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International Journal Of Modern Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2319-5878
Journal Papers (191) Details
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Indexed Journal

1 DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIENT ENRICHED FUNCTINAL BISCUITS FOR MALNOURISHED SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN , Sumaiya Mamun, Mohammad Abduz Zaher, Ielias Uddin and Prof. Dr. A. K. Obidul Huq*
A nutrient-enriched functional biscuit was developed for malnourished children as a supplementary food in the present study. One control biscuits and vitamin premix enriched three sample biscuits were formulated and organoleptic properties were tested for evaluation. Total 11 children performed sensory evaluation. Control biscuits were devoid of vitamin premix, whereas in sample-1, 2 and 3 incorporating 0.5, 0.75 and 1% vitamin premix added respectively. Proximate composition analysis showed that controlled biscuits contain 4.8% moisture, 2.3% crude fiber, 14.7% protein, 19.5% fat, 56.1% carbohydrate, 2.1% ash and energy 458 Kcal. In case of organoleptic evaluation, sample -2 biscuits was more acceptable compared to all other quality characteristics by the organoleptic test. Sample-2 biscuits contain 4.5% moisture, 3.5% crude fiber, 14.6% protein, 19.9% fat, 55% carbohydrate, 2.3% ash and energy 457 Kcal. Proximate analysis and sensory evaluation concluded that, our newly developed biscuit-2 has the optimum taste and nutrient content; therefore, further implications of this research are necessary in favour of school-going children.
2 INVESTIGATION OF APOPTOTIC AND ANGIOGENİC EFFECTS OF BORON IN HUMAN LUNG CANCER CELLS (A549) , Hande Aytuğ* and Funda Karabağ Çoban
Today, lung cancer, one of the most important health problems, is the most common cause of mortality in both men and women. A549 lung cells derived from human alveolar carcinoma cells match the type II alveolar cell phenotype, have many characteristics of human primary alveolar epithelial cells. Boron is used in many fields such as , nuclear, glass, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, detergents, agriculture and its usage areas are increasing day by day. Recent studies have shown that boron is an important element for human health. Based on this information, this study investigated the effect of different concentrations of boric acid in the A549 human lung cancer cell line, by analyzing proliferation assay, TAS (Total Antioxidant Status), TOS (Total Oxidant Status), VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) and PARP (Poly (ADP-). Ribose Polymerase). Proliferation assay was performed using CCK8 Assay Kit. TAS, TOS, VEGF and PARP analyzes were performed using Sun-Red Human Total Antioxidant Status Elisa Kit, Sun-Red Human Total Oxidant Status Elisa Kit, Sun-Red Human (VEGF) Elisa Kit and Sun-Red Human (PARP) Elisa Kit, respectively. it is made. In the study, the proliferation test showed that the viability values decreased in proportions with doses at 5 mM, 10 mM, 20 mM, 40 mM and 100 mM concentrations and the IC50 value was determined as 20 mM. There was no significant difference between TAS and TOS analysis. In VEGF values, it was observed that VEGF values decreased at 10 mM and 20 mM boric acid concentrations compared to the control group, but there was no significant difference in 40 mM boric acid concentration. A significant increase in PARP values was observed at all concentrations of 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM. As a result; We may be think 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM concentrations of boric acid may decrease angiogenesis by decreasing VEGF levels. As a result of the increase in PARP values, we may be think boric acid leads to cell necrosis at concentrations of 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM.
3 FORMULATION OF A NEWLY DEVELOPED DIETARY SUPPLEMENT FROM MARINE SOURCES , Md. Sohel Rana, Mesbah Uddin Talukder, Sumaiya Mamun, Shireen Nigar, Mohammad Abduz Zaher and Prof. Dr. A. K. Obidul Huq*
Supplementation of foods is of current interest because of increasing nutritional awareness among consumers. A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. Spirulina is selected to this study for its high protein content and its varieties health benefits. The objective of this study is to produce dietary capsule from marine sources and evaluate its efficacy on health and nutrition. Proximate composition of Spirulina plus capsule was analyzed. Protein content of Spirulina plus capsule was (71.19±1.11) % and it removes protein energy malnutrition. It contains a considerable amounts of ash, fiber which has beneficial health effects. The final product Spirulina plus capsule contained (9.16±0.004) % fat which can help for brain development. Spirulina plus capsule had (12.09±0.02) % fiber which can remove constipation. Microbial test of final product represents that the product was safe. It was concluded that Spirulina plus capsule is enriched with the mixture of some other ingredients and it becomes a good dietary supplement to the consumers.
4 INVESTIGATION OF APOPTOTIC AND ANTIANGIOGENIC EFFECTS OF BORON IN MCF-7 CELLS , Ali Osman Albayrak*, Funda Karabağ Çoban, Mehmet Emrah Şelli and Hande Aytuğ
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women and ranks second among the causes of female death in the world. In order to find a solution to breast cancer, different studies are being conducted for the treatment and the effects of different drugs and substances on this disease are intensively investigated. Boric acid has been shown to control the proliferation of certain types of cancer cells. In the study, different concentrations of boric acid were applied on MCF-7 cell line to determine IC50 values of boric acid and its antiproliferative effect was determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) ELISA kit at 24, 48 and 72 hours. According to the results, other analyzes were performed over the 48 hour incubation period. After the IC50 values of boric acid at 48 hours were determined, Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) kit was used to determine apoptotic effects for boric acid. Cell lysates were obtained after the application of defined IC50 doses to the cells for determination of biochemical parameters. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) kit was used to determine the angiogenic effects with the obtained samples. As a result, in this study, it was observed that concentration and time-dependent boric acid decreased proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. At the same time, according to the PARP results, it was found that the concentrations of boric acid significant differences compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between boric acid concentrations and Cis Platin groups. It is thought that both groups showed an increase compared to the control group, and boric acid leads the cell to necrosis like Cis Platinum. When VEGF results were examined to explain the relationship between boric acid and angiogenesis, significant differences were observed with both control group and Cis Platinum. Boric acid groups have been shown to be more effective than Cis Platin in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and to be an antiangiogenic agent. In this respect, further studies are needed to investigate how the effects of molecular anticancerogenic mechanisms of MCF-7 cells and boric acid on cell polarization are realized.
5 AN AYURVEDIC VIEW OF UNDERSTANDING KANDA BHAGNA AND ITS GENERAL MANAGEMENT (A REVIEW ARTICLE) , Dr. Bharat Kumar M.*, Dr. Vishwanath Sharma, Dr. Shailaja S. V.
Bhagna in ancient period were encountered during war or animal attack but in present time it occurs due to large sudden force on bone, chronic repetitive force or due to road traffic accidents. It was very well explained by Acharya Sushruta depending upon nature of trauma, shape of fracture, displacement of fractured fragment and fracture with or without wound. Acharya Sushruta explained Bhagna of 2 types- Kandabhagna and Sandhimoksha.[1] Kandabhagna is of 12 types which has been explained elaborately.[2] The principle of Bhagna Chikitsa defined by Acharya Sushruta centuries ago are as per condition either conservative or surgical management. The modalities explained by Acharya Sushruta like kusha bandha, aalepa, chakrayoga are much beneficial in the management of bhagna.[3] Therefore the concept theories and techniques which were practical several years ago holds true even in modern era.
6 DRYING AND SALTING FISH USING DIFFERENT METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE SENSORY, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL INDICES , *Hassan Hadi Mehdi AL- Rubaiy, Khalid Hassak Abdul Hassan and Mohammad Zyarah Eskandder
Different types of fish, such as sardines, Hamour, noebi, fsikh, carp, and other kinds, were salted and dried by different drying methods such as natural sun drying, drying by vacuum solar dryer, drying by electric ovens and by using a microwave oven, In different regions of the world. The studies indicated that the drying efficiency was varied with the different drying methods in terms of drying rate and storage period of dried fish and its effect on the organoleptic, chemical and microbial indices. In general, all the drying methods used to drying fish gave a high efficiency except natural sun drying. Even though different methods were used to dry the salted fish, the percentages of chemical composition and indices were close. As for the microbial indices, the microwave drying efficiency exceeded compared with all the drying methods. The natural sun drying method gave less efficiency in eliminating microbes, and it also differed whether the fish was salted or unsalted, and this affected the storage periods. The different methods in drying and salting fish were affected by the rate of dehydration, which led to a variation in the percentage.
7 TWO CASES OF DIABETIC CRANIAL NEUROPATHY , *Dr. Pranav Bhagwat
Diabetes has become one of the largest global health-care problems of the 21 st century. The number of people with diabetes worldwide is predicted to double between 2000 and 2030, reaching a pandemic level of 366 million people.[1] Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes [2] in which cranial nerve palsies are rare and associated with long-standing poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.
8 ASSESSMENT OF ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF A POLYHERBAL FORMULATION BA019 , Aparna P. and Dr. Brahma Srinivasa Rao Desu*
In this study, anti-hyperlipidemic activity of polyherbal formulation BA019 was assessed by two animal models, Triton induced hyperlipidaemia and fructose diet induced hyperelipidaemia in wisar rats. In both animal models, BA019 produced a significant reduction in serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides. The effect of 200 mg/kg of BA019 was significant when compared to vehicle treated group. The effect of 400mg/kg of BA019 was nearly equal to standard drug Atrovastatin (10mg/kg, p.o). These results showed that polyherbal formulation BA019 possessed anti-hyperlipidemic activity.
9 RATIO SUBTRACTION COUPLED WITH EXTENDED RATIO SUBTRACTION METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL AND ORPHENADRINE CITRATE IN THEIR COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS , Mahmoud M. Sebaiy* and Amr A. Mattar
A simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method was settled for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and orphenadrine citrate in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. Ratio Subtraction coupled with Extended Ratio Subtraction has been used in simultaneous determination of both drugs without prior separation. Ratio Subtraction coupled with Extended Ratio Subtraction method parameters were validated according to ICH guidelines in which accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found in accepted limits. Advantages and disadvantages of Ratio Subtraction coupled with Extended Ratio Subtraction were discussed and statistical comparison between the proposed method and the reference method was performed.
10 A CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF ROOKSHANA POORVAKA VAMANA KARMA IN PCOS , Seetharamu M. S.*, Kiran M. Goud and Shreyas D. M.
