17 Association betweeen ABO blood group and Diabetes Mellitus , Khansaa A Ibrahim Albaroodi, Zahraa S Hatef, Basheer Akeel Al-Ali, Shuaib AlAhmed
Background: Many epidemiological studies discussed the linkage between ABO blood group and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the association between ABO blood group and diabetes mellitus. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study, conducted at endocrinology and Diabetic center in AL-Hussein Teaching Hospital in Karbala, Iraq. Participants were randomly selected and assigned to either healthy group or to patients with diabetes group. The study was carried out from November 2018 until January 2019; The collected data were analysed using the SPSS (version 20) software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL).Results: 244 participants were included in the study, 157 of them were diabetic patients and 87 subjects were healthy. Non -significant association between ABO blood group and type 2 diabetes where the p value was > 0.05. However, significant differences between blood groups in terms of Fasting Blood Sugar were found; and participants with blood group AB+ have strong relation with Fasting Blood Sugar. Conclusion: Findings of this study suggested an existing relationship between blood group AB+ and Fasting Blood Sugar; but, these findings was not confirmed by a significant association between diabetes mellitus and ABO blood groups that raise a need for future researches to be done.
18 Pllatelet-rich Autoplasma effect on intestinal anastomosis regeneration in  rabbits , Berik Nuraddinovich DZHUMABEKOV, Auyeskhan DZHUMABEKOV, Dzhumagaly Kazybaevich ISMAILOV, Talgat Alishovich BAITILEUOV, Ildar Rafisovich FAKHRADYIEV
Background: The failure of the intestinal anastomosis remains one of the main problems in gastrointestinal surgery. Modern principles for solving this problem are focused on the cellular level of regeneration using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). In this study, we evaluated the effect of PRP and experimentally compared the effectiveness of various application methods in intestinal anastomosis regeneration in rabbits. Materials and Methods: Platelet-rich autoplasma was obtained from 81 rabbits, which were used to study two methods of applying PRP (injection into the muscle layer / soaking in the intestinal wall) in comparison with the control group on the end-to-end small-intestinal anastomosis. A morphological study of intestinal anastomoses was performed after 24, 48, 72 hours, as well as in 7 days. Evaluation of deformation and strength characteristics of the anastomosis was carried out on the 7th day. Results: Analysis of the histological and morphometric data of the study showed that the regeneration between the samples of intestinal anastomosis treated with PRP soaking and injections into the intestinal wall is more favorable in comparison with the control group, which, in turn, was determined by the quantitative ratio of inflammatory infiltrate, fibroblast proliferation, neoangiogenesis, and collagen deposition. PRP soaking in the intestinal wall significantly increased the number of adhesions battles. The resulting conglomerate adhesions contributed to severe deformation and narrowing of more than ½ of the lumen in the intestinal tube. Analysis of the deformation and strength characteristics of the formed anastomoses also showed significantly high values of the rupture strength of the anastomoses treated with PRP, in contrast with the control group. Conclusion: PRP soaking and injection into the intestinal wall can have a positive effect on the regeneration of the intestinal anastomosis. PRPinjection into the muscular layer of the intestinal wall significantly reduces the development of adhesions in comparison with the PRP-saturated group of intestinal anastomoses. Further research is needed to clarify the optimal method of PRP application, which will improve the regeneration of the intestinal anastomosis.
19 Assessment of left ventricular function by echocardiography in sample of Iraqi patients with lymphoma treated with doxorubicin , Abbas Al-Sharifi, Hayam Taher Faisal
Background: Lymphoma is one of the most common hematological malignancies, which can be treated effectively by Anthracyline –based chemotherapy. Early detection of subclinical Doxorubicin cardio toxicity is a continuing challenge in clinical oncology. Methods has been done to minimize cardiotoxicity include serial monitoring of cardiac function or empiric doxorubicin dose limitation. Objective of study: Detection of cardiac effect of doxorubicin in patients with lymphomaand determine the relationship between cumulative dose of anthracylcline and late cardiotoxicity Patients and methods: 50 patients (40 patients with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 10 patients with Hodgkin S lymphoma) were enrolled in prospective hospital based study in Hematological disease center and Baghdad Medical city, from 1st of May 2016 till 1st of September 2016, their age ranged from 16 years to 70 years old .All patients had been treated accordingly either by CHOP (C ; Cyclophosphamide. H ; Doxorubicin Hydrochloride O, Vincristine, Prednisolone) or by ABVD regimens (A: adriamycin (doxorubicin) B; bleommycin; V; vinblastine D;dacarbazine) .Patients were examined by Echocardiography, looking for cardiac dimensions ,ejection fraction and pulses-wave Doppler for any left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.Cumulative dose of Doxorubicin ,sex age ,type of lymphoma .smoking and duration of treatment were evaluated as a potential risk factors for the development of cardio toxicity. Results:Total of 50 patients collected their age ranged between 16 and 70 years old with mean of 48.8 ± 15.54 years , there were 21(42%) male and 29(58%) female , 10 patients had Hodgkin’s lymphoma, treated by ABVD regimens and 40 patients had Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,they were treated by CHOP regimens.The duration of the treatment varies between one year to 11 years of treatment with a mean of 4.4 ± 2.66 years duration, the total dose of Doxorubicin ranging from 400 – 680 mg/m2 with a mean of 554 ± 89.45 mg/m2.Of the 50 patients,28(56%) developed LVH, 24(48%) developed left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and 12(24%) developed left ventricular systolic dysfunction.Significant correlation was found between the ejection fraction and dose of the doxorubicin ( p value < 0.01) .Significant correlation between the type of lymphoma ( p value < 0.001) , duration of treatment ( p value 0.001) and the dose of Doxorubicin(p value 0.012) with development of LVH also has been noted Conclusion The incidence of cardio toxicity is significant in lymphoma patientstreated by one of regimens that contain doxorubicin.The incidence is related to the dose of doxorubicin.The longer period of treatment with doxorubicin the higher chance to get cardio toxicity
20 The relationship of serum Cyclophilin-A level with Glycated haemoglobin and its role in the early prediction of coronary artery disease in Iraqi patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus , Dunia Tahseen Nema Al-Aridhi, Zainab A Razak Al-Sharifi, Muthanna Al-Quraishi, Khalid I H Allehibi
Background Cyclophilin-A is a protein, secreted from the endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cells in response to the reactive oxygen species (ROS),it has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity (PPIA).It is a novel biochemical marker, which is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD).Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome affecting many people in the world; it has a variety of complications that lead to serious problems such as coronary artery disease (CAD). T2DM can be diagnosed efficiently by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects the state of blood glucose in last three months, so it is considered as a good indicator of long-term glycemic control according to the recommendation of the American Diabetes Association (ADM). Objective To assess the correlation of Cyclophilin-A with the HbA1c, and to detect the role of Cyclophilin-A in the metabolic complications of T2DM, like coronary atherosclerosis, and to evaluate the reliability of this marker in prediction and identification of CAD early in type 2 diabetic patients when the preventive measures and treatment facilities are effective. Methods One hundred sixty-one volunteers aged (40-60 year), and their body mass index (20- 25Kg/m2). They were divided into six groups [two control groups (Ia, Ib), two diabetic groups (IIa, 1Ib) and two coronary artery disease groups (IIIa, IIIb)]. These volunteers were diagnosed by endocrinologist and cardiologist, they are distributed among the groups as follows: [(Ia = control (neg. cath. without DM, 28 persons), Ib = control (apparently healthy, 25 persons), IIa = DM (neg. cath., 30 person), IIb = DM (depending on history, 25 person), IIIa = CAD (without DM, 20 person), IIIb = (CAD + DM, 33 persons)]. The parameters that measured in this study were (plasma glucose, Glycated haemoglobin, serum lipid profile and serum Cyclophilin-A, all these parameters were measured in the fasting state for each group. Also, the relationship was found between Cyclophilin-A and Glycated haemoglobin for [total control groups, total DM groups, CAD without DM group, and CAD with DM group]. Results Cyclophilin-A levels were a significant elevated in (IIa, IIb, IIIa and IIIb ) groups as compared with control groups (Ia, Ib), and the highest level is showed in CAD+ DM group (IIIb). Moreover, there is a significant positive correlation between serum Cyclophilin-A and HbA1c in the [total DM groups (IIa +IIb), P =6.74E-09, r = 0.687] and in[CAD + DM group (IIIb), P =0.00369, r = 0.491], but the results did not show a significant correlation in the [total control groups (Ia+Ib) and CAD without the DM group (IIIa)].The present findings showed significantly elevated in the means of FPG level, HbA1c, serum cholesterol level, in groups (IIa, IIb and IIIb) as compared with control groups (Ia, Ib) except in (IIIa) group there was no significant difference. In addition, there was a significant increase in the mean serum levels of triglyceride, VLDL and LDL for (IIa,IIb, IIIa and IIIb ) groups than in the control groups. While there was a significant decrease in mean serum level of HDL for groups (IIa,IIb, IIIa and IIIb) than in the control groups (Ia, Ib). Besides, there was a significant decrease in serum HDL level in CAD groups (IIIa, IIIb) than in DM groups (IIa, 1Ib). Conclusion The highest level of serum Cyclophilin-A in diabetic patients with CAD and its positive relationship with HbA1c can indicate the role of Cyclophilin-A for predicting CAD in type 2 diabetic patients.
21 Food poisoning: Bacterial isolation and knowledge regarding food-handle with Anti-Haemolytic Activity of vinegar , Nada Khazal Hindi, Zainab Adil Ghani Chabuck, Thikra Adnan Jawad Banimuslem, Jameel Ali Kadhim
Food poisoning is a sickness that is due to consumption of water or food contaminated with bacteria themselves and/or their toxins, or with viruses, parasites, or because of chemicals. the cross-sectional study of 100 food-handlers by conducting face to face interview by questionnaire, and take samples from food, tools and workers, at November 2017 to March 2018 in Al-Hilla city, to get information about the practices, attitudes and knowledge of the food-handlers regarding food safety. Antimicrobial and bacterial haemolytic activities were evaluated before and after the usage of vinegar. The commonest category of age group among food workers was 21-30 years (55%). The highest percentage of bacterial isolated from restaurants and workers were S. epidermidis, S. aureus followed by E. feacalis and E. coli. The educational level indicated that the largest groups among workers (41%) have only primary education. The 93% of workers have no learned or enter food safety courses. Most cases of food poisoning (about 50% of the total cases) were attributed to improper handling of food by food workers. Vinegar inhibits bacterial growth and haemolysis at concentrations 30% and 40% but not at 10% and 20%. Young workers do not have a good level of education or enter food safety courses. Most bacterial isolates were found on the skin, nose and gastrointestinal tract which indicates their responsibility on food poisoning cases due to poor personal hygiene of the workers, and poor usage of hygiene protective devices. Also vinegar showed effective antimicrobial and antihaemolytic actions that can be used as an antiseptic by its addition to food equipments during washing and cleaning.
22 Knowledge assessment of female students of Southern Technical University in Basrah-Iraq, regarding breast cancer and breast self-examination , Majid Abdulwahab Maatook, Abdul Kareem M Jawad, Rajaa Ahmed Mahmoud
Background: Globally, epidemiological statistics provide an evidence that breast cancer is the second common type of cancers and definitely the most common type among women with a fraction of 25% of the total registered cancer cases.And by reviewing the worldwide mortality rates, it is among the top ten killers worldwide with an estimated increase in the number of deaths from 7.4 million in 2004 to 83.2 million in 2015. With such an increasing burden of the disease over time, a huge necessity emerged to conduct more studies on breast cancer knowledge, early detection practices, in addition to the assessment of the disease risk factors and preventive measures. The study objective: To assess the knowledge of female students of the Southern Technical University in Basrah regarding breast cancer (signs, symptoms, breast self-examination and ways of prevention). Methodology of the study: It is a cross-sectional study that included 250 female students of the Southern Technical University in Basra with the age between 18-24 years during the year 2018. Results: The study found that 66.8% of the female students know some or all the signs and symptoms of breast cancer compared to 33.2% of them who did not know any sign or symptom of the disease. 62.8% of the students included in the study did not know that breast cancer is a preventable disease. More than half of the sample (55.6%) did not hear about breast self-examination. In addition, the majority of those who knew about breast self-examination mentioned that the importance of breast self-examination is early detection of breast cancer. While the rest of the study population thought that it is important only for reassurance. Conclusions and recommendations: The study concluded that more health education training and awareness sessions on breast self-examination technique should target students at an early age with a special focus on university students.
23 The Antibacterial Effect of bioactive compounds extracted from Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against Some Pathogenic Bacteria , Hussein J Hussein, Nebras Mohammed Sahi, Ali Malik Saad, Huda Jasim Altameme
To detect the impact on some gram negative and gram positive pathogenic bacteria of crudely extract phenolic, alkaloid and terpenoid compounds of Cassia didymobotrya.Cassia didymobotrya antibacterial action was achieved in vitro by agar well diffusion methods against certain gram negative and gram positive bacterial pathogenic bacteria .Results showed that active Cassia didymobotry compounds have a large variety of antibacterial actiontoward negative gram and positive gram bacteria.This investagation shows that we could assume the impact of bioactive compounds on different pathogenic forms of life at different concentrations in cassia didymobotrya.Cassia didymobothria leaves alkaloids were shown to have increasinglypowerful antibacterial action for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mitis and Lactobacilus acidophilusexcept Staphylococcus aureus. While terpenoid compounds it was increasingly powerful to all except Lactobacillus acidophilus, but Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mitis completely resistant to phenolic compounds.
24 Prevalence of lung cancer in non smoker patients attending Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital , Thimar Malik Khudhair, Hassan Raji Jilla'ab
Background: Smoking is a well known risk factor that is implicated in a number of human malignant disorders. Aim of the study: To study the prevalence of lung cancer in a sample of Iraqi non smoker patients and the main risk factor implicated in such malignant tumor. Patients and Methods: In this hospital based study, in order to explore the prevalence rate of bronchogenic carcinoma in non smoker patients, it retrospectively collected data about those patients for the last four years, starting from January 2016 through June 2019. This information was retrieved from patients’ records that are already present in oncology and respiratory units in Al-Diwaniyah teaching hospital, Al-Diwaniyah province, Mid-Euphrates region of Iraq. The following variables were included in the questionnaire form: Age, gender, occupation, education level, residency, socioeconomic status, marital status history of smoking, history of second hand smoking, number of household smokers, type of smoking, history of alcoholism, history of chronic illness, the main presenting clinical features and clinical features of carcinoma and finding in examination as well as those obtained from investigations. Results: In the current study, the prevalence rate of all cases of lung cancer during the period of study was 61 out of 403 (15.1 %). the rate of lung cancer in none smokers, in the current study, was 39.3 %. Old age individuals were the main age group affected and there was female predilection. There was also no significant difference in the distribution of patients and control subjects according to residency, occupation, level of education marital status and socioeconomic status (P > 0.05). In the current study, the prevalence rate of passive smoking in patients was significantly higher than that in control subjects, 70.8 % versus 40 %. Moreover, the number of household smokers was significantly higher inpatients group than in control group. Conclusion: Lung cancer in non smokers appears to be significantly correlated with passive smoking in addition to increase incidence in old age and women.
25 The effect of Essential oils on Mutlit-drugs resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) , Lubna Abdulazeem, Hadeel Alaa Alrubaei, Farah Tareq Al-Alaq, Yasir H Al-Mawlah, Ali Shakir Obed
One hundred twenty five isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different clinical specimens of patient’s in Al-Hilla, General teaching hospital, in Babylon, Iraq. These samples are fully characterized & identified by standard bacteriological procedures, used biochemical test & VITEK2 system compact. P. aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to variety of antimicrobials & can develop resistance during anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy both of which compromise treatment of infections caused by this organism. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was carried out by the Kirby- Bauer disk diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. Susceptibility test for anti-pseudomonas drugs show multi-resistant to most drugs except colistin and there was resistance to Ampcillin (80%) Carbenicillin (98%) Chloramphenicol (99%) Rifampin (97%), Imipenem (35%) mcropenem(36%), Tetracycline(89%) and colistin(0%). Traditional medicines are trusted as a source of potential antimicrobial agent thus essential oil from source like medical plants, herbs are used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of essential oil such as: Syzygium aromaticcum (clove oil), Allium sativum (Garlic oil), Origanum majorana (majora oil), and Cinnamonumn zeylanicum (cinnamon oil). These oils expressed antimicrobial activity against clinical isolated of P. aeruginosa. Cinnamon oil had strong inhibitory against MDR strains are compared with other oil
26 Using PCR & RFLP techniques to detect the relationship between mutations (C677T & A1298C) of MTHFR gene and homocysteine level of heart patients, Mohammad Mutlag Salih, Akeel Hussein Ali
The aim of this study was to assess the level of homocysteine in patients with myocardial infarction compared to healthy patients. The genotype of the MTHFR gene, which causes high homocysteine level in myocardial infarction, was collected from 25 healthy individuals (control group) and (50) patients with myocardial infarction who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Those who suffer from myocardial infarction due to elevated homocysteine levels. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood for study samples to determine the genetic mutation using specific primers and using The PCR-RFLP techniques, the study showed that the levels of homocysteine in blood plasma in people with myocardial infarction were significantly higher compared to control group. The study showed the relationship between the genetic diversity of the A1298C, C677T, and MTHFR genes. The results showed that the ratio The C677T allele did not show a significant difference between patients and healthy patients while A1298C allele percentage showed a statistically significant difference between the patients and the healthy at the probability level (P≤0.05) in the studied society. The genes of the enzyme A1298C, C677T, MTHFR showed additional mutations in patients with myocardial infarction Patients (Saladin community) compared with control group.
27 Genetic polymorphisms of ATP6 gene in vitiligo patients , Israa Harjan  Mohsen, Hadell Alaa Al-Rrubaei, Suad Ghali Kadhim Alahmed, Mona Najah Al Terehi
ATP6 gene represent mitochondrial gene that play important role in oxidative phosphorylation process which is important for ATP production and the occurrence of mutations in ATP6 gene and associated genes may disrupt mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and this correlated with a different diseases.This study attempt to detect the association between polymorphisms in ATP6 gene and vitiligo. The results showed the presence of deletion in ATP6 gene was (16%) of patients group while in control group was (5%) while the normal pattern was ( 84%) in patients and (95%) in control group.The deletion in ATP6 gene may associate with the loss of melanin from melanocyte in vitiligo patients and this needs more investigation.
28 Improve MRI in the diagnosis of neurological diseases , Marwa H Abbas, Zena N Al-Qudsi, Layth M Karim
MRI contrast agents are molecules to improve the quality of diagnoses by medical imaging magnetic resonance. The currently marketed agents are characterized by pharmacokinetics at so-called interstitial distribution, that is, after the injection intravascularly; the agent splits into every extracellular space. These agents allow detection of tumors brain, breast osteo-articular pathologies, and allow perform the imaging of the vessels called procedure angiography (Figure 1).
29 A study on measuring patients' satisfaction using SERVQUAL Model in Melaka private hospital , Lizwa Rashis, Amira Azman, Sue Pei Shin, Samer Ali Shami
There are many kinds of sectors or industries in a country. However, healthcare industry is important as it is the driver for the financial development and economic growth. Therefore, the quality of services delivered by the healthcare industry particularly in the private hospital should be excellent in order for the patients to be happy with the service quality , which can help in building customer loyalty and eventually provide profitability to the private hospital. The aim of this research is to describe the significant influences in the quality of services that affect patients’ satisfaction using SERVQUAL Model in the private hospital. The outcomes of this research paper would be able to represent whether the patients in the private hospital are more concerned with quality of services. In this study, five independent variables which are tangibility, empathy, assurance, reliability and responsiveness of the quality of services in measuring satisfaction of the patients in the private hospital. Next, secondary data such as literature review was also used in this paper. The proposed research framework is developed after understanding and interpreting the information from the literature review from different perspectives of researchers. Besides, primary data of this research is collected from 150 questionnaires among patients in a private hospital using probability sampling techniques which is the cluster sampling technique through drop and collect questionnaires distribution. The findings of this research should contribute to organization and government to identify the importance of private hospital of Malaysia for economic growth and improvement of the healthcare industry itself.
30 Factors affecting Students Continue Intention to Use MOOCs, Benefits and Drawbacks: A review Paper from the UAE Context, Salem Abdullah Aldahmani, Samer Ali Al-Shami, Muhamad AfzamimanAripin
In the twenty-first century, universities have misplaced their monopoly of the production and transmission of knowledge. They face the assignment of adapting to the needs of society, which can be summarized in three key aspects: economy, science and school development. The use of information communication technology has become the main concern for almost all educational institutions due to its cost efficiency that makes it affordable for all students regardless their economic condition and time effectiveness regardless the physical location. These magnificent advantages motivated not only educational institutions but also the ministries of education in most of the countries to adopt this technology as a key driver for socioeconomic development and illiteracy eradication. The UAE has its own agenda in adopting MOOCs in education system and at the heart of them is improve the quality of education. Despite, these advantages, many challenges still surround this vital technology. Thus, this research is a review paper on the introduction of MOOCs, its advantages and challenges and the trend for future research from the UAE perspective.
31 Therapeutic drug monitoring of cytotoxic drugs , Qutaiba Ahmad Al Khames Aga, Yazan A Bataineh, HalaMousa Sbaih
The majority of anticancer drugs are recognized with narrow therapeutic index, the area under the plasma levels versus time curve (AUC) is the common pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter which utilizes specifically for cytotoxic drugs. TDM approach in these drugs has never been completely applied due to different reasons, for example, the use of combination chemotherapies for different malignant tumors, and the behavior of intracellularcompounds; it’s possible to eliminate these limitations by using specific concentrations of cytotoxic drugs and measure AUC after certain conditions. In this review article, we discussed the common TDM parameters, methods of analysis, and some of drug interactions for a group of cytotoxic drugs.
32 The Advantages and Challenges of mobile health service quality system in UAE and future research , Halima Alblooshi, Samer Ali Al-Shami, Safiah Sidek
Innovations in mobile technology (mhealth) have brought remote healthcare management to the forefront of advanced medical care. The ability to record the cardiac activity of a patient at home has been available for some time. Due to the role of mhealth in improving the quality of health services in a timeresponsiveness and cost efficiency, the UAE health authority emphasized to the importance of mhealth and many hospitals introduced it with aiming to improve the quality and gain a competitive advantage. Even though the UAE is a leading country in health management, several challenges still surround their operation and impede the development of mhealth. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the potential advantages and the challenges that encounter mhealth development in the context of UAE. The finding of this research emphasized that the UAE health industry has the potential to develop their health quality through the development of the quality system of mhealth based on customers’ perspectives that meets customers’ satisfaction and continue intention to use mhealth
33 Genotyping of Glutathione-S-Transferase M and T in vitiligo patients , Noora M Hameed, Hadeel Alaa Al-Rrubaei, Zeena H Alwan
Vitiligo has become one of the important diseases which cause loss of skin pigments. Present study was carried out to investigate whether vitiligo is associated with GST genes polymorphisms in Hilla city. Blood DNA was extracted from patients and control then multiplex PCR was used to detect polymorphisms of GSTT and GSTM. The results of present study show that there were four genotyping in present study tow genes appeared together GSTM with GSTT, single gene GSTT only or GSTM and nor GSTT neither GSTM (null),The GSTT and GSTM appeared in 8 patients and 12 control at significant differences (od 3.9231, CI95% 1.3066 - 11.7793, P value 0.0148), GSTT was normal in 11 patients and 10 control at significant differences also (od 6.9697 CI 95% 1.5916 - 30.5199 P 0.010), GSTM was normal in 9 of patients while didn’t appeared as single gene in control (od 0.2180, CI 95% 0.0101 - 4.7164 P 0.331) both genes didn’t amplified for 14 patients and 3 control. The current study concluded that there was strong correlation between GSTT and GSTM polymorphisms with vitiligo disease.
34 Puemothorax: One year experience in tersm of dianosis, treatment and complication , Yaser Aamer Eisa Alhaibi
Background: The term ‘Pneumothorax’ denotes air in the pleural space, i.e., the space between the chest wall and the lung. Pneumothorax is generally classified as spontaneous (primary or secondary), which occurs without preceding trauma; traumatic, which occurs as a result of direct or indirect trauma and iatrogenic. Pneumothorax can be diagnosed by the history and physical examination in slender patients who have had acute onset of chest pain and dyspnea, and confirmed with a chest radiograph visualizing the visceral pleural line, however, the diagnosis of tension pneumothorax must be made clinically, because there is not enough time for imaging studies. Treatment options are: observation, needle aspiration, Tube Thoracostomy, Tube Thoracostomy with Instillation of a Sclerosing Agent, surgery. Method: Cross sectional study with analytic elements was performed by retrospective collection of data from 30 patients, at Alkadhmiya teaching Hospital, over the year of 2016 Objective: To know the most common cause of pneumothorax, what modality of treatment that is most commonly used in managing patients with pneumothorax, whether it is associated with complications or not, and the amount of time patients usually spend in hospital for follow up. Results: Trauma was the commonest cause of pneumothorax (67%).Usually patients who were admitted to the hospital didn’t have comorbidities (43%), however, (27%) of them were smokers, (30%) had tension pneumothorax.(87%) of the patients were treated by an underwater seal chest drainage system. Most of the patients (63%) stayed less than six days at hospitalAlmost all of the patients (93%) had no complications. Conclusion: Trauma was the most common cause for pneumothorax, affecting males more than females who are usually young adults.Patients most commonly treated by Chest Tube drainage,almost all of the patients didn’t have complications afterwards, and patients usually stay less than seven days at hospital for follow up.
35 Causes of Iron Deficiency anemia in patients sample attending the hematology outpatient clinic of Baghdad teaching hospital, Iraq, 2018 , Alaadin Sahham Naji, Luma Issa Hammoodi, Mustafa Ahmed Abdul-Lateef
Cross-sectional study was carried out on 104 patients (89 women and 15 men) in the Hematology outpatient clinic of Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The data was obtained from the subjects by an interview using a structured questionnaire with reviewing their medical records. Iron Deficiency Anemia was define as Hemoglobin level less than 13 g/dL in men, less than 12 g/dL in non-pregnant women or less than 11 g/dL in pregnant women, serum Ferritin less than 15 and MCV µg/L less than 78 fL Results: The mean of age of our study population was 36.2 ± 14.2 years old. Blood loss accounted for 69.3% of all cases, Malabsorption: 13.5%, Pregnancy: 11.5% and iron deficient Diet: 1.9%. In females, Gynecological related conditions accounted for 62.9% of the cases. In males, gastrointestinal blood loss accounted for 60% of the cases. There was significantly association between gender and gastrointestinal blood loss (P value = 0.001) and Malabsorption (P value = 0.015) as causes for Iron deficiency anemia. Conclusion: Blood loss was the leading cause of Iron Deficiency Anemia in both men and women, followed by Malabsorption. There is a significant association between gender with gastrointestinal blood loss and Malabsorption as causes of Iron deficiency anemia, both of them being more prevalent in males than in females. On the other hand, no association was observed between these causes with age categories. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common cause of Iron deficiency anemia in males, while in females the most common cause was menorrhagia.
36 Attitudes and Practices Associated with Blood Donation among Iraqi Donors Attending the Iraqi National Blood Bank, Baghdad, Iraq, Alaadin Sahham Naji, Luma Issa Hammoodi, Aiya Laith Kadhim, Dina Mohammed Abd al-Majeed, Rafal Mohammed Mandoo
The donation of blood by voluntary non-remunerated blood donors is defined as being very important for the safety and sustainability of national blood supplies. In Iraq voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. Blood is the only oxygen transporter in the body and is crucial in saving lives. So far, there is no real substitute for human blood .Therefore, blood donation by humans will continue to be the major source for blood and blood components. Blood donation is truly ‘a gift of life’ that a healthy individual can give to others in their community, who are sick or injured Aim of the Study: Determine the attitude and practices towards voluntary blood donation, describe previous experiences and barriers to blood donation and what factors that play a role in the recruitment and willingness of donors to donate blood voluntarily Methodology: This is descriptive cross-sectional survey design (from 1st July 2017 to 1st October 2017). Data was collected by interview questionnaire from 500 blood donors. Subjects were selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researchers therefore a convenient sampling design was utilized. The interview questionnaire contained 21 questions divided into three sections to obtain data regarding general information. The information included religion, background education, occupation, economic status, whether he or she donated blood before, the motive behind donation, and attitude regarding blood donation. Results: The study was conducted on 500 participants’ attendee to Iraq National Center Blood Bank, 477(95.4%) were males and 23(4.6%) were females. The most frequent age groups of donor between 26-35 (42.4%) years old. The educational qualifications were primary school graduate (25.4%) and intermediate school graduate (24.6%), with only (19.2%) having a bachelor's degree. The majority stated that they are freelancers (49.4%) and (40.2%) were employees. Out of the 500 participants there was 407(81.4%) who stated that they had donated blood before, the percentage of those who had donated once before in their lifetime was (16.7%) and about (67.1%) had donated more than once The main reason for donation was the sense of responsibility in about 41.5%, while 23.6% was to help a relative\ or a friend, and some reported their reasons were because of a certain medical condition (22.4%), the remaining reported not having a specific reason (5.7%), religious\spiritual reasons (4.9%), and blood donation campaigns (2%). Of the 93 (18.6%) who had never donated blood before, (74.2%) reported that not having an opportunity to donate was their main reason, while 12.9% stated that they were not eligible to donate because of a certain medical condition. For attitudes of the donors towards voluntary blood donation; it shows that almost all the participants (99.2%) believed that voluntary blood donation is important and that it could probably save a life. The study revealed that almost half of the study subject (42.4%) did not have any information about the medical and social benefits of blood donation, but 58.6% claimed to have some information about that. Conclusion: This study revealed the domination of male gender as blood donors who came from the vicinity, and the positive attitude was derived from the Iraqi donor's altruism were the main factors that influenced the recruitment of voluntary blood donors
37 Video Qualitative Analysis of Soccer place-kick , Abdullah Hussein Al-Lami, Rashad Abbas Fadhil, Haider Ali Hadi
Biomechanical analysis of any sporting activity provides both quantitative and qualitative information about the event. This present work aims to examine the sequences of different body segments before, through and after side place-kick. Ten students taking advanced course at the Physical Education Department alerted University agreed to take part in this study.Qualitative investigation of the position of the non-kicking foot, degree of trunk lean back, the position of the kicking knee in relation to the ball and the pattern of the follow-through is presented, and showed two different patterns among players in positions of the body segments before, through and after the kick.
38 Impact of using training loads with biorhythm on the performance of kinetic series Conkday for karate players, Mohannad Nazar Kzar, Retha Abd Alhussein Hadi, Ameen Salih Ateya
Karate sport is considered one of the individual combat sports which has been the subject of scientific development, characterized by a variety of basic offensive methods between punching, hitting and kicking, which requires defensive and offensive performances with arms and legs strong and fast up to the skill time in the performance of less than one second and high intensity and repeated in a time In Kata, the performance of the skill and the constant and immobile muscular contractions continue in performance over the Kata period, which can range from 60 - 90 seconds depending on the type of kata and the school to which it belongs. The researcher considers the need to search for new methods and approaches to increase the effectiveness of the training programs, in addition to not increase the training loads, but also to make maximum use of the potential of the training case for the player and benefit from applied biological sciences in developing the level of training for the player and the reflection on the level of special achievement (Armstrong, 1998).Objective of the research: To know the effect of training loads according to the nature of the biorhythm on the level of performance of the kinetic series of Kata Conkday Karate. Objective of the research: To know the effect of training loads according to the nature of the biorhythm track on the level of performance of the kinetic series of Kata Conkday Karate. The research hypothesis: There are statistically significant differences between the values of pre- post measurements of the level of performance of the kinetic series, which is oriented according to biorhythm track.
39 The effect of use computer technology in the process of mental training in learning some skills of volleyball for juniors, Samir Yousif Mutib, Mazin Hadi Kzar, Ahmed Yousif Mutib, Ali Abdulkareem Dohan
There is a weakness and difficulty in forming a model image for the skill according to performance requirement for players during the imagination in the mental training process and this is reflected significantly on the player's performance during the match as well as weakness in performance of the basic skills of the juniors. So the researchers want to get solution for problem by activate the process of creating the mental image of the model of skill during the mental training of the players using the displays provided by the computer like normal-motion, slow-motion, (3D) photos and videos addition to the biomechanical analyses. The aim of study is know the effect of use computer technology in the development of some volleyball skills of players. The hypothesis of research is that there is a positive effect of use of computer technology in development of some volleyball skills of players. The researchers used the experimental method by design the equal groups. The sample included the juniors (14-16 years) in Hashemiea Club / Babylon city, their number is (24). The data was analyzed by using the statistical program SPSS. The researchers reached to number of conclusions were, the most important of which was the positive effect of computer features in activate the process of forming the mental image of the skill during the mental training, as well as having a positive effect on developing the performance of some basic skills players.
40 The Impact of Exercises in the Style of Competition on Some Hormones and Variables of the Immune System in the Blood for the Category of Badminton Players who are under 17 Years, Mohannad N K Al-Swidy, Maher AHH Al-Alwani
The aim of this research is to identify the impact of exercises in the style of competition on some hormones , like (TSH, T4, T3) and the variables in the immune system in the blood(i.e. the total number of white blood cells, neural cells, acid cells, basal cells, lymphocytes and single- core cells) for the flying feather category of players who are under 17 years.The researchers use the curriculum demo on a sample which consists of (6) players who represent the National Iraqi team of flying feather for the category of players under 17 years. In addition, they use the means and the tools for gathering information as: scientific sources syringes, pipes, a box for drawing, collecting and saving blood, electroscope to analyze the hormones. The researchers reach to numbers of conclusions and they are as follows. First, there is a negative impact of the effort exercises in the style of competition on some variables in the immune system in the blood (i.e. the total number of the white blood cells, neural cells, acid cells, basal cells, lymphocytes and single- core cells) of the badminton players. Furthermore, there is a positive impact of the exercises in the style of competition, on some blood hormones (T3, T4, TSH) for the badminton category of players under 17 years.The recommendations are: adopting the results of the research and make use of them in recognizing the variables in the immune system that take place before and after the exercises in the style of competition, as well as, adopting the results of the research and make use of them in knowing the functional indicators (hormones) before and after the exercises in the style of competition.
41 The Effectiveness of Teaching Using the Marzano Model for Learning Dimensions in Increasing Cognitive Achievement and Learning Some Basic Skills among Students in Tennis, Mazin Hadi Kzar, Dhafer Namous Khalaf
In order to verify the effectiveness of teaching using the Marzano model for the dimensions of learning in increasing cognitive achievement and learning some basic skills in tennis, the researchers used the experimental method on the research sample of (30 students of the third stage in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences - Faculty of Al-Mustaqbal University College and after the implementation of the field procedures to search and get the findings. The two researchers reached the most important conclusions: The Marzano model of the dimensions of learning provides an integrated educational system as it is concerned with presenting concepts and ideas at the beginning of each lesson in the form of cognitive maps and conceptual schemes that illustrate the relationship between the skilled Basic question and the importance of interdependence between them. The researchers recommend the use of the Marzano model in teaching the other basic skills in tennis and other materials as well as conducting research and similar studies using modern teaching models, which proved effective in teaching the various sports materials and the different stages of the college.