Polycystic ovarian disease or syndrome is a condition characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbances, obesity, hirsutism and infertility. It is a health problem that affects three in ten women of the child bearing age group. Menstrual disturbances include amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea and irregular menstruation which further leads to infertility. Ultrasound examination shows cysts in the ovaries. Conventional treatment for PCOS includes lifestyle changes, ovulation induction, surgical theraphy and other symptomatic treatment modalities. Considering the menstrual abnormalities and anovulation, pcos can be correlated to Arthava kshaya, where prakupitha Kapha does the avarana of Apana vata. Sarvanga Udhwartana followed sarvanga basshpa sweda as vishista poorva karma and Vamana karam is a treatment modality applied to enhance the suppressed action of vata by relieving the Kapha Avarana. Vamana karma helps in decreasing saumya guna and increases Agneya Guna. It was observed that Maximum patient in the study given statistically significant relief in almost all Parameters. The results of the present clinical study has given (p<o.oo1) which shown statistically highly significant.
11 CONCEPT OF GURU CHA ATARPANA IN THE PRESENT ERA W.S.R TO STHOULYA , Dr. Manjula*, Dr. Lolashri S. J., Dr. Kiran M. Goud
In the present era of modernization, people are dependent on modernized technologies forcing them to live in sedentary life style and every lifestyle has drastic changes in their dietary habits and regimens leading to chronic and non communicable diseases. Among them Sthoulya is one of the major risk factor. Sthoulya is common nutritional disorder in affluent societies and most prevalent in developed countries. The management of Sthoulya as described in Ayurvedic classics are Nidanaparivarjana, Apatarpana chikitsa and Shamana and Shodhana chikitsa, among them Guru cha Atarpana is selected as low calorie diet therapy to discuss its importance and way of use in the present era. So the Aim and Objective is to highlight the importance of Guru and Atarpana in the form of Ahara and Pana as low diet calorie, high fiber and protein in the context of Chikitsa of Medoroga or Santarpanottajanya vyadhi chikitsa as explained by our Acharya.
12 ALOPECIA MANAGEMENT MINOXIDIL IMPROVING HAIR GROWTH: AN OVERVIEW , Suresh Ghritlahare*, Pushpendra Kurre, Govind Panagar and Trilochan Satapathy
Hair is one of the important parts of our body. Hair failure is a familiar complaint, both men and women & use of prescription medications is well-known. Hair loss can be divided into three types: 1. Noncicatricial (potentially reversible), 2. Cicatricial 3. Due to hair shaft abnormalities. The scalp hair grows in cycles of anagen (growth), catagen (involution), telogen (resting), and exogen (release of dead hair) phases. Causes of hair loss: Hair loss is a dermatological disorder that has been recognised for more than 2000 years. Drugs that cause hair loss Drugs can cause telogen hair loss that starts about 12 weeks after starting the drug and continues while on the drug. 10 Dosing changes can also precipitate hair shedding. Any medication or over the counter product the patient is taking should be suspected in hair loss. Drugs known to cause telogen effluvium are oral contraceptive pills, androgens, retinoids, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and the anticoagulants heparin and warfarin. Medicines used to treat arthritis (Penicillamine, Indomethacin, Naprosyn and Methotrexate), parkinson’s disease (levodopa); any other medication which has an androgenic (male) hormone action, such as - anabolic steroids, often used by athletes and bodybuilders or danocrine used for treating endometriosis in women causes hair loss. Diagnosis of hair loss: Biopsy of central scalp, daily hair count, wash test, Hair pull test etc. Treatments of hair loss: a herbal drug used in treatment of alopecia i.e. Common names are Avocado Shikakai, Arnica, Onion, Birch, Mustard, Tea, Marigold, Pepper, Mandukparni ete. Synthetic drugs used for treatment of hair loss are Minoxidil, Finasteride, Zinc, Skinoren/Azelaic Acid, Ketoconazoie, Cyproterone Acetate with Ethinyl oestradiol, Cimetidine, Cyproterone Acetate, Spironoloactone, Prezatide copper etc. minoxidil was transformed from an antihypertensive to hair-loss drug, Minoxidil affects hair follicles by inducing proliferation and differentiation of the dermal papilla cell at the bulb base. FDA approved 2% solutions for female patients. This stops the hair loss in patients with AGA and stimulates new hair growth.
13 AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT OF PCOS WSR TO PUSHPAGNI JATAHARINI-A CASE STUDY , Dr. Raksha S.* and Papiya Jana
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) is the most common endocrine abnormality in reproductive aged women affecting approximately 5-10% of this population. The classis triad of this syndrome consists of chronic ovulation dysfunction, hirsutism (male pattern hair growth) and obesity. The exciting news recently involves understading the contribution of insulin resistance to the etiology and treatment of PCOS as well as the recent addition of ultrasound diagnostic tool. In Ayurveda, Pushpagni jataharini mentioned in kasyapa samhitha presents a clinical picture somewhat similar to that of PCOS. Analysing the signs and symptoms of disease, it can be inferred that vitiated kapha causes srotorodha resulting in vatavaigunya. Agneya property of pitta is also depleted. So adopting vata kaphahara and pitta vridhikara treatment, we can manage the disease through Ayurveda, which is affordable and devoid of major side effects.
14 APOPTOSIS AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE PROPERTIES OF LUPEOL ON HUMAN TUMOR CELLS , Madhan Mohan T., P. Arul Prakash and A. Jayachitra*
Lupeol, a triterpene found in plant source like fruits and vegetables which selectively induced apoptosis of cancer cells. It also regulates several apoptosis signaling pathways in cancer cells. It has downregulated the proteolysis activity of secreted MMP-2 protein suggesting the efficacy of Lupeol against the spread of Cancer cells. Its role in induction of pro-apoptotic protein indicates that Lupeol rectifies the errors in apoptotic machinery of cancer cells. Lupeol treatment showed cell growth inhibition, anti-inflammatory effects, and tumor regression using FACS for cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, ROS. Furthermore, Lupeol showed antiproliferative action towards U87MG cells at the Inhibitory concentration of 33.76μM. On cell cycle analysis, Inhibition of cells at various stages by lupeol was observed between control and treated. The vast difference in peak count revealed with treated sample count at 300(peak 1) & 240(peak 2) whereas control count at 440(peak 1)& 300(peak 2). The apoptosis inducing activity of lupeol on U-87MG cells shows mean difference treated at 64.982 compared to control at 80.823. Lupeol also regulated the reactive oxygen species in the cells in which excessive distribution occurred at the range of 50-150. These studies conclude that lupeol has the ability to inhibit and induce the Apoptosis, ROS. Thus, confirming anti tumor properties of lupeol.
15 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SINGLE POTENT BIOAGENT AGAINST THREE SPECIES OF MOSQUITO LARVAE , Selva Seematti R.* and Prabakaran V.
Mosquitoes are the most important transmitted vector. It can able to carry many disease-causing viruses and parasites. Several species belonging to genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex are vectors for the pathogen of various diseases like dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. Anopheles stephensi are major malaria vectors in India. With an annual incidence of 300-500 million, malaria is still one of the most important communicable diseases. Currently, about 40% of the world s population live in areas where malaria is endemic. Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of lymphatic filariasis, is widely distributed in tropical zones with around 120 million people infected worldwide and 44 million people having common chronic manifestation. Aedes aegypti is known to carry dengue. In the present study focused with three-difference mosquitoes were selected, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The three different mosquito larvae were selected based on instar 2nd, 3rd, 4th. In order to study the Predatory potential of Diplonychus indicus and the prey preference of various nymphal instars like III, IV, V, Male and Female were chosen. Hence the efficacy of three different mosquito larvae were exposed to Diplonychus indicus has been reported to show selective feeding behavior on mosquito larvae. Beyond, which in overall experiment denoted the predators (Diplonychus indicus) were studied, comparative between various larvae only the maximum activity exposed to Aedes aegypti at 4th instars larvae to the dominant exposure in male predators. The success of biological control agents using natural enemies depends on the ability of the predator to select target prey populations.
16 VANDYATVA – A CASE STUDY , Dr. Chaitra N.*, Dr. Papiya Jana
Motherhood is near to divinity. There are many conditions which prevent a woman from being a mother. A remarkable decline in fertility is observed beyond the age of 30years due to poor quality of ovum and quantitative reduction in the number of follicles. Conception depends on multiple factors, ovulation being one among them. Infertility is that, in which the ability to reproduce becomes impaired. Anovulation is one of the causes of infertility in 25% to 40% of women in child bearing age group. In ayurveda Vandhyatva is a vata dosha pradhana vyadi, Ovulation is under control of vata especially Apana vata. Here phala ghrita, Yosa jeevani lehya and Maharsi Amrita kalasha is been used and treated the present case successfully and proved effective. Present article will explain how to understand and manage infertility based on ayurvedic perspective.
17 SULPHONAMIDE DRUGS AND PSEUDOMONAS AEROGINOSA RESISTANCE: A REVIEW , Egbujor Melford C.*, Nwobodo David C., Egwuatu Pius I., Abu Ifeanyichukwu P., Ezeagu Casmir U.
Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial agents to be used systematically which have also been widely utilized as antimalarial, anticancer, antiretroviral, diuretic, antihypertensive agents to mention but a few. Sulphonamide was first isolated from coal tar in 1935 for the treatment of bacterial infections due to its selective toxicity against bacterium cell thereby paving the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. Over the years, sulphonamide drugs lost its preference as the first line drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial infections because of the increased resistance exhibited by certain bacteria especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The unique resistance of Pseudomonas aerusginosa against sulphonamide is quite worrisome due to the fact that this bacterium being one of the scariest bacteria in the world is responsible for several serious infections that were erstwhile curable with inexpensive sulphonamide drugs. Several isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have considerable defense against reliable antibiotics and their concomitant infections are difficult to treat because of complex enzymic and mutational mechanisms of resistance exhibited by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review observed and proposed the potential ways of tackling the recalcitrance of Pseudomonas aeroginosa to sulfonamide though structural modifications and derivatization.
18 STUDY OF PHYSICO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BUCCAL PATCHES ALONG WITH THE PERMEATION OF LOADED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG , Gopa Roy Biswas*, Simran Shaw, Parna Pati, Sutapa Biswas Majee
The buccal patches of Atenolol were designed in such a way that the mucoadhesive layers was incorporated along with the circumference of the circular patch. The major ingredients selected for the matrix layer were the drug and control release polymer (either HPMC K15M or HPMC K4M) while the Mucoadhesive layer was predominantly comprised of gum karaya. The designed patches were subjected to different evaluations like thickness uniformity, average weight, folding endurance, mucoadhesion strength, swelling behavior. The physico mechanical properties of the patches found to be satisfactory and they were subjected to permeation studies. In vitro permeation study was conducted for 8hrs in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 using dialysis membrane. The cumulative drug permeated from formulation was found to be 32 - 49 % and the permeation profiles for each batch was almost linear. The permeability coefficient was found in a range of 0.041 cm/h. to 0.053 cm/hr and flux was found in a range of 1.43- 1.85 mg cm-2 hr -1.
19 BOTANICALLY DERIVED FRIEDELANE TYPE ISOPRENOIDS: A MINI-REVIEW ON THEIR PESTICIDAL POTENTIALS. , Ekenna I. C. and Afieroho O. E.*
Friedelane-type isoprenoids are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes that includes friedelin and its derivatives. Several reports on their numerous biological activities in both in vivo and in vitro experimental models have been reported. This report is a review on the pesticidal friedelane-type isoprenoids of botanic origin, their mechanisms of action and salient structure activity relationship. Generally, the type and stereochemistry of the substituent at position C-3 of the friedelane 1 triterpene skeleton greatly affects biological activity of these phyto-constituents.
20 EXTRACTION, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW COMPOUND AND ANTI-BACTERIAL POTENTIALS OF THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPOUND FROM LEPTADENIA HASTATA LEAF EXTRACT , Isaac John Umaru*, Fasihuddin A. Badruddin and Hauwa A. Umaru
This study was carried out with the aim of exploring the chemical constituents medicinal plant Leptadenia hastata. Identification of the compounds were based on the molecular structure, molecular mass and calculated fragments. Interpretation on mass spectrum GC-MS was conducted using the database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST). The name, molecular weight and structure of the components of the test materials were ascertained using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrometry (FTIR). Phytochemicals were isolated from the leaves extracts of Leptadenia hastata, after the extraction from solvent, dichloromethane The chemical compounds isolated include Benzyl alcohol (1), 3-Pyridine carboxylate (2), 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol (3). This study revealed that this medicinal plant Leptadenia hastata extract from dichloromethane had some potential phytochemicals. These chemical constituents were isolated and characterised for the first in the leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata.
21 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS , Deshpande S.N.*
Plants are rich in phytochemicals. These play active role in the treatment of diseases. Though chemotherapeutic drugs are used to treat diseases they have side effects and develop resistance, hence there is need of alternative medicine. The present study was therefore undertaken to screen some medicinal plants for phytochemical constituents by simple chemical qualitative tests. For this ethanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of leaves of Abrus precatorius L., Psidium guajava L. Piper betle L., Azadirechta indica L.and stem bark of Acacia nilotica L.were prepared by Soxhlet method. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phytosterols and tannins in all selected plants extracts. However amino acids were absent in all selected plants extracts. Saponins and cardiac glycosides were found in all selected plants extracts except ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extract of Abrus precatorius L. Flavonoids and anthraquinones were found only in Acacia nilotica L.Fixed oils and fats were present in only Psidium guajava L however,proteins in Psidium guajava L. and Acacia nilotica L.Presence of various phytochemicals in the plants selected for study is suggestive of their medicinal use in folk medicine.
22 HAEMATOLOGICAL STUDY OF FRESH WATER FISH- LABEO ROHITA & CATLA CATLA , Sadaf Anis Don*
There are variations in blood cell count and percentage haemoglobin in different fish species, these variations are remarkable in planktophagous and carnivorous fishes found in fresh water reservoirs. In relation to change in habitat, seasonal changes, parasitic infection, effect of pollutants, relative physiological activities shows difference in haematological parameters. The blood sample of fish –Labeo rohita and Catla Catla were examined to study the blood cell count and haemoglobin percentage from vasundri Talao, Titwala (Distric-Thane.) The present study suggested that these fishes are important sources of animal protein and good for human health.
23 ADVERSE EVENTS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS AT WA, THE UPPER WEST REGIONAL HOSPITAL OF GHANA , Inusah Deunaa Iddrisu*, Akwasi Anyanful and Samuel Victor Nuvor
Background: Being discharged from the hospital is sometimes associated with complications which may be dangerous to the patient. Adverse events are unintended injuries or complications which may result in death, disability and prolonged hospital stay after discharge or related to the hospital visit. This paper aims at giving an insight into the relationship between patient demographic factors and the incidence, types and severity of adverse events after hospitalization in a secondary hospital in Northern Ghana. Method: A prospective cohort study into the relationship between adverse events and patient demographic factors. This was carried out with patients admitted and discharged from Wa Hospital. A total of 206 patients were recruited from the medical, surgical and emergency wards of the hospital. Findings: Adverse events were found to increase with age. The adverse events at age of less than 20 years was 2.4%, between 31 to 40 was 3.3% , 41 to 50 was 3.8%, 51 to 60 was 7.2% and 61 and above was 7.2%. However, 21 to 30 years age group had 9.2% of adverse events. There were no differences in occurrence of adverse events among sexes and other demographic characteristics of the patient with exception of age groups (p<0.050) which had influence on the type of adverse events. The level of literacy and education did not also influence the occurrences of adverse events. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics of patients might not contribute to the development of adverse events after they are discharged from the hospital. However, the age of patients may influence adverse events development probably because of their weaknesses in old age. Improvement in patients social lives will help to reduce the occurrence of adverse events after patients had been discharged from the hospital.
24 THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF BAUHINIA RACEMOSA LAM BARK ON CYSTEAMINE INDUCED ULCERS , Dr. C. Girish*, A. Neelima and D. Haritha Goud
An experiment was conducted to study the antiulcer effect of the dried bark powder of the plant Bauhinia racemosa in wistar albino rats. Cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in the rat is widely used as a model of peptic ulcer disease. 36 wistar rats of either sex weighing between 180 -200gm were selected and divided into six groups, each comprising of 6 rats. 6 groups of rats were given with 0.5% CMC solution, 50 mg/kg of Ranitidine, 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Bauhinia racemosa, 400mg/kg of aqueous extract of Bauhinia racemosa (AEBR), 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract of Bauhinia racemosa and 400mg/kg of methanolic extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR) respectively. After one hour all the groups were administered with cysteamine at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight orally. After 24 hrs, note down the number of ulcers, ulcer score, percent incidence, ulcer index and healing index were recorded. From the results obtained it was concluded that the methanolic extract at a dose of 400mg/kg shows antiulcer activity.
25 VIROSOMES; A NOVAL APPROACH IN NOVAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW , Mufeeda P., Nishad K. M.*, Sirajudheen M. K. and Shiji Kumar P. S.
Promising drugs are often discontinued during development because they cannot be suitably delivered to target cells, tissues and organs. The new generation therapy for various disorders needs a delivery system that target drug to specified cell types and host tissues. Virosomal technology represents a novel sophisticated delivery system to meet these challenges .Virosomes are reconstituted viral envelops that can fill in as vaccines or it can be utilized as vehicles for conveying peptide, nucleic acids and various medications like antitoxic ,anticancer agents and steroids. This safely modified viral envelop mainly consist of a phospholipid membrane and surface glycoprotein. It is derived from several virus envelops .Influenza virosome and sendai virosomes are most common. Their surface can be suitably modified to facilitate targeted drug delivery. How ever their pharmacokinetics clinical effect, bioavailability, stability etc. should be thoroughly studied to ensure long term reliability as safe, effective and affordable means of drug delivery. Thus drug delivery by using biomimetic novel drug delivery systems such as virosomes is a motivating research and development field. This review focus on various features of virosomes such as structure, advantages, disadvantages, formulation, application, kinetics etc
26 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF SPHAGNETICOLA TRILOBATA (L.) , A. K. Anjana, P. L. Rajagopal*, P. N. Sajith Kumar, I. Arthi, Meera B. Nair and S. Aneeshia
The invitro antioxidant properties of the whole plant were studied in ABTS ,NO and Superoxide dismutase models. The antioxidant study had been carried out with the leaves of the plant. The leaf extract of the plant showed significant antioxidant properties. The plant was also reported to contain secondary metabolites like phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The antioxidant property exhibited by the leaf extract of the plant could be due to the presence of these secondary metabolites.
27 MANAGING ANXIETY IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE , Irfat Ara, Shazad Yaqoob, Basharat Bukhari, Weeqar Younis Raja and Mudasir Maqbool*
Anxiety (Izterab-eNafsani) is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, cognitive, emotional and behavioural components. As per Unani Medicine, anxiety comes under the Infialat-e-Nafsaniyah (Psychic Reactions). Terminologically Infialat-e-Nafsaniyah is the movements of ruh (pneuma) and blood with the help of Quwwat-e-Haiwaniyah (vital faculty). Unani Medicine treats the patient on holistic parameters jointly together for preventive and curative aspects. In preventive aspect different high protein seeds are used to provide stimulus as brain tonic and strengthen the nervine activity for example almond, pistachio, kaju, kaddu and kahu seeds etc. Unani physicians use many single and compound drugs for the treatment of anxiety (Izteraab-e- Nafsaani), which is mentioned in their classical texts. The purpose of the drugs used in Unani system of Medicine is correction of Su-e- Mizaj (Abnormal Temperament) as they are of the opinion that anxiety (Izterab-e- Nafsani) is due to Su-e- Mizaj Har Sada and Su-e- Mizaj Maddi i.e Su-e- Mizaj Safrawi and Su-e- Mizaj Saudawi. This review briefly explains about Anxiety (Izterab-eNafsani) in terms of Unani medicine and some Unani and herbal drugs used in its treatment.
28 ANTIMICROBIAL USE IN LIVESTOCK AND AGRICULTURE: EXPLORING THE CONSEQUENTIAL RESISTANCE , K. K. Safdar*, Rashid K., Anwer K., Shana Thasni A. K. and Dr. Shiji Kumar P. S.
The use of antimicrobial compounds in the production of animal feed has demonstrated benefits, including better animal health, greater production and, in some cases, reduction of foodborne pathogens. However, the use of antibiotics for agricultural fins, in particular to stimulate growth, was closely monitored, as it demonstrates a contribution to the increased prevalence of bacterial antibiotics resistant to human importance. The transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and the selection of resistant bacteria can be done by different mechanisms, which are not always linked to the use of applicable antibiotics. Prevalence data can provide insight into the occurrence and changes in resistance over time; however, the reasons are diverse and complex. This issue has been widely discussed in the past nationally and internationally, and several adopted countries are either considering stricter restrictions or prohibitions on certain types of use of antibiotics in the production of animals for food. In some cases, the ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics appears to result in a decrease in the prevalence of certain drug-resistant bacteria; however, subsequent objects in animal morbidity and mortality, particularly in young animals, sometimes result in increased use of therapeutic antibiotics, which generally occur in families of drugs more relevant to human medicine.