42 The Effect of a Rehabilitation Program on the Development of Certain Physical Abilities of Volleyball Players with Outwards Bowed Legs (Genu Varum), Tahseen Abdul Kareem, Mazin Hadi Kzar, Samaher Salman Alwan
The different types of limb deformities, including outward bowed legs (genu varum), are mainly a result of osteoporosis due to an unrecovered vitamin D deficiency during childhood, environmental pollution, genetic disorders, improper medication use, congenetical malformations, certain cases of obesity, or Blount's disease, whose symptoms may not appear until adolescence. Since genu varum results in thin and brattle bones, certain rehabilitation programs are required to resolve the leg deformity. If such correction treatment is left out, the symptoms may develop into osteoarthritis and the breakdown of the joint cartilage, which makes it even more difficult to do any physical leg exercises. The rehabilitation process builds up muscular abilities of the thighs, knees, and lower legs which are essential to perform the rehabilitation activities by means of various supporting tools and light weights that reinforce to the correction of the volleyball players' leg deformity. This all lead to the main aim of the research, namely to develop a rehabilitation program to treat or, at least, lessen the curvature of the knees and to improve certain physical abilities at volleyball players who suffer from genu varum. The researchers adopted the experimental approach to solve the research's problem. The research sample is represented by (8) volleyball players who suffer from outward bowed knees. The rehabilitation program used by the researchers over a period of two months, under the supervision of medical specialists, included various rehabilitation exercises, supporting tools, and several medical tests. The researchers concluded the following: The rehabilitation program set up by the researchers affected the volleyball players positively as it corrected the leg's curvature more to a certain extent. And the rehabilitation program has a positive influence on the development of certain physical abilities that contributed to the correction of the volleyball players' leg deformity.
43 The speed of motor response and its relationship to successful attack for players (Iraq, UAE, and Tunisia) fencing, Mazin Hadi Kzar, Dhafer Namoo Al-Taie
It is obvious to adopt the successful attack of the fencing player to the speed of his response to changing situations which occur in the game, and to identify the type of relationship between the speed of the motor response and the successful attack of the young fencing players and participants in the Arab Championship held in Cairo in 2018. The researcher used the descriptive approach in the method of associative relations, after applying the test to the research sample of (12) new players representing teams (Iraq, UAE and Tunisia), and got their results players in the championship of the summary results which were statistically treated, and the researcher reached the most important concluded, The speed of the motor response is critical to the successful attack by the young fencing players through the moral relationship between them. The researcher recommends the need to pay attention to training the speed of the motor response according to the scientific bases and included in the training programs for trainers. As an important ability for the fencing player. And other research on the relationship of physical, motor, skill and planning capabilities among them for Arab players and all levels and compare them to the world champions.
44 The physical effort influence according to the level of mct1 gene in the recovery of lactic acid in basketball players, Mohammed H Shaalan, Rashad Abbas Fadhil, Haider Ali Hadi
The study aimed to discover the genetic different of basketball players Al-Hilla Sports Club for the sports season (2017-2018) after practice a physical effort by the lactic test(MLSS) in the speed of recovery and of lactic acid. The research was limited the sample (12) players from Al-Hilla Sports Club. The first stage was the knowledge of the genetic diversity of the players. The first level of the gene (5 players), the middle level (3 players), the minimum level of the gene (4 players) and the second stage The experiment was to measure the variable (lactic acid) for all levels of the gene and to detect the players who had a rapid elimination of the results of lactic acid. The experiment lasted for 2 months. The most important conclusions were the high level of the mct1 gene in the rapid elimination of lactic acid in the working muscles.
45 The effect of hypermedia program in generalization of motor program of shooting skill in basketball for students, Mazin Hadi Kzar, Samir Yousif Mutib, Maher Abdel-Hamza, Haider Na'eem Alabbosi
One of the reasons that led the researchers to do this research is that there is weakness in students’ performance of shooting skill in different types according to playing requirements, because of the learning process that is used only to teach students in one case and in constant conditions and this indicates a case of weakness in learning in general and in generalization of motor program of shooting in particular, so, to treat this weakness, the researchers suggested the use of good learning method to overcome those problems, the one of important means is hypermedia. The first aim was the preparation of hypermedia programs for shooting skill of basketball, while the second aim is to know the effect of hypermedia program in generalization of motor program of shooting skill. The hypotheses of the research were that there is a significant effect of hypermedia on generalization of motor program for shooting skill. The research population was identified by the students of the second stage in the College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Wasit University for the academic year 2014 – 2015. The research sample was selected by a simple randomly method which consisted of (30) students divided into two groups (experimental group and control group by 15 students per group).The researchers used many standardized tests for shooting skill of basketball and they performed the pre-tests and after that applied the learning curriculum, which followed by a post- tests to get on the research data that has been analyzed statistically using statistical program (SPSS).It reached a set of conclusions. The most important was the use of hypermedia program helped in develop and generalize the motor program for shooting skill of basketball.
46 Effect of some exercises in development of turning phase and the performance in 100 m freestyle of youth swimmers aged15-16 years, Mazin Hadi Kzar, Hammoudi Mahmoud Ismail
This research was to examine the effects of some exercises to improve the turning phase in 100 m free-style performance. The sample of the research was 16 swimmers selected randomly and assigned into two groups, the first as experimental, which executed the exercise arranged by the researcher, the other was control group, which used the usual exercise selected by their trainer. Both groups were tested pre & post training in 100m free-style swim, under same conditions. After 12 weeks the researcher found that both groups had an improvement in 100m free-style swim performance, but with different ratio. Yet the group which used the researcher exercises had a significant value than the other. The researcher recommends using the exercises concerning turning phase to improve the performance in 100m free-style.
47 Comparing the effect of eggshell membrane, olive oil, or castor oil as a skin anti-aging agent , Basima Jasim Mohammed, Shaimaa Abbas Sabeeh, Ali Habeeb Jaber, Orooba Meteaba Faja
Background and aims: Skin aging is a life-annoying problem especially for women that needs to act so that appearance of signs of aging can be delayed as long as possible. Here, the current work was intended to discover the effects of eggshell membrane (EM), olive oil (OO), or castor oil (CO) as a skin anti-aging agent (SAAA). Materials and methods: The thirty-day study included the use of randomly-divided four groups of 20 rabbits, T1 (oral-administered with freshly egg-extracted EM 2gm/day), T2 (oral-administered with OO 5ml/day), T3 (oral-administered with CO 5ml/day), and T4 (nothing supplied). After the experiment was done, the parameters measured for detecting the effectiveness of the substances were component of skin amino acid (glycine, alanine, proline, and hydroxyproline). In addition, histopathological examination of the rabbit skin was conducted for 2 time points (one week and six weeks after starting of the experiment). Results: The results of T1 showed significant (p˂0.01) higher percentages of components of amino acid in the rabbit skin than those from the other groups. Moreover, the histopathological examination revealed that T1 demonstrated the strongest proliferation of epidermal cells in the wrinkle of rabbit skin for the two time points when compared to the other groups. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the promising effects of the eggshell membrane as a skin anti-aging agent.
48 Treating mice using improved pomegranate peel techniques in the treatment of parasite , Marwab Thamer Abbas Al Saadi, Noor Thamer Abbas Al Asadi, Zina Tahsin Ali
Pomrgranate (Punica granatum) was evaluated for treating infected mice. The current study included the test of the efficiency of the water and alcohol extract of pomegranate peel. Experimentally infected mice were stimulated with the water and alcohol extracts of the pomegranate peel with a concentration of 15.657 giardia lamblia.Amalgam / mouse and 21,893 mg / rat, respectively, and one dose daily. The therapeutic efficacy of the extracts studied was compared with metronidazole which was given at a dose of 0.393 mg / rat / day. The results of the present study showed the efficacy of both metronidazole and pomegranate peel extracts studied in the treatment of parasitic infection. All treatments were fully effective and effective in treatment (100%), but varied in the time required for complete treatment.
49 A new record of three bdelloids from Babylon province-Iraq , Sara Khalid, Aljaryan Adi Jassim, Abd Al-Rezzaq
There are a few classification study of Rotifer in Iraq which classified some bdelloids in fresh water, but this is the first study of bdelloids collected from soil and sediment habitats at five different site in Babylon province – Iraq. This study add three Bdelloids species (1Philodina22acuticornis,4Murray,51902 ,6Philodina 7plena 8(9Bryce0, 118942) and3Philodina roseola Ehrenberg, 41832) to Iraqi fauna with scanning electron microscopy study for its trophi.
50 Role of antibiotics in perianal abscess , Suhad Kahdum Ali
Purpose: In this study, type of organism was discovered in the surrounding anal abscesses and its sensitivity towards antibiotics was also evaluated. Sixteen diseases were reported, as was the study of skin rupture or thrombocytopenia during this study. Using povidone iodine and alcohol the skin was purified by using a needle syringe 5 cc, the identified parasite was examined and sent for antibiotic susceptibility tests. Also common aerobic and anaerobic culture test was utilized Results: The rates of growth of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria recorded (100%, 87%) were severe. Aerobic bacteria, Escherichia (13/16), Eubacteria spp. (4/16), intestinal pulmonary bacteria (4/16), Citrobacter freundii (2/16), enteric intestinal Enterogens serogroup D (1/16), and Staphylococcus aureus (1/16) were identified. The antibiotic sensitivity rate was determined for E.Coli to be, 85.6%, 68.2%, and 31.8% Sivazo-Lin to Amoxicillin-Clavolamic Acid, Penicillin, Antibiotics. The rate of resistance of amikacin was 33%, E. coli resistance to gentamicin was 30%, and antibiotic sensitivity rates for anaerobic bacteria were 100%, 79.6%, 72.4% and 58.1% for the ampicillin-sulbactam, proteosol, clindamycin, and penicillin, respectively. The rate of fistula development in the follow-up of the disease for 12 months was 28% and 36% in patients with acute airway infections. Conclusion: The main alternative to oral antibiotics has been demonstrated in this study to treat the symptoms of fistula. The drug should be antiviral plus an increase in the proportion of cefazolin. In the case of aminoglycosides, it is used in severe cases. Amikacin is suggested to be administered because our findings show increase levels resistance of gentamicin
51 Influences of sound loudness on the registration of vertical dimensions , Rafah Habib Abdul Amir
Aim of study: 1- To evaluate the effect of sound loudness on the vertical dimensions, and compare it with the swallowing. 2- To evaluate the effect of sound loudnesson the closest speaking space. Materials and methods: 160 Iraqi students consisting of 50% males and 50% females aged ranging from 18-21 years with certain criteria were included in this study; the rest vertical dimension was measured by using the "M" sound method in twointensities of sounds (whispering and normal speech). The closest speaking space was measured by using the S sound in two intensities (normal and whispering) in the same manner as the measurement of the M sound. Results: a. Swallowing method give free-way space varied between 1—4 mm, majority of sample is of 2-3 mm. b. Phonetic method (whispering) give free-way space varies between 1-6 mm (male) and 1-8 mm (female), majority of sample was of 2-4 mm. c. Phonetic method (normal speaking)give free-way space varies between 1-7 mm (male) and 1-8 mm (female) majority of the sample is of 2-4 mm. Conclusions: 1-it has been found that phonetic method even whispering give rest vertical dimension greater than swallowing method, and this comes in contradiction to the assumption of joint B.
52 Evaluation of male and female rugae area of Iraqi population using 3D EXO-CAm scanning EXO-CAD designing software , Eman Alayah, Sara Mualla
Aim of study: To evaluate rugae area pattern, average length, depth of different samples of different Iraqi population and compare the parameters between males and females. Materials and methods: 60 students at Alturath University selected for this study (30 males and 30 females), age ranged between 18-25 years with definite criteria as (no missing teeth, no crowding, and no oral defects), impressions were taken with alginate from which stone models were fabricated. Each cast was scanned with EXO CAD scanner, 3D image of the casts investigated using the EXOCAD measurement tools software. The length of the rugae area, the patterns of rugae and symmetry of the primary rugae between the right and left wings of palate were checked. Results: two tailed T test used for statistical analysis. The two tested groups showed highly significant difference from each other both regarding the length and depth of rugae area. The means of each type of rugae area was measured and compared. V. CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of this study it can be concluded that 1. There is a significant difference between Iraqi males and females regarding the rugae area length and depth with females having the longer and the deeper rugae area. 2. Curved form was the predominant in females and the straight form counted the highest in number in males. 3. Both groups possessed more primary rugae area than secondary or fragmentary. 4- Each individual had different rugae area pattern from the others and can be used in human identification and sex differentiation. Yet, further studies of cross-sectional nature are recommended to discern the methodology of using the palatal rugae area in forensic gender recognition.
53 What is the role of governance in the health national innovation system? A Logic model approach , Hesam Seyedin, Majid Heydari, Azadeh Ahmadzadeh Ghasab,  Omdi Khosravizadeh
Background: Government as the most important components of innovation system has an important role in the efficiency of Health National Innovation System (HNIS). This study was conducted to identify the role of the government in the Iran's HNIS. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Results were arranged by logic model approach in categories of inputs, process, outputs and outcomes. Results: HNIS inputs that government has role included: availability of credits and financial resources, policies and programs, innovative public and private organizations, industries, innovative human capital and supply of technical knowledge. In HNIS activities: resource allocation, support of innovation, human capital empowerment, interaction and communication with industries and international organizations, managing of developmental programs, monitoring and control of innovation system. In HNIS outputs: supportive programs, guidelines, regulation and memorandum of interagency cooperation, innovation policy and innovative education programs. In early outcome: efficiently resource allocation policies and guidelines, increasing inter-sectorial cooperation, increasing motivation of organizations to conclude agreements with international institutions and improving organizations' attitudes to innovation projects as a source of income. In intermediate outcomes: implementation of innovative policies, constant monitoring of the implementation of innovative policies, optimum use of funds, strengthening innovation supporter institutions, sustainable collaboration with industry and commercialization of new ideas. In late outcome: improve public health, economic boom, create wealth by using new ideas, increase satisfaction, transform ideas into products and expand the culture of innovation in society and organizations. Conclusions: Government has various roles in Iran's HNIS. By identifying the role of government at various levels of HNIS can measure its performance. Better understanding of the government performance will lead to formulation of better policies and programs
54 The effect of long-term storage on mechanical and structural properties of glass and glass-ceramics  mixed with radioactive waste , Al-Dafaee, Thuraya Amir, Al-Mashhadani , Asia H
In an attempt to ascertain a suitable method for immobilizing long term disposal of radioactive solid waste (Strontium oxideofmolecular weight 5%) a verification method was adopted in two types of borosilicate glass (c-type) ( glass and glass-ceramics). To investigate the effect of Gamma-ray on mechanical properties of glass material and possible leaching, a Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) technique was adopted. The collected data showed that storage of radioactive nuclear waste in glass-ceramics could be safe for long time storing.
55 Role of breast feeding in protection against myocardial infarction in Iraqi women , Israa F Jaafar, Safa Muntadher Fawzi
Abstract Background: Heart disease remains the leading cause of death for women in the world. Multiple lifestyle factors contribute to heart disease risk. In addition, hypertension, high cholesterol and diabetes increase the risk for myocardial infarction. Lactation may alter maternal glucose and lipid homeostasis and affect blood pressure regulation. Breastfeeding women have lower triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol levels. Human studies indicate that lactation reduces blood pressure and heart disease. Objective: To explore the protective effect of lactation in cumulative number of years that women breast feed their babies on subsequent risk of obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease among sample of Iraqi women. Subjects and methods: The Study was carried out in Al-Numan Teaching Hospital from April 2017 till February 2019. The study included 1200 women. 700 women fulfilled the inclusion criteria (Married with 1 child and more, lactating, have cardiac disease, non smoker, non diabetic). The rest 500 women were non-lactating with same criteria. Results: The study involved 1200 Iraqi women; their age was (44-67y). 700 0f them were lactating who have live births from (1-12) with mean of (5.171±2.425), the duration of lactation ranged from (3 -24 years) with mean of (8.557±4.405 year).The rest 500 were non-lactating. The body mass index (BMI) of both groups showed significant difference P≤ 0.0001. There was significant differences between the two groups regarding lipid profile including (S. cholesterol, TG, HDL and LDL) P≤ 0.0001 ,as well as atherogenic index of plasma(AIP) for lactating and non-lactating women the P value were less than 0.001. There was negative correlation between duration of lactation and BMI,AIP and myocardial infarction. Conclusion: Breast feeding protects the lactating mother from risk of CVD later in life by reducing BMI, AIP. The more duration of lactation the more protection given to mothers against CVD
56 Histological study of skeletal muscle regeneration stain by hematoxylin and eosin , Taghreed Abdulrool Ali, Aseel Kamil Hissein, May Fadhil Al-Habib
Skeletal muscles are the largest cells in the human body, the main function of skeletal muscles are to facilitate locomotion. Regeneration is process that rely on skeletal basement membrane, satellite cell (endogenous stem cells of skeletal muscles), and extra cellular matrix actuation.Sample of 40 mature male rabbits were used in operative week ). The Extensor digitorum longus muscle was set as a model for skeletal muscle injury and examined after 3&6 weeks initiation of injury. The muscles tissue were prepared and examined histologically using H&E. Morphological changes during the degeneration and regeneration was assessed thoroughly. The degeneration and regeneration were overlapping both in time and morphological cellular changes. Mononuclear cells infiltration with debris removal was the key step to eliminate degenerative faction and start of regenerative process. Early myoblast appearance and new myotube formation occurred during the 3rd week. By the end of the 6th week post operatively the muscle histological maturation and muscle fascicles .Not all injured muscle ended in complete recovery the muscle that showed abnormal infiltration of inflammatory cells, at early stage and ended with fibrosis. It was concluded that the process of regeneration is a dynamic type where degeneration and regeneration superimposed each other.
57 Studying the heavy metals of the Dijla river and Al Karkh water project , Wrood Kareem Abood, Liwaa Abed Shihab
The current study was conducted on the Karkh Water Project on the Dijla River in Baghdad Governorate. The station was selected as a project to filter water and feed Karkh water. The study included measuring the concentrations of some heavy metals in the waters of the Dijla river during the period from October 2018 to March 2019. Five heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and mercury) were taken by three models of river water, The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals (nickel, chromium and mercury) was within the permissible limits, and nickel concentrations were few and were within the limits of Iraqi standards. The results of the study showed high concentrations of cadmium and lead, which were above the permissible limits of the standard Iraqi standard. If lead concentrations were ranged (0.005 – 0.15) mg/L, which was high compared to the allowed limits, the concentration cadmium were ranged (0.009 – 0.034) mg/L the is more than the permissible limits in all stages of drinking water. The values obtained (pH)were within a small range This is the normal rate of drinking water (7.2 -8)(pH).
58 Inhibition gene expression MexAB-OprM and MexYY efflux pumps of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR) by novel inhibitor Levofloxacin, silver nanoparticles and Beta rays , Nebras Rada Mohammed
This study was achieved in order to determine the inhibition of gene expression of MexAB-OprM and MexXY efflux pumps by using different novel inhibitors including: Levofloxacin, AgNPs and Beta rays emitted by Tl208 and Sr90 on P.aeruginosa (XDR).Efflux pumps are responsible for pumps various kinds of antibiotics including quinolones (fluoroquinolones), Aminoglycosides, BLactam and Polymyxin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa(XDR). Levofloxacin utilized as novel inhibitor to MexXY and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps of P.aeruginosa (XDR) and the percentage of killing was determined. Detection of gene expression by using qRT-PCR, did not improved gene expression of MexXY and MexAB-OprM when Levofloxacin 50 mg/ml was added when studying the gene expression of mexX and mexB encoded to MexXY and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps. Silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) used as new inhibitor of MexXY and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps of P.aeruginosa(XDR), the percentage of killing calculated , the survey of gene expression by utilizing qRT-PCR was determined. The results did not show gene expression of the MexXY and MexABOprM when Silver nanoparticles100 mg/ml was added to study mexX, mexB and compared with control (without treating). Beta rays utilized as new inhibitors emitted ofTl208 radio source with activity 1 𝛍ci, dose 12.93*10-10 KGy for 3 hr.; also exposure to Sr90radiosource with activity 1 𝛍ci, dose 1.937*10-10 KGy for 3 hr. and exposure to Sr90radiosource with activity 9 𝛍ci, dose 6.3*10-10 KGy for 3 hr. The results exposition Beta radiation P.aeruginosa (XDR) showed the number of colonies less than the control with rise in the percentage of killing of P.aeruginosa(XDR), also it found the that morphology of the colonies changed compared with the original(control). Detection gene expression of P. aeruginosa (XDR) prior exposition to Levofloxacin, AgNPs, Beta rays and after exposition to Levofloxacin, AgNPs, Beta rays was achieved by qRT-PCR technique, RNA extraction of P. aeruginosa (XDR),synthesis of cDNA ,calculate gene expression according to Livak equation to detect gene expression of MexXY and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps with study of mexB and mexX gene. The results exhibit gene expression prior exposition to Levofloxacin, AgNPs and Beta rays were highly in MexXY and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps of P. aeruginosa (XDR) but fewer after exposition to Levofloxacin, AgNPs and Beta rays. The Levofloxacin, AgNPs, Beta irradiation were had competence in killing P.aeruginosa and qualification as novel inhibitors to inhibit gene expression of MexXY and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps P. aeruginosa (XDR).
59 Refractive surgery of myopia by LASIK, Z-LASIK, PRK, PHACO, and I.C.L. , Nebras Rada Mohammed, Aber Abdul Amir Mohamad
Refractive Surgery of Myopia performed by LASIK , Z-LASIK , PRK , Phaco and I.C.L. on 52 patients including 20 patients for LASIK surgery, also 20 patients for Z-LASIK, 8 patients for PRK, 3 patients for PHACO surgery and 1 patients for I.C.L., this type of surgery is used for vision correction because it is quick and painless. The patient’s vision was examined before and after the surgery by using Snellen chart to determined visual acuity; the corneal thickness, shape of cornea were determined by Topography; the refractive error was measured before and after surgery by using Auto refractor meter, also determine gender, age and degree of glasses for each patient. The refractive surgery of myopia was performed in order to discard the use of glasses. Patients after the 18 years were eligible for surgery using LASIK, Z-LASIK, PRK except PHACO and I.C.L techniques. The processes of PRK, Z-LASIK works with little thickness of cornea of 480 microns. High degrees of short sightedness were corrected by PHACO surgery due to the thickness of the cornea which could not tolerate scrape to perform the surgery for all grades. I.C.L. can be used better on young patients because after surgery, there is no need to glasses compared with LASIK,PHACO and Z-LASIK surgery may require glasses after surgery , this surgery undesirable for young. Surgery using PRK technique until 4 degrees of short sight safely while works LASIK surgery with more than 4- degrees occurs with LASIK surgery. Z-LASIK works only with high degree of myopia with a little cornea thickness of 480 microns, either with very low degrees of myopia with a cornea thickness of 500 microns or more works Z-LASIK and LASIK both.
60 Improving light-harvesting of 17 9-dye by using gold nanoparticles , Ghufran S Jaber
Currently dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) provide technical and economical alternative guaranty to pnjunction solar cell devices. Contrary to the general methods, where the semi conductors suppose two targets of light absorption and charge-carrier moving, the two tasks are split up in this region. Light is soak up by a dye-sensitizer, which is installed on overall the surface of the semiconductor. In the present work, gold AuNPs was elaborated by pulsed laser ablation in liquid LP-PLA at energy-750 mJand no. of pulses=90 pulse, then they were added to N719 dye to form new blend consist of gold nanoparticles and N719-dye. The distribution size of gold nanoparticles clarifies circular shape with particle size ranging around 60 nm. The different shapes of particles lead to different peaks of the surface plasma resonance (SPR). Nanoparticles have remarkable advantages in increasing the absorption of dye due to their tiny size and homologous with the medium. The dye absorbs the atoms of incident light (sun-light and surrounding of ambient light), using its energy to transfer electrons, can work similar to chlorophyll in photosynthesis. The UV-Vis spectrophotometer showed rang of wave length high absorption for N719 - AuNPs compared to N719 dye alone, supporting the role of gold nanoparticles in improving the dye absorbance.
61 The biological effects of leptin as topical treatment for traumatic oral ulcer in rats , Sabreen S Abed, Nada M Al-Ghaban, Natheir A Ibrahim
Back ground: The painful ulcer to the oral mucosa caused by trauma or diseases, represents the most chief complain of the patients attended to the dentistry clinic. The present study was undertaken to perform histologic and histomorphometric analysis of the biological effects of the topical application of leptin on induced traumatic oral mucosal ulcer healing. Materials and methods: In current study, forty eight male Albino rats weighing 200.45 - 270.53g, and age between 2-3 months, were subjected to traumatic ulcer with 8 mm diameter by surgical blade no.15 on the right side of the buccal mucosa. The animals were divided randomly into two groups; the ulcers of the control group treated daily with 10μl of sterilized distil water, while the study group ulcers treated daily with 10μl of 1 μg/ml of recombinant leptin. The rats were sacrificed at 3,7,10 days. The specimen were taken and prepared for histological examination, and histomorphometrical assessment of blood vessels account and re-epithelization thickness in the ulcer area for both control and study groups. Results: The histological and histomrphometrical result using leptin as a topical treatment showed reduced the inflammatory cells infiltration, accelerated the re-epithelization of wound surface, and enhanced angiogenesis in the ulcer area, resulting with fast tissue healing. Conclusion: Using leptin as a topical application in the present study for treatment an abrasion-induced ulcer, revealed that leptin can reduced the ulcer diameter and accelerated the healing process in a short time.
62 The effect of balance training on postural sensory organization against external disturbances in athletes with chronic ankle instability , Hadi Miri, Seyed S. Shojaedin, Amin Hossein Barati, Maliheh Hadadnezhad, Shahram Ahajan, Samaneh Soltani Najipoor
Introduction: Damage to the ankle-sensory-control system and disturbance in the integrity of sensory information and awareness of the sense of movement is an important factor in reducing the balance and is the result of re-injury and strengthening the effective factors in sensory organization and balancing and postural control. As an essential strategy in the treatment of balance and postural problems as well as athletes' injuries.Objective: To evaluate the effect of balance training on postural sensory organization against external disturbances in athletes with chronic ankle instability. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 30 male athletes with chronic ankle instability were randomly divided into two groups of exercise (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The measurements were pre-tested and the test was carried out and the experimental group training program was six weeks of balance training against disturbances. To evaluate postural sensory organization, a dynamic computerized post choreographysystem was used. Which the state of the senses in 6 states that are in the first state (the presence of all three senses of visual, auditoryand proprioceptive), second (visual outage), third (auditory manipulation), fourth (manipulation of proprioceptive), fifth (visual elimination, proprioceptive manipulation) and sixth (manipulation of auditory sense and proprioceptive). Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis and all statistical data was performed by SPSS software version 22 at the significance level of α ≤ 0.5 .Results: The findings of this study showed that people in the first state based on the score of stability, sensory organization and better postural control than the other 5 had a better status. The score of sustainability in the sixth state, which affects every 3 sense, is less than other state. There was no significant difference between sustainability score in the second position (visual loss) and the presence of two senses,auditoryand proprioceptive (with the third condition), the auditory impairment and the presence of two senses of visual and proprioceptive (these results indicated that individuals were not able to balance in the second position visual and in the third position, they are not dependent on auditory, but between the second condition with the fourth condition(proprioceptive manipulation) fifth, (the removal of visual) and sixth(auditoryand proprioceptive impairment) the difference was statistically significant, and the subjects in the second position were significantly different based on the sensory organizing stability, balance, and postural control better than the fourth to Sixth, the mean sensory organizing in the experimental group after six weeks of training in all six conditions was higher than the control group. Conclusion: The results showed that athletes with chronic ankle instability in the training group had a better sense of organization in the group compared to the control group; external disturbances had effect on training group, because the balance training improved proprioceptive activity and sending information and caused neuromuscular coordination. In addition, the improvement in the integrity of the sensory inputs may change the pattern of motor control and speed up the time of sending sensory, which ultimately leads to improved postural sensory organizing.
63 The Psychological consequences of abortion , Nadia Saddam Fahad Al-Assady
The number of abortions is increasing every year in USA; while legalization laws of abortion voted in Belgium in 1990 and in France in 1975 were intended to facilitate reducing these numbers. Lack of public interest and relative denial of health clinicians for the psychological consequences of abortion are worrying because people living perinatal mourning need to have their word heard and recognized. Early abortion is a condition that a pregnant woman experiences early in pregnancy. This condition causes fear, tension, great anxiety, and fear of being unable to hold her baby. Early abortion is the loss of pregnancy before the twenty-four weeks of pregnancy and this situation affects about twenty percent of pregnant women. There are many reasons for pregnancy loss and early abortion, some related to the fetus, others to the pregnant mother
64 Evaluation of Gene Xpert/MTB RIF assay for diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB at a tertiary care centre in south coastal Karnataka , Kiran Chawla, Ajay Kumar, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy
Objectives: Very few studies in India have evaluated the performance of GeneXpert MTB/Rif assay for diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis thus in the present study we made an attempt to evaluate the performance of GeneXpert MTB/Rif assay for routine diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: A total of 441 extrapulmonary samples (188 biopsy, 123 body fluids, 80 CSF and 50 pus) obtained from patients suspected of extrapulmonary tuberculosis were tested for smear microscopy, GeneXpert MTB/Rif assay and culture against a composite reference standard and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the assays were calculated using SPSS version 22 for evaluating the performance of these assay. Results: The pooled sensitivity of GeneXpert MTB/Rif assay, smear microscopy and culture against a composite reference standard was found to be 78.64%, 24.27% and 50.49% respectively. The individual sensitivity of the Gene Xpert MTB/Rif assay for biopsy, body fluids, csf and pus samples was found to be 84.62%, 50%, 71.43% and 95.45% respectively. The pooled as well as individual specificity of all the assays in present study was found to be 100%. Conclusion: Gene Xpert MTB/Rif assay offers very high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis especially in tissue biopsies and pus specimens. Gene Xpert MTB/Rif assay seems to be a better tool than most of the currently available laboratory methods for diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Further longitudinal studies are required to evaluate the feasibility of this assay in local health care settings.
65 Determinatio of biochemical parameters and some trace metals in sera of patients for renal failure disease by spectrophotometry , Hussein H Kharnoob, Salwan K Ahmed
This research was conducted on patients in the hospital of salah al-dine in Tikrit city from 1/11/2016 to 1/5/2017 to determine trace of heavy metals such as Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and lead; and the biochemical changes urea, creatinine ,uric acid and electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca++ ) in sera of patients with renal failure disease before and after dialysis using enzymatic colorimetric method and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for determination of analysts in serum respectively. The Study involved 52 patients suffering from renal failure disease and their ages was between 17--74 years from the two genders, healthy person were used also as control groups for comparison before and after treatments. The results obtained show that high significance increment with p
66 Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in dentistry- students’ and interns’ perspective in Abha, Saudi Arabia, Hussain Almohiy, Ibrahim Alshahrani
AIM: To assess the perspective of dental students and interns towards various aspects of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 5th year students, final year students and interns of College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha. A convenient sample of 380 students was taken for the study. A valid, reliable slightly modified questionnaire (Appendix 1) having 11-items was included in the questionnaire. The two sections of the questionnaire consisted of questions related to demographic data such as gender and academic level in the first and questions related to Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in the second section. Students who were aware of CBCT use in dentistry were included in the study whereas those unaware of its use were excluded from the study. RESULTS: When subjects were asked whether they were aware of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) use specifically for dentistry; 68% were aware while 32% did not know about it. The findings of our study showed that 49.48%, 58.7% and 80% of the 5th year, final year students and interns, respectively; believed that lower radiation dose was the most important advantage of using CBCT over medical CT. Majority of the study subjects would choose CBCT in procedures like implants, extraction of impacted teeth, evaluation of patient’s cysts/tumors and orthodontic assessment. On comparing the responses of the three groups, a statistically significant difference was found. CONCLUSION: Although a majority of students and interns were aware of the use of CBCT in dentistry still 32% were unaware about it. CBCT is a potential imaging modality to bring a new era in the world of imaging science. It has many advantages over medical CT as it overcomes many limitations of the same.
67 Role of Computed Tomography in diagnosis of complications in chronic suppurative otitis media, Osamah Ayad Abdulsattar, Safaa Hussein Alturaihy, Azal Ali Hussein
Chronic otitis media is chronic inflammation of middle ear cavity, it present with longstanding discharging ear and perforated tympanic membrane with or without cholesteatoma and other complications. Cross sectional study was performed to identify the role of computed tomography in diagnosis of complications in chronic suppurative otitis media among 40 patients between June 2018 and June 2019. Aim: To identify role of CT scan in diagnosis of anatomical and pathological effects of chronic suppurative otitis media as: pneumatisation of mastoid, soft tissue mass in middle ear cleft and mastoid, cholesteatoma, bones erosions, facial nerve canal dehiscence, labyrinthine and semicircular canal fistula.Patient and Methods: 40 patients included in our study between period June 2018 to June 2019, they are referred from otology department to radiology department in AL Hillah General Teaching Hospital that thin slices CT temporal bone was taken for all these patients. Results: Age incidence: between 15-20 years was 3 of 40 patients (7.5%), 20-40 was 25 (62.5%), 40-50 was 12 0f 40 patients (30%). Mean age is 32.77 years. 16 of 40 patients were female (40%), 24 of 40 patients were male (60%).Male to female ratio 1.5:1. Incidence of symptoms and signs was: headache & pain in 6 patients (15%), vertigo in 5 (12.5%), hearing loss in 30 (75%), discharging ear in 40 (100%), and facial palsy in 2 (5%). Pathology in middle ear: Granulation in 20 cases (50%), cholesteatoma in 15 (37.5%), and polyp in 5 (12.5%). Pneumatisation of mastoid bone: well in 25 cases (62.5%), sclerotic in 13 (32.5%), and poor in 2 (5%). Middle ear and mastoid mass: in CT scan 25 cases (62.5%) and in surgery 24 (60%). Cholesteatoma incidence: in CT scan 15 cases (37.5%) and in surgery 15 (37.5%). Incidence of complications: scutum erosion in CT 14 (35%) in surgery 15 (37.5%), ossicular erosion in CT 11 (27.5%), in surgery 8 (20%), facial canal dehiscence in CT 2 (5%), in surgery 3 (7.5%), labyrinthine fistula in CT 2 (5%), in surgery 1 (2.5%), semicircular canal fistula in CT 3 (7.5%), in surgery 2 (5%), tegument erosion in CT 1 (2.5%), in surgery 2 (5%), and tegument tympani erosion in CT 1 (2.5%) in surgery 1 (2.5%).
68 Molecular identification of Brucella abortus and its virulence genes (bvfA, virB, and ure) in infected humans and cattle from Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq, Jameela Radi Esmaeel
Objectives: The current molecular study was launched to detect the existence of Brucella abortus and its virulence genes (VGs), bvfA, virB, and ure, in human blood and cattle milk. Materials and methods: According to that aim, 35 human-blood and 50 cattle-milk samples were collected from Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital and local herd fields, respectively, from Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was employed to determine the identity of the bacterium and the presence of its VGs in the samples. Moreover, a partial gene sequencing (PGS) method targeted the 16S rRNA gene was used to confirm the infection by B. abortus in the samples. Results: The results of the PCR demonstrated that B. abortus was detected in 8 (22.9%) of the human-blood samples and in 9 (18%) of the cattle-milk samples. Furthermore, the PCR showed the existence of the bvfA, virB, and ure genes in 4 (50%), 3/8 (37.5%), and 4/8 (50%), respectively, of the 16S rRNA-gene positive PCR blood samples. In addition, the PCR revealed the presence of the bvfA, virB, and ure genes in 2 (22.2%), 5 (55.6%), and 3 (33.3%), respectively, in the positive 16S rRNA-gene-relied PCR from milk samples. For the PGS that employed 2 blood and 2 milk of the positive 16S rRNA-gene-relied PCR samples, the results revealed four different sequences close nucleotide matched up, ~99.6% for the blood and 99.8% for the milk samples, to a world isolate of B. abortus, CP023308.1, from Caserta, Italy. Conclusion: The study shows the existence of the B. abortus in the blood and the milk samples of the studied humans and cattle, respectively, with confirmation that the detected strains were from the virulence bacteria due to the presence of the bvfA, virB, and ure virulence genes.
69 Evaluation Esthetics Smile for Male and Female who attend to Outpatient clinic in Babylon Dental College., Ameer Al-Ameedee
Objective: The current investigation was proposed to determine the analysis smile estheticsfor male and female who attended to outpatient clinic in Babylon Dental College. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six samples ideal images were used in a survey and graded according to smile attractiveness by the male (𝑛 = 35) and female (𝑛 = 47) all groups with age (30-35). Ideal photographs of gingival display, midline diastema, central incisor crown length, and lateral incisor crown width were manipulated with five minor changes in each. For smile arc and buccal corridor, two major changes were incorporated besides the ideal photograph. One-way ANOVA and Post Hoc analysis (Bonferroni method) of the responses were measured for each group. Results: this study found that the smile in male category was the more variations in the smile arc and buccal corridors, with either 0.5 mm of alterations or completes absence in a gingival display. The female were more in variables like buccal corridor, Gummy smile and Lateral incisor crown width. Changes in lateral incisor crown width were not perceivable by the two groups. Conclusion: The degree of perception of smile esthetics to be attractive varies between male and female. The female were more in variables like buccal corridor, gummy smile and lateral incisor crown width. However, some of other variables did not affect the male and female much, with conditions of this study the result showed, the esthetic dentists to be more conscious about alterations in elements which used in this study, each representing an altered smile feature in their smile. Hence, to pay attention to these factors during any esthetic treatment.
70 BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR MARKERS IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS, Mohammed J Al-Jassani, Wasan K Alwan, Ayad MJ Almamoori, Maher M Khadairi, Saudi Mohammed Salh
The presents study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage markers, antioxidants makers and lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients. About 5ml of venous blood was collected from 10 healthy persons and 30 breast cancer patients before chemotherapy. Comet assay used to measure DNA damage and antioxidants were assessed biochemically. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by the Thiobarbituric acid assay. The results of present study showed that the DNA damage markers such as comet length, tail length, DNA percentage in tail and tail moments were significantly increased at p
71 Breast lump, a clinico–histopathological study among women in western Iraq, Tarek Mahdi Salih
Introduction: Breast lump remains a health problem that dreads women all over the world because of its associated idea with breast cancer. As reported by WHO 60-70% of the breast lump were found to be carcinoma cases. Patients and methods: This study conducted in Al- Ramadi teaching hospital from July 2013 - January 2015, all female patients with history of breast lump, were clinically examined and considered in the study accordingly. Excisional biopsy were done for all patients and sent for histopathological investigations for further evaluation. Results: Fibroadenoma was accounted for the highest frequency among all other histopathological findings. By considering malignant cases, no case was seen at stage zero of the disease. Conclusion: All cases of malignant breast tumor showed nipple retractions. No one of the malignant cases was found at stage 0 of the disease, all of them started from stage II. This is actually not a good indication which in turn means that patients lacking information regarding their general health status.
72 Conjunctival-Limbal Autografting Surgical Outcome for Challenging Pterygium Cases: A Prospective Study, Zeena Adnan Abd
Introduction: Pterygium is a common degenerative conjunctival disease, for which several surgical techniques were adopted, but none proved to be ideal because of the relatively high recurrence rate after removal. Objective: the primary outcome measure was to assess the recurrence rate of pterygia after surgical removal with conjunctival-limbal transplantation; secondary outcome measure was to assess safety of the procedure. Method: study design: a prospective interventional study Selection of 20 cases of advanced fleshy pterygia with at least 3.5 mm horizontal extension on the cornea, some primary and some with multiple recurrences, surgical removal with conjunctival-limbal autografting was done Then postoperative fellow up for 3-6 years checking: 1-evidence of recurrence. 2-evidence of limbal stem cell deficiency. Results: mean age was 53.45+- 15.78 year After surgery, the minimum fellow up period was 3 years for primary pterygia, and 6 years for recurrent pterygia NO recurrence was observed during that period; in addition no signs of limbal stem cell deficiency were seen. Conclusion: Surgical removal with conjunctival-limbal transplantation proved to be safe and effective for both primary and recurrent pterygia, with NO recurrence rate.
73 Evaluation of Micronuclei in RadiationWorkers Chronically Exposed to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation, Zahraa Abbas Rasheed, Abdulsahib K Ali, Altaf Abdul Majed
Introduction: Exposure to ionizing radiation causes damage to living cells, especially to DNA, the degree of cellular damage depends on the amount of radiation administered.Humans are naturally exposed to ionizing radiation from cosmic rays, and artificially through diagnostic procedures, medical treatments or occupationally during work shifts. The CBMN assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes are standard method for monitoring chromosome damage in human populations and represents a biomarker for evaluation on human subjects, post-acute or chronic radiation exposure.The present study aims to use the micronuclei analysis as biomarkers for detection of the effects of ionizing radiation exposure inradiation workers chronically exposed to low dose ionizing radiation inAl-Tuwaitha nuclearsite. Material and Method:This study including 50 male blood samples, aged (25 - 58year), as well as 50 male blood samples, aged (25 -58 year) which are non- smokers and non-alcoholics as control group .Data about workers characteristics and habits, received annual doses , total years of service were taken from each subject. Blood samples were taken and micronuclei (MN) number in peripheral blood lymphocytes was calculated using CBMN assay according to standard protocols. Results: The present study showed significant increase (p < 0.05) in the MN frequency in binucleated lymphocytes of the radiation worker as compared with the control group.CB cells lymphocytes having one, two and three micronuclei are rendered evident to all radiation workers and some control group subjects. The micronucleus frequency was found to increase systematically with donor age. After correction for the age-dependence, could be observed. Compared to the group of radiation workers receiving doses below 1 mSv/year, limit recommended by the ICRP for public exposure Conclusion:The results indicate the cumulative effect of low-level chronic exposure to radiological materials. The current results offrequencyMN withinnormal valuesaccordingof the technical reportofInternational Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)No.405, 2001
74 Association of Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) with development of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in western Region of Iraq: Unmatched Molecular case-control study, Mothana Ali Khalil, Mohammed Tafash Dagash, Arkan Jassim Obaid Al-Essawi
Background: Hodgkin's disease is a malignant disease in the blood cells, especially the lymphatic ones, and accounts for 30% of the lymphomas. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a proportion of cases of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and this association is believed to be causal. In Iraq, there are very few studies on this subject. Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between EBV infection and Hodgkin lymphoma of Iraqi patients. Patients and Methods: Unmatched case-control study was conducted 55 paraffin-embedded tissues of HL of Iraqi patient’s in addition to 110 normal noncancerous nasopharyngeal biopsy samples as control group. DNA of EBV was extracted from both controls and neoplastic tissues and analyzed by PCR technique using primers specific to EBV Latent Membrane Protein-1 Oncogene (LAMP-1) for the presence of EBV. Results: This study has shown that EBV were found in 51/55 Hodgkin lymphoma cases (92.73%) and in 85/110 controls (77.27%). This study has identified Gender of HL cases was not risky and not significantly associated with illness ((OR 1.00, CI 0.5220–1.9157, P. Value = 1.000). The results of this investigation show that exposure to EBV was risky and independently associated with HL (OR 3.7500, CI 1.2345–11.3916, P. Value = 0.016). Conclusions : The results do support an association between EBV infection and HL.
75 Association of Polyomavirus BK Virus with Chronic Renal Failure patients, Sattar G Ajeel, Asmaa B AlObaidi, Zena M Qaragholi, Haidar A Shamran
Background: Patients in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were considered immunocompromised, especially those on hemodialysis (HD) procedure which seemed to produce alterations of the immune status. BK polyomavirus (BKV) was found to be an aggravating factor of renal failure, and interest in immunosuppression has increased due to BKV infection. Objective:This study aimed to investigate thepossible association between BKV with ESRD with and without dialysis. Subjects and Methods:A case-control study included 150 serum samples collected from 50 patient with ESRD on dialysis,50 without dialysisand50 apparently normal subjects with normal renal function as control.Quantitative Real time PCR(RT-PCR) was done for detection of BKV viral load. Results: twenty (40%) out of the 50 dialysis patients were positive for BKV by RT-PCR and, eight (16%) were positivein patients without dialysis, while none of the controls was positive. There were highly significant differences (p
76 Effect of Acute Toxicityof Glyphosate in Gold Fish Carassiusauratus, Jenan M Al-Kawaz
The present study deals with the effect of herbicide glyphosate on goldfish Carassiusauratus .Fish were exposed to different concentrations of the mentioned pesticide, the percentages of mortalitywere increasing with the increase of the pesticide concentration. Median lethalconcentration (LC50) of pesticid was calculated after an acute exposure period (96) hours (14.55) ppm. The result showed that theglyphosate was observed mortality in fish during (24) hours in concentration (16, 18) ppm, whereas mortality was not observed during (24) hours in concentration (12,14) ppm. After (24) hours the percentage of mortality was increasing gradually with the increase of exposure time. It is found that the increasing of the concentration of pesticide under study correlated reflexive with (LT50) of these concentrations. The concentration (12) ppm recorded higher LT50 (562) hours , whereas the concentration (18) ppm recorded lower LT50 (33) hours. Behavioral , morphological and histological effects of various concentrations of glyphosate on gold fish Carassiusauratusinthe acute exposure (96) hours were investigated .There were behavioral and morphological changes on the exposed fishes represented by nervous symptoms , loss of equilibrium , increas in respiration rate , opening of mouth and body bend in caudal region(curvature in vertebral column).Histological changes were determined in gills after acute exposed such as hyperplasia , hemorrhage , aneurysms , separation of epithelial layer , clubbing with sickle lamellae , hypertrophy , destroyed and fusion of secondary lamellae.
77 A descriptive cross-sectional survey among the International Islamic University Malaysia’s student on e-waste generation and public health problem in Malaysia, MA Islam, AK Azad, NK Sunzida
Objective: The main aim of the survey was to assess the respondent’s opinion on the factors influencing the generation of e-waste and its impact on public health in Malaysia. Methods: The research project involved a cross-sectional survey of International Islamic University’s students conducted in 2017 at Kuantan campus in the Pahang state, Malaysia. Along with info on demographic individualities, data were collected on several factors (agreement with questionnaire items regarding) using a 4-point Likert scale, with 4 representing “agree”, “strongly agree”, “disagree” and “strongly disagree,” respectively. Results: A total of 296 students completed the questionnaire. The age group of 18-22 covers 46.96% of all respondents and 61.82% was females. In ethnicity of respondents, 86.82% Malay and 30.07% were from rural area and rest of them were urban area. The volume of e-waste is raised due to the excess supplies of electrical appliances (71%), update their devices (65%.), additional electrical devices (59%), keeping the unused electrical appliances (71%), wholesalers selling bad quality appliances (45%), mechanic should not add and drop of their devices (71%). Regrettably 83% of the respondents doesn’t have appropriate knowledge of e-waste. 51% students agreed and 38% strongly agreed that there is no noticeable campaign on e-waste for public awareness. According to the 93% students’ opinion, individuals, the suppliers, industries and even the institutions are not aware to reduce e-waste. But a little 20% think that government does provide facilities for electrical device disposal. In public health perspective, e-waste contains a lot of hazardous chemical (strongly agreed 77% and rest 23% agreed). Fortunately, the serious health hazards led by e-waste (86% strongly agreed and 14% agreed). E-waste leads to infertile land, cancer, lung diseases and so others strongly agreed 70% and agreed 22% respectively. Conclusion: Findings suggest to organize the awareness programme in institutional, organization and educational institutional level to reduce generation of e-waste and its risk.
78 Nano fertilizers and their bioapplications: Mini Review of the literature, Samah Saleh Al=Shybany
Monthapiperita L. An evergreen herb plant with a pungent aroma and belongs to the Umbelliferae family. The mint is 30 to 90 cm long and the wide stems are scattered with fibrous roots. The leaves are characterized by a sharp tip, serrated edges and red veins. They may be slightly iridescent, 9 cm long and 1.5-4 cm wide. The stem is green and the leaves are arranged in pairs opposite and covered with thin hair from one side and the color ranges from dark green to purple and blue and sometimes light yellow and blue flowers and grouped in clusters and other side. Nano fertilizers are the science that deals with matter at the scale of 1 billionth of a meter and are also the study of manipulating matter at the atomic and molecular scale. Recently particulate systems have been used as a physical approach to alter and improve the quality of human life.
79 Role of D-Dimer Test In β-Thalassemia patients, Shrooq M Al-Saleh, Haider Salih Jaffat
Background and aim: β-Thalassemia is hereditary blood disorder that can cause deficient or absent synthesis of beta globin chains, leading to excess alpha chains. Thalassemias are prevalent throughout the Mediterranean region Africa, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asia. The D-dimer is a dependable and sensitive key of fibrin deposition and steadying. In this way, its available in plasma should be reveal of thrombus formation ,There are many circumstances unconnected to thrombosis in which D-dimer level are high, It is oftentimes used in the estimation of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) , plus in identification of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) .Regular blood transfusion and compliance with iron chelation therapy has markedly improved life expectancy in thalassemia; however, this improvement is accompanied by several complications of this chronic disease including thromboembolic disorders. The objective of this work was planned to estimate the association between level of D-dimer protein in the blood and beta thalassemia. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, case-control study was conducted on male patients (βT) (n=90) group at aged (4-29 years) and the patients samples collected according to duration of blood transfusion while the control male(n=45) group at the same aged, This study was conducted in thalassemia center in Babylon province, Iraq . The study extended from the start of October 2018 to the end of February 2019.The activity of D-Dimer protein test , Ferritin and hematological parameter (RBCs WBCs, HB, PCV and PLTs) were estimated. Results: plasma D-Dimer levels were significantly higher in BT patients compared to control groups. There were significantly (p
80 Protective effect of Melatonin, Rosuvastatin and their combination against Amikacin induced nephrotoxicity in rats, Hadeel Yousif Noori, Abdulkareem H Abd
The current work was conducted to study the possible protective effect of melatonin, rosuvastatin and combination of them on nephrotoxicityinduced by amikacin in rats. Forty adult male albino rats were allocated into five groups (8 animalseach) and were treated daily for 2 weeks as follows: Group I: :( control group) treated with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) orally.GroupII: injected with daily dose of (120 mg/kg/IP) of amikacin ;Group III: injected with daily doseamikacin (120 mg/kg) with daily oral dose of melatonin (10 mg/kg); Group IV: injected with daily dose amikacin (120 mg/kg)with daily oral dose ofrosuvastatin (10 mg/kg);GroupV:animals were injected with daily dose amikacin (120 mg/kg) simultaneously treated with a combination of melatonin and rosuvastatin with the previously mentioned doses respectively. After 2 weeksblood samples were obtained for biochemical analyses. Then, rats were sacrificed and the kidneyswere collected for tissue homogenization and histopathological study. Results: amikacin administration induced significant increase in kidney weight, serumurea and creatinine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduction in superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity. Simultaneous administration of melatonin and rosuvastatin treatment with amikacin significantly lowered the elevated serum urea and creatinine concentration, kidney weight, serum TNF-α and renal MDA andsignificantly enhance renal SOD activity with improvement of the kidney histological findings in comparison with group II. Conclusion: it could be concluded that combination of melatonin and rosuvastatin may be useful for reducing the nephrotoxic effects of amikacin.
81 Occurrence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase KPC gene in Klebsiella pneumoniaeisolated from patients in Anbar city of Iraq, Mohammed Muklas Ahmed, Safaa Abed Lateef Al Meani
Carbapenems are the last drugs of choice except colistin against seriousinfections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. However, there are increasing number ofreports indicating prevailing emergence of KPC-producingclinical isolates worldwide,Which is of harmful genes because many plasmids that carry KPC resistance elements concurrently carry other plasmid-mediated resistance elements, such as quinolone (QnrA and QnrB) and aminoglycoside (rmtB) resistance . This study reports KPC for the first time among Klebsiellapneumoniae from hospitalized patients in Anbar, Iraq.Six clinical isolatesof K. pneumoniae resistant to carbapenem from 50 isolates were investigated from burned wounds,sputum,C.S.F, and blood samples.The susceptibility to different antibiotics was tested byVITEK-2 system. Where the percentage of resistance to Carbapenemswas 22%. The phenotypic detection of carbapenemases by Modified Carba NP, Blue-CARBA Test that all isolates arecarbapenem gene-producing,5/6 (83.33%) gave positive result with the imipenem-EDTA test,andmodefiedHodg test.The blaKPC and other genes weredetected by multiplex PCR and the result showed 1/6 (16.67%) strains positive forblaKPC gene and 5/6 (83.33%) strains harbored blaVIM and blaOXA-48 genes. Our results showed thecoexistence of both blaVIM and blaOXA-48 genes in four strains of K.pneumoniae,while indicated widespread KPC, VIM,and OXA-48 in Anbar, Iraq. Hence, it is necessary to followproper infection control practices and physicians should be aware of the patients withsuch risk factors.
82 The impact of an innovative device to break the defence of the roller catch for young Romanian wrestling players, Ghazwan Karim Khudair, Riyad Jumaa Hassan, Abdulhussain Majid Muhammed
One of the most important catch in the Roman wrestling grabbed the rollerbecause of its obvious effect during the descent and the importance of this catch through the fact that the player takes the position of the Hack during the game of passive or when getting a mistake where the player sit in the area of the Hack and the player to attack the striker to perform the catch and that the catch a set of and of the alternatives for the purpose of getting the defender out of the situationthe danger in the application of the catch and give points, and the importance of research in the manufacture of an auxiliary device through which to break the defense of this catch and thus take the points and win the landing as this device can be circulated to the rest of the age groups and teams of women, hence the problem of research that the player wrestling during theapplication of Roller Bearing is a set of alternatives to the grip, including rotation of the body in opposite direction of the player. So that it hinders movement and therefore not to give the points focused the problem of research by the following question (How to break the defense of the roller handle)?the purpose of the research (designing an innovative device and knowing its effect in breaking the defense of the roller catch,that the innovative device has the effect of breaking the defense Grab roller).
83 Muscular balance of the upper limb and trunk and its relation to the performance of certain skills in gymnastic , Abdul Al-Hussein Majid Mohammed Al-Jashmi, Hamid Nouri Ali, Ghazwan Karim Khedair
importance of research lies in determining amount of strength between the muscles as well as muscular balance between the both limbs of the player and the one limb and between the trunk and abdomen and the importance of research in identifying an important aspect and attention toward the distribution of nerve signals between the limbs of the body and between working and counteracting muscles, the search problem summarized is that most trainers train some muscles with more attention than other muscles such as agonist or antagonistic muscles and this affects the muscular balance especially between the agonist muscles in the performance of the athlete, which makes the performance and the movement do not go smoothly correctly. The aim of the research was to identify the correlation value between muscle strength of the limbs and the balance of the limbs of the body and the skill of jumping the hands and jump the hands on the jumping platform. The research community included Al-Qadisiyah University's players in Gymnastics for the academic year (2017-2018). There were 10 players representing the research sample. Photography of technical performance of skills 1- Evaluation of the performance of the hand jump. 2- Evaluation the performance of the jump of the hands on the jumping platform. The researchers photographed the players when the two skills were performed on the gymnasium hall and then the video was shown on experts and specialists in the Gymnastics field and the tests were then conducted to evaluate the muscle strength of the body parts as follows: 1- Biceps muscles of the arm (right, left) 2- Half Squat muscles of the arm(right ,left) 3-Muscles of abdominal flexion 4-Muscles stretching back Data were statistically processed by extracting the value of the correlation coefficient between the variables of the study and through it we can conclude the following: 1 - All the muscles of the players of the University of Qadisiyah (under study) in Gymnastic balanced whether between the left and right limbs or one limb of the body (Biceps - Half Squat) as well as the muscles of the trunk. 2-The strength of the back muscles have a big role in the performance of the skill of the hand jump in the players of the University of Qadisiyah team in Gymnastic.
84 Correlation of Antisperm Antibodies with Trace Elements in Seminal Fluid of Immunologic Infertile Men, Abdul Kareem M Jewad, Ehab Rasmi Alkhafji, Naael H Ali
Immunological cause may contribute to 5-15% of the male infertility factors, including cryptorchidism, primary testicular failure, testicular trauma, epididymitis, varicocele, idiopathic infertility, and infections. Therefore, ASA can be found in primary or secondary infertile men. The aim is to study the correlation of ASA with trace elements in primary and secondary infertile men. The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Technology in Southern Technical University. Seminal fluids were collected from each of them, seminogram test (semen analysis) was performed for each participant, and all semen samples were collected following (3-5) days of abstinence. After liquefaction, sperm concentration, total sperm count, morphology, motility grades were determined using World Health Organization (WHO) standard procedures. The mean values of were significantly increased ASA in infertile men as compared to fertile control group (p
85 Histological study of testis tissue of male golden hamster (Mesocricetusauratus) in different time points of Diabetes, Manar Mohammad Hasan Al-Murshidi
Previous studies have reported that hyperglycemia can induce cell death in many tissues like brain, liver, kidneys, and testis. Recent studies have indicated that diabetes can trigger male infertility. In this study we explain the histological analysis of testicular tissue after induced diabetes in hamsters. Testicular tissues were examined in the control group and in diabetic hamsters groups at different time periods after diabetes induction. Hyperglycemia was induced in experimental male hamsters by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin drug (STZ). At different time points (4, 8 and 20 weeks) after diabetes induction, hamsters were euthanized and the testicular tissues were removed for the histological analysis. Testis tissues were fixed in formalin (10%) and then processed for histological analysis, and examined under light microscope. The histological results showed reduction in cell density in the testis, which indicated that diabetes and hyperglycemic conditions defect normal cell density in the testis tissues. The testicular histology of the diabetic animals showed acute reduction in cell density occurred after 20 weeks. In conclusion, the induced diabetes condition provides evidence that hyperglycemia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, and it also indicated that chronic hyperglycemia eventually leads to cell death and then male infertility.
86 Study of some parameters of pregnant women with diabetes as well as anemia, Khalid abdulkareem Mohammad
In the Yarmouk hospital laboratory, 120 blood samples were withdrawn from pregnant women with diabetes and 55 blood samples of them are pregnant women with diabetes and anemia, according to the methods used in the analysis. Results were recorded and fixed in figures for the purpose of distinguishing between the vital functions to study and recommendations which helps pregnant women to prevent diseases and to be carefulto health culture for motherhood and free childhood from the diseases. The study shows hemoglobin levels in the blood as well as the level of blood sugar for women who are normal and who have anemia as well as diabetes.
87 Electronic study of fresh enzyme complexes of antifungal drugs-P450 and Aspergillus kojic acid biosynthesis. W: w saccharose flavus: fructose as a substratum, Khansaa Basem Fadhil, Moazaz Abd Alrida Majeed, Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa
Aspergillus(A) flavus cell contain the natural product cytochrome p450 enzyme, which is made up of from 400-500 amino acids and containing single heme group with single ferric ion, this enzyme destroyed by and reacted potentially with the used antifungal structures to yield new complexes with different electronic stability which related to the quality of the drug. The new complexes were studied by spectrophotometric technique. The theory on application it on the complexes indicated the following: low spin (LS) complexes with high crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE), octahedral shape and paramagnetic. Calculation and discussion pointed that the p450-triazole complex is the most stable and have higher stabilization energy. A flavus was grown on a carbon source formed from a combination of 1w:1w sucrose: fructose substrate to produce kojic acid by shake flask fermentation. The acid is detected and then identified by its physical properties as yellow crystalline material, odorless, melting point (m.p.) = 155-158(°C), lambda λmax=272nanometer (nm) in distilled water as pure solvent.
88 RFLP- PCR for identification of dermatophytes and Candida species from clinical isolates of hair and skin, Karrema Al-khafajii, Kawther MA Hasan, Rsinula D Abdul Moh
The identification of hair and skin agents is important in order to define clinical treatment. However, in most cases conventional culture identification can be considered to be time-consuming and not without errors. The aim of the present study was to identify the dermatophytes and Candida spp. isolated from hair and skin lesions by using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP). Fungal universal primer pair (ITS3/ ITS4) was able to amplify internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA. However, three restriction enzymes were used to digest the PCR products: HaeIII, MspIand Corf. Twenty fourisolates of dermatophytes and Candida spp. identified based on their PCR/RFLP pattern. Our study of PCR/RFLP method easily differentiated dermatophytes and Candida spp. and this result was also explained genetic intra-evolution for these isolates.
89 Association of Cortisol with severity and duration of depression in male and female, Meena M Abdul-Hussein, Noor K habash, Mahir M Alramahy, Noor M Shamkhi
Introduction: Depression is associated with increased serum Cortisol. Many parameters affect the cortisol changes during depression such as gender of patients, severity and duration of disease which might be directly or inversely proportional with Cortisol. Aim of study: to assess the correlation of serum Cortisol level with depression severity and duration in both genders of depressed patients compared with healthy controls. Patients and method: a case−control study included thirty three in/out patients diagnosed as mild, moderate and sever depression , they were allowed to use their medications during the study, (24 males, 9 females) and thirty five subjects with out depression as healthy controls (24 male, 11 female). Serum Cortisol level was measured by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay) technique. Results: serum cortisol level increases significantly in patients with depression compared with control group(P ≤0.001), with significant correlation with the severity of depression(P= 0.01), there was higher level of cortisol in patients with short duration of disease which is less than two years than those with long duration or chronic for two years and above(P≤ 0.05) . In female depressed patients, cortisol was significantly higher than male depressed patients (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: the study found that serum cortisol correlates positively with severity of depression, In long duration of depression the cortisol level is less than shortduration, The cortisol level is higher in female depressed patients than the male patients
90 Histopathological study of hepatic and pulmonary sheep's hydatidosis, Israa Kasim Al-Aubaidi, Ali N Yaseen, Maha A Gathwan
Echinococcosis or hydatid disease is caused by infection with cestoda tapeworm belonging to the genus Echinococcus. It caused public health and economic problems worldwide. Different species responsible for this disease include E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. vogeli , etc. Most sites of infection are liver and lung with slow development of the cyst (larval stage), causing many pathological effects that occur in these organs. This study was aimed to investigate different histopathological changes in the liver and lung of sheep's infected with hydatid cysts. Many histopathological variations were noticed in the liver that infected with E. granulosus cysts included hepatocytes degeneration , nuclear changes , necrosis and a steatosis on infected liver sections. Fatty changes also noticed. Increasing in kupffer cells with participation recorded in most sections. Lung sections showed extensive tissue reaction accompanied with inflammatory cells infiltrate around the necrotic areas. Sections also revealed formation of granuloma compact fibrous structure of hydatid cysts and fibrin rich exudate cause hyaline formation
91 Clinical and MRI evaluation of degenerative lumbar spine stenosis, Abbas Abd Zaid Barrak
A prospective study conducted on 50 patients with degenerative disease of lumbar spine complaining of lower back pain and/ or sciatica, those evaluated by detailed history, physical and radiological examination with special emphasis placed upon MRI finding.The pattern of clinical presentation analyzed and correlated with the different MRI findings. Age range between 27- 72 years, the highest proportion of patients age was 50- 59 years with predominance of males (our patients sample consists of 28 men and 22women). The most common clinical presentation was intermittent neurogenic claudication (in 52% of our patients) and more common among elderly patients or patients having multilevel stenosis, while radiculopathy symptom was more common among young patients or patients having single level stenosis. Chronic caudaequina syndrome was uncommon pattern of presentation with bladder function most seriously affected function
92 The anti- Leishmaniasis activity of green synthesis silver oxide nanoparticles, Hawraa H Ismail, Salah Abdu Hasoon, EntsarJ Sahebllah
The green biosynthesized nanoparticles are hydrophilic, biocompatible, and non-toxic and have an important application in different field of science. Leishmaniasis is a protozoan vector-borne disease and is one of the biggest health problems of the world. The anti-Leishmanial drugs have toxicity and the recent development of resistance. In the present study, Ag2O NPs was synthesized using Ficus benghalensis prop root extract (FBPRE) and used against Leishmania (L) donovani. The UV–visible adsorption spectra showed that the absorbance peak is in the range of 430 nm, the vibrational modes of phytochemicals in the extract have been characterized by technique FTIR which allow the identification and information about material. TEM, SEM and XRD pattern have been used to confirm the morphology of silver oxide, which have a spherical nanoparticles shape, and crystalline size of 16 nm. Diluted concentration (25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 μg/ml) of Ag2O NPs were used against L. donovani. The result indicated the effect of Ag2O NPs on the parasite growth rate which clearly decreased compared with L. donovani treated with the same concentrations of the standard anti leishmanial drug (pentostam drug) and the control group. The viability percentage decreased to 66.3 ± 5.44 % compare with group that treated with the pentostam which was 270.0 ± 4.33 in 300μg/mL concentration after 72 hours. The current results concluded that Ag NPs had an effect to inhibit L. donovani growth in vitro following the infection with parasite.
93 Bardoxolone Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia/ Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats, Rihab H Al-Mudhaffer, Laith M Abbas Al-Hussein, Saif M Hassan, Najah R Hadi
Background: Ischemic cerebrovascular disease causes oxygen deprivation to the brain tissue. Reperfusion, which can occur spontaneously through dissolution of the thrombus or by therapeutic recanalization, leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)and induces inflammation which further damages the brain tissue. Methods: Animal model of rats were subjected to general anesthesia during which an occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries was done for half hour then reperfusion for one hour with and without prior treatment with Bardoxolone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p) 24 hr. Brain tissues were sent for histopathological scoring assessment as well as for estimation of Nrf2, NF-κB and MDA levels. Results: The level of nuclear Nrf2 was increased significantly (P
94 The Potency of a Combined Diclofenac-Ampiclox against Streptococcus Pyogen Isolated from Patients with Pharyngitis: A pilot study, Rana Talib Al-Nafakh, Hussein Abdulkadhim, Naser A Naser
Background: Pharyngitis, scarlet fever, and rheumatic fever are of the major infectious problems caused by Streptococcus pyogen. Emergence of antibiotic- resistant strains makes such infection, its rheumatic valvular disease, and glomerulonephritis complications a serious clinical challenge especially in children. Aims and objectives: In a maneuver of overcoming S. pyogen resistance and improve its response to antibiotic, a no steroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAID is repurposed as antimicrobial against S. pyogen. In intention to be combined with the classical antibiotic recommended by WHO guideline of care. The combination was assessed for its MIC and combination index against S. pyogen. Materials and Methods: A multidrug-resistant strain of S. pyogen was isolated from patients, suffering pharyngitis. The most serious isolate was cultivated for MIC determination of ampicloxdiclofenac combination in comparison with each alone to determine the combination index. Results and conclusions: There was a significant synergism between ampiclox-diclofenac (index ˂ 1) at P= 0.012 and Z score= 2.3 further confirmation of MIC folds of dilutions are to be assessed to obtain reasonable evidence.
95 Cerebro-Protective effect of bosentan in brain ischemia reperfusion injury, Ahmed M Almudhafar, Ahmed J Hussein, Zahraa K Alhassani, Najah R Hadi, Bassim I Mohammed, Dina A Jamil, Hayder A Al-Aubaidy
Background: Ischemia reperfusion injury following acute ischemic insult is responsible for extension of injury. Bosentan is an endothelin receptor antagonist, which is currently used as a strong vasoconstrictor. This study aims to investigate the effects of bosentan on ischemia reperfusion injury after brain ischemic stroke in rat model. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four study groups: Sham group: Rats underwent the anesthesia & surgery for an identical period to the other 3 study groups without intervention. Control group: Rats underwent anesthesia & surgery including bilateral common carotid artery ligation (BCCAL) for 30 minutes and then reperfusion for 1 hour. Vehicle group: Four days before ischemia, rats were administered with a vehicle (5% gummi arabicum) and then anesthesia &BCCAL surgery were performed. Bosentan treat group: Four days before ischemia, rats were administered with bosentan (100mg/ kg/day) and then anesthesia & BCCAL surgery were performed. Results: Bosentan treated group exhibited lower concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6)in the brain (2168.0±30.67 pg/mL) than in the control group (2571.37±96.58 pg/mL) (P≤0.05). In addition, interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels were significantly high in the bosentan group (275.7±15.97 pg/mL) when compared to the control group (244.05±12.23 pg/mL) (P≤0.05). This was associated with a non-significant reduction in the brain levels of endothelia nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the bosentan treated groups (90.23±1.14 ng/mL) when compared to the control group (90.94±2.48), (P>0.05). Conclusion: Bosentan treatment have protective effects against the inflammatory damage following ischemia reperfusion injury following acute myocardial infarction.
96 Incidence of clindamycin resistance among clinical isolates of Staphylococci in a tertiary care centre of Manipur, India, Singh Rajkumar Manojkumar
Introduction: Therapeutic failure of clindamycin against both methicillin resistant and sensitive staphylococcal isolates has been documented as due to multiple mechanisms that confer resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics which can be inducible or constitutive. Routine in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing for clindamycin may fail to detect such inducible clindamycin resistance, thus necessitating the need to detect such isolates by employing a simple double disk approximation or D-test. The study was taken up with the objective of determining the incidence of inducible clindamycin resistance among staphylococcal isolates using D test. Materials & Methods: Isolation, identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 751 S. aureus and 501 CONS clinical isolates obtained from January 2012 to December 2015 were performed using conventional standard protocol as per CLSI guidelines. Erythromycin resistant and clindamycin sensitive isolates were further subjected to D test for detecting inducible clindamycin resistance phenotype. Results: A total of 385 isolates were found to be resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin. 244(19.49%) isolates were demonstrated as inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB) by the D test. Conclusion: The study showed the presence of iMLSB resistance among staphylococcal isolates in our tertiary care hospital. Clinical microbiology laboratories should use the double-disc diffusion test (D test) as standard practice with all erythromycin resistant staphylococci to avoid treatment failures of clindamycin
97 Histopathological performance of an HPV18 \ KSHV co-infection with Kisspeptin expression in cervical precancer and cancer tissues, Jasim Mohammed Muhsin, Ameer M Hadi, Sahira Hamdan Abbas
Background: Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most 12th recurrent neoplasia among Iraqi women turning it into significant health issue, it had been currently supposed that the co-infection of High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) which both share some transmission routes from one side, and the disruption of Kisspeptin expression in cervical tissues from the other side, which are collectivelyact as a causative agents and co-factors of cervical cancer progression. Aim: to compare the infection and \ or co-infection of HPV18 \ KSHV and the dysregulation of Kisspeptin expression between cervical dysplasia (pre-cancerous tissues) and cervical cancer (cancerous tissues) progression. Results: Overall, results showed a significant association between infection and \ or co-infection of HPV18 \ KSHV with both types of test tissues (pre-cancerous and cancerous), although the detection rate of KSHV DNA was very low in comparing with HPV18 DNA in both cervical tissue samples. Furthermore, a significant interaction of Kisspeptin low expression in cancerous samples compared to pre-cancerous tissues with viruses existence seem to involve significantly in Kisspeptin expression of CC. Conclusions: Data suggest KSHV co-infection may act as co-factor in the development of HPV related cervical carcinogenesis. Besides, the defect of low Kisspeptin expression serves as a great candidate for cervical carcinoma progression or maybe as a therapeutic target for CC.