29 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON PREVALENCE OF COLORECTAL CANCER WITH RANITIDINE , Naseeh P. K.* and Amit Ranjan
The relation between use of histamine-2-receptor (H2-receptor) antagonists and colorectal cancer risk was investigated in an exceedingly case-control study. The incidence of gastric cancer was raised for the primary few years once the beginning of treatment with H2-receptor antagonists, this could replicate misdiagnosis of some early gastric cancers. The findings square measure against long persistence of AN excess risk of gastric cancer in association with use of H2-receptor antagonists. In this review article, Includes the some of the article wised study review on prevalence of colorectal cancer with ranitidine.
30 A NARRATIVE REVIEW ARTICLE ON CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INTERRACTION OF DRUGS WITH GRAPE FRUITJUICE , Mohamed Fayis P.*, Dr. Lita Susan Thomas, Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K. and Sherin A.
 The aim of the review is to study the interaction between drugs and grape fruit juice. Grape fruit is a nutrition fruit. Many patient are concerned about the potential for drugs interaction with grape fruit juice. Grape fruit juice interact with many of the drugs produce severe problems. Grape fruit or grape fruit juice can alter enzyme in the body and effect how drugs are changed in the body before eliminated. Grape fruit juice decrease the activity of the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme that are responsible for taking down many drugs and toxins. It contains compound known as Furano coumarin that block CYP3A4 enzymes (CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition) which in turn affect s the metabolism of the drugs by this enzyme. Blood levels of the drug may rise, resulting in a risk for new or worsened side effects. The literature shows that one whole fruit or 200 milliliters of grape fruit juice can block the CYP3A4 enzyme and leads to drug toxicity metabolized by this enzyme. The review is done to analyze the alteration in clinical significance, class of drugs and the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs due to the interaction with the grape fruit juice. Therefore it is highly importa nt to know the effect of grape fruit juice on the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs involved. The same information can be shared and highlight it importance while prescribing the drugs among the healthcare professionals specially the prescriber and t he public health promoting safe effective and rational use of drugs in the society.
31 A REVIEW ON EVIDENCE OF VISUAL HALLUCINATION ON METOPROLOL USAGE , Naseemussalam P. T.*, Amit Ranjan
Metoprolol, a widely used beta blocker, has been associated with visual hallucinations and CNS disorders. Multiple reasons can lead to under- recognition and under-reporting of this adverse drug effect by both patients and physicians. The true incidence of metoprolol-related visual hallucinations is unknown. Doctors are urged to maintain diligent vigilance when managing patients receiving this medicine. We suspect that metoprolol-induced visual hallucinations may be under- recognized and under-reported. Patients may often fail to recognize this adverse effect, believing they are just dreaming, or may be ashamed to report visions that they think will not be perceived by others as real. Similarly, healthcare professionals may also fail to recognize this visual toxicity or attribute visual hallucinations to concomitant illness or other medications. Physicians should maintain diligent vigilance when managing patients receiving this medicine.
32 INDIVIDUALISING PERIODONTAL THERAPY NEED TO INDIVIDUALISE PERIODONTAL CARE , Javeria Khan, Pramod Virupapuram*
The basis of individualised periodontal therapy and medicine is targeting treatment to a patient‟s specific needs on the basis of genetics, biomarkers, epigenetic, phenotypic, and socioeconomic or psychosocial determinants that distinguish an individual from others with similar clinical presentations. The clinical experimental gingivitis studies in dental students and the experimental periodontitis studies in dogs strongly supported the general concept that bacterial accumulations on the teeth predictably led to gingivitis and, if untreated, progressed to periodontitis. This led to the basic understanding of the concept of non specific and specific plaque hypothesis and the treatment aimed at eliminating microbial insults to gingival and sub gingival areas. But on the other hand this concept suggested that the severity of periodontitis was a simple function of the magnitude of bacterial accumulations and the time of exposure and all individuals are equally susceptible to periodontitis, and if treated according to the proven principles from the longitudinal studies patients should respond in a predictable manner. If those concepts are correct, there is no clear value to stratifying a patient‟s risk for developing periodontitis or responding predictably to therapy.
33 TO STUDY THE ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF A POLY-HERBAL EXTRACT IN SWISS ALBINO MICE , *K. Sivaji, P. Sowjanya, B. Devi, G. Ratna Kumari, B. Tejaswini and N. Jayasri
Medicinal herbs are moving from fringe to mainstream use with a greater number of people seeking remedies and health approaches free from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to utilize eco-friendly and bio-friendly plant based products for the prevention and cure of different human diseases.
34 MORINGA OLIEFERA SEEDS FORMULATION AND ITS EFFECT AS A BIOACTIVE TOOL ON GLYCEMIC INDEX OF HEALTHY ALBINO RATS , *Kerenhappuch Isaac Umaru and Madu Sharif
Introduction: Glycemic control through diet is necessary for preventing or limiting the consequences of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the consumption of functional foods and nutraceutical or bioactive compounds derived from plants used as food can be used as nutritional tools because of their clinical effects. Thus, Moringa oleifera is a vegetable plant protein with bio-active multipurpose, it has been used as a food source and for traditional medicine purposes due to possible antihyperglycemic properties. These properties may be explained by the presence of numerous phytochemicals in the seeds. The aim of this study was to determine the bioactive potential of Moringa oliefera seed on glycemic index on healthy albino rats. Materials and methods: The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected in Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria and the rats weighing 110-120g were procured from Faculty of Pharmacy Animal farm. The seed was dried and grinded into powder using pestle and mortar. The milk like powder was weighed and stored in an airtight container. The animals were acclimatization and randomly divided into Four groups of three animals per group, with one group serving as control. They were weighed and fasted for twelve (12) hours (overnight) before diet administration. Result: The Postprandial glucose Level of rats treated with Moringa oleifera formulated diet indicated significantly result with p<0.05 lower compared to the test control. Conclusion: The scarce number of human studies, together with a diverse range of methodologies and Moringa oliefera seed doses, should be encouraged. In addition, evidence regarding changes in insulin levels due to Moringa oliefera seeds indicated potential intervention hence could be used an agent to cutile the hypoglycemic case.
35 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF RAFT FORMING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF FAMOTIDINE , Manasi Nikam*
The objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate raft forming chewable tablets of Famotidine for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux diseases. The purpose of this research work was to formulate raft‑forming tablets of Famotidine using a raft‑forming agent along with an antacid‑ and gas‑generating agent. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and evaluated for raft strength, acid neutralization capacity, weight variation, % drug content, thickness, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release.A 32 full‑factorial design was used in the present study for optimisation. Tablets containing sodium alginate were having maximum raft strength as compared with other raft‑forming agents. Acid neutralisation capacity and in- vitro drug release of all factorial batches were found to be satisfactory. The F9 batch was optimised based on maximum raft strength and good acid neutralisation capacity. Drug–excipient compatibility study showed no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that raft‑forming tablets prepared using an optimum amount of sodium alginate and sodium bicarbonate could be an efficient dosage form in the treatment of gastro esophageal reflux disease.
36 COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON NOVEL CORONA VIRUS - COVID 19 OUTBREAK , K. Naga Surya Sneha Sumanjali and C. Girish*
Corona viruses are the group of viruses which infect human respiratory system. There are 6 different types of corona viruses which are identified earlier. Recently a 7th group of corona virus made a sensation in Wuhan city of china. This corona virus is named first as Nova corona virus (2019-nCoV) and later as COVID-19. The virus seems to be a mix of two corona viruses known to infect bats and another corona virus is from unknown origin. They are called as zoonotic and they can be transmitted from animals to human. It is a contagious viral infection, caused by inhalation or ingestion of viral diseases as a result of coughing and sneezing, handshake, touching infectious surfaces is the primary source for infection. The symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, shortness of breath, pneumonia. There is no vaccine for the corona virus. The treatment of corona virus mainly consists of care in alleviating symptoms and preventing the transmission of viruses.
37 FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL ALOEVERA GEL FOR WOUND HEALING , Tole S. B.*, Joshi A. A., Korekar S. L., Dongare G. S. and Fawade M. M.
Gels are semisolid systems in which a liquid phase is constrained within a three dimensional polymeric matrix in which a high degree of physical cross linking has been introduced. The polymer used to prepare pharmaceutical gels include the natural gums, Tragacanth, pectin, carrageen, agar and alginic acid, synthetic and semisynthetic materials such as methyl Cellulose, Hydroxy ethylcellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose and the carbopols, which are synthetic vinyl polymers with ionizable carboxyl groups. The bulk of these semisolid preparation are applied to the skin, where they usually serve as vehicles for topically applied drugs, as emollients or as protective or occlusive dressings.
38 CURRENT NOVEL CORONA VIRUS COVID-19- A REVIEW , Swarupa Arvapalli*, V. Lalini, J. V. C. Sharma and A.V.S.S.S. Gupta
This review mainly focuses on the recent outbreak novel corona virus in Wuhan, China. Covid-19 most likely spreads via contact with virus-laden droplets expelled from an infected person‘s cough, sneeze or breath. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, such as fever and sore throat from swollen adenoids, primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and may cause bronchitis either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis. The 2019-nCoV infection was of clustering onset, is more likely to affect older males with comorbidities, and can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome.
39 PHARMACOGNOSITICAL STUDY OF ZIZYPHUS MAURITIANA , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam*
Objective: The present investigation has been carried out to determine preliminary and pharmacognostic characteristics of Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber. Its leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, gastric disorder, fever, liver damage and pulmonary disorders. Method: Macroscopic and microscopic study of the fresh and dry drug and determination of physicochemical parameters were performed. Results: Leaves are oval or sub-orbicular, alternate and petiolate from 4 mm to 5 mm. The limb, dark green in colour, is polished on the upper side and whitish and then densely tomentose on the lower side. The anatomo-histological cut of the limb showed a median rib slightly curved on the upper surface and strongly bulging on the lower side and a broader limb. Each epidermis consisted of small, visible cells more or less rectangular, is covered with a cuticle, outer lipoidal covering; impermissive and resistant, giving it a protective role. The cross-section of the stem, revealed a quadrangular shape, has two distinct zones: the bark and the central cylinder. The less developed bark comprises of 4 tissues (cuticle, epidermis, collenchyma and cortical parenchyma). The central cylinder, more developed than the bark, is composed of primary tissues (bone, wood, medullary parenchyma, sclerenchyma, and perimedullary fiber). The sclerenchyma occurs in small clusters around the conductive system. The chemical compositions of the leaves are proteins & amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, saponins, fibers, tannins and phenolic compounds. Conclusion: Pharmacognostic analysis and physicochemical characteristics can help in the efficient utilization of this medicinal plant.