98 Ibudilast and octreotide can ameliorate acute pancreatitis via downregulation of the inflammatory cytokines and Nuclear Factor- Kappa B expression, Alaa Ghazi, Sameer H A Abood, Hassan Alaqouli, Najab R Hadi, Sahar A Majeed, Ali M Janabi
Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is severe inflammation of the pancreas that can be of two major types: mild AP and severe AP. In this case, some pancreatic cells can produce various pro-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors thereby affecting the function of pancreas. Objective: to study the efficacy of Ibudilast in comparison with octreotide, in a rat model of AP. Methods: A total of 48 male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (6 per each). AP was induced by Larginine model which has a high reproducibility. Octreotide and Ibudilast were administered individually or in combination at 0, 8or 16 hr after induction. After 24 hr of treatment, each rat was weighed and blood samples were collected for measurement of biochemical markers, and then the pancreas was extracted to obtain the pancreatic weight to the total body weight (PW/TBW) ratio and for vertical gel electrophoresis experiments. Results: In both octreotide-treated group and ibudilast-treated group, there were statistically significant decrease in serum pro-calcitonin (PCT) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) when compared to control group or sham group, as well as, a decrease in PW/TBW ratio and in nuclear factor kappa B (NF- B)protein level using vertical gel electrophoresis. However, in octreotide + ibudilast-treated group there was no statistically significant difference when compared with groups treated with either agents. Conclusion: Ibudilast and octreotide can significantly attenuate the local and systemic effect of AP. The efficacy of ibudilast and octreotide are almost the same. Co-treatment of rats with both Ibudilast and octreotide has no preferential effect when compared with rats treated with the individual agent
99 Early pregnancy vitamin D deficiency and risk of preterm Birth, Noorham Shakir, Ahmed S Al-Hilli, Affifa Hamed Saffa
Background: Many researches done for publication on mineral and vitamins during pregnancy and the possible influences of supplements on pregnancy outcome. Vitamin D may play roles in pregnancy and its complication. Aim: To estimate the association between maternal 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration in early pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Sitting: In Al-Zahraa Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf City from March 1st 2015-September 30th 2015. Type of study: Prospective cohort study Method: 300 pregnant women were included in the study. Blood sample from each case withdrawn from pregnant women 14- 20 weeks of gestation, sent for vitamin D assay. Cases were followed during pregnancy to identify patients who will develop preterm labour. Results: The result of this study showed that 300 pregnant women was with deficient or had insufficient vitamin D level. The relative risk is 6 times which mean that those who had deficient or insufficient vitamin D level 6 times more likely to end with preterm delivery. Conclusion: In this study found that there is strong association between.
100 Fibroblast growth factor 21 as a predictor of early stage diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic mellitus, Samah Naji, Kareem Ghali, Najah Hadi, Maysaa Ali Abdul Khaleq, Mohammed Abdelhussain
Elevated fibroblast growth factor 21(FGF21) was suggested in cross-sectional studies as an indicator of subclinical diabetic nephropathy. We investigated whether serum FGF21 was predictive of the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The present paper aims mainly to demonstrate the correlation of FGF21 with the degree of proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). One hundred twenty four participants diagnosed with T2DM were recruited and they were divided into three study groups according to their albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR): (Normo albumin urea group, Micro albumin urea group, and Macro albumin urea group).Samples of blood and urine were collected to measure different glycemic control and kidney function markers. We conclude that significant correlation between FGF21 with Albuminuria (*p = < 0.001), mean FGF21was highest in macro albumin urea followed by micro albumin urea and lastly Normo albumin urea.
101 The effects of the nanosphere carrier for the combined carmustine-busulfan trastuzumab in human breast cancer tissue culture, Zena Hasan Sahib, Sarmad Nory Gany Al-Dujaili, Hussein Abdulkadhim, Rena A Ghaleb
Cancer of the breast is from the highest cancer type’s incidence. Cancer in general represents a high therapeutic challenge. Considerable adverse effects and cytotoxicity of highly potent drugs for healthy tissue require the development of novel drug delivery systems to improve pharmacokinetics and result in selective distribution of the loaded agent. Targeted therapy is a novel maneuver to achieve proper selectivity index. And as the main goal of nanocarriers is to target specific sites and improve the circulation time of the drug which is entrapped, encapsulate or conjugate in the carrier system so we chose nanoliposome as a drug carrier. Liposomes improved a potent drug targeting successfully in the last decade, but nanoliposomes offer more surface area and they have more solubility, improve controlled release, enhance bioavailability, and permit precision targeting of the material that is encapsulated to a greater extent. The Aims and objectives of the study is the formulation of HER2 Ab directed nanosphere carrier for a combined Carmustine-busulfan and trastuzumab (LCBT), then Assessing antineoplastic efficacy of (LCBT) in lung carcinoma cell line. A dose-dependent cellular growth inhibition on all three cell lines (P-value < 0.001) was seen. The concentration of 100 µg/ml of LCBT show highly significant inhibitory effect (P-value < 0.001) on cancer cell line in comparison to other concentration and other positive control drugs that forming the combination separately (P-value
102 Evaluation of Some immunological and biochemical parameters as markers in the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy, Rawaa Behlul Al-Fatlawi, Kifah Jabbar Al-Yaqoobi, Ameera A Alsadawi, Najah R Hadi, Kareem Ghaly, Wasan Hamid Shukur
The Diabetic Nephropathy(DN) is the major reasons for ESRD in the most common around the world as a result of the rising in the prevalence of obesity and T2DM.The death rate of DN patients having dialysis during 1-5 years is higher than non-diabetic according to the high danger of cardiovascular and infectious diseases. The diagnosis and follow-up of the aggravation of diabetic nephropathy is critical in reducing mortality from this disease. The present study was designed to exam some immunological and biochemical parameters in the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. Four hundred T2DM patients were enrolled, and their age range was 39-60 with a mean± SD of 49.4±10.1 years, they were referred to the Department of diabetic (Alasdair Teaching Hospital) during the period October-2017 to October-2018 for treatment. According to the level of Albuminuria the patients were distributed into three clinical groups to normal Albuminuria (n=145), microalbuminuria (n=162), and macro Albuminuria (n=93) groups. The whole blood of all the patients was withdrawn. The plasma of all patients were tested for HBA1C, Creatinine, Urea, albumin concentration by spectrophotometer, and ICAM-1, TNF-α, IL-1β,IL-6, HMGB1concentration by ELISA technique. The study included the Creatinine values were significantly higher in macro Albuminuria compared with Micro Albuminuria and normoalbuminuria (1.3±0.8) versus (0.9±0.2), (1.0±0.2) respectively. Urea values were significantly higher in Macro Albuminuria and Micro Albuminuria (59.5±14.5), (62.4±22.1). IL-1β values were significantly higher in Micro Albuminuria compared with Macro Albuminuria and Control (43.2±18.8) versus (34.3±25.4), (31.7±19.8) respectively. ICAM-1Avalues were significantly higher in Micro Albuminuria compared with Macro Albuminuria and Control (62.67±5.6), (46.7±5.9),(41.93±5.8), respectively.
103 Effect of genetic variation of TLR-4 gene on immune response of Diabetic patients with normal Albuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria in Najaf Governorate, Iraq, Rawaa Behlul Al-Fatlawi, Kifah Jabbar Al-Yaqoobi , Ameera A Alsadawi, Najah R. Hadi, Mohammad A Abdelhussein, Wasan Hamid Shukur, Kareem Ghaly
TLR4 gene polymorphisms are known to impair corresponding signaling pathways in immune and non immune cells followed by weakened adaptive immune responses. This phenomenon can be seen in several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cancer, asthma and for coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and diabetes. A lot of studies indicated that polymorphisms of TLR4 were correlated with immunity-related diseases, such as chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis diseases. The present study was designed to examine TLR-4 gene polymorphisms Asp299Gly (rs4986791) (+1196C/T)and Thr399Ile (rs4986790) (896A/G) effect on some immune markers IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, HMGB1,and ICAM-1 in Type 2 Diabetes Militias patients, inspected two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TLR-4 gene. The study included the TT genotype IL-1β concentration were significantly higher in microalbuminuria (31±13.1) than control group (25.9±3.4) which is lower than Macro Albuminuria group (31.2±12.5), TNF-α concentration in CT genotype were higher in Micro Albuminuria and macroalbuminuria (962.9 ±53.3), (965±51.5) groups respectively than normoalbuminuria group (786.9±567.3). Considered to GG genotype HMGB1 concentration were significantly higher in control group (1193.82±189.69) than Macro Albuminuria group (500.46±423.54), AA and AG genotypes of IL-6 plasma concentration were significantly higher in control group (T2DMNormo Albuminuria) (30.49±7.9,26.97±45.49), (19.45±8.5, 20±6.17) respectively than control group (12.42±6.27,13.5±8.67).
104 The role of Cucumic Melo Varieta Agrestis, Vitamin C and Zinc on Sperm Activity and Oxidative Stress during Cryopreservation in Infertile Male, Mohanad Waled Abd , Estabraq Abdul Rasool Alwasiti , Haider Behaa Sahib , Maysaa Ali Abdul Khaleq
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Cucumic melo varagrestis, Vitamin C and zinc on human spermatozoa and oxidative stress during cryopreservation in asthenozoospermia. One hundred males were participated in this study at Infertility Clinic at High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies/Al- Nahrain University. There ages were (31.86 ±0.76) years. Semen samples were collected and seminal fluid analysis was done according to WHO (1999). Cryopreservation kept for one month in liquid nitrogen (LN2) at (-196◦C 1ml semen sample with 1ml of sperm freeze medium with zinc, vitamin c , cucmic melon extraction). After one month; 0.5 ml of Ferticuilt Flushin was added to pallet and incubation 37◦C\30min and Microscopic sperm parameters Examination had conducted. The oral administration of antioxidant combination of Cucumic melo var. agrestis, vitamin C and zinc improves sperm characteristics in asthenozoospermia.
105 Predictive value of serum LDH of fever duration in properly treated typhoid fever , Ali Fawzi Abdalsahib Al-Zamili
Typhoid fever is associated with a number of biochemical derangements which are non specific. Some of these biochemical tests have been evaluated in typhoid fever. Lactate dehydrogenate serum level was one of these recently tested non specific biochemical indices in association with typhoid fever. The serum level of this enzyme gets increased following tissue damage in a number of medical conditions. Several authors have investigated its role in typhoid fever, but little has been stated regarding its role in prediction of duration of fever in this disease. The Aim of the study: The current was planned and conducted in order to evaluate the predictive value of serum LDH in association with fever duration in patients with typhoid fever on antibiotic therapy. The current cross sectional study was carried out in Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Diwaniyah Province, and mid-Euphrates region of Iraq. The study included 51 in patients complaining of typhoid fever who were on antibiotic therapy. The age range of those patients was from 16 to 70 years and the study included 26 males and 25 females. The main outcome was fever duration in days after initiation of antibiotic therapy. Neither ALT nor AST showed significant difference (P> 0.05); however, serum LDH level was significantly higher in patients with fever duration of 5 days or more in comparison with that of patients with fever duration of < 5 days (P = 0.035), 499.50 (369.75) versus 370 (99), respectively. Besides, there was highly significant correlation between serum LDH and fever duration (P< 0.001). The correlation was positive (r = 0.753) revealing that the higher the serum level of LDH is, the longer the duration of fever is. Serum LDH is a significant predictor of duration of fever in patients with typhoid fever following initiation of antibiotic therapy with an acceptable level of accuracy.
106 The Potency of a Combined Diclofenac-Ampiclox against Streptococcus Pyogen Isolated from Patients with Pharyngitis: A pilot study, Rana Talib Al-Nafakh, Hussein Abdulkadhim, Naser A Naser
Pharyngitis, scarlet fever, and rheumatic fever are of the major infectious problems caused by Streptococcus Pyogen. Emergence of antibiotic- resistant strains makes such infection, its rheumatic valvular disease, and glomerulonephritis complications a serious clinical challenge especially in children. Its aims and objectives are, in a maneuver of overcoming S. Pyogen resistance and improve its response to antibiotic, a no steroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAID is repurposed as antimicrobial against S. Pyogen. In intention to be combined with the classical antibiotic recommended by WHO guideline of care, the combination was assessed for its MIC and combination index against S. Pyogen. There was a significant synergism between Ampiclox-diclofenac (index ˂ 1) at P= 0.012 and Z score= 2.3 further confirmation of MIC folds of dilutions are to be assessed to obtain reasonable evidence.
107 Validity of Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography and Aminotransferase Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) in Liver Fibrosis, Asst. Prof. Dr. Riyadh W. Al Esawi, Prof. Dr. Nada Rudha Al-Haris, Prof. Dr. Abdulameer Al-Mousawi, Dr. Thanna Naji Shaker Abo Ghanaim
Back ground: Chronic progressive liver diseases cause liver fibrosis which end in result is decompensating liver failure. Liver fibrosis that results from these diseases can be reversed if diagnosed early. The current gold standard in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis is a liver biopsy preferably ultrasound guided, which is an invasive procedure with limitations and risks. Recent research has validated the use of shear wave ultrasound based liver elastography which is a non-invasive imaging based tool that has a sensitivity and specificity that almost parallels histological diagnosis from a liver biopsy. The staging of liver fibrosis at diagnosis uses a Metavir scoring system that has been adapted by elastography AIM: To assess the accuracy of point shear wave elastography with aminotransferase platelet ratio index score in the staging of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at Al Ameer Diagnostic Center of Radiology and Gastroenterology Center in Al Sadder Medical City in Al Najaf. During the period between November 2017 and July 2018, 62 patients each of them was examined by 2D point Shear Wave Elastography which is built in Ultrasound Machine Affinity 70 Philips, France with a multiband frequency convex probe. Liver function test with Liver biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance from right liver lobe, under local xylocaine 2% injection with using 16 gauge co-axial automatic True cut biopsy needles Results: A total of 62 patients had been included in this study, 38 (61.29 %) were males and 24 (38.71%) were females with mean age 44.61± 14.92 years for all patients. Their Body Mass Index was 26.88 ±5.3 Gray scale ultrasound examination of the liver revealed that, the mean of cranio-caudal diameter of right lobe was 129.01± 11.6 mm. Regarding hepatic parenchyma texture, in 48 patients had normal texture, in 13 patients with coarse texture, heterogeneous texture seen in 1 patient. Fifty-five patients had regular hepatic surfaces and 7 patients with irregular surfaces. Portal vein mean transverse diameter in 58 patients was 12.08 ± 1.83 mm, in remaining 4 patients, the portal veins were occluded by thrombosis. portal vein mean velocity was 22.2 ± 5.2 cm/s. The mean of Liver Stiffness Measurement for the studied population was 12. 5 ± 2.07 (mean± Standard Diffusion). Aminotransferase Platelet Ratio Indexmean score for the studied population was 1. 2 ± 0.8. These patients were sub grouped in five categories according to Liver Stiffness Measurement, 8 patients in grade F0 (< 4.6), 14 patients grade F1 (4.6-5.6), 10 patients were F2 (5.7-7.0), 15 patients were in grade F3 (7.1-12) and 15 patients were in grade F4 (>12). While according to histopathological examination, the studied population were categorized as 14 patients F0, 16 patients were F1, 9 patents F2, 1 1patients F3 and 12 in F4. Regarding the Aminotransferase Platelet Ratio Index score the studied patients were classified as grade 0 (1.5) 12 patients. Out of 62 patients enrolled in this study twelve patients were categorized by Aminotransferase Platelet Ratio Index score as F4 with cirrhosis, ten of them were positive in histopathology as F4 and two were negative. while 50 patients were categorized as F0-3 with no cirrhosis, 48 patients were positive in histopathological examination as F0-3, and 2 patients were false negative proved by histopathology as F4 with cirrhosis, so the Aminotransferase Platelet Ratio Index Score Sensitivity was 83.3%, Specificity was 96%, Positive Predictive Value was 93.5, Negative Predictive value was 96% and the Accuracy was 93.5%. Conclusions 1- point Shear Wave elastography is a useful tool to screen for liver fibrosis in the general population during a conventional ultrasound examination, especially when laboratory tests and ultrasound examination are negative despite the potential underlying fibrosis. 2- Gray scale ultrasonography alone is insufficient imaging modality for full assessment of chronic liver disease 3- A simple index like Aminotransferase Platelet Ratio Index, consisting of 2 readily available laboratory results (Aspartame aminotransferase Test level and platelet count), can predict cirrhosis with high degree of accuracy. Besides being non-invasive, it can be determined at the bedside. It can also be of use in areas where facilities for liver biopsy and advanced imaging techniques are not available.
108 Production of Fermented Red Beet Juice using Probiotic Lactobacilli Bacteria, Nehan Bahaaldden Jafar, Zahraa Talib Ghaleb, Zainab Hussein Fadhil
During this experiment, the juice of red beets were extracted and fermented by two species of probiotic bacteria :( Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei). Both species of lactic cultures can use beet juice for the producing of lactic acid and the synthesis of cells.Theprocess of fermentation was carried at 30°C for 24 hr. by inoculated of beet juice using lactic cultures. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei grew well on the vegetable juice of ((Beet plant)) and reached nearly (12.5± 4.12×10) and (8.6± 5.20×10) CFU/ml respectively followingfermentation for 24 h at 30°C. After cold storage for 6 weeks at 4°C, PH, Acidity as (Lactic acid), viable cell counts were detected weekly.As a result the viability of L. plantarum and L. Paracasei were increased (9.03-9.69 log CFU / ml) respectively on the 42 day of cold storage while, PH of these bacteria lowered to (2.1± 0.020) respectively therefore, increased acidity of fermented beet juice whilst the viability of cell counts of L. plantarum and L. paracasei were not lost during cold storage at 4°Cconditions.
109 Survey of the Bacterial Contamination in the Environment of the Operating Theaters over Two Years’ Time in a Multi-specialty AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital in Baghdad/Iraq, Ali H Hayyawi, Sarab K. AL-Rawi,Manar S Assi, Areej M. Mohammed, Rakeaa M Al-Mulimawi, Yahya A. Fouad, Ban N.Lateef
Background: The hospital environment, the design of buildings especially operating theaters and associated facilities play an important role in the spread of nosocomial infections and surgical site infection. Methods: A descriptive study. It covers 30 months; Weekly swabs were collected from thirty-two operating theaters. Results: The highest rate of contamination was in the general surgical OT with 12.9%, followed by Orthopedic OT (10.7%). On the other hand, Ophthalmic OT recorded the least bacterial contamination with (3.1%) only.During the three years’ time of the study; we saw heavy growth of G-ve bacteria:P.aurogenosa195(35.8%), 137(43.4%) and 48(53.3%), thenE. coli141(25.9%), 115(%) and 28(%) respectively. Conclusion: Contamination was identified in all OT in different branches. Bacterial growth reported throughout the year and in different months. Despite the availability and usage of the sterilization materials, contamination still there.
110 The Role of Adding Sodium Chloride in Broiler Chicks Diets to Improve Production Performance and Antioxidant Status during Heat Stress, Al-Enzy AFM, Zaeid JM Saed, Ahmed S Naser, Th T Mohammed, SM Abdulateef, FMH Al-Khalani, FM Abdulateef
This study was conducted at the Poultry Research Station in the Livestock Research Department / Agricultural Research office / Ministry of Agriculture, where a 84 sexed chicks that brought from a local hatchery ( AL-Shuker) in Abu Ghraib were used at one day old with initial weight of 40g of the breed (Ross 308).The continuous light method (24 hours/day) and the gas incubators were used to warm the hall in order to reach the requiredtemperatureof38℃until the end of the experiment at 42 days. The chicks were randomly distributed on 2 treatments, where each treatment included three replicates of (14 chicks /rep), the first one was the control treatment, and in the second treatment the chicks were given sodium chloride by 250 mg/kg feed. The study findings showed a significant superiority (P
111 TUSC3 Expression in Childhood Acute LymphoblasticLeukemia Patients in Baghdad, Iraq, Zaid Khalid, Fadhel M Lafta, Abdul-Ameer N Ghaloub Al-Rekabi
Acute lymphoblasticleukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer world-wide. This disease is characterized by wide-range of recurrent genetic aberrations that have an impact on the disease initiation and patient’s outcome. This study was set to investigate the expression of TUSC3, tumor suppressor candidate 3, in a set of 31 cases diagnosed with ALL at the Child’s Central Teaching Hospital, Baghdad- Iraq using qPCR technique. Down-regulation of TUSC3 was observed in the majority (17/31(64.5%) of the studied ALL cases, while the rest of the patients (14/31(35.5%) have shown normal to unregulatedTUSC3 expressionsuggesting a key role for this gene in the diseases biology.The expression level of TUSC3 gene could be investigated further, in large scale studies, for its diagnosis and prognosis value, especially within the different cytogenetic subtypes of ALL.
This study was conducted in the northern regions of Basra province / Iraq from March 2017 to February 2018. Nine-hundred cow age ranges between 2 to 5 years, weights from 200 to 400 kg and have crossbreeding and local breeds.Prior to initiating the artificial insemination, the rectal palpation of the cows was performed to determine the estrous phase and palpation the ovaries to determine the ovarian state and ovulation site. The cows was inseminated artificially using three different sources of frozen semen (Holland, Iranian and Iraqi) source with two different straw volume (0.5 or 0.25) ml., and during the insemination; the deposition of semen was performed in three different sites of female genitalia (uterine horn, uterine body and cervix).Depending on the source or origin of the frozen semen, the results showed there are no effect on successful insemination when use of frozen semen with a Holland, Iraqi or Iranian source, there are no significant differences at p < .05. (F = 1.1877).Depending on the size of the straw used (0.25 ml or 0.5 ml); the results showed there are no significant differences between the two volumes at (p < .05).Depending on the site of semen deposition within the female reproductive system; the results showed there are a significant differences at (p < .05) and (F = 8.73035). The highest percentage of successful inseminations showed when the deposition of semen in the uterine horn, compared to the deposition in the body of the uterus or cervix. Depending on the number of inseminations, the results showed that there are no significant differences between the study groups at (p < .05) and (F = 60.54751).The total percentages of successful inseminations in this study were 785/900 (87%), while the failed inseminations were 115/900 (12%).After third insemination; the cases were excluded and considered as a Repeated Breeders cows.
113 Using the ARIMAModels to Predict Wheat Crop Production in Iraq , Najla Salah Madlul1, Eman Younis Al –Najjar, Yusra Tariq Baker, ZawidFathyAbd Al-Ramthany
The question of prediction has gained considerable interest in the economic studies, whereby decision makers can draw economic and social policies for the coming periods depending on available data about the history of the studied phenomenon. Many ways of economic prediction have emerged, the most prominent of which are the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA). This method depends on merging Autoregressive model and the moving averages. The aim of research is to employ the (ARIMA) modelfor predicting the crop of wheat in Iraq, for the high accuracy of these models in analysing time series and prediction. The annual data have been used to produce the crop of wheat for the period between (1988-2018). The results show that model (1.0.1) (ARIMA) is the most convenient one to prediction the evolution of wheat production in Iraq till 2028 according to the statistical tests of the accuracy of prediction models. Results show that the production of wheat has increased in Iraq according to the suggested model during the ten coming years, with an annual average higher than that of the study period (1988-2018), whereby the annual growth average of production reached (0.94%).
114 Extent of microbiological contamination among swabs drawn from selected wards and kitchens at AL -Yarmouk Teaching Hospital in Baghdad –Iraq, SarabK Alrawi, Areej M Mohammed, Manar S Assi, Ali H Hayyawi, Ban N Lateef, Yahya A Fouad
Objective: To evaluate the level of contamination in different hospital’s wards and kitchens in AL-Yarmouk teaching hospital in Baghdad -Iraq. Method: The study was done from the 1st of January, 2017 to the 30th of June, 2019. A total of 7742sterile cotton swabs were collected randomly from the following wards: Burns, RCU, CCU, NICU, (Dialysis, Bronchoscopy, Endoscopy) unites and Kitchens. Samples were cultured in different agars and incubated for 24-48 hrs at 25 °C and 37 °C for fungi and bacterial growth, respectively. Results: Out of 7742 sample, 1227 swabs were reported positive. By 2017, Gram-positive bacteria were more prevalent with 59.5%, and Bacillus was the most common isolated .The rates of Gram-negative bacteria became more predominant with 54.9% and 69.4% in 2018 and 2019, respectively and E. coli was the main isolated bacteria with prevalence rates of 32.1% in (2018) and 42.4% in (2019). The most contaminated wards were CCU (36.6%) in 2017, RCU (32.8%) in 2018, and NICU (10.6%) in 2019, while Peritoneal dialysis showed a continuous increase of contamination from (3%) in 2017 to (9.8 %) in 2019. Conclusion: Gram- negative bacteria prevalence is increasing. Taking measures to decrease the contamination is essential by following the guidelines and the recommended practices.
115 A study of alexithymia in patients with peptic ulcer diseases, Adil J Abdul Sahib, Kasim O Hussein, Dergham M Hameed, Emad Salih, Haneen Kareem
One hundred subjects [50 PUD (24 women, 26men)],and [50 healthy individuals (22 women, 28 men)] in in Al-Hussain teaching hospital in Samawa city were evaluated.. The two groups were matched with regard to demographic variables. Alexithymia was evaluated by appropriate questionnaire. Alexithymia symptoms were higher in PUD patients than healthy individuals (difficulty in identifying feelings 16.4±4.8 vs 13.10±3.24, difficulty in describing feeling 24.28±6.91 vs 19.06±5.38, externally oriented thinking 25.68 ±6.87 vs 17.36 ±3.85). The results show that PUD patients experienced more alexithymia than the healthy subjects, so we think that such patients should be evaluated also in psychiatric department.
116 Isolation of yeasts from Otomycosis cases in children and dogs, Zainab AA Al-haddad
Otomycosis usually unilateral with scaling, itching, and pain as the primary symptoms. The infection is either subacute or acute. This research was conducted to isolate yeasts from otomycosis in children and dogs in Baghdad city. Ear swabs from( 100) child which were diagnosed clinically in central educational hospital of pediatrics and( 100) dog's cases were brought to private clinics with otitis symptoms ,and subjected to fungal isolation by macroscopic and microscopic methods by using RapID Yeast Plus System for yeasts identification. The results for yeasts isolation from ear swabs of children suffered from ear infections were thirty four (34)yeasts isolates (34%), in which C. albicans appeared as highly occurrence in ten (10)isolates(10%) whereas Cr. albidus showed nine (9)isolates(9%), C. tropicalis with eight (8)isolates (8%), C. lusitaniae with three (3) isolates (3%) as well as C. krusei and C. intermedia appeared with two (2) isolates (2%) for each one of them ,while the results of yeasts isolation from dogs ear swabs suffered from problems in ears were sixteen(16) yeasts isolates(16%), C. albicans represent highly appeared species with five (5) isolates (5%) while C.glabrata appeared with three (3) isolates (3%) whereas Cr. albidus and R.rubra showed four (4) isolate (4%) for each of them.
117 Pharmacomodulation of positions two & four of nucleus five-nitroimidazole by using palladium catalyze, Noor Thamer Abbas Al Saadi, Marwah Thamer Abbas Al Saadi, Zina Tahsin ALi
Cross-coupling reactions consist of reactions between an electrophilic organic species such as a halide or a pseudohalide (triflate, tosylate, mesylate) (R1-X) and an organometallic reagent (R2-M; M = Mg, Li, Cu, Zn, Al, B and Si). These reactions are catalyzed by a metal transition complex based on nickel or palladium, and result in the formation of new CClO.sub.2 bonds. Many cross-coupling reactions have thus been developed in about twenty years, by varying the nature of the electrophile, organometallic reagent and transition metal (Scheme 1). The most commonly used coupling reactions involve palladium as a transition metal, and the diversity of these reactions is based on the type of organometallic used, based on aluminum, zinc or zirconium (Negishi coupling), [1] boron (Suzuki coupling), [2] magnesium (Kumada coupling), [3] tin (Stille coupling) , [4] or silicon (coupling of Hiyama) .[5] The development of this type of reaction allowed Richard Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2010.[1].
118 Comparing the effect of some plant extracts and commercial washes against some isolated Microorganisms from vagina of pregnant women, Angham J Alwan, Sabreen J Alwan
The main role of the present study is to isolate and diagnose the main pathogens of female genital tract vaginal infections in pregnant women 3 rd trimester months, as well as the inhibitory effect of commercial vaginal washes and the effect of a group of plant extracts on these bacteria to evaluate the possibility of using these extracts as alternatives to commercial or other treatments. Thirty (30) vaginal samples High Vaginal Swab (HVS) were collected from pregnant women with different ages after the internal sonar trans vaginal U\S to women with clinical symptoms associated with vaginal and cervical infection. These samples were tested to achieve the objectives of this study. The results of isolation and diagnosis showed the presence of (17) positive samples (56.66%) of bacterial culture belonging to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Four samples of Staphylococcus epidermidis (13.33%) while E. coli was detected in two samples (6.66%). The study showed the prevalence of Candida either alone in (6) samples (20%) or in combination with the bacteria in (14) samples (46.66%). By evaluating inhibitory activity of the commercial vaginal wash (Germex), a significant effect was found on the studied bacteria when compared with a number of water extracts .The water extract of honey had the most inhibitory effect on the bacteria followed by the extract of the apple vinegar, while olive oil and Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) showed a variation according to the type of bacteria and their resistance.
119 Effect of Radiation Dose Reduction on Parameters in Pediatric Head CT Examination, Bashar Adnan Munshid, Ammar Alhassan, Zina Tahsin Ali
Radiation must be as low as can be reasonably achieved for CT examination, particularly in pediatric patients. This study was conducted by using two procedures (control and modified) prepared with 64-slice Siemens CT scan (SAMTOM Definition), calibrated in accordance with international protocols. A total of 60 pediatric patients underwent brain examination for a variety of clinical diseases. The effective dose (Eff.dose) was calculated and effective current-time products (in effective milliampere-seconds, Eff.mAs) were measured. Calculation of Eff.mAs and Eff.dose was performed for each CT examination; these were statistically analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and independent t-tests, in accordance with the (ICRP) report for estimating risk (K) factor. Two procedures of standard (control) protocol and modified head CT scans were reviewed for the diagnosis of pediatric patients, 0-12 years of age. There were no gender-based differences between these two procedures with respect to either Eff.dose or Eff.mAs. However, there was a strong relationship between patient’s age and both (Eff.dose and, Eff.mAs), indicated by the significant P value (p
The objectives of the research focused on the preparation of a questionnaire to build a predictive measure of psychological efficiency for the students of the athletes of the University of the Middle Euphrates technical, as well as "the recognition of predictions of psychological efficiency, and applied research on a group of athletes at the University of the Euphrates Middle Tech for the period of 22/11/2017 and the researcher used the descriptive method in the survey method. The most important steps of the research are to limit the number of athletes in Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University from the students. The main questionnaire was composed of (48) Building a collective and individual scale, as required (325) questionnaires were returned (301), (24) of which were excluded due to lack of complete answer. The number of valid questionnaires reached (265) questionnaires In the final statistical analysis, using the appropriate statistical methods, and then presenting them, analyzing them and discussing them in a scientific manner based on the relevant sources and references, and then concluding the conclusions, the most important of which was the establishment of a suitable questionnaire to build a predictive measure for the psychological efficiency of the students. In the light of these conclusions, the researcher recommended a number of recommendations, including the possibility of using the current measure by the supervisors of athletes at the University of the Euphrates Middle Tech, as well as the need to pay attention to the psychological side, especially with regard to students in the same physical, skill and educational aspects.
Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in the potential positive effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) and Maca extracts. However, there has been no detailed investigation of the effects of mixing these two plants extracts. Therefore, the present research explores for the first time, the effects of the mixture of these two extracts. The aim of the current study is to figure out the cytotoxicity of this mixture on the sensitive system of the mammal's body. This study, therefore, set out to assess the cytotoxicity effect of the aqueous crude extract of Licorice, Maca, and the effect of their extracts mixture on mice normal spleenocytes by MTT assay. The results show that the cells growth inhibition of both extracts and their mixture was 0% compare to control. The mixture medium (12.5/2.5mg) has the best viability with 245.0% compared to Licorice medium alone (12.5mg) with viability 223.1% and Maca medium alone (2.5mg) with viability 133.6 %. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that the mixtures of licorice and Maca extracts have no harmful effects at a dose of (12.5/2.5mg). Furthermore, the mixture data can be applied for orally used in the treatment of infertility status.
Intracranial aneurysms are a weakened arterial wall due to loss of internal elastic lamina resulting in dilations of the intracranial arteries and these aneurysms are susceptible to rupture, resulting in life-threatening hemorrhage; therefore represents chief cause of hemorrhagic stroke. Rhoton rules are used for the planning the operative approach to these aneurysms. Aim of the study: to evaluate the application of Rhoton rules in our patients with intracranial aneurysms. A retrospective series of 283 aneurysms, from 1st of January 2016 to 1st of December 2018 in Neurosurgical Teaching Hospital Baghdad/Iraq, diagnosed by CT angiography with 3D reconstruction were included in this study to evaluate the age, sex, site, size, locations and application of Rhoton rules in these aneurysms. Of the 283 patients studied, we found 127 aneurysms at the anterior communicating artery (location 1), 80 at the posterior communicating artery (location 2), 37 at the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (location 3), 21 at the middle cerebral artery (location 4), and 18 in the posterior circulation (location 5). The four rules of Rhoton about intracranial aneurysms: rule one (100%), rule two (84.5%), rule three (84.8%) & rule four (84.8%). The rules of Rhoton is a heterogeneous concept which summarizes several hemodynamic principles and is verified in 80% of aneurysms in Iraqi patients, with different frequencies depending on the rule and location. These findings should be verified in other populations, as our patients are of Hispanic origin in 99.7% of the cases.
Suicide is a very stigmatising condition in Iraq and perceived stigma by the public make recorded data about the subject far from accurate. So researching this interesting phenomenon remains a very important step in evaluating its impact on society in general. The aims of the study were. To compare between numbers of victims of self-inflicted burn with the official police suicide statistics that is recorded each month in the city and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients in addition to their past psychiatric history.During the year 2018 any patient admitted to the burn centre at al Dewanyea with a suspicion that his/her burn was self-inflicted was asked permission of interview by the researcher. The patients answered questions regarding their socio-demographic profile and motives and were asked if they had previous history of any psychiatric condition.A total of 34 patients admitted of burning themselves during that year while the official police records showed only 6 patients killed themselves using this method in the same time period. More than 88% of the patients had no previous attempt, only 6 patients were known psychiatric patients and in all the cases there was no plan. Half of the sample was of the 20-40 years' age group, females were slightly over represented (about 55% of the sample) and most of the males were single. About 55% of the sample were un employed and 44% of them were illiterate. Only 2 patients survived the burns eventually. Family problems were the most common precipitative factor (in more than 91% of the cases). There is poor registration of suicide numbers using self-burning at al Dewanyea city. Most of the cases had no previous attempts and had no history of mental illness and in all the cases the act was impulsive with no previous plan.Those who burn themselves are most commonly young, illiterate and unemployed.Men were mostly single while women were more commonly married. There was high mortality rate in the sample.
One-third of infections associated mortality is caused by respiratory diseases. Among these accounting, fungal respiratory infections are largely unrecognized. Although treatment, most invasive fungal infections stilled responsible forhigh mortality. Fungal spores typically enter the lung by inhalation, the spores reach lung through the bloodstream and cause fungal pneumonia. Inside the alveoli, the fungal spores travel throughout intracellular spaces and also passage to adjacent alveoli through connecting pores. One hundred twenty specimens including bronchoalveolar lavage, sinus, and sputum (40 specimens each) were randomized collected from patients with respiratory problems who attended Baquba Teaching Hospital for a period 7 months.Fungal cultures were performed using primary culture onto Sabouraud´s dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol which incubated at 28ºC for 1-2 weeks. The positive results were identified using standard conventional methods. Candida species reportedalmost fungal pneumonia isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage and sinus sites, with a percentage 28.6% and 26.7%, respectively. Whilst, Aspergillus fumigates was the almost fungal isolates from sputum specimens, with a percentage 24%. Young and adult groups were most percentage infected with Candida species (35.7% and 21.1%), respectively. Whilst old aged were most infected with A. fumigates (23.8%) The findings concluded that Candida species and Aspergillusfumigates reported the highest frequency of fungal pneumonia infections.