40 A REVIEW ARTICLE ORGANOZINC REAGENT PREPARATION METHOD , Ramesh Gawade*, Arvind Burungale, Ashok Pise, Santosh Devkate and Sunil Jadhav
Organozinc reagents have unique ability to tolerate high functional group, valuable in many organic transformations via nucleophilic addition and cross coupling. The synthetic utilities of available organozinc reagents lead to development of various method of their generation. Now day pyrophoric and moisture sensitive organozinc reagent is replaced by solid air stable organozinc reagent.
41 NOVEL INHIBITOR FOR COVID-19 FROM ZINC NANO-BASED AZA-PC AND CQDS , Fadi Ibrahim*
In this article, the antiviral activity of seven different carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with Azaphthalocyanin (Az-Pcs) for the treatment of human coronavirus infections was investigated. Az-Pcs used to adsorb UV light and concentrate it to CQDs to avoid destruction of tissue and cells by high energy. The first generation Az- Pcs-CQDs antiviral with nanostructures showed a concentration-dependent virus inactivation with an expected estimated EC50 of 50±8 μ gmL-1. The underlying mechanism of action of these Az-Pcs-CQDs could be due to interaction of the functional groups of the CQDs with COVID-19 entry receptors; surprisingly, an equally large inhibition activity was observed at the viral replication step. Az-Pcs with boronic acid derivatives have been proposed as low toxicity agents for inhibiting the entry various viruses. The underlying mechanism of action of these CQDs was revealed to be the CQDs interaction with the COVID-19 S-protein. The antiviral activity of Az-Pcs-CQDs with different Zn nano-size need to be evaluated on Huh-7 cell monolayers infected with COVID-19.
42 ADRENOCORTICAL CARCINOMA , Mandava Mahima Swaroopa*, Chinnam Sri Varsha, Pulimala Saranya Raj and Sajja Sai Premika
Background: ACC seems to be commonest within the fourth and fifth decades in life, though there's a second peak in infancy, probably associated with genetic predisposition syndromes. Adrenocortical tumors are divided into benign and malignant teams, either hormonally silent or internally secreting. ACC enters through Mono-clonality which indicates that growth progression is the effect of associate intrinsic mutation, whereas polyclonality suggests that growth cells are plagued by native or general stimuli. Ras proteins, a layer related proteins which are associated with downstream flagging, when ligand incitement of receptor happens. X-ray gives data about the intrusion of an adrenocortical carcinoma into veins, especially the second rate vena cava, the adrenal and renal veins, in which tumor thrombi might be recognized sometimes.
43 ALPHA- SMOOTH MUSCLE ACTIN, C-KIT AND DESMIN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION FEATURES OF COMMONLY DIAGNOSED SARCOMAS IN NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL NNEWI , Samuel Ifedioranma Ogenyi*, Anthony Ajuluchukwu Ngokere, Anuli Obianuju Onyemelukwe and Jonathan Madukwe
Sarcoma is a group of complex heterogeneous malignant tumours of soft tissues and bones with mesenchymal origin with lots of diagnostic challenges unconnected with their heterogeneous nature, varied histological types and subtypes with considerable morphological overlaps between the different diagnostic entities, hence the need for immunohistochemical diagnosis and classification for specific management strategies and prognosis. The present study was aimed at evaluating α- smooth muscle actin, c-kit and desmin immunohistochemical expression features of commonly diagnosed sarcomas in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi. Twenty four (24) archived paraffin wax processed sarcoma samples were sourced from the histopathology laboratory and museums of the hospital while necessary data were obtained from records. Tissue blocks were re-embedded with fresh paraffin wax and 3μ thick sections cut with the aid of a rotary microtome. Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method was employed to confirm diagnosis before proceeding to immunohistochemistry. Monoclonal antibodies for α- smooth muscle actin, c-kit and desmin were employed for immunohistochemistry while exposed mouse and rabbit specific horseradish peroxidase/diaminobenzidine detection IHC kit was employed for immunostaining. Mean age of patients was 26 years, 14 (58.3%) females and 10 (41.7%) males. There were 9 commonly diagnosed sarcoma types α-smooth muscle actin and desmin were positive for 12 and samples respectively while as c-kit was negative for all samples. SMA and desmin co-expressed in metastatic liposarcoma and low grade leiomyosarcoma. Alpha-SMA, desmin and c-kit showed consistent expression features in many sarcoma types and could be explored further for sarcoma characterization in Nigeria.
44 REVIEW ON NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR THE CANCER TREATMENT , Aduri Prakash Reddy*, G. Suvarsha, SK. Uddandu Saheb, Dr. G. Nagaraju and S. Madhu Charan
Nanoparticles are rapidly being developed and trialed to overcome several limitations of traditional drug delivery systems and are coming up as a distinct therapeutics for cancer treatment. It also discusses specific drug delivery by nanoparticles inside the cells illustrating many successful researches and how nanoparticles remove the side effects of conventional therapies with tailored cancer treatment. Recent scientific evidence shows the potential uses of nanomaterials as therapeutic agents, systems for selective and controlled drug release, and contrast agents for diagnosing and locating tumors. Finally, nanotechnology is still developing science can be defined as next generation techniques for cancer disease; at the same time it comes with many advantages to treat cancer patients.
45 FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ORAL DISPERSIBLE TABLET OF DICYLOMINE HCL , Shivendra Agarwal*, Girendra Kumar Gautam, Neetu Rajpoot and Jagpal Singh
Dicyclomine HCL is an antispasmodic drug which is widely used in treatment of smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract but it undergoes to first pass Metabolism. So that to develop Fast dissolving tablet of Dicyclomine HCL to avoid first pass metabolism and increase bioavailability. This offers a new range of product having desired characteristics and intended benefits. In this research, orally dispersible tablets of Dicyclomine HCL were prepared using direct compression method. Tablets produced by direct compression method contain Lactose as diluent, Crosscarmellose sodium, crosspovidone and husk as a superdisintegrant and aspartame as a sweetener. The dissolution study was performed on PBS 6.8 (salivary pH) and the In-vitro release was found 98.51% without leaving residue for F3 Batch.
46 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHENOLIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CAFFEINATED AND NON-CAFFEINATED INFUSIONS , Sharmila Donepudi*, Dolavathi Pinjala, Padmini Mokka, Rajashekar Gandamala, Rama Rao Nazneen Begum Md and Lakshmana Rao Atmakuri
Tea is the second most consumed beverage aside from water and has gained much attention due to its health-promoting benefits. This study aimed to quantify the levels of phenolic and antioxidant content in various caffeinated (Green tea, White tea) and non-caffeinated (Hibiscus Sabdariffa tea) infusions and identify the most suitable infusion for consumption. UV spectroscopy analytical method was used for the quantification of phenolics and antioxidants. The results of present study indicate the total phenol and total flavonoid content of teas are high, and Hibiscus Sabdadiffa show considerable amount that of caffeinated teas. The study therefore contributes to the evaluation of antioxidant activity provides evidence that non-caffeinated infusions are equally good.
47 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FUROSEMIDE: AN APPROACH FOR THE FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT , Navneet Kumar Verma*, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Prem Chand Mall, Vikas Yadav, Rupali Jaiswal
The development of this buccal and fast acting highly efficacious diuretic was a breakthrough. Its maximal natriuretic effect is way greater than that of other classes. The diuretic response goes on increasing with increasing dose: upto 10 L of urine could even be produced during each day . it's active even in patients with relatively severe renal failure . The onset of action is prompt &#40;i.v. 2-5 min., i.m. 10-20 min., oral 20-40 min.&#41; and duration short (3-6 hours) the main site of action is that the thick Asc LH (site II) where Furosemide inhibits Na+- K+-2Cl cotransport. A rare component of action on PT has also been indicated. it's secreted in PT by organic anion transport and reaches Asc LH where it acts from luminal side of the membrane. It abolishes the corticomedullary osmotic gradient and blocks positive also as negative free water clearance. K+ excretion is increased mainly because of high Na+ load reaching DT. However, at equinatriuretic doses, K+ loss may be a smaller amount than that with thiazides. Identification test was done by estimation of drug, infra-red spectroscopy, FTIR, UV-Spectroscopy, freezing point determination etc.
48 RAPID GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS IN ALCOHOL BASED HAND SANITIZERS PRODUCTS , Dr. Rafael N. Infante*, Andrea Rodríguez and Mariangely Vélez
Demand for hand sanitizer is surging around the globe as the new coronavirus (convid-19) spreads. Sales of hand sanitizers and similar products have swelled across several international markets since the COVID-19 outbreak began in January. The virus, which originated in China, has now spread to more than 190 countries. As of March, 2020 over 400,000 confirmed cases and more that 20,000 deaths worldwide. Alcohol based hand sanitizer companies are struggling to supply the world demand while assuring the public that the product meet requirements set by regulatory agencies and the World Health Organization regarding the content of active ingredients. The most common alcohols used in hand sanitizers are methanol, ethanol, iso-propyl alcohol, and n-propanol or a mixture of thereof. The firms must use the most accurate method of analysis available for verification of the alcohol content in samples of the finished product before each batch is released for distribution. Discussed here is rapid method to analyze for alcohols in finished hand sanitizer products using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The method is aimed at assuring that the product complies with the alcohol % specification in the product label.
49 SINGLE CRYSTAL X-RAY STUDY AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF 5, 5-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE 1, 3-DIONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES , Kavita S. Mundhe*, Nirmala R. Deshpande and Rajashree V. Kashalkar
X- ray crystallography is an important modern technique for determination of structure of a molecule. 5, 5- dimethylcyclohexane 1, 3-dione and its derivatives are synthesized. Single crystal of synthesized compound has been studied by X-ray crystallography. Oak Ridge Thermal Elipsoid Plot (ORTEP), Crystal data and structure refinement for compound shows that molecules are inter molecularly hydrogen bonded with hydrogen atom of NH group. A linear chain of molecules is formed via N-H…O hydrogen bonding with x y z…x 1+y z and N…O while the distance noticed is 2.865 Å. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of synthesized compounds has been performed to obtain order of reaction and energy of activation which will be helpful in determining the biological potentials. Thermo gravimetric analysis of almost all synthesized compounds indicates that all molecules decompose in two steps. The first step starts around 950c to 350 0c and the second step extends from 267 0C to 657 0C. Compound 5 decomposes in three stages which correspond to 710C to 1060C, 106 0C to 2180C and 2180C to 5060C. It is very clear from the results that all molecules have order of reaction (η) of 0.8.The calculated energy of activation indicates an increase in Ea from first stage to second stage for all compounds except compound 5. The energy of activation (Ea) is very high (13.85 kJ) during first stage. It decreases to 6.59 KJ for second stage; while a significant increase (9.87 KJ) is noticed during third stage of compound 5.