A total of 35 stool samples were collected in the Central Health Laboratory of Babylon Province from patients presenting invasive cholera disease from November 2017 to December 2018. The results revealed that all suspected stool samples showed positive isolation (100%) to Vibrio cholera species. Regarding serogroups diagnosis, the results of this study showed that O1 serogroups were the predominant serogroup among all clinical samples with high rate 94.3% (N=33), while only two isolates of non-O1/non-O139 (NAG) (5.7%) were documented as a causative agent to cholera or cholera-like disease. These results were confirmed by new optimized Touchdown-Multiplex PCR assay depended on ompW, O1 and O139-specific primers. Meanwhile, the results of the study showed negative result to identify O139. With regard to biotypes diagnosis, the results of this study indicated that El Tor biotype had prevailed in all clinical isolates of V. cholerae with a high rate (100%) compared with the Classic biotype. These results were confirmed by new optimized multiplex PCR assay designed with ompW, Classic and El Tor-specific primers. In identification of serotypes, Inaba serotype had prevailed in all V. cholerae O1 isolates with a high percentage 97% (N=32), while only one Ogawa serotype (3%) was reported as a causative agent for cholera disease in Babylon province. A new quadruplex PCR assay was optimized to identify toxin-related genes (ctxA, zot, rtxAand stn/ato) simultaneously. The results revealed that all studied genes (ctxA, zot, rtxAandstn/sto) were detected in V. cholerae Ogawa serotype (100% positive) while only ctxA, zot, rtxA genes were identified in Inaba serotype with 100% positivity. Moreover, only rtxAandstn/sto genes with 100% positivity were identified in V. cholerae (NAG) strain.
This study includes (100) samples which grouped as following: control group (35) sample (blood and benign), patients group including (30) blood samples and (35) FFPE samples (tissue imbed in paraffin). The age of study samples were ranged from 30-89 years old men and women). These samples were grouped in six aging groups that each 10 years in one group. results indicate that the age risk of disease incidence is begin in 50 years old and increased between 60-69 years old for both sexes. The CDK1 gene was detected by PCR-sequencing in order to investigate if there were any genetic defect within this gene. The alignment results of the 254 bp samples revealed the presence ofSNP (rs2456777) that distributed variably in the analyzed samples in comparison with the referring reference DNA sequences. The results showed that the allele G is responsible for the appearance of disease and its progression in patientsby reaching to metastasis stage and have gene expression by tumor molecular phenotype, with significant value in tissue samples.
Gram negative bacteria are responsible for most infections among people around the world. The level of antibacterial resistance in gram negative bacteria in Iraqi provinces, specifically, Baghdad, Hilla and Karbala, has not been previously studied. This study shows a high resistance rate among the governorates due to gram negative bacteria producing ESBLs and carbapenemase enzymes, these infections are mostly opportunistic. The recognized β -lactamase genes are CTX-M, OXA-10, NDM-1, TEM, SHV,IMP-1 and VIM-2 have found in many isolates.But, less common β -lactamase genes are PER β -lactamase in Hilla city. So asnumerous possible factors unique to the Iraqi provinces may have responsible of appearance β -lactamases, comprisingthe excessive consumption of antimicrobial agents and a large proportion of travelers are mainly from the Iranian, Pakistan and Indian countries.
128 The effectiveness of using r-HMG+r-FSH vs. r-FSH alone during COS on ICSI outcome, Saba Sabeeh Hussain, Muhjah Falah Hassan
Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) has been used during an assisted reproduction cycle to improve the success rate. The gonadotropins which are most frequently used during COS/ICSI cycles are r-FSH and r-HMG (FSH+LH). Over many years, outcomes achieved with using both gonadotropins during COS have been compared and the superiority of using both or only r-FSH is still a controversial topic that necessitates further studying. The aim of this research is to study the effectiveness of adding r-HMG to r-FSH on ICSI outcome in infertile patients who underwent COS. Fifty infertile couples were included who attended fertility clinic due to either female factor or male factor infertility and all of them were treated by ICSI and subjected to COS by r-FSH with or without r-HMG. ICSI outcome was assessed in the form of the total number of retrieved oocytes, FR, CR, embryo quality and chemical PR.The study showed that there was no significant difference between using both gonadotropins or FSH alone regarding the total number of oocytes produced, fertilization rate (FR), cleavage rate (CR), embryos number and quality except pregnancy rate (PR) which was lower with adding r-HMG 41.66% VS 50 % with r-FSH alone. We concluded that the combined use of r-HMG+r-FSH is effective as r-FSH alone in terms of oocytes' and embryos' quality while the effect on PR is still undetermined.
129 Evaluation of pneumothorax in the first month of life, Omar Abdulqadir Ajaji, Bassam Maddah H Al=Alosi, Raad Hameed Khalaf
Pneumothorax is relatively more frequent in the first month of life than in other times of life. We aim to analyze the demographics, characteristics, incidence, factors associated, seasonality, treatment modality and mortality of pneumothorax of newborns. The methods that we used were a cross-sectional study of 97 newborns with pneumothorax over a period of 24 months January 2017 and December 2018. The patient’s demography and characteristics of delivery were studied. Additional analyses of the incidence, severity, risk factors associated it, monthly and seasonal variation, diagnostic workup, treatment modality and mortality of pneumothorax. Our results show that the pneumothorax was diagnosed in 97newborns with an incidence of 7.1%. 57 were males and 40 were females. 43% were preterm and 57% was the term. The birth weight was normal in 60 newborns. 64% were born inside the hospital. 61% were delivered by cesarean section. Of these, 57% right side, 40% left side and 3% bilateral. Pneumothorax was mild in 11%, 48% moderate and 41% tension. A slight spring and summer preponderance, 19(20%) ,19(20%) occurred in spring (2017,2018 )respectively and 17(18%),18(19%) in summer (2017,2018)respectively . Active resuscitation was the predominant associated factor that occurred in 39%. 97% of pneumothorax required drainage. 21% of newborns died. The highest mortality was observed in severe pneumothorax. We concluded that the incidence of newborns pneumothorax was relatively frequent. Newborns resuscitation should be done very carefully. More studies are needed to investigate the seasonal factors of pneumothorax in the 1st month of life.
130 Prime boost HIV vaccination with recombinant influenza virus vectors stimulates specific and mucosal CD8+ T cell immune response in BALB/c mice, Mohammed Jasim Mohammed Shalla
HIV/AIDS continues to be a significant medical problem worldwide. An effective and safe vaccine remains a high priority. Most HIV vaccine candidates to date have failed to elicit effective immune responses that are necessary to control HIV infection. The results of a promising phase III trial conducted in Thailand using a recombinant canarypox vector vaccine (ALVAC) expressing HIV Gag in combination with recombinant HIV-Env glycoprotein gp120 (AIDSVAX), showed 31.2% efficacy in humans and raised the prospect of a protective vaccine. The most recommended HIV vaccines are focusing on inducing specific CD8+ T as a critical immune response to control progression and dissemination of HIV virus from the site of infection into different mucosal compartments of the body.This study project used influenza viruses as a mucosal live vaccine vector to stimulate effective CD8+ T cell immunity. Recombinant influenza A viruses, H3N2 (HK-X31) and H1N1 (A/PR8/8/34) expressing defined mouse HIV-1 CD8+ T cell epitopes (H-2Kd Gag197-205 and H-2Kd Tat17-25) in the neuraminidase (NA) stalk were generated using reverse genetics and administered as a prime-boost vaccine within various mucosal routes of vaccination, intranasal-intranasal, intravaginal-intravaginal, intranasal-intravaginal and intravaginal-intranasal vaccination in BALB/C mice. Following those prime-boost vaccinations, tetramer and intracellular cytokine staining assays used for the detection of specific CD8+ T cell immune response in harvested organs, spleen, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), mediastinal and inguinal lymph nodes. In addition, mucosal HIV-specific CD8+ T cells were detected using specific anti-mouse CD8α antibodies directed against specific integrins (LPAM-1 and CD103). Moreover, the level of specific cytokines, such as interleukin-15 (IL-15) detected within specific mucosal CD8+ T cells for the detection of the migrated HIV-1 Gag+ CD8+ T cells.Our result showed there was an induction of CD8+ T cells targeted H-2KdGag197-205, compared to no CD8+ T cell responses specific for H-2Kd Tat17-25 in recombined influenza-HIV vaccinated BALB/c mice. Also, comparable HIV and endogenous influenza-specific CD8+ T cell responses following intranasally-intranasally prime-boost vaccination in harvested lymphoid tissues, spleen, bronchoalveolar lavage, and mediastinal lymph nodes compared to inguinal lymph nodes which included a high proportion of specific CD8+ T cell immune response following intravaginal-intravaginal prime-boost infection. Moreover, a proportion of these cells isolated from mice infected with recombinant influenza-HIV vaccine intranasally-intranasally prime-boost expressed mucosal surface integrins, especially LPAM-1(α4β7) of local and distal lymph nodes higher than the levels observed following intravaginal vaccination. In addition, mucosal LPAM-1+HIV-Gag197-205+ CD8+ T cells harvested of intranasal prime-boost vaccinated mice were recognized by a high expression of IL-15 compared to LPAM-1-HIVGag197-205+ CD8+ T cells.We conclude that the intranasal prime-boost vaccination as one of the mucosal routes of vaccination using recombinant influenza viruses as mucosal viral vectors of HIV vaccine in BALB/c mice has an important role in stimulating both specific and mucosal CD8+ T cells within a high level and these cells would be important for migration of mucosal specific CD8+ T cells given the mucosal acquisition of HIV infection and control of HIV-1 virus dissemination through mucosal compartments.
131 Estimate the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in patient with type II diabetes in the province of Najaf , Ahmed Adnan Al-Khafagi, Manar Kareem Alquraishy, Alia Hussein Al-Mousawi
Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in which glucose is underutilized, producing hyperglycemia. Furthermore, it is proposed that the underutilization of glucose is associated with changes in the lipid profile. Changes in lipid profiles are also well related to the severity of DM. This study involved 50 were patients admitted with a diagnosis of DM; blood samples were drawn under aseptic precautions from cases of DM and healthy controls. Necessary investigations were carried out and values were tabulated for cases and controls separately for statistical evaluation. Our Results show that the DM patients compared to controls significant increase in the following parameters were observed. Cholesterol ratios increased. Furthermore, the levels of triacylglycerol increased. We conclude that there is a statistically significant large effect in cholesterol and TG a level of cases compared with controls, cholesterol level is increased and TG levels were well associated with blood sugar also increased.
132 The differences between benign mixed tumor and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum in proliferative, apoptotic, and antiapoptotic activity, Ameera Kamal Khaleel
The majority of salivary glands tumors are benign mixed tumors. The present study was aimed to evaluate the differences between benign mixed salivary glands tumor and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatous regarding the tumor cell proliferation rate, apoptotic and antiapoptotic activity. The study was performed on archived paraffin-embedded salivary glands tissue of 23 benign mixed tumors and five cystadenoma lymphomatosis. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and cases with the definite diagnosis were selected for immunohistochemistry. The immunoreactivity was assessed in areas of highest positivity regarding Ki-67, P53, and bcl-2. Our results refer that benign mixed tumor and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatous showed negative immune expression for Ki-67. The P53 immune staining in benign mixed tumor appeared negative, while the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatous appeared with mild positive staining. Bcl-2 immune expression in the benign mixed tumor was moderate positive while the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatous was mild positive. We conclude that the benign mixed tumors showed significantly more Ki-67 and bcl-2 immune labeling indexes than papillary cystadenoma lymphomatous, but the P53 immune expression was less (p
133 MORPHOLOGICAL AND GENOTYPIC IDENTIFICATION OF BOVINE-INFESTING TICKS IN AL-DIWANIYAH PROVINCE, IRAQ, Nuha Qasim Mohammed, Ahmed Jasim Neamah, Monyer Abdul Amier Abd Al-Fatlawi, Hala Mohsin Mutter, Hassan Hachim Naser, Israa Najm Abdullah Al-Ibadi
Tick skin invasion is one of the important ectoparasitic infestations occurred worldwide and in Iraq, which is correlated with tick-borne diseases such as theileriosis, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis; however, more recently, in Iraq, an identified number of cases belonged to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) were caused and transmitted via ticks that infested ruminants in Al-Diwaniyah Province. According to this importance, the present characterizing study was launched to identify the current circulating ticks in this province. Inspection of 196 bovine animals (males and females distributed over different regions and seasons) for the presence of ticks; 54 animals were found to have such parasitic infestation. From those infested animals, 108 adult ticks were collected. Ticks were exposed to a series of morphological identification in the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah and the Natural History Museum, University of Baghdad. Moreover, genotypic characterization was performed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting the 18S rRNA gene of 50 ticks. Eight positive PCR products were sent out to sequencing targeting the same gene,thenphylogenetic analysis was conducted to understand the evolution of the ticks. Morphological characterization revealedthat the ticks were from genera; Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. Significant (p˂0.05) differences were detected via the seasonal distribution of tick infestation with the highest rates during summer. No significant (p˃0.05) differences were unveiled via the gender or regional distribution of the tick infestation. PCR and the sequencing have confirmed the morphological-based identification,Phylogenetic study findings revealed that the Hyalomma genotypes from the present work were in a high nucleotide sequence matching with a strain of Hyalommatruncatum (KY457496.1) from South Africa and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Rhipicephalus genotypes from the current study were closely related to a Rhipicephalusturanicus strain sequence (KF958452.1) submitted to The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. The investigation, here, provides confirming data about the presence of the Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus induced infestation in the current city which might give extra evidence about the presence of the CCHF as those ticks, especially Hyalomma, considered as major vectors for the transmission of the virus.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belongs to the family of herpes viruses and about 90% of adults worldwide have antibodies against it. EBV infections are widespread in multiple patients with blood transfusion, such as ß-thalassemia patients, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Blood samples from (70) thalassemic patients and (20) healthy controls were subjected for the detection of the blood groups (ABO) and EBV IgM antibodies by ELISA assay. The types of EBV infection as acute, late or reactivated were distinguished using a new immunoblot technique. The presentstudyshowedthat theEBV infection wasfound in (12.33 %) of patients with thalassemia and the highest incidence was (44.44%) in a class AB blood group subjects. Depending on Immunoblot techniquethetypeofinfections was distinguished, the results showed thatthehighestpercentage recorded was(55.55 %) in acuteinfections, followedby (22.22%) at late and reactivated infections. The present study found that thalassemia patients in Mosul / Iraq had a correlation between EBV and blood groups AB.
Vitiligo is a developed depigmentation disorder consisting of two forms which are segmental vitiligo (SV), affect one side of the body in 50% of individuals and non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) which is more common and affects both side of the body. A studydocumented that vitiligo susceptibility genes that are linked to immune regulation and immune targeting of melanocytes which are Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10), are responsible for the pathogenesis of vitiligo. This study was designed to shed light on cytokinesand oxidative stress which may play a critical role in the pigmentary process of NSV. Fifty NSV patients were collected from dermatology department Baghdad teaching hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. And fifty healthy volunteers’ individuals enrolled in this study during the period from November 2018 to May 2019. Some parameters including the concentration of immunological guideline TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10, and the level of oxidative stress H2O2 in malondialdehyde (MDA) form and superoxide dismutase SOD were evaluated in sera using ELISA technique. Serum level of TNF-α and IFN-γ were significantly higher in patient as compared to control. While serum IL-10 was significantly lower in vitiligo when compared with healthy.The assayed serum level of oxidative stress MDA and superoxide dismutase was found to be increased in vitiligo. There was an imbalance between pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines. Elevated levels of MDA and SOD suggested that an oxidative stress and antioxidants could play an adjuvant role in the management of vitiligo in addition to specific therapies.
Pregnancy or gestation is a complex period of human growth and development. It is a physiological process associated with the development of maternal pathologies, such as metabolic disorders (i.e. maternal obesity and hypercholesterolemia), preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, it is considered a most common medical condition in women of reproductive age, during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child, it is caused insulin resistance. There area closes relationship between the obesity, OS, antioxidants and inflammation. The aim of this study was the assessment to oxidative stress factor changes, uric acid and CRP in obese pregnant women in Misan province.The study included (60) obese pregnant women, aged (25 -35) years. The study conducted duringNovember2018to February 2019. Diagnosed parameters done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and mind ray (BS -230). Our results reveledalmostparameters increased during pregnancy, highestincrease in the third trimesters, it is increased significantly (p ≤0.05) in comparison with the first and second trimesters. Results of current study showed clearly the following conclusion in obese pregnant women all parameters in our study elevatedduringtrimesters
Cancer is one of the deadly disease which recorded highly incidence in last decades, cancer term refers to more than 100 types of malignant tumors have different etiological and pathological features, each of these has occupied a great deal of researches interestinglike using phytochemicals medicine. The aims of present study are one such effort exploring the beneficial role of Salvia hispanica seeds against the growth of breast cancer cells. Different extracts of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica) were prepared, then tests were carried out for phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, alcoholic extracts also chloroform, petroleum ether and n-hexane solvent for plant extracts. Determination of the Free Radical and Antioxidant scavenging activities of the Chia seed (Salvia hispanica) was performed. Analysis of MTT Assay using Breast Cancer cell line (Mcf-7) methanolic extract show that it has many phytochemicals compound than others types of extracts also it has high percentage of free radical scavenger according to DPPH tests, the anticancer activity was carried out using methanolic extract, the results show that viability of cell line was decreased with elevation of plant extract concentrations. Therefore, this preliminary work adds on and ensures the enormous possibilities of research in this area to bring out effective drug against breast cancer for the benefit of humans.
138 Evaluation of the effect of glow plasma nitriding of commercially pure titanium dental-implant on osseo integration through mechanical and histomorphometric analysis, Hassan Jawad, Shatha Salem, Tameem Khuder
Background: Oral implantology provides a reliable and rather safe solution to replace missing teeth. An implant is defined as a biomaterial which is embedded, either incompletely or totally, into the body for restorative or prosthetic purposes. The aim of current study was to evaluate the effect of plasma nitride treatment of commercially pure titanium dental implant on bond strength at the bone-implant interface by torque removal test and histomorphometric analysis after 2 and 6 weeks in comparison to non-treated one. Methods: Commercially pure titanium plates and screws were plasma nitride treated for 10 hours using glow plasma nitride apparatus. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscope examination were carried out on the nitride surfaces of the plates. The femur of 10 white New Zealand rabbits was chosen as implantation sites. The femur of each rabbit received 2 screws and a total of 40 screws were implanted. For each period of time, 18 screws were tested for the torque required to remove the implant from the bone and 2 screws were kept for histological examination. Results: There was a significant increase in the bond strength and the new bone formation ratio of bone-implant interface with time. The torque removal forces for plasma nitride implants after 2 and 6 weeks were 30.22, 59.56 N.cm respectively and for non-treated implants after 2 and 6 weeks were 23.61 and 56.11N.cm, respectively. The new bone formation ratio for non-treated implants after 2 and 6 weeks were 1.56 and 3.04, respectively, and for plasma nitride treated after 2 and 6 weeks were 3.36 and 4.72, respectively. Conclusion: Plasma nitride treatment of commercially pure titanium plate screws significantly increased the torque removal value and new bone formation ratio at 2 and 6 weeks compared with the non-treated implant.
139 Arlyesterase activity of Paraoxonase-1 enzyme in Iraqi patients with β-thalassemia minor, Ali W Al-Ani, Shaema S Fadel
Background: Arylesterase activity of Paraoxonase-1 (ARE-PON-1) exhibits an antioxidant role which protects lipoprotein from oxidation. It is known that ARE-PON-1 antioxidant activity associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) reduces the oxidative damage mediated by low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The present study was aimed to examine the level of serum ARE-PON1 in Iraqi patients with β-thalassemia minor and its relationship with lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), and LDL-C) and hematologic changes as a part of antioxidant system action. Methods: In the present study, the ARE-PON-1 activity was investigated in serum of patients with β-thalassemia minor. Results: It has been revealed that the ARE-PON-1 activity was significantly decreased (P>0.0001) in patients group compared to healthy group. This was associated with slight decrease in the lipid profile of patient group (HDL, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC), except of triglyceride (TG) which showed a significant decrease (P>0.0001) compared to healthy group). Also, hematologic changes were investigated and showed depleting in most of white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) components. Conclusion: Patients with β-thalassemia minor are suffering from weakness in the antioxidant defence system expressed by dropping in the ARE-PON1 level and lipid profile that stimulate oxidation of many cell particles such as HGB, promote EOS apoptosis and rise of CD risk development.
140 Micro-marsupilization for Treatment of Mucocele and Ranula, Alan Haydar, Mawlood Qassab, Shehab Ahmed Hamad Alraad
Background: Mucoceles and ranulas are common benign lesions of salivary gland origin. Different techniques had been described for their treatment; however, most of them are invasive. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of micro-marsupialization in the treatment of mucoceles and ranulas. Methods: The study was conducted on 18 patients with lower lip mucocele and 8 patients with ranula of the floor of the mouth. After topical anesthesia, the lesion was punctured by 3/000 black silk suture and followed for evaluation of healing. Results: Complete resolution was noted in 83.33% (15/18) of cases of mucoceles and three recurrent lesions were surgically excised. In 80% (12/15) of the cases, the healing accomplished within one week, 13.33% (2/15) of the cases showed complete healing within two weeks and only one case (6.67%) healed within three weeks which was associated with infection. On the other hand, complete resolution of ranula lesions was noted in six cases and only two cases showed recurrences and then a complete surgical excision of the lesions with associated sublingual salivary glands was performed. In 66.67% (4/6) of cases the healing was achieved within one week, 16.67% (1/6) of cases showed complete healing within two weeks and 16.67% (1/6) of cases showed complete healing within three weeks which was associated with bleeding. Conclusion: Micro-marsupialization is simple and good noninvasive treatment option for mucoceles and ranulas and is well-tolerated by the patients with minimal recurrence rate of the lesions.
141 Clinical effects of vitamin D in patients affected with Osteoporosis in the city of Tikrit, Omar Suhil Ali Ghalib, Khulood Naji Rasheed, Abdulrazzaq  Mahmood Hassoon
Background: Osteoporosis that is characterized by low bone mass and strength which in turn increases the risk of developing fractures. It is sometimes referred to as silent disease due to its asymptomatic obsolescence until first fracture occurs. Current study was conducted to study the effect of vitamin D using a clinical dose of this vitamin given twice a day to osteoporosis patients in the city of Tikrit and from both sexes who visit Dr. Abdulrazzaq Mahmood Al-Khattabi's clinic and Salahuddin General Hospital. Methods: The research involved 86 subjects (26 males and 60 females) aged between (25-79) years to study the clinical effect of vitamin D on them. In addition, 36 subjects (20 males and 16 females) aged between (25-79 years) of healthy persons were recruited as a control group. The research subjects were divided into two groups; the first of which included the age group (25-54) years while the second included the age group (65-79) years. They were each given a dose of (5000IU) of vitamin D and a dose of (500mg) of calcium twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, for three months with follow-up of subjects periodically each month to observe the changes by measuring a number of biochemical parameters represented in the examination of bone density, vitamin D, serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase and C-Reactive Protein. Patients with rheumatism, taking cortisone or any item containing it, and pregnant women were excluded from this research. Results: The results shown a significant increase in bone density in both groups and for both sexes as well as higher levels of vitamin D and calcium compared to the control group. However, the results showed a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase effectiveness in both groups. Moreover, there was a decrease in the level of C-Reactive Protein in males of both groups and in females from the first group. No significant differences were recorded in the second group compared to the control group.
142 Caution from using cardiac glycosides digoxin drug which have properties therapeutic index (Ti) narrow compare with the medications wide therapeutic index, Salah Abd-Al Kader Omran
Clinical research will be based on the practical application of randomly assigned patients over the age of 25 who numbered 730 at the Academic Teaching Hospital in Iraq - Samawa. We used drugs narrow therapeutic index (NTI), which is used with caution at a specific and calculated dose because it is life-threatening and has high toxicity. Compared to drugs that have wide therapeutic index (WTI) and less serious effects (such as aspirin, acetaminophen (paracetamol), penicillin, etc.), we selected acetaminophen (paracetamol) in patient research (a wide therapeutic index) and the dose and ratio between the toxic dose and the safe therapeutic dose of the drug, the research focuses on dilution To limit the risk of medication to patients (mortality), which is used as a measure of the relative safety of the drug in a particular drug treatment, our main work is limited to digoxin (cardiac glycosides) used in heart disease, discrimination with other drugs and knowledge, and in comparison to drugs. We used acetaminophen (paracetol) which is a broad indicator, so we based on previous knowledge in clinical pharmacy, dosage medications, therapeutic toxic dose, maximum dose, initial dose, maintenance dose, lethal dose, by knowing Therapeutic index for drug identification, therapeutic index, therapeutic ratio, TI can be calculated as a lethal dose of the drug by 50% of the population (LD50) divided by the minimum effective dose for 50% of the population (ED50), that is, TI = LD50 / ED50. This "academic" definition of TI is easier to follow in preclinical trials but opens the door to changing explanations in clinical practice. In fact, the definition of therapeutic and / or toxic effect in humans is highly dependent on the type of therapeutic or toxic effect under study, and the drug is generally considered to have a good safety appearance if its TI values exceed the value of 10. The situation is quite different from so-called narrow TI drugs (NTIDs) , Where only a very small set of doses produce a beneficial effect without causing severe and fatal complications, i.e. small differences in their plasma concentrations can lead to inadequate therapeutic response or the appearance of harmful toxic effects. The term “critical dose medication” is sometimes used to refer to drugs where relatively small differences in dosage or concentration may lead to serious therapeutic failure and / or serious drug reactions. Other terms used also include "narrow therapeutic window drugs", "narrow therapeutic range", "critical anti-dose drugs" or "narrow therapeutic ratio , According to:The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines a medication product as containing NTI when (a) there is less than a double difference in LD50 and medium effective dose values (ED50) or (b) there is less than a double difference in toxic concentrations Minimum (MTC) and minimum effective concentrations (MEC) in the blood and (c) safe and effective use of the drug requires careful calibration and patient monitoring 2018.
Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most prominent causes of cancer-related death. It is a multifactorial disease caused by a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine may have a significant role in this malignancy. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of some cytokine genes can influence the gene expression of these cytokines. This case-control study aimed to dissect the impact of three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the promoter region of IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-α genes in the susceptibility to BCa among a sample of Iraqi patients. This study enrolled 58 patients with histopathologically confirmed BCa, and other 56 age- and sex-matched, family unrelated apparently healthy individuals as a control group. Blood samples as well as demographic and clinical characteristics were collected from each subject, and DNA was extracted from whole blood. Specific sets of primers were used for amplification of gene fragments corresponding to the target SNPs. The genotyping was performed through a direct sequencing. Serum level of IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-α were measured using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). AG genotype of TNF-α-308 G>A polymorphism showed higher frequency in BCa patients than controls (34.48% vs. 21.43%) with a significant difference (OR=2.6, 95%=1.13-5.9, p= 0.022).Allele analysis of IL-4-590 C>T polymorphism revealed a significantly higher frequency of the mutant allele (allele T) in patients than controls (37.07% vs. 21.43%) (OR= 2.16,95%CI=1.029-4.532, p= 0.039). Median serum level of TNF-α was significantly higher in patients (72.7 pg/mL) than controls (47.3 pg/mL). 12.9-417.4 These data strongly suggest that the significant role of TNF-α-308 G>A and IL-4-590 C>T polymorphisms as a risk factor for Bladder cancer in Iraqi patients. Different variants in this site may influence the expression of the corresponding cytokine. These polymorphisms increase susceptibility to Bladder cancer by altering the immune response of an individual.
One of the congenital disorders that is characterized by reduced or even absent sense of smell, hyposmia or anosmia, is Kallmann syndrome. Actually, the principal problem is hypogonadism since this congenital disorder is characterized in addition to smell abnormality by hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. In addition to hormonal assays, imaging techniques and mainly MRI plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis. In this Iraqi study, 20 patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism have been examined by MRI in order to identify features that are caharcetristic of Kallmann syndrome contrasted to idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The current study was carried out in the radiology unit at AL-Hilla Teaching Hospital, Babylon province, Iraq. The study was carried out in cooperation with urology unit. The study included a series of 20 patients who were referred by urology department for the assessment of cause of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism following initial suggestion based on hormonal levels, FSH, LH and testosterone. The age range of those patients was form 20 to 27 years. The MRI imaging included coronal, sagital and axial T1 and T2 weighted images. The thickness of images was 3 mm and the interslice gap was 0.3 mm. Performance of MRI imaging was carried out using 1.5 T GE system. According to MRI examination, there were 5 patients with absent olfactory bulb accounting for 25 % and 3 with absent olfactory sulcus accounting for 15 %, as shown in figure 1. Twelve patients had no detectable MRI abnormality and therefore were considered to have idiopathic hypogonadotrphic hypogonadism; where those 8 patients with abnormal MRI findings were considered to have Kallman syndrome. Absent olfactory bulb was significantly asscoaited with anosmia. The principal findings in MRI that differentiate Kallman syndrome from idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism are olfactory bulb and sulcus abnormalities that are best visualized using coronal MRI scanning.
145 Effect of using regional anaesthesia (Tap) block as a method of analgesia in cesarean section in Iraqi female patients: A postoperative study, Amani Alaa Saeed
Background: Effective and good pain management is important part during perioperative period of any surgery. Pain control is important because it is associated with lower level of outcomes and recovery such as delayed functions, poor breast feeding, more risk for postpartum depression with persisting pain. The aim of current study was to use regional anaesthesia under ultrasound guide as a way to decrease the need for more analgesia in postoperative period. Methods: Seventy patients selected for elective Cesarean Section under general anaesthesia prepared for the study at the time before end of effect of anaesthetic drugs. The patients were divided into two groups; ultrasound-guided TAP block (group A) which was done with 20mL lidocaine 1% on each side and the other group (group B) which had been given paracetamol 15mg|kg and diclofenac 75mg intravenously. Numeric rating scale was used to assess pain. Paracetamol was used if the score more than 3 and diclofenac was added when the score more than 6. Patients were monitored for numeric rating scale and whole analgesia utilized for the early 24 hour post-operatively. Results: Regional block with lidocaine decreased pain scores at 0, 2, 4, 6,12 and 24 hours. Also there was a difference in the scores at 0, 2, 4, 6,12 and 24 hours between the two groups. The duration of analgesia in TAP block with lidocaine lasted to about 20-24h. The whole analgesics utilization was also reduced in group A than group B. No complication was seen to TAP block in both the groups. Conclusion: Regional anaesthesia is good to do for patients undergoing surgery to lessen analgesic requirements especially in the early period post-operative with prolonged pain-free time and no extra need for injectable analgesia. Also, it provides better pain scores with less complications following Cesarean Section surgery.
Hyponatraemia (serum sodium
147 IL-8 is a valuable laboratory marker for detection of amoebiasis severity, Raed Fanoukh Aboqader, Mohammad H Al-Hasnawy
Background: Amoebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is an important human parasitic disease. IL-8, also known as neutrophils chemotactic factor, induces chemotaxis in target cells. The aim of current study was to assess using IL-8 as a laboratory marker for amoebiasis severity. Methods: Sixty three cases with clinical diagnosis of amoebiasis were selected in addition to 26 apparently healthy controls with negative diagnosis of amoebiasis. For both cases and controls, general stool examination using wet mount and assessment of IL-8 were done using IL-8 ELISA kit (Biosource ) according to manufacture instructions. Student's t-test was used to compare the mean and standard deviation and P value 0.05) while in those more than 15 years old, incidence of amoebiasis was 82.75% in males and 17.24% in females with statistical significance at P value
148 Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis Infections in Babylon Province, Iraq, during The Interval from 2014 to 2018, Mohammed Malih Radhi, Niran Kadhim F. AL-Rubaey, Rusull Hamza Kh. AL-Jubori, Nada Khazal Kadhim Hindi
Background: Viral hepatitis disease is a major public health problem affecting hundreds to millions of individuals worldwide. The most widely recognized types of viral hepatitis are six distinct types of hepatitis virus, referred to as A, B, C, D, E, and G which may appear in an acute or chronic form. The aim of current study was to to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A, B and C virus infections over the last five years ago from 2014 to 2018 and to determine the prevalence associated with age and gender of patients in Babylon province, Iraq, through analyzing data by descriptive statistics approaches. Methods: Current study involved 2110 positive cases who were diagnosed as having hepatitis A, Band C virus infections of age groups ranging from (< 1 to ≥ 20) years of both genders (1184 males and 926 females). Patients' information was gathered retrospectively from the medical records at The Central Public Health Laboratory of Babylon province for the period between 2014 and 2018. Results and Conclusion: The study results showed that 1868 cases (88.5%) out of 2110 cases had Hepatitis A Virus while 205 cases (9.7%) had Hepatitis B Virus and 37 cases (1.8%) had Hepatitis C Virus. Also, the highest number of cases (653) of viral hepatitis infections was recorded in 2015 and the lowest number (307) was recorded in 2014. On the other hand, it has been discovered that the highest total number of cases was for Hepatitis A Virus cases (576) cases, followed by Hepatitis B Virus (60) cases and then Hepatitis C Virus (17) cases for year 2015. The analysis of results depicted the relationship between types of viral hepatitis infections and years of prevalence and revealed a highly significant association at P-value
149 The role of BipA in the regulation of K1 capsular polysaccharide production of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Hasan A Aal Owaif, Ahmed A Mhawesh, Sura A Abdulateef
Background: K1 capsular polysaccharide is usually expressed in uropathogenic E. coli.The aim of current study was to evaluate the effect of BipA in the regulation of K1 capsular polysaccharide expression in E. coli. Methods: In order to identify the role of BipA in theK1 capsule expression,bipA gene was deletedin the UPEC strain UTI89.Results: The flow cytometry analyses showed that the capsular polysaccharide expressedon the UTI89ΔbipA cells was less thanthe capsular polysaccharide present on the wild type UTI89 cells. Also, plaque assays using K1-specific bacteriophage showed that the plaque diameter produced on UTI89ΔbipA was about 1/2 the plaque diameter produced on wild typeUTI89indicated a reduction in the capsular polysaccharide expression from UTI89ΔbipA in comparison with UTI89.Conclusion: These results showed that the expression of K1 capsular polysaccharide is up-regulated by BipA.