50 SHORT ARTICLE ON HOME REMEDIES IN TREATING TOOTH ACHE OR DENTAL PAIN DURING LOCKDOWN , Dr. A. K. Anjali Tutor*
Pain can be defined as an unpleasant generation that can range from mild localised discomfort to Agony. There are different types of pain which include the acute chronic and nociceptive type of pain dental pain has been attributed as one of the most significantly prevalent pain seen in every individual it is one of the phase by which each individual and yours in his or her lifetime.[1] WHO have recommended the reduction of toothache as one of the oral priority issues in global health promotion agenda.[1] There have been evidences where in the epidemiology and the prevalence of oral diseases have been diverse in nature and also show regional variations. Many a times the majority of population in India have resorted to home remedies for dental pain rather than seeking help from dentist. Thus, this study has been penned down to focus on the use of home remedies to cure dental pain during lockdown period using available household commodities in a judicious way using multimodal approaches.
51 ANALYTICAL STUDY ON ONLINE ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS , A. K. Anjali*
Introduction: Online activity based learning or the distance learning is the current and favoured form of education network. Within the past decade, it had a marked influence on higher secondary students, college students’ part time working students. There has been a drastic shift from the past to the current scenario and the vogue is still shooting up. Aim: The aim of this study is to know about the online activity based learning engages the students who are unable to throw oneself into conventional classroom learning. Materials and Method: The pivot of this study concentrates on the effective online based learning by a group of students from the age group of 19 – 20 years of Saveetha Dental College (26 students)over a time period of 1 week. The method incorporated was that of a combination of both online and live teaching where video calling apps were used and the session was conducted. Results: The results were obtained based on the study conducted through a questionnaire consisting of 11 questions distributed to a set of 26 questions and the results were cumulated using a doughnut chart which divulges that majority of the students are interested in online activity based learning activity than in conventional classroom learning. Conclusion: This study can be concluded by saying that majority of the children experienced a shift from conventional classroom learning to online activity based learning which turned out to be positive.
52 EARLY REPAIR OF POST CHOLECYSTECTOMY CBD TRANSACTION AS DETECTED DURING OPERATION AND REFERRED IMMEDIATELY: AN EXPERIENCE , *Dr. Purujit Choudhury and Dr. Abhijit Sarma
Postcholecystectomy bile duct injuries are the causes of significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Intra-operative recognition and repair of complete biliary transaction with hepaticojejunostomy is the recommended treatment; however, it is possible only in few patients as either the injury is not recognized intraoperatively or the center is not geared up to perform an urgent hepaticojejunostomy in these patients with a nondilated duct. Retrospective analysis of data from our tertiary care referral center over a period of 10 years from January 2010 to December 2019 to report the feasibility and outcomes of prompt repair was done (defined as repair within 72 h of index operation) of postcholecystectomy bile duct injury. Ten patients of postcholecystectomy bile duct injury detected intra operatively and referred early underwent prompt repair. All patients had a complete transaction of the bile duct (type of injuries as per Strasberg classification: Type EV 1, Type E III: 7, Type E II : 3 and Type E1:1). The mean duration between injury and bile duct repair in the form of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) was 22.7 (range 5-42) hours. The mean stomal diameter of the anastomosis was 1.63 (rangel – 2.1) cm, and the anastomosis was stented in 7 patients. The mean duration of surgery was 4.6 + 1.7 h. One patient developed bile leak on the first postoperative day, which were settled by day 5. The mean duration of hospital stay was 8 (range 8-12) days. With a mean follow-up of 42 (range 24-110) months, all patient had excellent (70%) or good outcome (30%). Prompt RYHJ (within first 72 h) for postcholecystectomy biliary transaction is an effective treatment and potentially limits the morbidity to the patient.
53 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTANTS IN TEXTILE INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS FROM PANCHAGANGA RIVER, ICHALKARANJI, M.H., (INDIA) , J. P. Sarwade and S. J. Mankar*
The pollution of water bodies is a worldwide concern nowadays. The textile industrial effluent water is responsible for freshwater pollution. This paper mainly included the analysis of heavy metal like Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Iron(Fe), Lead(Pb), Nickel(Ni), Zinc(Zn), Cobalt(Co) from pre-confluence(site 1), at confluence(site 2) and post confluence site(site 3) on river Panchaganga of Ichalkaranji. The contents of heavy metal analysis were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (APHA2009).The results indicate that concentrations of heavy metals in studied water samples recorded higher than the standards proposed by WHO(2011) and the Indian Standards (2012).In this study, the concentration of each of the metal varies in all the samples. The average concentration of Lead recorded at three sites was (site 1=0.0059 mg/L, site 2=0.38mg/L, site 3=0.26mg/L) and chromium (site 1=0.041mg/L, site2=0. 24mg /L, site 3=0.094mg/L) were found to be high. The concentration of Zn in a water sample collected at three sites (site 1=0.02mg/L, site 2=0.23mg/L, site 3=0.01mg/L) was found to be lowest indicated that zinc was not causing pollution at these sites. Remaining metals showed variations in their concentrations. It was concluded that the effluent samples of textile industries discharge causes pollution to the Panchaganga river water and become problematic for a biological environment and human being. Therefore, the effluent water to be discharged by these industries must be sufficiently treated before release.
54 ISOLATION OF FRIEDELIN FROM THE FRUITS OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT HARUNGANA MADAGASCARIENSIS LAM. EX POIRET (HYPERICACEAE) , Afieroho O. E.* and Ajuzie J. I.
In a continued drive to characterized the constituents of the fruits of Harungana madagascariensis a plant widely used in ethnomedicine, this study is aimed at a phytochemical screening–guided column chromatography fractionation and isolation of triterpenoids from the non-polar solvent extract/fraction of the fresh and air-dried fruits of Harungana madagascariensis Two extraction and isolation protocols: isolation from the dichloromethane fraction from the cold macerated crude absolute ethanol extract of the fresh fruits, and isolation from the n-hexane fraction of the cold percolation crude chloroform extract of the air-dried fruit were employed. The structure of the isolated triterpenoid was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and by comparing the obtained spectra data with that reported in literature. The known pentacyclic isoprenoid ketone friedelin was isolated and characterized from both the fresh and air-dried fruits of H. madagascariensis. The yield obtained with the air-dried fruits was ninety fold higher compared to that with the fresh fruits. This study is reporting for the first time the isolation of friedelin a known plant derived bioactive triterpenoid from the fruits of H. madagascariensis a plant widely used in ethno-medicine.
55 INVESTIGATING THE USE OF AQEUOUS EXTRACTS OF BLACK SEED (NIGELLA SATIVA) AND SCENT LEAF TEA (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM) TO AMELIORATE THE SYMPTOMS OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID -19) , *Dr. Okoye Ngozi Franca
Aim: The coronavirus disease COVID – 19 has turned into a global pandemic and efforts are out by scientists to help produce solutions to combat this disease especially in immune boosting. Plants and plant products provide a potential source of immune boosting medication. This study investigated the potential use of aqueous extracts of black seed Nigella sativa and scent leaf Ocimum gratissimum tea to ameliorate the symptoms of coronavirus COVID 19 using hyperlipidimic and hyperglycemic Wistar rats. COVID -19 disease has worse effects on people with underlying conditions like diabetes and heart condition. This informed the decision to check the effects of black seed and scent leaf on cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL), Low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) using induced hyperlipidemic and hyperglycemic Wistar rats. Materials and Method: Twenty-five (25) Wistar rats were used for this research, five groups were created with five rats in each group. The rats were fed their normal rate feed but they gavaged on sucrose and margarine to induce hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia on the rats with exception to the positive control. The rats in the negative control were induced using the sucrose and margarine but were not treated using the aqueous extracts. The rats in the scent leaf group were treated with 2ml of scent leaf aqueous extract, while the rats in the black seed group were treated with 2ml of black seed aqueous extract. The rats in the black seed and scent leaf group were treated with 2ml of the combined aqueous extract. Results: The results showed that the extracts decreased the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins in the rats in a time dependent manner with highest decrease obtained on the third week of treatment with the extracts. The cholesterol level decreased from 10.58±0.12mmol/l to 2.51±0.28mmol/l, while triglyceride level decreased from 5.69±0.03mmol/l to 1.19±0.04mmol/l. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that the aqueous extract of N. sativa and O. gratissimum might be effective immune booster in the fight against coronavirus (COVID 19).
56 ASSESSMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE, PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA , Prince Ezenwa Onyemachi, *Nneka Chioma Okoronkwo and Chukwuemeka Ngozi Onyearugha
Background: Every year, thousands of drug addicts die as a result of drug over dose. Forty seven percent of adolescents/youths between 15 and 26 years of age have already tried at least one kind of illicit drug. Aims: To determine the knowledge, practice, prevalence and pattern of drug abuse among adolescents in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. A questionnaire was used to retrieve information on drug abuse from adolescents and youths aged 15–26 years. Information retrieved were social/ demographic data, level of knowledge on drug abuse, practice of drug abuse and type of substance abused. Results: There were 180 respondents with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.3. The age range was 15-26 years with a mean age of 20.5 ± 23 years. Eighty (44.4%) of the respondents were teenagers. Less than 50% of the respondents understood the full meaning of drug abuse. Majority (77.8%) of the study population started abusing drugs as a result of peer pressure. A small but significant percentage (22.2%) of the respondents were introduced to drug abuse from watching either or both of their parents abuse drugs. The prevalence of drug abuse was 77.8%. All the drug abusers were males (p=0.001). Tramadol (80.6%) followed by alcohol (66.7%) were the most abused drugs respectively. Cocaine (16.7%) was the least abused of the substances. Conclusion: The knowledge of drug abuse among our cohort was low. Peer pressure was the most identified risk for drug abuse. The prevalence of drug abuse among the adolescents was very high. Tramadol was the most abused drug.
57 EVALUATION OF CLEANING AND DISINFECTION OF LEAN BROILER SLAUGHTERHOUSE USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN NORTH BAHRI LOCALITY, SUDAN , Hussam Aldeen Mustafa Abdelrazig Bilal*, Elniema A. Mustafa, Qusai Hussain Abdel Samad and Adil M. A. Salman
This descriptive and experimental study was conducted between January and Aril, 2020 in Lean slaughterhouse, Alkadro, Khartoum North, Sudan using a regular swab sampling on a weekly basis for a period of 3 weeks with the objective to evaluate cleaning and disinfection procedures against some microbial isolates in the slaughterhouse. Routine cleaning and disinfection procedures which included walls, floors and equipment using hydrogen peroxide solution in 0.01 concentration were investigated. Both environmental swab samples and standardized and structured checklist were applied to assess the status of some of the Prerequisites Programs (PRPs). The study revealed that the location and structure of the slaughterhouse and staff training were found satisfactory while water supply had failed adequacy rule. According to adequacy rule used in this study all the parameters of sanitation program operational procedures scored satisfactory (100%). While the average of averages of coliform count in the floor, wall, equipment and water was found 2733.3±540.6 cfu during the three weeks period with significant statistical differences in the count between the three weeks with p ≤0.05. The average of Total Bacterial Count for the sample sites during the three weeks period was 2250±680.6 cfu, with statistical differences in the count between the three weeks with p ≤0.05.The average of E. coli count was 341.6±85.6 cfu for the sample sites during the three weeks period with statistical differences in the count between the three weeks with p ≤0.05. The multiple comparison test of least significant differences showed no significant differences in the Salmonella count between floor, wall, and equipment with p ≤0.05. The mean TBC differences was found to be significant between wall and floor and wall and equipment with p ≤0.05; also the mean differences of E. Coli count was found to be significant between wall and equipment from one side and floor and equipment from the other side with p ≤0.05, and the mean Coliform count differences was found to be significant between the wall and equipment with p ≤0.05. The study concluded that the overall evaluation of the PRPs and sanitation program operational procedures were satisfactory.
58 A CONCISE REVIEW ON HOMEOSTASIS OF ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM AND ITS DERANGEMENT , Sheema Fatima Khan*
The aim of this review article is to show importance of ions and ph of various metabolism occurring inside the complex human body. It informs the role of ions in maintaining homeostasis and their concentration. The importance of water as a universal solvent and its role as a vital nutrient is also highlighted. There exists an osmotic equilibrium in the body which is necessary for life. This is achieved by desirable levels of water and solutes present inside the body. These ionic solutes also determine ph of the body. Depending on the cause, that is, whether metabolic or respiratory, major changes in ph can cause the body environment to become alkaline or acidic. To combat the change, the body activates compensatory mechanism to bring ph back to normal. These compensatory changes can be respiratory for metabolic disorders and renal for respiratory disorders. The recent coronavirus pandemic, according to new researches is said to has been causing kidney failure and hence causes metabolic acidosis. This calls for the need to combat such common disorders with proper diagnosis and further treatments.
59 THE ROLE OF RAKTADHATU IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF COVID 19 AND ROLE OF RAKTAMOKSHANA IN THE MANAGEMENT: A CRITICAL REVIEW , Pranav Bhagwat*
COVID 19 is a novel pandemic with a spectrum ranging from mild disease to death. Internationally, the medical fraternity is struggling to find a cure or vaccine for this disease resulting into losses of thousands of lives. Indian system of medicine, because of its strong fundamentals and superb guidelines to tackle any novel disease, can find an answer for this. Raktadhatu is found to be a major culprit in the contact point and progress of the disease. The article provides insights into the role of raktadhatu in this process of COVID 19 starting from the contact with the patient, through various typical and atypical symptomatology and complications and even death. The article, after establishing this, predicts, future possible presentations and complications, which hitherto might have been missed by the eyes of the healthcare providers and hence many such patients may not have received required immediate therapy. The probable role of raktamokshana (bloodletting by controlled therapeutic phlebotomy) – a procedure described to be the important therapy- is also established with the help of evidences.
60 FOODS PRODUCED AND UTILIZED BY LACTATING MOTHERS’ HOUSEHOLDS IN MWIKI, PERI_URBAN OF NAIROBI , Dr. Nkirigacha-Miriti Evayline Muthoni*
Food production and utilization using urban agriculture goes a long way in fulfilling the human right to food and freedom from hunger. The aim of this study was to assess the foods produced and proportion consumed by lactating mothers of Nairobi. This cross sectional study was had 260 randomly selected lactating women living in Mwiki, Nairobi Kenya. A structured, validated and pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socioeconomic characteristics, food production and consumption. Data was entered into SPSS version 20 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine associations. Majority (61.6%) participated in urban agriculture. In crop production, maize (26.5%) home consumption, beans produced (28.4%) and home consumption was 18.4% and 10% was sold. Amaranth was produced at 25.7%, 8% consumed at home and 17.7% was sold other crops were grown in small quantities. 57.3% of the respondents owned land to practice urban agriculture. Majority of them (15.3%) had 250m2 plots and 26.3% of these had inherited the land they had. Where the respondents did not own the land, they were renting (7.8%). More women (31.8%) than men (21.6%) decided on what crops to plant. More women (35.7%) provided labor for agriculture. More respondents consumed and also sold (34.1%) the produce compared to those who consumed only (27.8%). Vegetables were not a major food crop produced. Intervention programs should target on emphasizing the production and consumption of vegetable to increase availability and help meet the increased nutritional needs of the lactating.
61 FOOD SECURITY AND FOOD CONSUMPTION FREQUENCY OF LACTATING MOTHERS IN MWIKI-KASARANI, NAIROBI METROPOLIS , Dr. Nkirigacha-Miriti Evayline Muthoni*
Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life, health and development across the lifespan. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 260 of the lactating mothers living in Mwiki peri-urban Nairobi County. The population of mothers was enumerated, the sample was randomly selected. Using structured and pre-tested questionnaire information on socio-demographic, socio-economic characteristics, food security and food consumption frequency mothers. Data analyzed using SSP version 20. Results indicate majority had 36 – 40 years. Education, 44.6% primary, 16.8% secondary. Household size 6–12 average 6 persons. Meru and Luhya. Majority lower socio-economic category. Majority (42.3%) food insecure hunger, 20% food insecure moderate hunger 37.6% food secure. Majority (32.3%) reduced meals frequency, 30% manual jobs, 16.2% sold household assets, and 11.1% reduced meal size and 10.4% food aids. Significant correlation between number of meals and animal protein a co-efficient (0.002). The survey shows significant relationship between cereals, vegetables and fruits with number of meals per day correlation co-efficient (0.024 and 0.018). There was insignificant relationship between roots and tubers with a coefficient of 0.182. Positive and significant association between reduce frequency of meals and food sufficiency p=0.007; manual jobs, frequency of meals p=0.006; reduce meal size and frequency of food 0.004. Positive but insignificant relationship between food aid and sell assets p=0.442 and 0.496. Results from the focus group discussion showed lack of employment and lack of space to farm as major reasons for food insecurity in the area. Concluded that food security major concern and affected lactating mothers, infants.
62 INCIDENCE AND PREDICTORS OF NEPHROTOXICITY IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS RECEIVING TENOFOVIR BASED ART , Dr. V. Ramachandran, Dr. A. Kalanad, *Dr. S. Mathew
Tenofovir based ART regimen is currently used as the first line anti retroviral therapy by NACO in India. As a part of national strategy, ―Paving the way for an AIDS free India‖ NACO recommends initiation of ART irrespective of stage or CD4 count. The major side effects of TDF are renal toxicity and decrease in bone marrow density. A prospective Cohort Study was conducted in 202 patients, started on Tenofovir based ART to find out the incidence and predictors of nephrotoxicity. S.Creatinine 1.5 times the basal value, increase in serum creatinine more than or equal to 0.3mg/dl above the basal value, hypophosphatemia, hypouricemia, proteinuria, glycosuria, hypokalaemia & hypocalcaemia were the parameters checked. Gender, age, stage of HIV infection, CD4 count, body mass index, co morbidities (diabetes, hypertension, opportunistic infections), concomitant nephrotoxic medications, & serum creatinine level before starting treatment were the predictors of nephrotoxicity studied. Nephrotoxicity of Tenofovir was 13.9%.Average time to develop nephrotoxicity was 118 days. Average decline in creatinine clearance during renal dysfunction was 21.4 ml/min & almost all cases were asymptomatic. Nephrotoxicity was detected in the form of mild derangement of RFT and proteinuria on regular follow up. Advanced clinical stage and low CD4 count had significant association with nephrotoxicity. Single most important predictor of Tenofovir induced nephrotoxicity was CD4 count. Small sample size, short period of follow up and a smaller number of cases in the subgroups of co-morbidities were the major limitations.
63 PROGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NEUROPATHY ACCORDING TO AYURVEDA - A REVIEW ARTICLE , Inderjit Kaur*, Shaleen Singh, Satyakam Rahul
Although, there are lot of reasons for onset of neuropathic symptoms, mainly the metabolic disorders; if the reason is not accidental or any other, then diabetes is a main factor which leads the body towards neuropathy symptoms. While practicing in Ayurveda medicines and working on the neuropathic patients, we have seen the patterns of changes in the body and made the prognosis which we have been using in preventing neuropathy and guiding the people saving their extremities from amputations.
64 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOSORBENTS PREPARED FROM SEEDS OF POLYALTHIA LONGIFOLIA , Kavita S. Mundhe*, Anjali D. Ruikar, Nirmala R. Deshpande and Rajashree V. Kashalkar
In order to prepare low cost carbons with desired properties various industrial and agro waste materials have been used as precursors. The adsorption of pollutants from an aqueous solution is frequently used to test the adsorption capability of various adsorbents. By changing the preparation and activation conditions, surface structure and pore size distribution can be modified. Physical and chemical activation involves treatment of precursor to produce carbon of desired properties. Chemical treatment modifies the surface structure and increases the adsorption capacity. Adsorbents have been prepared from seeds of Polyalthia longifolia by various treatments. Adsorption on biosorbents is due to the various functional groups present on the surface. These generally consist of carbonyl, amine, hydroxyl groups which can be analyzed qualitatively using FTIR and SEM techniques and quantitatively by Bohems titration. The proximate analysis gives information regarding properties such as ash content, pH and bulk density. The effect of lignocellulosic structures on their carbons is also observed. Use of such newer materials will result in carbons having diverse structures and thereby adsorption capacities. The peaks in the FT-IR of adsorbents, strongly supports the presence of surface groups obtained by Boehm’s titration. It is observed that there are significant changes in the band intensities of these adsorbents. Association of peak at 1371 cm -1 and many weak peaks had disappeared in SATM, indicating that the weak bonds disappeared under chemical treatment.