150 Efficacy of transdermal testosterone in assisted reproduction outcome of poor responders, Milal Muhammad Al-Jeborry
Background: Testosterone had a synergistic action with follicular stimulating hormone to enhance early stages of requirement and growth of ovarian follicles to enhance outcome in assisted reproduction program cycles. The aim of current study was to assess whether transdermal testosterone treatment before assisted reproduction cycle is effective in women with poor response. Methods: A prospective randomized trial performed in 132 low prognosis women for two years and at two IVF centers in Iraq. Participants were divided randomly into two groups; Group 1 involved 71 poor responders received transdermal testosterone in previous cycle and Group 2 women did not receive testosterone transdermal. In both groups, high dose gonadotrophins imitated from second day of cycle following baseline vaginal ultrasound and baseline hormonal investigations after obtaining written consents from all participants and ethical approval from assisted reproduction committee in Baghdad. The treatment regime was flexible antagonist in dose of 0.25mg corticosteroid when transvaginal ultrasound revealed dominant follicle size 13-14mm given daily subcutaneously till day of HCG triggers. Number of retrieved and mature oocytes and pregnancy rate were primary outcomes while secondary outcomes were fertilization and implantation rates, and rate of cancellation of cycle of IVF in addition to required doses of administered gonadotrophins and duration of stimulation. Results: There was no significant variation regarding the demographic parameters and basal hormonal assessment (P-value >0.05%). The testosterone gel group required less days of stimulation and fewer ampoules of gonadotrophins than non-testosterone group (P-value < 0.05%). There were more collected oocytes, mature and fertilized oocytes with more transferred embryos with reduced cancellation of IVF cycle in testosterone gel group compared to non-testosterone gel group (P-value < 0.05%). The pregnancy rate was none statistically higher in testosterone gel-treated group compared to non-testosterone treated group (P-value > 0.05). Conclusions: In poor responders the transdermal testosterone treatment in the preceding cycle of IVF improves the clinical outcome with more collected and mature oocytes, higher pregnancy rate and less cancellation.
151 Review of Attacks of Wheezy Chest in Infants in Relation to their Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Sijal Fadhil Farhood Al-Joborae
Background: Bronchiolitis is the blockage of small airways of the lungs due to viral infection. It usually affects children younger than 2 years and may present as fever, cough, wheezing and breathing difficulty. It is usually caused by respiratory syncytial virus or human rhinovirus. The aim of current study was to evaluate the geo-demographic risk factors for bronchiolitis in infants in Al-Hillah city, and provide analysis of both infantile and maternal variables that contribute to recurrence of bronchiolitis. It also aimed to impact local health authorities in Babylon to advocate breastfeeding, and minimize problems related to prematurity all of which lessen the financial burden of bronchiolitis. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted in Al-Hilla city, Babylon, Iraq, from 1st, November 2017 until 15th, March 2018. The study included 720 infants (one year of age or younger) with recurrent bronchiolitis who were residents of Babylon province. Data were collected using special questionnaire that included various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Mean±SD age of infants was 5.85±3.24 months with mean birth weight of 5813.3±2290.9. Majority of them had bronchiolitis in winter. There was significant association between crowding index and both timing and number of attacks (P
By utilizing 2D speckle tracking cardiac echo, the current study aim is to assess any changes on the structureor function of heart muscle in previously healthy subjects with newly diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism. Patients & methods: Forty consecutive symptomless patients with recently diagnosed untreated subclinical hypothyroidism who were attending our personal clinics and 40 age & sex matched healthy volunteers were randomly chosen (control group) registered within the study. All the patients in the current study were examined by standard 2D cardiac echo and speckle tracking echocardiography. The LV GLS and circumferential strain shown to be considerably lower in the patient’s group in comparison with the healthy subjects. Left ventricular systolic function derived from Speckle tracking echocardiography was impaired in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism in comparison with healthy subjects.
153 SERUM CHEMERIN CONCENTRATION AND CORRELATED WITH INSULIN RESISTANCE AND VITAMIN D IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, Shaker Abdelredha Abbas, Mohammed Zeger, Fataneh Fatemi, Hanaa Addai Ali, Seyed Omid Ranaei Siadat, Muthana Saleh Mashkur, Ali Naji Alnajm, Ali Husein Almoswy
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the the leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Thus, early prediction andpreventionof CVD patients are crucial.The main patho- physiologic mechanism underlying the high mortality of CKD includes premature athero- sclerosis and chronic inflammation. The aim isto detect the concentration of serum chemerin in subjects with cardiovascular disease and its relationship to biochemical parameters of glycemic indeces insulin resistanceand insulin sensitivity. Acase-control study for 90 eligible participants were included and were divided into three groups including ( Atherosclerosisgroup = 30 ),( Cardio group =30 ), ( healthy group = 30 ).Chemical and biochemical parameters were measured in all participants. Serum chemerin level were higher in Atherosclerosis (6.78 ±1.51 (ng/ml ), P< 0.001 ) and Cardio group (4.00±1.10, P< 0.001 ) compared with those as a control group ( 2.37±0.84, P< 0.001 ), correlation showed that serum levels of chemerinanalysisin patiant with Atherosclerosis werea significantpositive correlation with BMI,FBG, insulin,Vit D,HOMA IR, TC,VLDL-c, TG, LDL-cand a negativesignificantof correlation with Age,QUICKIandHDL-c. While the results of the univariatanalysisfor Cardio group that serum chemerinconcentration were a significant positive correlated with Age, BMI,FBG,insulin,HOMA IR, TC, TG, LDL-c and VLDL-c andasignificantnegativecorrelation with QUICKI, HDL-c andVit D. The study concluded that serumChemerinlevels in patients of Iraqi compared with Cardiodisease were significantly increasedthan those in the healthy group, while serumChemerin levels wereelevatedin the Atherosclerosis group than in the Cardio disease group and levels of Chemerinwere positively correlated with obesity and insulin resistance indicatorsand negatively with QUICKI.
154 Prediction of fetal sex by early pregnancy ultrasound localizing the implantation site lateralization, Milal M Al-Jeborry, Suhaila F Al-Shaikh
The Prediction of fetal sex by early pregnancy ultrasound localizing the implantation site lateralization consider a very important step in investigation, in this work will be questionable results, the genetic factor, fetal sex determination might be influenced by other factors. Why male sex has a predilection for right-sided implantation while female sex implanted on the left side of the uterus so this study aimed to assess the accuracy of fetal sex prediction by localization of the implantation site at 5-7weeks of gestation using the two dimensional trans-abdominal U/S.
155 Determining the effect of antigens prepared from kiwi fruit on allergic patients in Basra province, Iraq, Shayma'a Jabbar Raisan, Huda Kadhim Kareem, Saad S Mahdi Al-Amara
This study aimed to determine total IgE in subjects under study and controls an estimation of the specific IgE antibody response against kiwifruit antigen by ELISA assay. There are many studies on against kiwifruit in other countries of the world, but this study differs in sample type and Geographical location. A total of one hundred twenty blood samples from allergic patients (41 Males and 55 female) with age group (15-69) years were tested by direct and indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for total and specific IgE antibodies against kiwifruit antigens. In our result, we show that the total IgE 100>IU/ml for patients had a higher rate of (72.9%) with significant difference (p
156 Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMP-12) and chitotriosidase as novel markers in detection and staging of breast cancer in Iraqi women, Zahraa M Ali, Shatha H Ali, Furat Y Mohsen
Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women, bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) are highly correlated to various aspects of carcinogenesis, whereas chitotriosidase is chitinase that mediates several processes and synergistic effects with proteases and other enzymes to kill different types of pathogens and cancer cells. The present study was aimed to assess the validity of the measurement of several BMP as tumor markers aid in detection or staging of breast cancer. These include three types of growth factors: (BMP-2, BMP-7 &BMP-12) besides chitotriosidase enzyme levels in Serum. This study included 66 women with breast cancer. Those patients were categorized into three groups (22 in each group) according to disease stage, in addition to group 4 and chitotriosidase were estimated quantitatively using ELISA kits. Data analysis revealed that although serum levels of studied BMPs were not significantly different among studied groups, serum BMP-7 of patients at stage III presented with significantly higher levels than the controls, while serum BMP-12 levels were lowered significantly at stages I &II breast cancer patients as compared to the controls. Furthermore, elevated serum chitotriosidase levels were only detected at stage III levels only as compared to the controls. Thus both serum BMP-7 and chitotriosidase can be recommended as markers for prognosis of BC to advanced stages (stage III), while serum BMP-12 is recognized as a marker to identify patients with breast cancer at early stages (I &II).
157 Molecular detection of Salmonella typhi isolated from diarrheal patients in Al- Najaf governorate, Ahmed Al Obaidi, Najat Mohammed Flyyih , Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi, Basima Basim
All of (80) stool samples isolated from affected persons with diarrheal problems from) 11/ 2018 to 12/ 2018). All samples tokened from patients admitted to AL-Sadder Medical hospital and AL-Hakem General Hospital through the studying time. The samples were grown on the S-S agar media and incubated for 18 - 24 hr.at 37°C with the aerobic condition. About 80 patient samples, results include 38 (47.5%) were males and 42 (52.5%) were females. Many cultural, morphological, and biochemical tests were made in order to recognize bacterial isolates. Results revealed that Salmonella typhi constitute twelve (12) isolates from all specimens. A collection of 12 (15%) Salmonella typhi isolates demonstrated by the cultural, biochemical and morphological features, the investigation was specified by molecular techniques to investigate the fliC gene presence. The results revealed that only 6 (50%) samples were carrying the fliC gene which is considered as Salmonella typhi. The assays of antibiotic susceptibility test showed that samples of Salmonella typhi exhibited complete sensitivity to Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin, moderate sensitivity against Trimethoprim, whereas the findings showed complete resistant to amoxicillin and piperacillin. According to these results it can have considered that Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin as better choice antibiotics for treatment against Salmonella typhi.
158 Designing of molecular tool for the detection of helicobacter pylori in Iraqi patients using multiplex PCR technique, Karam D Salman, Amina N Al-Thwaini,, Ilham A Khalaf, Bassim A Askar
Helicobacter pylori colonize the gastric mucosa of more than 60% of the world’s human population. This bacterium plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of different diseases of the digestive system, such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Accurate diagnosis of H. pylori infection is very important in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. There is no gold typical technique that is been well-known for the detection of H. pylori infection. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for glmM and 16S rRNA genes was established in our study for sensitive detection of H. pylori from gastric biopsies. Different classical detection techniques have been used lately with mPCR like Rapid Urease Test (RUT), histology and antibody (Serology) test. Detection of housekeeping (HK) genes by monoplex and multiplex PCR with different sets of primers for 16S rRNA due to heterogenicity and high variability in this gene. Our results show that a total of 123 (58.5 %) from 210 patients were positive for H. pylori infection. H. pylori were detected in 46.6% (98/210) by RUT, 54.7% (115/210) by histology, 85.7% (180/210 false-positive results were included) by H. pylori IgG, and 57.1% (120/210) through mPCR. By this molecular technique, H. pylori were detected in 100% of biopsies with positive histology and RUT. Our Conclusions prove that the mPCR was able to detect the highest numbers of positive cases although the lowest average scores for inflammation and activity.
159 Impact of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Spastic HandFunction with Assistive Devices in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Sadiq Nassir Farhan, Siham Sabah Abdullah, Firas Mohamed Abdulgani
Background: The spastic cerebral palsy isconsidered the most common of cerebral palsy types. Spasticity of upper limbs is major problem in children that affected on hand function during grasping and through using assistive devices as walker and canes. Shock wave treatment on spastic muscles of upper limbs in stroke patients performed a significant decrease in muscle tone.The aim of current study was to determine the impact of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on spastic muscle of hand in children with spastic cerebral palsy.Methods:Thirty twohemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy patients from both sexes were recruited in this study.The children were divided randomly into two groups equal in number; GroupӀ(control)consisted of 16 children(7 boys and 9 girls) with mean±standard deviation age of 6.68±2.63years received exercises program only (3sessions/week for two months, GroupӀӀ(experimental)included (10 boys and 6 girls)with mean±standard deviation age of 6.37±1.44 years received the same exercises program in addition to sessions by extracorporeal shock wave therapy(BTL-6000WT) with energy flux(0.003mJ/mm²),frequency (10Hz)and (one session/week) for 8 weeks .The two groups were evaluated before and after therapy by Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Modified House function Classification (MHC).Results:The results showed a statistically significant improvement in spasticity and hand function post treatment.Conclusion:We concluded that the ESWT is effective in decreasingspasticity(muscle tone) of upper extremities and enhancinghand function for patients with spastic cerebral palsyto help those children become independent and participate in different daily activities as grasping of walker or canes.
160 Investigation of Chitosan/PEO Reinforced with AgNPs for Antibacterial Activity Prepared by Solution Casting Method, Hanaa Shuker Mahmood, Mohammed Kadhim Jawad
Background: Chitosan (CS) is a natural environmentally friendly polymer. It is a linear polysaccharide of random distribution. The aim of current study was to study the effect of weight ratioon structural properties of the chitosan/PEO polymer, using XRD and FTIR measurements,and to find the optimum ratio with the highest mechanical and antibacterial properties of chitosan:PEO blend, which was prepared by casting method. Methods: In this work, chitosan and chitosan/PEO blend with different PEO ratios (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25wt%) were prepared by solution casting method. The prepared samples were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed Infra-red spectrometer (FTIR) and tensile tester. Also,the antibacterial activitiesof prepared blends at different ratios were evaluated using half maximal inhibitory concentration technique against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcusaureus microorganisms. Results: The XRD and FTIR measurements indicated the formation of the blend by the obvious change in their patterns. The best mechanical properties appeared at 15% PEO ratio. It was found that the highest inhibition of bacteria for Chitosan/PEO blend was at 90:10 blend ratios. The blend has less effectiveness against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus). The optimum blend sample, in terms of mechanical properties, was reinforced with different silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)(1, 2, 3, 4 and 5wt %) to find its effect on the structural and antibacterial activity.Conclusion: It was found that blend reinforced with AgNPs had clearly improved in its effectiveness as an antibacterial substance, especially against Gram-positive bacteria.
161 The roles of Human Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Al Zahraa Al Batool Ibrahim Saber, Ahmed Hasan Mohammed
Background: Type-1-diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, results from the progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells resulting in insulin deficiency.Studies on the risk of developing Type-1-diabetes suggested that environmental factors, particularly viruses, may be involved in initiating the destruction of beta cells leading to Type-1-diabetes. The aim of current study was to investigate the possible correlation between human cytomegalovirusand Epstein Barr virus with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Methods: A total of 56 patients diagnosed with Type-1-diabetes who attended the Special Center for Endocrine Glands and Diabetes in Al-Nassyrieh city, and another control group of 30 non-diabetic healthy people were selected. These two groups were of age range 3-22 years old and from both sexes. The sera from both groups were collected and divided into two parts. One part for the serological detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against human cytomegalovirusand Epstein Barr virus by the enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and another part to detect the viral target genes of human cytomegalovirusand Epstein Barr virus genome by the conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) technique.Results: The results revealed that only 2(3.60%) of Type-1-diabetes patients were positive for anti-human cytomegalovirus IgM antibodies compared with a negative result of the control group and 53(94.60%) of Type-1-diabetes patients were positive for anti-human cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies compared with a full percentage in the control group (100.00%). Also, ELISA results indicated the presence of anti-Epstein Barr virus IgM antibodies and anti- Epstein Barr virus IgG antibodies in 7(12.50%) and 24(42.90%) of Type-1-diabetes patients, respectively, compared with negative results for both anti- E[stein Barr virus IgM and IgG antibodies of the control group. Regarding PCR technique, the results revealed that (33.93%) of Type-1-diabetes patients had Human Cytomegalovirus DNA and (26.79%) of Type-1-diabetes patients hadEpstein Barr virus DNA compared with none of the controls had Human Cytomegalovirus DNA or EpsteinBarr virus DNA (P
162 School Achievement of Primary School Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Baghdad, Sarah Hayder, Farsi Al Lami, Khalid Saeed
Background: Children spend many hours a day at school and the overall goals for children in these settings are to maintain excellent glycemic control and minimize interruptions of their daily learning. The aim of current study was to assess the school achievement of primary schoolchildren with Type 1Diabetes Mellitus in Baghdad and identify the main factors affecting this achievement.Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of primary schools in Baghdad City selected by multistage cluster sampling. All primary school students in the selected schools were included. For every diabetic child, we selected a child from the same class who is free from diabetes. Information on school achievement, sociodemographic variables and disease history were obtained through interviewing the children and their parents. Poor performance was considered if the student had grade point average 10 days or had a school year repeated.Results: Diabetic group had significantly higher number of absenteeism days than non-diabetic group (P
163 Distribution of quorum sensing genes and typing of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates by ERIC-PCR, Anfal Mohammed Khudhair, Ali H. Alsakini
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii has arisen as disturbing nosocomial pathogens between Iraqi hospitals inpatients.The aim of current study was to determine if the increase of A. baumannii incidence in patients on blaOXA-51 gene in A. baumannii that carry QS gene showed pathogenicity of clinical isolates and to determine the efficiency of ERIC-PCR fingerprinting method for genotyping of A. baumannii. Methods: Sixteen isolates diagnosed as A. baumannii and genetically confirmed by blaOXA-51 as a marker gene from different clinical sources in Baghdad hospitals.The virulence of the A. baumannii does not require, carrying full set of QS ( LasRand RhlI, LasI, RhlR) genes.Results: The positive QS genes results were distributed from high to low expression, lasI 75%(45/60),70%(42/60)for RhIR,50%(30/60) for rhII, and 13.3%(8/60)for LasR. Using fingerprinting ERIC-PCR analysis, 57isolates of A. baumannii were clustered into 2 groups while the remaining 3 were single isolates. The genetic linking of A. baumannii isolated from different hospitals inpatients was high, indicating horizontal gene transfers within hospitalized patients. Conclusion: Our findings indicated accurate and fast diagnosis method to detect virulent A. baumannii isolates harboring differing sets of QS by using blaOXA-51 gene and ERIC-PCR for genetic variations, respectively, possible to be helpful with epidemic infections.2
Autophagy is a primordial form of eukaryotic innate immunity which arises as a cellular response to stress conditions such as growth factors withdrawal, mitochondrial and other organelles damage, nutrients deficiency and inflammation and assists in removal of damaged organelles. This study aims to investigate the role of autophagic flux (LC3ІІ/І) in rheumatoid arthritis in terms of disease severity represented by DAS-28 and immunological markers represented by TNF-ɑ and NLRP-3 also to study the possible effect of certain rheumatoid arithritis drugs (MTX and infliximab) on autophagic flux. The present study involves sixty rheumatoid arthritis patients, thirty of them receiving chemical drug (MTX) and other thirty receiving biological treatment (Infliximab), comparing results to healthy control group consist of thirty people. These two groups of rheumatoid arthritis patient were subjected to the molecular measurement of the autophagic flux level presented by LC3II/I ratio and NLRP3 level by (rtPCR) and serum TNF-α level by indirect ELISA. Autophagic flux presented by LC3ІІ /LC3І ratio, showed a highly significant correlation with the DAS-28, NLRP-3 and TNF-ɑ level,0.577 and 0.855, 0.640 respectively, P value ˂ 0.001.The autophagic flux in the MTX patients was 2.81 comparing to 1.91 in the Infliximab group,P value is ˃ 0.001 pointing to the absence of any significant difference between them. This study referred to the presence of a detectable correlation between autophagy and rheumatoid arthritis severity presented by both clinical and immunological aspects, on the other hand both of MTX and Infliximab seem to affect autophagy in a similar strength
Tuberculosis (TB) disease and Rubella virus adversely affect Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) in pregnancy and major cause of maternal-child mortality. The aim of this study was undertaken to perform cross-sectional research to evaluation agreement and a correlation between an IFN- γ releasing assay for detected latent Tb infection and anti-rubella antibodies tests in pregnant women with recurrent miscarriages. Method: the study was carried out between 1 March 2018 Until 1 July 2019.Study groups: A total of 75 pregnant women living in TB-affected areas were in direct or indirect contact with an infected person from their families or relatives and had a history of recurrent miscarriage in the first months of pregnancy, their ages ranged from (18-41) years. There screened for Rubella IgG and IgM and IFN- γ release assays (IFN- γ RAs). The research showed a following results, Anti-Rubella IgG, IgM (positive) according to recurrent miscarriage, number and percentage of Rubella IgG, IgM positive was (36)(48%);(22)(73.3%), (4)(5.3%); (0)(0.0)in both groups(study and control) respectively, and significant P value> 0.05. The Quantiferon test in different study group and control group according to age groups showed that out of recurrent miscarriage pregnant women have positive result 4 (5.33). Comparison the results of two tests of Quantiferon release IFN-γ assay and Anti-rubella virus antibody (IgG, IgM) that had significant relationship P= 0.0443. Conclusion of our findings indicates whether any of these tests should be done and how sensitive they are a great difference in test results when used between recurrent miscarriages pregnancy.
Each sports activity has special physical requirements that need to be met. This is part of the great interest in sports and what constitutes tennis sport of great interest in the world of sports and through observation and awareness of the researchers, including March the game of tennis ground and taught and taught in practical lectures These topics, especially with respect to the methods and measurement of anthropomorphic body style, are of great interest to many foreign scientists who designed special equations and tables that help the reader to know the pattern of his body and went to the study of the human body in terms of its shape and size, The researchers studied the components of the athlete's body style for their relationship with many kinetic abilities and indicators of superiority, which can be used to select the players and players according to the type of sport activity as well as the knowledge of its linear relationship with accumulation Lactic acid and the accuracy of the performance of some basic skills in ground
The prevalence of Diabetic mellitus in Iraq is high for both males and females, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/HLA region on chromosome 6p21 has been shown to contain the major genetic component of Type1Diabetic mellitus. A 14-base pair polymorphism inserts and/or removal in exon-8 has a potential role in HLA. This research explores the role of 14-bp HLA-G insertion / deletion polymorphism in Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. The polymorphism allele frequency was calculated in patients with T1DM and control. Insertion allele (70.8%) and homozygous deletion genotype are associated with T1D susceptibility (51.6%), while control group (38.3%) and heterozygous genotype of the 14-bp indel are correlated with T1D defense (38.3%) and control group (50%). also a significant differences in the allele frequencies of the HLA-G 14-bp polymorphism were observed. This research shows a sturdy relation among polymorphism HLA-G 14-bp and type1D.M. (P = 0.009). Our findings describe the combination of the 14-base pair insertion allele and the homozygous genotype deletion to the progress of T1D.
The prevalence of Diabetic mellitus in Iraq is high for both males and females, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/HLA region on chromosome 6p21 has been shown to contain the major genetic component of Type1Diabetic mellitus. A 14-base pair polymorphism inserts and/or removal in exon-8 has a potential role in HLA. This research explores the role of 14-bp HLA-G insertion / deletion polymorphism in Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. The polymorphism allele frequency was calculated in patients with T1DM and control. Insertion allele (70.8%) and homozygous deletion genotype are associated with T1D susceptibility (51.6%), while control group (38.3%) and heterozygous genotype of the 14-bp indel are correlated with T1D defense (38.3%) and control group (50%). also a significant differences in the allele frequencies of the HLA-G 14-bp polymorphism were observed. This research shows a sturdy relation among polymorphism HLA-G 14-bp and type1D.M. (P = 0.009). Our findings describe the combination of the 14-base pair insertion allele and the homozygous genotype deletion to the progress of T1D.
169 The effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight, fasting blood sugar and lipid profile of normal healthy and non obese male medical college students in Tikrit city., Abdulrahman Jihad Mansoor
Background: Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the five fundamental pillars of Islamic practices, mandatory for all healthy adult Muslims. In Ramadan, Muslim adults fastfrom sunrise to sunset and are required to refrain from oral intake of food, water, beverages, smoking and sexual intercourse. This type of fasting is defined as periodic food and water deprivation during day light hours with free access during the night for the duration of one month.The aim of the study is to The effect of Ramadan on body weight, fasting blood sugar and lipid profile of normal healthy none obese male medical college students in Tikrit city. Subjects and methods: A prospective study was carried out on thirty normal healthy male students aging between 20 to 22 years, in college of medicine-Tikrit university were participate in the present study. The volunteers were allowed to consume whatever they wanted & decrease fat intake in diet.The study was conducted in the month of Ramadan from beginning of May to 5th of June /2019. Average duration of the fast was about 13.5 hours & maximum temperature ranged from 25 to 35 C.Body weight was measured to the nearest 100gm. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were measured at beginning and the end of Ramadan and one hour before break fasting (one hour before sunset). Results: There were slight decrease in body weight and body mass index (BMI) at the end of Ramadan fasting as compare with beginning of Ramadan fasting. Also, in regard to blood parameters, there is no significant difference regarding blood glucose from at end of Ramadan as compare with the beginning of fasting. Also, there were significant reduction in serum TG, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL at the end of Ramadan fasting as compare with beginning of Ramadan fasting. However, There was significant elevation in serm HDL at the end of Ramadan fasting as compare with beginning of Ramadan fasting
170 A comparison of Motor Intelligence and Some Basic Movements According to the Time of Daily Practice of Electronic Games and Watching Television for Children (4-6) Years, Abdelrahman Ibrahim , Omar Fadhil Yahya AL-Badri, Mohammed Saleh Khaleel Alsamarae
The study aimed to identify the time of daily practice of electronic games and watch television for children aged (4-6) years, and to identify (motor intelligence) for the child and some basic movements represented by (running, jumping, throwing) according to the variation of the times of daily practice of these electronic games and watching Television The sample consisted of (396) children enrolled in kindergarten in the city of Samarra in Salah al-Din Governorate in Iraq. The researchers concluded that children practicing these electronic games and watching TV with a time (less than two hours a day) showed superiority over their peers Marcin those games and TV viewers for more than (two hours) per day in all kinetic intelligence tests as well as in the evaluation of the results of the virtual form of basic movements of the children of both (running, jump, throw).
171 Examination of Immuno-pathological changes in Diabetic Mice , Sabrin Ibraheem Mohsen, Taghreed Jabbar Humadi, Muna Sachit Hashim
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder a major health concern today whose prevalence has continuously increased of the global population. Alloxan-induced diabetes is used model to induce Type I diabetes mellitus in the experimental animals are one of the best strategies for the relative with immune responses of diabetic mice, It has been found toxic to pancreatic beta cells due to structural similarity to glucose analogues that is capable of inducing type I diabetes mellitus in experimental animals. Objectives: Examination immune-pathological changes in different organs after inducer diabetic in mice and determination of cellular immunity through 2 tissue markers (TNF, Glucagon). Methods: study design was animals randomized, in order to study the patho-immunological effects of induction of diabetes in mice (tissue damage biomarkers). Twenty one mice(100-120 g) were used in this experiment, those subdivided into three groups, first group (diabetic group)contained seven mice were injected intraperitonial at daily does for 6 weeks of alloxan (Alloxan monohydrate 150mg/Kg at single dose of 0.1ml/10mg B.W.),second group (immunized group) contained seven mice were stimulated immune response by vaccine of Brucella melitens is Rev.1 at dose 0.2ml/mouse subcutaneously at 2 doses between 2 weeks interval, third group (control group) contained seven mice were injected at daily dose of physiological saline solution. Results: Immunological analysis were done by use two cellular marker (TNFα alpha and Glucagon).Diabetic mice appear grossly very sick after Alloxan's injection and microscopically necrotic tissues with vacuoles within cytoplasm due to degeneration, mainly in liver; kidney as well as spleen showed lymphoid atrophy and skin showed loss of hair follicles with thickening epidermis and dermis layers. In immunized group mice appear similar to control group in activity grossly, and microscopically low level of pathological changes were appeared. Conclusion: Microscopic immune-pathological investigation of liver; kidney as well as spleen tissues showed marked significant decrease appear degenerated with a significant increase level of cytokine (TNF-α) and decrease of glucagon which could have the ability to regenerate tissue, cytokine repairing of necrotic tissue in early duration of diabetes metabolic. Pathological and immunological methods of inducing type II diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by drug-induced diabetic (alloxan) in skin, spleen, kidney and liver, that alloxan caused of immunopathological changes from skin, spleen, kidney and liver that lead to associated of someone of cytokines activation in the body with immunization.
172 The Difference In Sensory Latency Of Median-Radial Nerves In The Diagnosis Of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Zahid M Kadhim, Basim A Abd
Background: Electro-diagnosis plays an important role in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS);there are multiple tests available each with different sensitivity and specificity. Objective: This study aims to test the sensitivity and specificity of median-radial sensory latency comparison for diagnosing patients with early CTS .Methods: Hundred patients diagnosed clinically as having CTS with negative ordinary nerve conduction study were included in the study and tested for sensory nerve responses of median and radial nerves recorded from thumb and the difference between measured latency was measured. These patients are matched to 100 normal healthy volunteers. Results: The study found that the values of median sensory and motor latencies show statistically significant difference between patients and control. Also median sensory latency recorded from thumb finger was prolonged in comparison to that of radial nerve recorded from the same finger. Median-radial sensory latency comparison reveal high sensitivity (85%) and specificity (92%).Conclusion: Median-radial sensory latency comparison is helpful in the early diagnosis of CTS and is considered as complimentary part in the electro-diagnosis of CTS.
173 Trace Elements in Pregnant Women from Babil Province, Iraq , Alaa Sadiamza Al-Dujaily, Najlaa Badr Alawadi
Trace elements are essential for the proper growth, development and physiology of the human body. Pregnant women and fetus are at risk for trace elements deficiency, which is known to have negative effects on vital metabolic, immunological and physiological activities. This is a case-control study that investigated number of trace elements in pregnant women from Babil province. These women were divided into 3 groups, each one consisting of 100 women. Women in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd groups were in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester of pregnancy respectively, a 4th control group were taken which consisted of 100 apparently healthy age-matched and non-pregnant women. This study found that iron deficiency is evident in both pregnant (43.3%) and non-pregnant (24%) women but become more prevalent and severe as pregnancy progress (33%, 41% and 56% in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively). Selenium was deficient in only 2% of control group but became deficient in 19% of 3rd trimester (P=0.0001). Serum calcium was deficient in 12% of 3rd trimester group versus 5% in control (P=0.001). No significant deficiencies were found in serum levels of iodine, zinc and copper. We conclude that iron and calcium deficiency are prevalent in pregnancy and both elements need to be replenished, and on the other side, selenium is also deficient and it's replacement need to be assessed in future studies.
174 Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by Streptomyces spp., Donaa Hamza Khair-Allah, AlAl-Charrakh,, Nawfal H Al-Dujaili
Nanobiotechnology is a new emerging discipline of nanoscience created by pairing of biotechnology, and nanotechnology. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as precursor for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces spp.Silver nitrate was added with concentration 5 mMto biomass of Streptomyces spp. (MU-43 &SA-65)which distributed in sterilized flasks containingISP4 broth medium.This step was carried out under dark condition to avoid oxidation of AgNO3.Antibacterial activity of AgNPs were biosynthesized by each of the two isolates of Streptomycesspp(MU-43and SA-65) were examined for their antimicrobial activity against different types of pathogenic bacteria isolated,including both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were determined by disc diffusion method Antibacterial activity against tested bacteria was observed to be different regarding the source of biogenic AgNPs applied. The results showed that gram negative bacteria were higher sensitive than gram positive bacteria to AgNPs. Furthermore AgNPs fabricated by Streptomyces MU-43 isolate had higher activity than AgNPs fabricated by Streptomyces SA-65 isolate. Synergism among antibiotics-silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by both Streptomyces strains (MU-43 & SA-65) showed that this synergism was efficient to inhibit the tested bacteria.
175 Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus and Normal Vero Cells, Rasha Hadi Saleh, Entisar J. Al-Mukhtar, Zaytoon A. Al-Khafaji, Mohammed H. Al Hasnawy , Huda H. Al-Hasnawy
Silver(nanoparticles)(AgNPs) are of special concern as a result of their unique chemical, physical and biological characteristics. It has become an attractive alternative to antibiotics due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of AgNPs against S. aureus bacteria and the effect of AgNPs on the-viability of normal cell line (vero cell). A1total of 70 clinical 1samples (wound and vagina swab, stool and urine)1were used in this study. Bacterial isolates were subjected to the microscopical, cultural and biochemical evaluation. AgNPs were-prepared and checked for their antimicrobial activity by the use of 1various concentrations employing agar dilution method. In addition, the effect of different concentrations of AgNps on a viability of vero cells was examined. The results showed that out of 70 clinical samples, 11 (15.7%) isolates were Staphylococcus aureus. AgNps showed high activity against S. aureus at concentrations (100 μg/ml and 200μg/ml). It was found that there was no effect of AgNPs on the viability of the normal vero cells at (≤ 250 μg/ml) concentration, but they have cytotoxic effect on the viability of the these cells at high concentrations. This study concluded that AgNPs possess good antimicrobial-activity and the concentrations that maintain the cell viability could be used as an alternative therapy to treat S. aureus infections.
176 Periconceptual prednisolone therapy for the management of recurrent pregnancy loss, Nadia Mudher S Al-Hilli
Background: Recurrent miscarriage has been investigated for a long time with different types of therapeutic trials for those with unknown cause. Prednisolone as an immune modulator agent can have beneficial effect in improving pregnancy outcome in those patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the role prednisolone in preventing miscarriage in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods: Sixty two patients enrolled in this study, all of them have recurrent miscarriage, after investigations and exclusion of those with antiphspholipid syndrome, medical disease, endocrine disorder and uterine pathology. Patients divided randomly and equally into two groups. Study group give prednisolone therapy 5 mg orally for two months prior to conception & continue during pregnancy till 13 weeks of gestation, while the second group received folic acid 5mg orally before conception and continue till the end of first trimester. Patients were followed up throughout pregnancy till delivery.Results: There was significant association between pregnancy outcome and type of treatment majority (90.3%, n=28) of patients using prednisolone continue treatment, while only (38.7%, n=12) of control group continue their pregnancy. (X2=18.03, P=
177 Determination of K, Na and Ca with flame atomic emission spectroscopy and screening of active compounds of Withania someniferum roots from Iraq, Nehad Kanaan Abed , Ali Rasool Mahmood Al-Bakaa , Mohammed Abdullah Ahmed, Zainab Abbas Jabbar
A soxhlet Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform, Ethanol and Aqueous extracts from the W.S. roots (In Iraq as knowing semalferahk), which traditionally used for treatment of infertility; Alkaline elements (K) potassium, (Na) sodium, and (Ca) calcium were calibrated by F.A.E.S., and screening of active compounds of W.S. roots, to analyze Q.P. of various Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform, Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of root parts of W.S. The present study investigates the qualitative analysis of the major bioactive constituents of root parts of W.S. in some solvents (Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform, Ethanol and Aqueous water); Phytochemical screening method was used to identify qualitative analysis of bioactive component. While the quantitative analysis of (K, Na, and Ca) was analyzed by F.A.E.S.; The extraction results show higher concentration of potassium then sodium; While calcium doesn’t exist. The bioactive component flavonoids were found in all those extracts; but only CCl4 and CHCl3 extract contents saponin, while tannin and unthioqunone doesn’t exist in four extracts.
178 The satisfaction of patient with removable partial denture therapy from point of the comfort and chewing efficiency, Zainab Mahmood Al-Jammali, Azad Al-Muthaffer, Anas Al-Yasiry, Zahra Saad
The aim of this study was to assess relation of satisfaction level of RPDs related to comfort and chewing efficiency of patients who seeking treatment of removable partial denture. Thirty two patients with a removable partial dentures, were examine, age range (30-60) years. After construction of the prosthesis, we ask the patients questions about comfort and chewing efficiency and the satisfaction of patient was evaluated by using scale range from 1 to 5.Results found that the largest percentage of the female were satisfy (55%) with the comfort of her denture compared with the male patients and the differences significant. The largest percentage recorded in the employed patient (52.6%) were satisfied compared with the non-employed patient who have (46.2%) were satisfied. About chewing efficiency, the largest percentage recorded for the male patient (50%) was satisfied compared with the female patients. Among age groups, the largest percentage was for the G.I satisfy compared with the G.II. The largest percentage recorded in employed patients compared with the non-employed patient.About comfort, the largest percentage of the female were satisfy of her denture compared with the male patients, the largest percentage for G.II was satisfy compared with the G.I, and the largest percentage recorded in the employed patient were satisfied compared with the non-employed patient. About chewing efficiency, the male patients were more satisfied than female patients, in relation with age, the largest percentage was for the G.I satisfy compared with the G.II, and the largest percentage recorded in employed patients were satisfied compared with the non-employed patients.
179 Combination Therapy with Rituximab and Methotrexate in the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Deena Al-Samman, Nashwan Al-Asaady, Salem Al-Jader
This study was conducted to evaluate the response and safety of rituximabin combination with methotrexate with the aim of improving the quality of life in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis in Mosul city, Iraq.The study was done at Al-Salaam Teaching Hospital in Mosul City. Patients were well educated about the therapeutic profile of rituximab, including both risks and benefits. Enrolled patients: Male or female patients ≥ 18 years with active RA for at least 6 months before the study, inadequately responded to methotrexate therapy. The disease activity was assessed by measuring Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Indication of disease activity was swollen joint and tender joint count ≥ 8 and DAS28-ESR >5.1. Patients were excluded if: < 18 years or over 65 years, concomitant treatment with any DMARDs (other than methotrexate), chest infection, tuberculosis, hepatitis, diabetes, low immune patients, pregnant or breast feeding women. A detailed history and complete physical examination in all patients preceded rituximab therapy. The treatment included rituximab(MabThera1000mg) infusion on days 1 and 15 in addition to methotrexate. Patients were assessed at baseline, at the follow-up at 2 and 12 weeks post treatment, for disease activity score and for the safety outcomes. Remission rate was defined as DAS-28 < 2.6, swollen joints< 4, tender joints< 2,pain score
180 Assessment Of Awareness About Foot Care Among Diabetic Patients With or Without Foot Ulcer, amani Mohamad A Al-Dalawi, Ameer Kadhim Al-Humairi
Assessment Of Awareness About Foot Care Among Diabetic Patients With or Without Foot Ulcer
181 Evaluation of postdural puncture headache after 12 hours of elective caesarian section by using 25G cutting and 25G non-cutting spinal needles: comparative study, Anas Amer Mohammad, Majeed Mohammad Mahmood
Background: headache is the most common complication that occurs due to puncturing of the dura in more than 36.5% of spinal taps, it occurs 48 hours after the procedure due to leakage of cerebrospinal fluid throughout puncture site of dura to epidural and paravertebral space, this headache may last for 1-2 days or even for 2 weeks. Methods: This cross sectional study was donebetween October 2016 and January 2017, the 100 successive women aged 18-35 years old in Duhok Maternity Hospital, underwent spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean section. They were randomly distributed into two groups, Group I: (50 females) 25G cutting spinal needle was used, Group II: (50 females) 25G non cutting spinal needle was used, the data collected 12 hours after surgery.The collector of data was double blind and used questionnaire in closed envelope. Results: The mean age of sample size was 28.39±4.01 years. The study showed that the total incidence of the headache among the patients was 10% with only mild severity. With respect to the headache criteria, the study showed that the headache of most of them occurred after mobilization (90%). The incidence of PDPH among the patients who underwent an anesthetic technique with 25G cutting needle was statistically significant higher compared to that with 25G non-cutting needle, 8%and2%respectively(p=0.046). Conclusion: the25G cutting spinal needles were responsible for a greater incidence of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) 12 hours postoperatively, in comparison with the 25G non-cutting (pencil-point tip).
182 Molecular effect MDR1(C3435T) gene polymorphism on leukemia patients in Babylon province, Iraq, Asmaa Mohammed Mekkey, Alyaa Saad Abed, Zainab Mohammed Jasim, Nawres Najah Jawad
Background: Acute leukemia is the causing death between many people. Many previous discussions have showed an correlation between MDR1 polymorphisms and leukemia risk. Objective: This study is used to show a strong significance between the genetic MDR1 polymorphism and leukemia in gene site (C3435T). Methods: A case control study involving 70 leukemia patient and 40 healthy. was conducted. Specimens of all patients and controls that carry MDR1.C3435T gene polymorphism were identified by conventional. PCR followed by RFLP. methods. MDR1 (C3435T), polymorphism, was. detected by PCR amplification by using the following primers: forward, primer 5’ TTG ATG GCA AAG AAA TAA AGC 3’ and .reverse primer 5’ CTT ACA TTA GGC AGT GAC TCG 3’. Results: Our results were significantly related with development of acute leukemia patients. C3435T allele. frequency widely varies between variants people. Conclusion: These polymorphisms are correlated with the advanced risk of acute leukemia.
183 Smooth Emergence from General Anesthesia by Deep Extubation with No Touch Maneuver regarding Coughing in Ophthalmic Surgery, Ibtesam Ghaneim Ali
Background: Deep tracheal extubation with no touch maneuver in anesthesiology scene perform by anesthesiologist while patient still anesthetized without stimulation related to tracheal tube oscillation, suctioning, or changing patient position at emergence time from general anesthesia. Aim of the study for applying this technique seeking smooth recovery by avoiding cough incidence in ophthalmic operations. Methods: In this Interventional study, 27 Patients of both genders with different age groups ranging from 2years to around 60 years undergoing assorted ophthalmic procedures were subjected in this study by applying deep extubation with no touch maneuver. The study included patients who attending Ophthalmic Surgical Department at Ghazi AL Hariri Hospital in Baghdad City, Iraq. The incidence of cough was recorded, and any event related to emergence state or a drug need to be given was noted. Results: The present study showed there is significant association with patient age where younger one precisely children got smooth recovery with no or slight cough. The smoker participants got no benefit and more aggressive recovery with deep extubation and no touch maneuver. Conclusions: The present study showed that emergence from anesthesia with applying deep extubation and without touch maneuveror stimulation let patient returns to conscious state smoothly without or with slight cough in ophthalmic procedures.
184 The satisfaction of patient with removable partial denture therapy from point of the comfort and chewing efficiency , Zainab Mahmood Al-Jammali, Azad Al-Muthaffer Anas Al-Yasiry, Zahra Saad
The aim of this study was to assess relation of satisfaction level of RPDs related to comfort and chewing efficiency of patients who seeking treatment of removable partial denture. Thirty two patients with a removable partial dentures, were examine, age range (30-60) years. After construction of the prosthesis, we ask the patients questions about comfort and chewing efficiency and the satisfaction of patient was evaluated by using scale range from 1 to 5.Results found that the largest percentage of the female were satisfy (55%) with the comfort of her denture compared with the male patients and the differences significant.The largest percentage recorded in the employed patient (52.6%) were satisfied compared with the non-employed patient who have (46.2%) were satisfied.About chewing efficiency, the largest percentage recorded for the male patient (50%) was satisfied compared with the female patients. Among age groups, the largest percentage was for the G.I satisfy compared with the G.II. The largest percentage recorded in employed patients compared with the non-employed patient.About comfort, the largest percentage of the female were satisfy of her denture compared with the male patients, the largest percentage for G.II was satisfy compared with the G.I, and the largest percentage recorded in the employed patient were satisfied compared with the non-employed patient. About chewing efficiency, the male patients were more satisfied than female patients, in relation with age, the largest percentage was for the G.I satisfy compared with the G.II, and the largest percentage recorded in employed patients were satisfied compared with the non-employed patients.
185 Determination of K, Na and Ca with flame atomic emission spectroscopy and screening of active compounds of Withania someniferum roots from Iraq, Nehad Kanaan Abed, Ali Rasool Mahmood Al-Bakaa, Mohammed Abdullah Ahmed, Zainab Abbas Jabbar
A soxhlet Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform, Ethanol and Aqueous extracts from the W.S. roots (In Iraq as knowing sem alferahk), which traditionally used for treatment of infertility; Alkaline elements (K) potassium, (Na) sodium, and (Ca) calcium were calibrated by F.A.E.S., and screening of active compounds of W.S. roots, to analyze Q.P. of various Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform, Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of root parts of W.S. The present study investigates the qualitative analysis of the major bioactive constituents of root parts of W.S. in some solvents (Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform, Ethanol and Aqueous water); Phytochemical screening method was used to identify qualitative analysis of bioactive component. While the quantitative analysis of (K, Na, and Ca) was analyzed by F.A.E.S.; The extraction results show higher concentration of potassium then sodium; While calcium doesn’t exist. The bioactive component flavonoids were foundin all those extracts; but only CCl4 and CHCl3 extract contents saponin, while tannin and unthioqunone doesn’t exist in four extracts.
186 Rapid Typing of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Intensive Care Units in Babylon, Iraq, Huda H. Al-Hasnawy, Inas Ahmed Saeed, Monqith A. Al-Janabi, Ali S. Baay, Zainab Hashim Nasser
A total of (96) lavage specimens were taken from patients with ventilator associated Pneumonia (VAP), and bronchioalviolar lavage (BAL), during the period from February to June (2018) admitted to the Al-Hillah General Teaching Hospital, Al- Imam Al-Sadiq Hospital and Tiba Center. Among them 24(25%) of specimens were found to be S. aureus isolates were recovered from lavage from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) from patients with bronchiectasis, 22 (36%), 2(5.7%) respectively. In this study, the (21) Methicillin- Resistant S. aureus MRSA isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing (DDT) according to the CLSI, (2016) guidelines using (13) different antibiotic disk. The resistance rate to the Cefoxitin, Oxacillin, Azithromycin, Ceftazidime, Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Amikacin, Gatifloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Kanamycin, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Rifampicin is 21(100%), 18(85.7%), 16(76.1%), 21(100%), 17(80.9%), 3(14.2%), 21(100%), 7 (33.3%), 1(4.7%), 15(71.4%), 6(28.5%), 2(9.5%) respectively. The resistance rate was low for each the following antibiotics: Ciprofloxacin, Rifampicin, Doxycycline, 1(4.7%), 2(9.5%), 3(14.2%) respectively, while the nonresistance rate (0.0%) to Vancomycin. Molecular identification of MRSA isolates by the gene mecA for (24) isolates, about 22(91.6%) isolates were confirmed for exist of mecA by PCR-technique. Genotyping of MRSA Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec SCCmec typing by multiplex PCR-technique found the majority of the (24) MRSA isolates that investigated, were found to be belonged to SCCmec II (79.1%) followed by SCCmec III (33.3%), SCCmec IV (25%), SCCmec V (25%) and SCCmec I (8.3%).
187 A total of (96) lavage specimens were taken from patients with ventilator associated Pneumonia (VAP), and bronchioalviolar lavage (BAL), during the period from February to June (2018) admitted to the Al-Hillah General Teaching Hospital, Al- Imam Al-Sadiq Hospital and Tiba Center. Among them 24(25%) of specimens were found to be S. aureus isolates were recovered from lavage from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) from patients with bronchiectasis, 22 (36%), 2(5.7%) respectively. In this study, the (21) Methicillin- Resistant S. aureus MRSA isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing (DDT) according to the CLSI, (2016) guidelines using (13) different antibiotic disk. The resistance rate to the Cefoxitin, Oxacillin, Azithromycin, Ceftazidime, Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Amikacin, Gatifloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Kanamycin, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Rifampicin is 21(100%), 18(85.7%), 16(76.1%), 21(100%), 17(80.9%), 3(14.2%), 21(100%), 7 (33.3%), 1(4.7%), 15(71.4%), 6(28.5%), 2(9.5%) respectively. The resistance rate was low for each the following antibiotics: Ciprofloxacin, Rifampicin, Doxycycline, 1(4.7%), 2(9.5%), 3(14.2%) respectively, while the nonresistance rate (0.0%) to Vancomycin. Molecular identification of MRSA isolates by the gene mecA for (24) isolates, about 22(91.6%) isolates were confirmed for exist of mecA by PCR-technique. Genotyping of MRSA Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec SCCmec typing by multiplex PCR-technique found the majority of the (24) MRSA isolates that investigated, were found to be belonged to SCCmec II (79.1%) followed by SCCmec III (33.3%), SCCmec IV (25%), SCCmec V (25%) and SCCmec I (8.3%)., Nadia Mudher S. Al-HillI
Background: Recurrent miscarriage has been investigated for a long time with different types of therapeutic trials for those with unknown cause. Prednisolone as an immune modulator agent can have beneficial effect in improving pregnancy outcome in those patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the role prednisolone in preventing is carriage in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods: Sixty two patients enrolled in this study, all of them have recurrent miscarriage, after investigations and exclusion of those with antiphspholipid syndrome, medical disease, endocrine disorder and uterine pathology. Patients divided randomly and equally into two groups. Study group give prednisolone therapy 5 mg orally for two months prior to conception & continue during pregnancy till 13 weeks of gestation, while the second group received folic acid 5mg orally before conception and continue till the end of first trimester. Patients were followed up throughout pregnancy till delivery.Results: There was significant association between pregnancy outcome and type of treatment majority (90.3%, n=28) of patients using prednisolone continue treatment, while only (38.7%, n=12) of control group continue their pregnancy. (X2=18.03, P=
188 Evaluation of malonaldehyde levels and study of its association with occupational stress in nurses, Israa Harjan Mohsen , Ehab Jasim Mohammed , Husain Ali Kareem, Ashraqat Amer, Doaa Ayad Jabber
The present study is aimed to study stress factors and its association with workplace violence against nurses. The study included 100 samples of nurses in the AL Imam AL-Sadiq Hospital in Babil Governorate-Iraq.The outcomes of the current researchdisplaythat the plurality of the participants were females (60%) and married (66%).The prevalent of nurses are worked in Emergency unit (62% ) females and (44%) males respectively,most of them were in the day shift and years of experience (< 5).The malonaldehyde level (MDA) is significantly different amongthe men and women at
189 Evaluation of 2D speckle strain in β-thalassemic patients of pediatric age group for early detection of left ventricular dysfunction, Zainab F. Hassan, Mohanad K. Shukur Alghanimi, Ahlam Kadhim Abbood
Background: Thalassemia is a disease caused by abnormal hemoglobin synthesis with a resulting of chronic anemia. Major cause of death is heart failure due to combination of anemia and excess iron from repeated transfusion.Objectives: To evaluate the role of 2D speckle strain in thalassemic patients in early detection of cardiac dysfunction.Methods: This is a case control study included 20 thalassemic patients with mean age (10 ±3.8 year), and compared with 20 healthy subjects as control group with (mean age 11± 1.7 year). They were enrolled from obstetric and pediatric hospital-thalassemic center in Babylon province. 2D speckle tracking strain was evaluated in both groups. Results: Segmental strain values were significantly lower at the basal anteroseptal LV (19.5 ± 3 vs. 22 ± 2.7; P = 0.01), basal posterior LV (-19 ± 5 vs. 22 ± 3.5; P = 0.05), mid anterior (22 ± 5 vs. 24± 2.3; P = 0.05) as compared to controls.Average longitudinal strain (ALS) were lower in patients with TM that receive blood in a period less than 15 days than in patients that receive blood in a period more than 15 days. However, these changes are not significant (P>0.05).Conclusions: From the early changes in segmental strain values, early detection of cardiac dysfunction could be achieved, and the intervals between blood transfusion also affects the development of cardiac dysfunction, the longer duration the less development of cardiac dysfunction
190 Different cytokines and Lipid Profile in Suicidal and Non Suicidal Adults with Major depression, Suaad Mohammed H. Rasheed, Ali J. Eidan, Arafat Hussein Al-dujaili, Layla Hadi Abada, Alaa H. Al-Charrakh
Background: Suicide is a substantial public health concern and one of the commonest cause of death throughout the world. In Iraq, the suicide rate is a current health problem exacerbated by the fact that it is a country suffered war and destruction in all fields of life. Objectives: We tested whether Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Interlukin-1β, and lipid profile might be associated with suicide attempts in adult patients with major depression. Methods: Plasma levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Interleukin-1β, and lipid profile were analyzed in 60 adult patients with major depression diagnosed according to DSM-V criteria for Major depression (22 suicidal attempters and 38 patients without suicidal ideas), and 30 healthy controls. Results: At univariate analyses, plasma level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Triglyceride were significantly higher in suicide attempters and non-suicidal attempter depressed patients than those of healthy control (all p
191 Quantification of Biofilm Production and Molecular Identification For Highly Yielding Production Isolates , Noor Abd-Ulamer Oda, Suhad Redha Al-Tayie
Background: Biofilms are aggregation extracellular matrix produce by some bacteria considered important for the existence of it, in inadequate environmental conditions, which are organized into structural communities and subpopulations if produce provide exo – polysaccharide (EPS) matrix as a major component structure for their stability. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated biofilm forming ability in two different media beside the molecular identification for high yield biofilm production isolates. Methods: In this study a 32 isolates obtained from Central Public Health Laboratory in Karbala City. The ability for biofilm production were evaluated and compared in two distinct media (Luria Bertani- LB broth and Tryptic soy broth - TSB). Microtitre plate (MTP) assay was used to quantify the biofilm production ability from bacterial isolates. DNA was extracted, molecular identification was accomplished by fragmentary Sequences of 16s rRNA gene in nine more effective biofilm production isolates. Results: From the total number of isolates 12.5% could be categorized as a weakly biofilm former ; 62.5% moderate and 25% strongly produced to biofilm in LB broth media, whereas (37.5%, 53.1% and 9.4% ) were weakly; moderately and strongly produced to biofilm respectively in TSB media . Molecular identification of the selected isolates showed S.1 had 99% similarity to Bhargavaea cecembebsis ;S.2 had 100% similarity to Staphylococcus aureus; S.3 had 99% similarity to Bacillus licheniformis; S.4 had 99% similarity to Bacillus sonorensis; S.5 had 100% similarity to Stenotrophomona maltophilia and S.6 had 100% similarity to Enterococcus faecalis; while no PCR amplification results were given in S.7, S.8 and S.9 isolates. Conclusion: All of isolates in present study had biofilm forming ability, 9 isolates can be categorized as strong biofilm former in LB broth media, while 3 isolates can be categorized as strong biofilm former in TSB broth media. Also, the ability of biofilm production in LB media was higher than when TSB media was used (p= >0.0001). The appropriate medium for studying and detection the ability of bacteria to the production of biofilm varies according to the type of bacteria as it has been shown Tryptic soy was more suitable of Bacillus sonorensis for detection biofilm formation as compared to the Luria Bertani broth in the present investigation.
192 Effects of antidiabetic drug on the anticancer activity of Cisplatin, Ahmed Ibrahim Rashid , Kaiser N. Madlum, Rana Ghaleb, Hamid Naji Obied , Sabah H. Enayah
Although its mechanism of action on cancer cells not well understood, Metformin (Met) is widely used nowadays to improve the anticancer activity of some drugs. Metformin has also been shown to decrease the growth of breast cancer cells and pancreatic cancer in hamsters and delays other types of tumors. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Cisplatin (Cis) alone and Metformin alone on colon cancer cell line SW480. The results showed that the effect of Metformin on cell proliferation is concentration-dependent. Metformin enhances the proliferation and attachment of colon cancer at lower concentrations. Results showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation and attachment of colon cancer cells after Cisplatin treatment.Results of this study revealed that Cisplatin treatment decreased both proliferation and cell adhesion to the matrix. Combination therapy (Met+Cis) showed promising synergism and enhancement of anticancer activity of Cisplatin on colon cancer cells. We are strongly recommended more investigations to be more specific for using Metformin as general anticancer.
193 Cytotoxic Effects of Bardoxolone on HCT-116 Human Colonic Cancer Cell Line, Naiel A. Kadhiem, Sameer H. Al-Rikabi, Talib H. Kammona, Hamid N. Obied
Background: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors comprise a key role in many physiological processes such as innate and adaptive immune responses, proliferation of cells, cell death, and inflammations. Anti-NF-κB therapy may rescue different cases of colonic carcinoma and would be considered as a therapeutic goal. The aim of the study is to detect whether Bardoxolone is effective in treatment of colonic carcinoma by apoptosis and regression of tumor markers and activation of tumor suppressor genes as compared to other FDA approved anticancer agents as 5-FU. colonic cancer cell line (HCT 116). These cells are cultured in vitro according to routine cell culture protocols using specific media and reagents. Methods: Treatment groups are classified into 4 groups (control, Chemotherapy group, Bardoxolone and combination treatment groups).Results: The results revealed significant increase in inhibition concentrations IC50 of colonic cancer cells in low concentrations of bardoxolone treatment group and in combinations treatment group as compared to control group (P< 0.05). Also, the inhibition percent of different concentrations of 5-FU and Leucovorin on HCT-116 colonic cell line after 24h of incubation were significant (p< 0.05) as compared to control group(cancer cells without treatment) in all concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 µgm/ml). Conclusion: Bardoxolone has a significant anticancer and cytotoxic effect in low micro-concentrations on human colonic cancer cells as compared to control groups.
194 Disorders of sex Hormones and lipid profile in obese and non-obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in Karbala City, Hameedah Hadi Abdulwahid, Batool A.Hussein, Zahraa Sabbar Omran, Saleem A. Alhasanawy
Background: Infertility is the inability to become pregnant after one year of intercourse without contraception. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the disorder of reproductive age women. Objectives: to determine FSH, LH, testosterone hormone and prolactin levels, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, and LDL concentrations in infertile women. Methods: This study was carried out in department of women and obstetrics in Al-Kafeel hospital and Women maternity teaching hospital in Karbala city. A Total of 100 samples divided into (2 groups) group 1 is a poly cystic ovaries syndrome PCOS group (50 patients) who diagnosed on the basic collection of two out of three features (ultrasound features, clinical features, laboratory features. The control group included 50 samples with on the symptoms in this group. Results: Results showed a significant difference of serum level LH (p=0.001) and testosterone level. (p=0.010) between patients and controls group. When study lipids profile (CHOL, TG, LDL, HDL) in PCOS patients and control. The result shows no significant between PCOS patients and control. When correlation between serum level of sex hormone and lipids profile in non-obese female in patients group, In non-obese women there was a significant positive correlation between (CHOL) and testosterone. Prolactin and testosterone, Prolactin and TSH, Testosterone and TSH. There was a significant negative correlation between TG and FSH. Correlation between serum level of sex hormone and lipids profile in obese female in patients group, there was a significant positive correlation between Prolactin in and LH, TG and TSH Conclusion: The relationship between cholesterol and the testosterone hormone in thin women, as well as the relationship of prolactin with test. and TSH, obese women, showed the relation of prolactin and LH and TG with TSH. For this reason, we recommend that women maintain the level of lipid profile for The body, whether obese or skinny.
195 Comparison of sandwich, conventional antagonist and microdose protocols in poor responders, Milal Muhammad Al-Jeborry
Background: Poor response to controlled stimulation is a major problem in ART. Increasing number of mature oocytes and embryos is an important aspect for successful outcome. Objectives: To assess the efficacy and outcome of pregnancy of poor responder women underwent ICSI program using sandwich, conventional antagonist and micro dose protocols. Methods: The randomized controlled trial study included 158 poor responder women underwent ICSI program diagnosed according to POSEIDON classification, were randomly divided into three groups; Microdose protocol N=41, conventional antagonist protocol N=71 and sandwich protocol N=46.The program performed by using high dose gonadotrophins from second day of cycle till administration of HCG. The primary outcomes were number of retrieved oocytes and pregnancy rates. Secondary outcomes were duration of stimulation, total amount of gonadotrophins needed, endometrial thickness on day of HCG trigger, maturity of oocytes, number of transferred embryos, fertilization rates, implantation rates and cancellation rates. Results: There was higher endometrial thickness on day of administration of HCG in microdose group compared to sandwich and conventional antagonist groups (p˂0.05%).While there were higher numbers of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, number of transferred embryos with higher fertilization rate, implantation rate and lower cancellation rates in sandwich group compared to microdose and conventional antagonist groups (p˂0.05%). While the pregnancy rate was slightly higher in microdose than sandwich group. While there was no statically significant difference regarding stimulation period, total required amount of gonadotrophins and peak estradiol level on day of HCG trigger (p-value >0.05%. Conclusions in poor responders the sandwich protocol improved the outcome of pregnancy.
196 Effect of polymorphism on CTLA-4 gene on Graves' Disease, Eman Th. Al-Fatlawy, Israa K. Al-Yasiri, Ibtihal Al-Shamarti
Background: Graves is one of autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. Moreover, more than 20 genes polymorphisms are associated with Graves’s diseases. Although, the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) genes play an important role in immunity system function, strategies to enhance CTL4 polymorphism gene may be impact on increase Graves' disease. Recent research has revealed that the 49A/G polymorphism in exon 1 has a detrimental effect on this disease, results in a threonine-to-alanine conversion. Objectives: The study was carried out to investigate and affect allele polymorphism CTL4 gene in Graves' disease in AL-Najaf province. Methods: In our study, 73(48 females and 25 males) individuals who detected Autoimmune hyperthyroidism and twenty healthy as a control groups. All Graves patients were recruited from the hormonal unite at Al-Sadder Medical City, Najaf/Iraq. The control group participating in the study did not have any history of immune diseases and chronic diseases. The study was approved by the ethical committees of Al-Sadder Medical City. Genomic DNA was extracted then polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique is used, follow by Sequence data of polymorphism. Results: Results of this study found that all samples were digested with restriction enzyme Fnu4HI in two fragments (99 and 63) bp. These results indicate that 49 A/G polymorphism GLT4 gene was detected in Graves patients and control. Conclusion: Contrary to expectations, this study did not find a significant difference between Graves patients and healthy individuals in the Najaf city population.
197 Frequency of human hemochromatosis HFE gene mutations and serum Hepcidin Level in iron overload β-thalassaemia Iraqi patients, Naeem Mohammed Mohsen Al-Abedy, Ehab Dawood Salman, Safa A Faraj
Background: Thalassemia is an important hematological disorder. Iron overload is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with β-thalassemia. The possibility of iron overload development may be increased by Interaction between thalassemia and HFE gene mutations. This study aims to investigate the possible association between serum hepcidin level as an indicator of iron concentration and the presence of HFE gene mutations or the effects of these gene's polymorphisms on blood hepcidin level and iron overload in the beta-thalassemia patients. Methods: A eighty two of β- thalassaemia (56 BTM and 26 BTI) patients and fifty normal controls were included in this study. Hepcidin levels along with iron parameter were determined. We assessed the frequency of the H63D, C282Y and S65C mutation of the HFE gene and the correlation between these mutations and the iron overload in β-thalassemia patients. Genotyping of H63D, C282Y, and S65C of HFE variants performed by T-Plex real-time PCR.. Results: Serum hepcidin level was found to be reduced in BTI and BTM patients as compared to controls .Hepcidin level is significantly lower in BTM compared to control (P
198 The Role of free radicals in female unexplained subfertility, Ban Jaber Edan, Huda M. Shakir, Naseer J Almukhtar
Background: Unexplained sub-fertility is commonly identified if couples fail to conceive after 1 yr of everyday unprotected sexual intercourse even though investigations for ovulation, tubal patency and semen evaluation are ordinary. For as many as (30–40%) of couples experiencing sub-fertility, their sub-fertility stays unexplained. The objective of current study was to estimate and calculate the reactive oxygen species and to determine the relationship between free radicals, antioxidant enzyme activities and unexplained subfertility. Methods: The study was an observational prospective study involved two groups of women who attended Babylon maternity Hospital and private clinic. The study groups included 30 apparently healthy fertile women as a control group and 60 women with subfertility. Blood withdrawn from both groups for biochemical evaluation of MDA, GSH, vitamin E and vitamin C. Cervical secretions were also collected from both groups for same enzymatic and non-enzymatic free radicals evaluations. Results: The results showed that MAD levels were increased significantly (P
199 The Differences between Benign Mixed Tumor and Papillary Cystadenoma Lymphomatosum in Proliferative, Apoptotic and Antiapoptotic Activities, Ameera K Khaleel
Background: The majority of salivary glands tumors are benign mixed tumors. The present study was aimed to evaluate the differences between benign mixed salivary glands tumor and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum regarding the tumor cell proliferation rate, apoptotic and antiapoptotic activities. Methods: The study was performed on archived paraffin-embedded salivary glands tissue of 23 benign mixed tumor and five cystadenoma lymphomatosum. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and cases with definite diagnosis were selected for immunohistochemistry. The immunoreactivity was assessed in areas of highest positivity regarding Ki-67, P53 and bcl-2. Results: Benign mixed tumor and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum showed negative immune expression for Ki-67. The P53 immune staining in benign mixed tumor appeared negative while the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum appeared with a mild positive staining. The bcl-2 immune expression in benign mixed tumor was moderately positive while the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum was mildly positive. Conclusion: The benign mixed tumors showed significantly more Ki-67 and bcl-2 immune labeling indexes than papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, but the P53 immune expression was less (P
200 A correlation between sonographic and histopathological findings of gallbladder polyps, Firas A Noori, Alla J Hasin
Gallbladder polyps have become a common ultrasonographic finding. The management of these polyps is complex since they can carry malignant lesions. Our study had aimed to analyze the results of ultrasound and pathological findings of patients operated upon due to polyps in the gallbladder. The study includes patients with ultrasound diagnosis of gallbladder polyps who underwent cholecystectomy in 2017-2019 were reviewed, and demographic, sonographic and histopathological data were collected. Sixty-eight patients were involved in the study. The median age was 42 ± 7 years, and 63.2% of our patients were women. The average size of the ultrasound polyps was 6.8 ± 4 mm. Histopathology confirmed the presence of polyps in 95.6% of patients, with an average size and number of lesions of 7.5 ± 5.8 mm and 1.7 ± 1.2, respectively. Eight polyps were larger than 10 mm, and the individual polyps were significantly larger than the multiple ones (p = 0. 004). Three cases of adenoma were diagnosed (4.6%); one of them was cancer in situ. All were single and over 10 mm. We found an important correlation between determining the size of an ultrasound polyp and the pathological anatomy (r = 0.93; p = 0.002). The tumor size was an indication of the presence of adenoma (p = 0.009, (95% CI = 1,113-1,678). We have concluded that there is a clear correlation between the size of the gallbladder tumor on ultrasound and the size in the pathological report. Gallbladder adenoma is uncommon and it correlates with the size of the polyp. In this study, the size was the only indicator of the presence of adenoma.
201 Incidence of early complications in laparoscopic total thyroidectomy vs. open thyroidectomy using breast approach in simple multinodular goiter., Alaa J Hasin, Kasim Traim, Muslim Kandel
Total thyroidectomy is a popular surgical operation around the world. It can be performed through collar incision which may end with a bad cosmetic appearance for this type of wound in the neck. Recently, laparoscopic total thyroidectomy has become popular in experience laparoscopic hand surgeons. There are many early complications that may occur after laparoscopic total thyroidectomy due to a new technique in total removal of the thyroid gland to give excellent cosmetic results. In our study, we compared the incidence of early complications, which occur within early 30 postoperative days, between LTT (laparoscopic total thyroidectomy) and OTT (open total thyroidectomy). 122 patients who had total thyroidectomy operation for simple multinodular goiter, 58 patients underwent LTT, while 64 patients OTT in GIT center in Thi-Qar city. All the operations were done by the same surgeon for all patients. The study was done through 2 years, from 1/5/2017 till 30/4/2019, through breast approach and collar incision. The surgical outcome has recorded the complications that occur to the patients within 30 days post-operatively.
202 Assessment of serum zinc, copper and copper/zinc ratio in adult patients with psoriasis, Nazer HJ Al-Sultany, Ban MS Al-Joda, Mohammed K Al-Hattab
Background: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, chronic inflammatory disease of genetic basis, which affects mainly the skin, although it has systemic pathological effects. The most severe forms have been associated with several diseases that have similar pathogenic factors. Many studies showed that trace elements play vital role in some inflammatory responses such as psoriasis. The aim of current study was to estimate the levels of serum trace elements (zinc, copper and Cu/ Zn ratio) in psoriatic patients and evaluate the impact of these values on the severity and pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods: In this case-control study, (50) patients with psoriasis were divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) and (50) healthy controls were examined. PASI score for each patient was calculated. Serum levels of Cu and Zn were measured by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and Cu/ Zn ratio was calculated. Results: After measurements and comparisons between psoriatic patients and age-, and gender-, matched control group, results showed significant differences in copper and Cu/ Zn ratio among these groups, but no significant differences in serum zinc were showed. There was significant increase in serum copper and Cu/ Zn ratio (P value = 0.017 and 0.032 for copper and Cu/ Zn ratio, respectively) for psoriatic patients as compared with control group. Results also showed no significant differences in serum zinc between psoriatic patients and control group. No significant differences in the concentration of serum copper were observed between females and males of patients group, but highly significant increase of serum zinc in female as compared with males of psoriatic patients. Conclusion: increased serum copper may play a major role in increasing the inflammatory response in psoriatic disease. No apparent relationship was observed in our study between psoriasis pathogenesis or severity and level of serum zinc. In addition, Cu/ Zn ratio is a good marker for measuring severity of psoriasis.
203 Study of s-adenosylhomocysteine as marker of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Thi-Qar heart center, Lamees M Al-Janabi, Dheyaa K Al-Waeli
In the current study, we investigated the correlation between serum s-adenosylhomocysteine as a new marker for myocardial infarction severity with homocysteine, troponin, vitamin B6 and B 12 on 90 acute myocardial infarction patients and 120 normal persons as control.The data of all patients and controls were measured by using the ELISA technique except troponin was measured by using the VIDIS technique, while the data were analyzed by SPSS software. The results of this study show a significant increase in s-adenosylhomocysteine, troponin, homocysteine, while vitamin B6 and B12 were decreased significantly.The correlation study proved that s-adenosylhomocysteine as a golden marker for AMI patient for male and female-specific with SEAMI while troponin with high correlation in NSEMI.
204 Histological changes and hyperlipidemia criteria for triton and therapeutic efficacy of Punica granatum husk extract in liver tissue of male white rabbits, Ansam H Ali, Ahmed H Ahmed, Zinah I Khaleel
Background: Triton is a non-ionic surfactant that acts to raise or increase intestinal absorption of fat through its emulsification process. It changes the permeability of cell membranes and thus causes cell lysis and increased susceptibility to infection. Antioxidant effects of pomegranate studies have shown that pomegranate seed extract contains compounds with an antioxidant capacity of 2 to 3 times more than green tea. The present study aimed to study the effect of triton on the histological structure of white rabbit liver and to try to get rid of the effects of triton used alcoholic extract pomegranate husks. Methods: Observational and behavioral symptoms were observed in triton-treated animals, such as lack of water and food intake, inactivity in the movement and tremor with diarrhea. Results: The results of the study in the second group (G2), only injected with triton under the peritoneum at a concentration of 0.1mg/kg, showed the histological changes caused by triton in hepatic tissue with negative changes in tissue represented by degeneration of the majority of hepatocytes. In other regions, hepatic cell size swelling, cytoplasm and Kupffer cell numbers were observed, while the inhibitory effect and cellular repair of the histological structure of the studied organ were observed in the (G3) group, injected with triton under the peritoneum and dosed with pomegranate extract at a concentration of 1mg/kg, while no changes in tissue structure were shown. The liver in the fourth group (G4), dosed with pomegranate extract only at a concentration of 1mg/kg, according to the studied concentration compared to the control group (G1). Conclusion: From the results of the present study we can say that the extract of pomegranate husks has an effect in eliminating the effect of Triton as well as in cellular repair of liver tissue. .
205 Effect of Iron Therapy on Breath Holding Spells in Children Under Five Years of Age, Abdul-Kareem M Ali, Ahmed MA Abdulhadi, Salam A Tagi
Background: Breath holding spells are a common and dramatic form of syncope and anoxic seizures in infancy. They are usually triggered by an emotional stimuli or minor trauma. Based on color change, they are classified into 3 types, cyanotic, pallid and mixed. The aim of current study was to study the demographic profile of children with breath holding spells and iron deficiency and to assess the effect of iron therapy on reducing the frequency of breath holding spells. Methods: A clinical trial conducted in pediatric department at Al- Imamain Al-Kadhimain Teaching Hospital from 1st, April 2016 to 31st, March 2017. Fifty four children under five years of age with breath holding spells were screened out for iron deficiency anemia. A specially designed questionnaire was used to collect information including: name, age, gender, address and phone number for following up cases, onset of spells, frequency of spells, type of spells, family history, etc. Investigations included complete blood picture, blood film, serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron binding capacity were taken before and after completion of treatment. Children having breath holding spells were treated with oral iron supplement for three months. Results: Out of fifty four patients, fifty patients were included in this study and four patients with normal iron profile were excluded. Age of onset of breath holding spells, in 24 subjects, was 6-12 months, in 22 subjects was >12–24 months and, in 4 subjects, was >24-60 months. The mean age was 14.06 month. Male to female ratio was 1.7:1. The family history was positive in 36% of them. According to type of attack, 96% had cyanotic and 4% pallid attacks. In addition, 56% of patients presented with iron deficiency anemia and 44% had iron deficiency without anemia. Serum ferritin, serum iron and total iron binding capacity showed significant differences (P
206 Oxidative Stress Role in Aborted Women with Cytomegalovirus infection in Thi-Qar Governorate,Iraq, Alaa HA Al Nasir
Background: termination of pregnancy resulting in expulsion of an immature fetus of less than twenty weeks called as abortion. Where aborted fetus is weighing less than 500 g. Human cytomegalovirus infections is one of several factors related to spontaneous abortion. Aim: To determine the levels of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) (MDA), (ceruloplasmin, transferrin, Vitamin C) (Cp,Tf,Vit.C) in aborted women with cytomegalovirus(IgG, IgG positive). Material and method: A case control study include (60) women aborted with CMV (Patients), (60) healthy women (positive controls) and (60) women aborted without CMV (negative controls). at the period between(November, 2017) to (May, 2018). Spss version 23 had been used for data analysis, P value
207 The effect of using cross training exercises on some Anaerobic abilities, EnzymaticAntioxidants, and lactic acid for handball players., Baba MT Al-Musawi, Noor N Hafed
The present study aims at: Preparing cross-training exercises. Identifying the effects of using cross-training exercises on some anaerobic and enzymatic antioxidants and lactic acid for handball players. The experimental approach whose pre -post tests was used as it fits the nature of the present study. The study is conducted on (14) players of Wasit handball team. Six (6) players were deliberately chosen to represent the research sample.The tests used in the present study are: Measuring lactic acid in blood. Measuring the variables; (GSH-MDA) in a (5cc) vein blood. Performing (defensive movement, launching for striking in a curve, speed, and hitting) tests. The results showed a significant development in the concentration of lactic acid in the post tests,which indicates the physiological effectiveness of the exercises. (GSH, MDA) significantly varied, which indicates the improvement of the functions of these enzymes as a result of the exercises. The level of anaerobic abilities; (defensive movement, launching for striking in a curve, speed, and hitting) tests improved as a result of the exercises.
208 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser Incision Characteristics in A Viable Human Skin , Nibras AA Hindy, Suha A Hindy, Ahmed Hindy
Throughout the last decades, cutanous laser surgery has gained popularity among surgeons.This kind of surgery based on the principles of selective photo-thermolysis theory. CO2 laser selectively target water-containing tissue, applying controlled tissue vaporization. The tissue ablation and the zone of residual thermal damage is accompanied with a deeper tissue coagulation. A piece of viable intact human skin was taken. Multiple CO2 laser incisions were carried out with different laser parameters prior to be totally excised, then a histopathological examination were done for these skin samples. Slides were examined under light microscope to evaluate thermal enjury zones, wound edges, and cutanous blood vessles status. Histopathological examination showed that the three thermal zones were chenged wherever the laser parameter changed.
209 Creation with Validation of Reverse Phase- High Performance Liquid chromatography Assay (Content) Method for Sorbic Acid in Oral Solutions, Imad M M Al-Rubay
Sorbic acid is one of the antimicrobial agent used as an antibacterial and antifungal, which is used as preservative in food, pharmaceutical formulations (oral solutions and external products) and in cosmetic products to prevent mold, yeast, fungi and bacterial growth. Creation (Development or Foundation or Establishment) of RP-HPLC method for the determination of sorbic acid in oral solutions. The standard and sample were extracted withthe solvent mixture methanol and glacial acetic acid (95:5).The chromatographic condition: Column: L1,(25 cm × 4.6 mm),5μm,Detector Wavelength : 240 nm, Flow Rate: 1 ml/min, Injection Volume was 20 μl. The validation of the created RP-HPLC method was done according to USP, WHO and ICH guidelines with respect to Specificity, Linearity, Accuracy, Precision, Range, Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ), System Suitability Determination and Robustness. The validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases.
210 Correlation of Prolactin and Thyroid Hormone Levels of Infertile Women, Athar H Abdullah, Ammar K Jaafar, Nady G AbdulKareem, Wildan T Mahmood, Muzahim Alkabban
Hyperprolactinemia is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in hypothalamic- pituitary axis especially among reproductive age female,affecting about one-third of infertile women.The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in hypothyroidic patients is consideredas a cause for reproduction disorder (infertility) andfor early diagnosis and treatment of this problem . Sixty infertilefemale patients with primary hypothyroidismand sixty age matched (35-42 years old)apparently healthy control group, were selected from outpatients clinic of the specialized center for endocrinology and diabetes. Thyroide hormones (total triiodothyroninTT3 and tetraiodothyroninTT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassaymethod using automated analyzer and Vidus. In this study both serum TT3 and TT4 levels are significantly decreased (p
211 Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase-65 and Indices of Insulin Resistance inLatent Autoimmune Diabetic Patients, Mohammed J Kadhim, Nijoud F Yousif
Autoimmune diabetes is a heterogeneous disease which can arise at any age. Subjects with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes who do not necessitate insulin-therapy for at least 6 months after diagnosis are defined as having latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.The current work aimed to evaluate cytoplasmic islet cell autoantibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 in diabetic patients and their roles in insulin resistance. This study was conducted during the period from the end of December 2018 until the end of May 2019. A total of 60 patients were added to 30 healthy individuals for comparison. All patientsreviewing Center for Endocrinology and Diabetes at Al-Kindy Hospital. Some tests were conducted at the center, others at Al-Qasim privet laboratory in Al-Sadr City, and the Health and Medical Technical College-Baghdad and the Office of Scientific Progress in Al-Harithiya. There was a substantial rise in fasting serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, cytoplasmic islet cell autoantibodies, and glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 while a significant decrease was found in serum insulin and c-peptide in diabetic patient as paralleled to the controls. Additionally, diabetic patients had low levels of triacylglycerol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It was found in this study that latent autoimmune diabetes in adults’ subset of diabetes exhibited metabolic features consistent with bothdefective insulin secretion and inslin resistance. They were found to be lean with low triacylglycerol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
212 A study for Malondialdehyde and lipid profile levels in ischemic stroke patients with and without diabetes mellitus, Majid A Maatook, Dheyaa S Hammad
The current study has focused on the levels of Malondialdehyde as lipid peroxidation marker and lipid profile in ischemic stroke patients with and without diabetes. The study was conducted on 118 subjects, 32 ischemic stroke patients with diabetes, 36 ischemic stroke patients without diabetes, and 50 healthy subjects as normal control. Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and Triglyceride (TG) were assessed in all three groups. The diabetic and non-diabetic ischemic stroke patients demonstrated a significant increase of MDA, LDL, VLDL, TG, and total cholesterol when compared with control subjects, but with more increases in diabetic ischemic stroke patients. The study has also revealed that there is a significant decrease in the activity of HDL in both patient groups when compared with the healthy control group, but with less decrease in the HDL in the diabetic ischemic stroke group. We conclude that the assessment of MDA and lipid profile may be useful in early detection and monitoring diabetic patients with an increased risk of ischemic stroke
213 Effect of isolated obesity on systolic and diastolic left ventricular function , Talib A Salman
Background: Although "overweight" refers to an excess of body weight and "obesity" to an excess of fat, these two words can be defined in terms of body mass index. The aim of current study was to determine the direct effects of different grades of isolated obesity on echocardiographic indices of systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. Methods: This cross section study on 73 cases of isolated obesity who attended to the department of echocardiography at the AL-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital. The information was collected using a questionnaire that was filled down through direct interview with patients. In current study, 48 obese and 25 normal weight persons were studied. They had no other pathological conditions .Obesity was classed as slight (body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9kg/m2; n= 17), moderate (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m2; n= 20) or severe (BMI >35kg/m2; n= 11). Echocardiographic indices of systolic and diastolic functions were obtained and dysfunction was assumed when at least two values differed by>2 SD from the normal weight group. Results: Ejection fraction and fractional shortening left ventricular dimensions were increased, but relative wall thickness was unchanged. No obese persons met criteria for systolic dysfunction. In obese subjects, the mitral valve pressure half time and the left atrial diameter were increased; whereas the deceleration slop was decreased, all other diastolic variables were unchanged. No differences were found between obesity subgroups. Conclusions: In persons with isolated obesity, subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is present in all grades obesity and is associated with an increased systolic function in the early stages.
214 Genomic Fingerprinting of Interleukin IL-12RB2 of Nasal Mucosal Stem Cells in Nasal Polyposes (NPs) of Iraqi Patients, Hatem A Hatem, Ahmed Muhei, Shayman J Ahmed, Nawfal K Yas
The inflammatory reactions cause nasal polyposes (NPs), which contained the paranasal sinuses and the nasal mucous membrane. They consist of recurrent multiple masses originating in the paranasal sinuses then spread from the middle meatus to the nasals cavity, which leads to the nasal blockage that causes the restriction of airflow to the olfactory area. This study aims at clarifying the role of IL-12RB2 polymorphism by using PCR technology in nasal mucosal stem cells in nasal polyps of Iraqi patients and use it as a biomarker. Fifty-eight cases of this study are referred to as nasal surgery, which selected from Dept.of Otolaryngology, Baghdad City, Iraq from May 2013 to January 2014. They were grouped into Control group (022 samples contained mucosa of inferior concha that gotten from patients subjected to septorhinoplasty intended for septal deviation) and study group (036 samples contained nasals polyps gotten from cases subjected to the surgical operation of nasal polypectomy). Gene aid; USA) kit was used for DNA extraction and confirmation of DNA extraction was done by using gel electrophoresis of PCR products. To conclude, the Data from the current study showed that PCR for IL-12RB2 was positive in the group of nasal polyps, but it was negative in control samples. In addition, Pearson Chi-squared statistics revealed a significant relation of PCR results when matched with pathological groups.
215 Changes of Salivary Interleukine-17, Apelin, Omentin and Vaspin Levels in Normal Subjects and Diabetic Patients with Chronic periodontitis, Entedhar R Sarhat, Zaidoon J Rmaid,, Talal H Jabir
Background: Chronic periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is multifactorial. Diabetes mellitus is one of the major systemic factors to influence the severity of chronic periodontitis. Therefore, the aim of current study was to assess salivary biomarkers of Interleukine-17(IL-17), apelin, omentin and vaspin as putative candidates in the potential association between Diabetes mellitus and Chronic periodontitis. Methods: Whole saliva samples were collected from sixty adults sex and age-matched patients who were further divided into two groups; healthy (control group; n = 30) and diabetic individuals with chronic periodontitis (n = 30). Salivary IL-17, apelin, omentin andvaspin concentrations were determined by standard enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. Results: Salivary levels of IL-17, apelin and vaspin were significantly higher in diabetic patients with periodontitis group compared to control group. On the other hand, salivary levels of omentin were significantly lower in diabetic patients with periodontitis compared to control group. Conclusions: Our study supports the hypothesis that abnormal production of IL-17, apelin, omentin and vaspin can contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes-related complications including Chronic periodontitis.
216 Prevalence and determination of external and intraocular infections in Baghdad city, Zena K Khalil, Iman K Dewan, Saif S Al-Kamil
Background: Ocular infections conceded as one of the most commonly encountered infections with the more frequently affected areas are the conjunctiva, cornea and the eyelids. Bacterial conjunctivitis may begin in one eye, and then spread to the other one. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and analyze ocular isolates that are obtained from patients with suspected ocular infections and their susceptibility to the most common antibiotics. Methods: The study included 314 patients attended to Ibn Al-Haitham hospital of ophthalmology in Baghdad. Their age ranged from 15 to 78 years. The study extended from May to November2018. Results: There were 240(76%) patients who had culture-positive bacteria, patients with extra ocular infections were 167(70%) and patients with intraocular infections were 73(30%). The results revealed that the number of patients with extra ocular infections were 91(59%) and 54(63%) with intraocular infections from Baghdad. The highest ratio of patients with external and intraocular infections belonged to the age group (70±0.21) years while the lowest ratio belonged to the age group (22±0.3) years. The results also found that 68(57%) of the patients were with extra and 55(45%) with intraocular infections had history of diabetes mellitus while 34(29%) of patients with intraocular infections had arthritis. The organisms cultured from the ocular surfaces (cornea, conjunctiva) accounted for the majority of 175(73%) of cases followed by the intraocular (aqueous humor and vitreous fluid) which were 65(27%). The highest rate was found in conjunctiva 155(65%) followed by vitreous fluid 50(21%) then cornea 20(8%) and aqueous humor 15(6%). Gram-positive bacteria were the most prominent pathogens for external and intraocular infections 147(61.25%). The most common species for external ocular infections were S. epidermidis 23(10%), P. aeruginosa 21(8.5%) and B. cepacia 20(8.3%) while the common species for the intraocular infections were S. epidermidis 12(6%) then S. hominis 7(2.8%). The results of antibiotics susceptibility showed that Staphylococcus spp isolates were susceptible to Cefuroxime and Ceftazidime (89% and 88%, respectively). Pseudomonas spp isolates were susceptible to Cloramphenicol (94%). Burkholderia cepacia isolates were highly susceptible to Ceftazidime (80%) while Kocuria sppe were susceptible to both Cefuroxime and Levofloxacin (96%). Enterobacter spp isolates were susceptible to Neomycin (81.4%) while E.coli isolates were susceptible to Levofloxacin and Neomycin (66%). Conclusion: The bacterial profile of extra and intraocular infections included the majority of conjunctivitis and vitreous fluid infections followed by corneal and aqueous humor. Gram-positive bacteria were the most prominent pathogens for external and intraocular infections.
217 Determination of hepcidin (25) level in hemodialysis Iraqi male patients and its relation with erythropoietin and some biochemical parameters, Lamia S Ashoor, AF Altaie, Qais A Ibraheem
Background: Anemia is a common finding in patients with renal failure disease and it is, primarily, due to reduced production of iron and erythropoietin. Therefore, the aim of current study was to evaluate the relationship between serum level of hepcidin 25, on the one hand, and levels of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, serum erythropoietin and transferrin saturation% in Iraqi male patients undrgoning haemodialysis.. Methods: Serum from75 males in the end stage of hemodialysis, as group one, and 25 Iraqi healthy malecontrols, as group two, were recruited in this study. Results: Data from current study showed significant increase in hepcidin 25 and significant decrease in serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation % and erythropoietin in group one as a compered with group two. In addition, current study showed non-significant positive and negative correlations between hipcidin 25 and serum iron, transferrin saturation%, total iron-binding capacity and erythropoietin. Conclusion: Patients with end-stage renal disease need to take iron supplements to correct iron-deficiency anaemia that probably results from elevated hepcidin 25 levels in those patients.
218 Study of the preventive role of cranberry extract on some physiological parameters in male rate induced by sodium fluoride, Shatha G Azez, Naseer M Hamza
Background: Traditional medicine is still widely practiced today and modern medicine benefits from many compounds. The aim of current study was to determine the biological efficacy of the cranberry plant extract on some blood parameters specific to renal function in laboratory white rats (Rattus norvegicus), orally injected with sodium fluoride. . Methods: Current study was conducted over a period of one month, from February 2019 to July 2019. The laboratory white strain inventory was studied (albino rats, n= 25) inventory of males aged between (2-4) months and weighed between (150-250g). They were divided into five groups randomly; the first group included negative control group, the second group included positive control administered an oral dose of sodium fluoride (20mg/kg body weight) for 30 respective days. Groups III and IV were considered as test groups for the protective role of cranberry extract which were administered oral doses of cranberry extract (225, 150 and 75(mg/kg body weight plus sodium fluoride for 30 respective days. After the end of the experiment, animals were anesthetized with ketamine and the blood was collected by direct heart puncture.. The studied parameters included (body weight and serum concentrations of sodium, calcium, potassium, urea and creatinine. Results: The results of present study showed significant differences in the studied parameters. A significant increase was observed in the concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine and urea. Also, a significant decrease was observed in the body weight (P≤0.05) in rats treated with sodium fluoride when compared to the control group. On the other hand, the results of the current study showed that the treatment with cranberry extract was accompanied by some significant changes. A significant decrease was observed in body weight and concentrations of sodium, calcium, potassium and creatine (P≤0.05). When comparing the fluoride and the cranberry extract groups, the decrease led to return of these parameters closer to the state in the control group. However, the concentration of urea was increased significantly (P≤0.05) when comparing the fluoride group with the cranberry extract group. Conclusion: It was clear from the results of this study that the extract of the Cranberry plant has a biological effect in resisting the effects of toxic substances to which the organism is exposed.
219 Direct Primary Repair of Colonic Injury inAL-Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Western Iraq, Tarek M Salih
Background: Al Ramadi district, western Iraq was one of the places subjected to military operations that exposed its residents to risk of explosions and indiscriminate fire that increased the risk of penetrating colonic injuries. Objectives: To assess the pattern andmechanism of colonic injuries, other associated organ injuries, age and sex distribution, outcome and efficacy of direct primary repair. Patients and Methods: From all patients with abdominal trauma andcolonic injuries attended Al Ramadi Teaching Hospital during the period from January2014 to September 2014; those who underwent direct primary repair were enrolled in this study. Collected data include age, sex, mechanism and site of colonic injuries,other associated organs injuries, post-operative complications and mortality rate. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the extracted information. Results: Eighty four patients were included in this study ,their age ranged(1-65) years ,mean age (30±5) years,58(69.0%)males and26(31.9%) females, out of 65 (77.4%) patients below40 years,50 (59.5%)their age ranged (21-40) years and15(18.9%)in the range of , (1-20)years,74(88.0%)patientshadpenetrating colonic injuries,46(59.7%)had shell trauma,28(33.3%)had bullet injuries ,3 (3.6%) blunt trauma. Transverse colon wasthe most common site injured 39 (46.4%), small intestine involved in 31(37%) patients and liver 27(32.1%). post-operative complication noticed in 17 (20.2%), wound infection recorded in 8(9.5%) cases; wound dehiscence 4 (4.8%). The overall mortality recorded 2(2.4%), none of these were related to colon injury. CONCLUSION: Primary repair for colonic injuries is the method of preference for management of colonic injuries as its safe, effective and associated with good results and low mortality rate.
220 Antibacterial activity of Italic leaves Aqueous Extract Against Two Pathogenic Bacteria, Aml H Salih, Rajaa H Salih, Madeha H Hussein, Ali S Hassoon
This research was achieved to detect the antibacterial efficacy of Eruca Sativa leaves aqueous extract against Two pathogenic bacteria, Two bacterial isolates Escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus were isolated from cases of infected wound were used in this study . The anti-bacterial efficacy of Eruca Sativa Italic leaves extract was detected by measuring the inhibition zone in millimeters in 3 plates and the average was considered. The results showed Eruca Sativa extract inhibit both bacterial spp and the mean inhibitory zone for S.aureus was 14.2 mm and for E.Coli was 9.0mm.the mean inhibitory zone of Ampicillin was 20mm for S.aureus and 21.3mm for E. coli distilled water shown no antibacterial activity.
221 Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients , Ahmed E Salman, Jabbar S Hassan, Qudus WJ
Background: Peritoneal TB is a variant of abdominal TB, it poses a public health problem in endemic regions of the world, this type of tuberculosis usually secondary to hematogenous spread from lung and it's difficult to diagnosis because nonspecific clinical presentation with insidious onset, it is considered one of the medical challenges' doctors’ face in the diagnostic process. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis in peritoneal fluids using IS6110-based polymerase chain reaction and conventional methods. Patients and Methods:Seventy-five leftoverperitoneal fluid were enrolled in this studysamplesseparated in three tubes, the first one underwent chemical analysis, the second one was centrifuged for 10 minutes at 2000 -3000 rpm , the sediment was resuspended for direct diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using Ziehl–Neelsen staining, loopful from the sediments were inoculated in Lowenstein Jensen media, while the third tube from peritoneal fluid was stored in – 20ºC till DNA extractions. Results: Fifteen samples (20%) out of 75 peritoneal fluid samples were detected by Ziehle-Neelsen stain (ZN), three of them were culture negative on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media.Positive results of peritoneal fluid samples for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media were 11 (14.6%) out of 75 after an incubation period of 14-28 days. while PCR results improved that 28(37.3%) out of 75 samples were positive for peritoneal Tuberculosis. Conclusions: This study concludes PCR targeting IS6110, may play a major role in the diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis this will ensure early treatment ofpatients and restricted further dissemination of disease.
222 Effect of Isolation Source on Virulence Gene Expression, Phenotypic and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Clinical Isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mohamed C Sameet, Halah A Awadh, Ahmed A Suleiman
P. aeruginosa bacteria are one of the best known antibiotic resistant bacteria that cause fatal diseases in humans as a result of its high virulence. The presence of many variations in the virulence genes of multiple strains of these bacteria has led to a great variation in the gene expression of these strains. The present study aimed to study phenotypic and genetic variations in virulence factors and their relationship to antibiotic resistance and gene expression of these factors.55 isolates were collected from different pathological sources.Virulence factors were measured phenotypically and classified into medium, weak and strong isolates in production of virulence factors.Genetic and phenotypic variations were determined. The results of the study indicated that there were many mutations that had little effect on gene expression of virulence genes and the otitis media isolates were weak in the production of virulence gene and in the gene expression of biofilm, protease and pyocyanin production as well as antibiotic resistance. From this study, we can conclude that the isolation source may affect the virulence gene expression and antibiotic resistance.
223 The Role of Gut Bacterial Cytochrome-P450 of Mosquito Larvae in Degradation of Temephosas Insecticide, Mohammed M Yaseen, Azhar C Karawan, Monyer AA Alfatlawi, Ali HD Janabi
The present experimental work was generated to test the hypothesis that if there is a role of larval-related bacteria in protecting the host larvae from larvicides via bacterial-cytochrome-P450-based degradation. Here, a group of 50 larvae of Aedesalbopictus was subjected to temephos at 0.5 mg/land ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the bacterial cytochrome P450, at200mg/50 liter(TKG), 50 larvae received ketoconazole only at 200mg/50 liter (KG), and 50 larvae that played as a control group (CG) were only subjected to the larvicide. The grouping was made in a triplicate for each group.The larvae were monitored for livability every day until the end of the experiment that lasted for 2 days.The results indicated 88% and 100% mortalities in the TKG larvae in the first and the second day respectively of the experiment. However, partial deaths were seen in the CG larvae as 30 (60%) and 20 (100%) at day 1 and 2 respectively. Moreover, 10%of the larvae died in the KG when ketoconazole was used. TKG revealed significant (p
The most frequently practiced surgical operation worldwide is operation that is cesarean and its rate is becoming higher and higher in developing countries. It is notable that the goal of operation that is cesarean is to reduce maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity; however, the operation in itself is not free of immediate and long term complications. Cesarean section, especially if repeated, is accompanied by adhesions that can result in to bowel obstruction and difficulties in future surgical operations making the possibility of complications with these adhesions more likely. The goal behind this study has been to assess the prevalence rate of complications that are urologic in company with current gynecologic or obstetric operations done for females with old operations that are cesarean. The current cross sectional study has been conducted in the urology department in AL-HILLA teaching hospitals (Al-hilla& Al-sadeq), from Octobers 2017 to Octobers 2018.Participating females in totalwere 30 females and their range of age was from 20 to 40 years with anaverage age of 30years; 26 females sufferedfrom injury to urine bladderand 4 females complained of ureteric injury. Abnormal placenta has been encountered in 73.3 %, uterine rupture was encountered in 16.7 %, injury to urine bladder was observed in 86.7 % and ijury to ureter was detected in 13.3 %. Detection of injury to bladder has beenestablishedinside operative room whereas, that of ureter was made post-operatively. The most frequent grade of bladder injury was grade 3 being identified in 46.2 % of cases. Old recurrent operations that are cesarean increase the danger of current trauma to lower tract in company with obstetric or gynecologic operations because of associated adhesion.
Familial adenomatous polyposisis the most common adenomatous polyposis illnesses. It is an inherited autosomal illness described by the early beginning of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps throughout the colon. If left untreated, all patients with this syndrome usually have cancer of the colon by age35-40years.The aim of current study was toexplore how and why a disease (FAP) process is started or maintained in a given population or place. A prospective cross-sectional study carried out in Gastroenterology and Hepatology Centre at Teaching Hospital and Baghdad Teaching Hospital/Baghdad, Iraq. Data collection extended from 1st of august 2016 to 1st of February 2018. Data collected included patient's name, age, gender, phone number and address, family history, past medical and past surgical history, clinical examination. In addition, investigations performed included hematological, biochemical, radiological and endoscopic tests. Also, information gathered from the patients before surgical interference. Patients underwent 3 surgical options according to biopsy results and surgeon's preference intra-operatively. The latter included total proctocolectomy with ileum-anal pouch anastomosis, total colectomy with ileum rectal anastomosis or total proctocolectomy with continent ileostomy. A total of 11 patients (6 males and 5females) aged 18-44 years old. Family history was positive in 10 patients, and negative in one male patient. Complications occurred in an equal frequency for fistula, stricture, leak and sepsis with a 9.1% for each, while there were no complications of ischemia, paucities and obstruction. Also, 45.5% of patients developed ileal pouch-related complications, as perianal sepsis in 18.2%, wound infection in 18.2%and intra-abdominal abscess in 9.1%. Moreover, Ileostomy was done for 7 patients (54%). Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis is the procedure of choice for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Keywords: iliostomy, proctocolectomy, adenomatous polyposis, fistula
Phenylketonuria (PKU, omim #261600) is a disorder affecting the aromatic amino acid phenylalanine. It results from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) if un treated early in life lead to disabilities and mental retardation. The incidence of PKU is variable, being high in Turkey (around 1 in 2600 births) and low in Japan (1 in 120,000 births). The aim of thisstudy is to revise the clinical and demographic profile of the PKU patient Registered in therare disease unit in Al ‐Emamain Al‐Khadimaiyn Medical City / Baghdad. This is a single center observational study of 23 PKU patients who were registered in the (Rare disease unit), the phenylalanine level was measured as driedblood spot (DBS) either through the NBS or for symptomatic patient beyond 3 months of age send to St. Joseph university metabolic laboratory (Beirut). There was 15 males (65.2%) and 8 females (34.8%), mean age (1.3 year), Mean phenylalanine level was (16.4 mg /dl) withrange (3.5 ‐29 mg/dl), the most frequent type of PKU was moderate type 54.5%, microcephaly and mental retardation was found in totality of patient whose initial diagnoses was after six months of age, seizure was documented in nine of them. While patient who were diagnosed before six month (10 patient) we have only two patients were symptomatic although diagnosed by NBS and management started early. Twelve of the studied patients were able to undergo further evaluation including ( EEG study and or MRI of brain), all were symptomatic.PKU is a prevalent problem in Iraqi society as this sample represents a single center records Lower morbidity was observed in our studied sample, in comparison with some records from surrounding countries, owing to the early diagnosis through the screening program. Still some may proceed to have brain damage. NBS program need to be expanded to cover the remaining governorate of Iraand more enhancements of laboratory facilitiesincluding the provision of petrin test in urine and genetic analysis for the fulfillment of the diagnosis.
Breast cancer is considered the commonest type of malignancies diagnosed in females and the 2ndleadingcauseof mortality in the world. The transcriptional factor gata binding protein 3 is an important nuclear markerplays asignificant role in normal development of many human tissues involved mammary epithelial cells. In mammary glands, mutations in gene of this transcription factor leads to insufficient of its function which is finally affected in tumor suppression and leads to breast tumorgenesis. Our objective in this study revolved around the correlation of immunohistochemical expression of transcription factor with traditional immunohistochemical receptor biomarkers (hormonal receptors) and ErBb2in Iraqi women with pathological lesions of the breast. This study involved 75 casesof invasive breast lesions. Age of patients ranged from 23-75 years at the diagnosed time. These cases were graded according to Nottingham grading system. Statistical significant association reported between transcription factorexpression with nuclear hormonal receptors (p= 0.0001), while inverse association with ErBb2 (p= 0.0001). This transcription factorhas a positive association with hormonal receptors and an inverse correlation with ErBb2, lymph nodes and histology grade. Its means that this factor was associated with good prognosis elements of breast cancer.
Prolapsed intervertebrallumbar discshappens in about 5-10% of patients presented with backache and contributes to considerable morbidity withsignificant economic and functional loss. It may occur at any age, but is uncommon in the very young and very old. After failure of conservative treatment trial, the mainstay treatment of lumbar disc prolapse is discectomy which can be done by different methods. The aim of study is to evaluate the short term clinical outcomesof open limited discectomy for lumber disc prolapse. This is a prospective cohort study included 42 patients who are suffering from back pain and or leg pain due to lumbar disc prolapse treated surgically by the samesurgical team at Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital from October 2016 to October 2018.Clinical assessment was done for them using preoperative and postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association Score (JOAS). Additionally MacNab criteria were used to determine the functional improvement for all patients wereopen limited discectomy for theme was done at the time of their final follow up. All patients were satisfied with their treatment. The mean±SD for their pre-operativeJOAS was 9.02±1.38which improved to 23.19±1.19 after the operation,these improvements were statistically significant (P
229 Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Bocavirus Isolated from Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Baghdad, Iraq, Duraid A Hassan, Areej A Hussein, Qasim S Al-Mayah, Iman M Aufi
Acute respiratory infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, several types of viruses associated with this disease. This study aims to determine the infection rate of human bocavirus in children with lower respiratory tract infection and identify the genotyping among study population. Cross sectional study which consists of 122 children under five years old suffering from lower respiratory tract infection (75 males and 47 females); their aged from range 1 month to 60 months. They were attending respiratory wards in Fatima Al-Zahraa Hospital, Al-Elwiya Pediatrics Hospital, Ibn Al-Baladi Hospital and Pediatrics Protection Hospital in Baghdad, during the period from December 2017 to February 2018. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from each participant, then used for DNA extraction and amplification with specific primers. Out of all 122 samples, eight samples were positive for HBoV (6.6%). Most infection were recorded in males 5(62.5%) and patients in age group 1-30 months 7(87.5%). The results of phylogenetic analysis for HBoV DNA isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs revealed all local isolates (8 isolates) are with HBoV type 1, half of the local isolates (4) were closed to Iranian isolation and the other four were closed to isolates from different regions (Tunisia, Italy and Argentina isolation). Some variant in amino acid noticed after alignment to the local isolates with some Gene Bank isolates and deletion of amino acid occur in isolates number one and five in more than two position but the substitution revealed in isolate number six in three position. In conclusion, infection rate of HBoV-1 comparable with result of neighboring countries, local isolate of HBoV-1 have their characteristic genetic structure which differentiation them from other international isolate.
230 Serum leptin level evaluation in a sample of Iraqi patients with inflammatory bowel disease, Ali S Musa Al SHAMMAA, Haithamkaddouri Hussein, Basim A Askar
Adipocytokines display a vital role in inflammation and metabolism, body metabolism changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), so we must investigate the level of serum leptin in patients how had active or non-active Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this descriptive study is to evaluate the serum leptin level in a sample of Iraqi patients with IBD of variable disease activity index. The serum concentration of leptin was studied in 79 patients diagnosed as IBD 41 patients diagnosed as CD and in 38 persons diagnosed as UC. The diagnosis based on colonoscopy, CT, MRI, US and histopathological examination of the mucosa. Serum leptin and CRP were measured by an indirect ELISA. The leptin level was compared with CRP and correlated with disease activity and localization. Our data showed that out of 38 patients diagnosed as UC, 29 (76.3%) patients had left-sided colitis, while those with pancolitis were 9 (23.7%). On the other hand, out of 41 patients diagnosed as CD, 10 (24.4%) patients had colonic involvement, 10 (24.4%) had ideal involvement, and the remainder 21 (51.2%) had an ileocolonic extension. serum leptin in the UC group was significantly associated with disease activity in an inverse pattern (p = 0.045), while there was no significant association between leptin level and activity index in the CD group (p = 0.773). while no significant association between the action index in patients with Crohn’s disease and leptin level P-value = 0.77. No significant correlation was found between serum leptin activity and anti-TNF treatment in both UC (p = 0.262) and CD patients (p = 0.894). To conclude, there was a significant association between disease activity in UC and CD and serum leptin level (inverse relationship), but there was no association had been found with CD patients.
231 Determination of some visfatin hormone level and lipid profilein some breast cancer patients in Samarra city, Aseel Mokdad Hatam Abdulwahed1, Mahmood I. M. Alkanaani,Asmaa HassanJuma Alsamarrai,Mohammed Abdul-Monaim Hamad,AbrarHusham Dakhee, TahaYousifAhmed , Marwan Q.AL-Samarraie
Our study aimed to estimate visfatin hormone levels and lipid profile levels in some patients. The study group included 20 women with breast cancer and a control group of 10 healthy women. The hormonal and biochemical assays include visfatin hormone, total cholesterol (TC), TGS, LDL-C, HDL-C, and VLVL-C. The results showed a significant increase at (P≥0.05) in visfatin, TC, TGS, LDL-C, and VLDL-C in breast cancer patients compared to the control group, while HDL-C didn’t show any significant difference between both groups.
232 The role of brain MRI in status epilepticus, Yahya Mohammed Yaseen, Dr. Noor Kathem Nee'ma Al-Waely , Hasan Azeez Al-Hamadani
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used as an investigation tool in status epilepticus (SE). It measures edema and cytotoxic edema that includes both cortical and/or subcortical constructions. The objective of our study is to identify the brain MRI changes that occur in patients with status epilepticus. A cross can aid in understanding ictal/postictal pathophysiology. Peri-ictal abnormalities may apparent as vasogenic -sectional analytic study conducted on patients with status epilepticus admitted to the emergency room or neurological ward at Al–Imamain AL-Kadhymain Medical City and AL-Yarmook Teaching Hospital for the period between January 2018 and January 2019. Brain MRI exam was performed for eligible patients using 3 Tesla MRI unit utilizing standard imaging protocol consisting of the following sequences: axial T2, coronal FLAIR, axial and/or sagittal T1, DWI and ADC maps with additional sequences tailored by the available clinical data and the imaging findings. Patients with positive MRI findings attributable to status were followed up by an MRI exam after 3 months. 28 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 40.6±18.4 years and the age range 18-80 years. Female to male ratio was 2.1:1. The frequency of MRI changes in SE patients was 3 out of 28 (10.7%). History of epilepsy was present among 28.6% of patients with SE. The primary etiology of status epilepticus for patients with MRI changes were a remote ischemic stroke for one patient and idiopathic etiology for the other two patients. Follow up MRI showed that two patients (66.7%) had reversible MRI changes, while one patient (33.35%) had mixed reversible and irreversible changes. A significant negative association was observed between the time interval from SE onset to MRI and the development of SE-related brain MRI changes (p=0.02). Our results show that 10.7 % of patients with status epilepticus had positive brain MRI changes attributable to status. The earlier an MR exam is performed for these patients, the more likely that MRI changes will be observed.