65 SPECTROSCOPY (UV-VISIBLE & FTIR) AND CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPTLC & HPLC) CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA LINN: A PRECLINICAL STUDY FOR MALE SEXUAL DISORDERS , Dr. Mradu Gupta*, Dr A. K. Mondal, Dr. K. A. Ahmed
An Ayurvedic formulation prepared from dried root powder of Sida cordifolia Linn. is standardized through pharmacognostical and phytochemical pre-clinical studies for treatment of male sexual disorders. While total ash value was 8.0%, acid insoluble ash was 0.5% and water soluble ash was 5.41%. Among elements, Nitrogen was found present. Flavonoids and carbohydrates were found present in both alcoholic and aqueous extracts. The results also showed high concentration of flavonoidic compounds (15.03 μg Quercetin equivalent / mg of extract) in the alcoholic extract and high phenolic content (23.26 μg Gallic acid equivalent / mg of extract) in the aqueous extract. HPTLC analysis at 280 and 360 nm indicated the presence of Ellagic acid and Gallic acid in both these extracts. Similarly, HPLC analysis at 276 nm showed elution of 4 compounds whose analysis confirmed the presence of Tannic acid, Benzoic acid and Quercetin in aqueous extract. UV-Visible spectroscopy scanning showed peaks at 896, 862.5 and 195.5 nm in aqueous and at 896, 862.5, 419.5 and 209.5 nm in alcoholic extract. FTIR analysis indicated presence of N-CH3 out-phase bending, N-CH3 in-phase stretching, Aryl -CH3 in-phase stretching and C-O stretching functional groups in aqueous and -NH2 Stretching, -CH2 in-phase stretching, (N)-CH3 in-phase stretching, -CH3 in-phase bending, Aryl-N stretching and N-O stretching functional groups in alcoholic extract suggesting the presence of amides, aldehydes, alkaloids and phenolic groups of compounds in the extracts. The presence of phenolic and flavonidic compounds in research formulation extracts may be responsible for its antioxidant, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.
66 BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI) BY USING SULPHONATED BIOMASS OF STALKS OF PRUNUSCERASUS , Anandrao A. Kale*
The sulphonated biomass prepared from stalk of Prunuscerasus was used for investigation of biosorption of Cr (VI). It was found that the biosorption process is dependent on pH value of solution, adsorbent mass, contact time, temperature and initial Cr (VI) concentration. Data of biosorption of Cr (VI) on Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus were applied to three adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined from the Langmuir isotherm as 21.0 mg/g. Adsorption process of Cr (VI) ions onto Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus (S-III) was found to obey the second-order kinetic equation The n value obtained from the Freundlich isotherm indicates that the sorption of Cr (VI) ions onto Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus (S-III) is favourable. Thermodynamic parameters proved that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. Investigation Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of chromium (VI) by using activated carbon from Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus was conducted in batch conditions. The effect of different parameters such as contact time, sorbent dose, pH and temperature has been studied. Adsorption kinetic modelling data were found out. The kinetics of biosorption results shows that sorption process is well explained by pseudo–second order model with determination coefficients higher than 0.96 for sorbent under all experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameter via KD, ΔG has also been calculated to determine the spontaneity of the process. The value Kp is found to be 0.825 to 2.50 for initial and final concentrations. The low value of activation energy indicates that sorption is an activated and physical process. Thus Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of chromium (VI) by using activated carbon from Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus is a low cost and easily available efficiently used as an excellent sorbent for the removal of chromium (VI) from wastewater.
67 NOVEL INSULIN DELIVERY METHODS FOR DIABETES MELLITUS , Mohamed Jasim P. P.*, Thasneem C. K., Dr. Shiji Kumar P. S. and Dr. Sirajudheen M. K.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar level. Hyperglycaemia results when the pancreatic beta cells are unable to secrete enough insulin to maintain normal glucose level. Insulin therapy, which is the exogenous supply of insulin is highly effective in regulating blood glucose level in diabetes patients. Insulin is supplied conventionally through subcutaneous routes. In early days, impurities present in bovine insulin led to many immunological reactions. The disadvantage of subcutaneous insulin delivery has inspired the research for new delivery system and hence we have many different invasive and non-invasive delivery system available today. Oral, buccal, pulmonary, transdermal, rectal and ocular routes of insulin delivery, nanotechnology based and gene therapy-based insulin delivery system, implantable insulin pump, pen devices, insulin inhalers, etc are the recent advances in insulin therapy. An oral delivery system of insulin will have tremendous benefits in terms of a decrease number of injections for diabetic patients and a reduced incidence of side effects. The proposed review on novel insulin delivery for diabetes mellitus treatment revealed that traditional subcutaneous insulin causes pain and immunological reactions. Hence novel insulin delivery enables better compliance and pharmaceutical therapies.
68 EFFECTS OF APPLE CIDER VINEGAR “WITH MOTHER” ON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF WISTAR RATS , *Dr. Okoye Ngozi Franca and Uloho Elo Treasure
Aim: Apple cider vinegar is widely used all over the world and it has been consistently used for its healing properties. In this study, the in vivo effect of apple cider vinegar with the mother on kidney function and haematological parameters of Wistar rat were investigated. Materials and method: A total of 18 rats (average weight of 110g) were used for the study. The rats were fed for a period of three weeks with the same concentrations the apple cider vinegar. The rats were grouped into six groups of three rats in each group. Three groups served as the control for each week (day 7, 14 and 21) while the other three groups were administered orally with 1ml of apple cider vinegar “with mother” twice daily for each week. The urea and creatinine levels were determined using spectrophotometric methods, The haemoglobin count, packed cell volume, total white blood cell count, red blood cell count, platelet count, neutrophil and lymphocyte count were also assayed. Results: Test results showed that the apple cider vinegar had a slight increase (p≤0.05) on the urea and creatinine levels in a time dependent manner. The highest increase was observed at the last week of feeding. The results for urea showed that the highest value was obtained in day 21 (11.00 ± 3.82) as compared to control animals (10.99 ± 0.01). The creatinine values also showed slight increase (P≤0.05) in test animals when compared to control animals. The highest increase was obtained in day 21 (36.10±1.52) as compared to control (34.42±0.02). Test results also showed that the apple cider vinegar had a lowering effect on the haematological parameters studied in a concentration and time dependent manner with differences in concentration and time at 95 % confidence levels (P< 0.05). The highest decrease of 11.11 ± 0.18 vs control 12.34 ± 0.24 (g/dl) was obtained for Hb at 21 days duration. PCV, WBC, RBC, platelet, neutrophil and lymphocyte analysis also showed highest decrease at 21 days duration. Conclusion: The results showed that using apple cider vinegar in small amounts for a short period of time had little effect. However, it is imperative that anyone intending to take large amounts of bentonite for long periods of time to undergo blood tests from time to time.
69 GС-MS ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE SUBSTANCES EXTRACTED FROM THE SURFACE OF THE PLANT MEDICAGO SATIVA L. , *Тоjiboev B., Umaraliev J., Sulaymonov Sh. and Sarimsakov T.
Alfalfa is one of the most widely grown perennial legumes in irrigated lands of Uzbekistan and Central Asia. Medicago sativa L. growing in the village of Gova, Chust district was selected for research. Samples of dried alfalfa leaves and stems were extracted in petroleum ether and hexane in a soxlet apparatus. According to the results of the chromatomass spectrum, the amounts of substances obtained from the extract of the stem and leaf parts of alfalfa in hexane and petroleum ether were compared. The analysis of volatile substances found in alfalfa was first studied using the chromatomass spectrum.
70 THE EFFECT OF FUNCTIONAL CHEESE NUTRITION FORTIFIED WITH A MIXTURE OF PROBIOTICS AND BIOSTIMULATORES ON SOME CELLULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF EXPERIMENTAL MICE , Maryam Malallah Gazal*, Haider Ibrahim Ali and Nawfal Alhelfi
This study was designed to evaluate the health effects of functional cheese produced from powdered milk, Landus brand, by adding a mixture of Probiotics, biostimulatores inulin and modified starch. the study included a procedure for estimating the logarithmic numbers of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bacteria in functional cheese, the logarithmic numbers for the control cheese treatment reached (8.04, 6.55 logarithm/gm) for the period (1 day and 28 days from storage), respectively, while the logarithmic numbers for cheese treated the synergistic mixture for the same periods were (11.63, 8.77 logarithm / gm) for Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria, while the algorithmic numbers of Bifidobacteriumanimals for the period (1 day and 28 days from storage) for the control treatment (8.55 and 6.10 logarithm / gm), respectively, while the treatment cheese mixture recorded logarithmic numbers reached (12.15 and 9.49 logarithm / gm) for the period (day and 28 days from Storage), respectively. To achieve the therapeutic goal of synergistic functional cheese consumption, experimental mice that used cheese as an emulsion were used in treatments of five groups of experimental mice, as the group that was fed to cheese added to it combined the mixture of Probiotics and biostimulatores together (biological synergy) in most of the results of cellular and biochemical blood tests moral advantage.
71 SELF-MEDICATION AMONG PHARMACY STUDENTS- A THREATENING TREND , P. B. Birari, S. S. Jalihalkar*, A. Gaykhe, R. H. Mishal and H. B. Mishal
Background: This survey examined the paradigm of self-medication and the effects caused due to this practice among Pharmacy students in Nashik. Methods: The study was done using a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed considering different parameters that are directly or indirectly linked to human health and also those that encourage people to self-medicate. The questionnaire was distributed in various Pharmacy colleges through Google forms and around 200 students responded to it. The data collected was analysed and graphs processed and the results were obtained. Results: The survey revealed that in most cases due to existing information about various medicaments, students avoided visiting the physician and getting professional help. Instead they frequently self-medicated. The study further revealed that most of them who self-medicated promoted the practice to others. Conclusions: The overall result showed that being in the pharmacy field and having knowledge of medicines the students generally opt for self-medication more frequently. This practice of self-medication is not limited to Over the Counter drugs but also has extended to the use of antibiotics, anti-bacterials and also sometimes Oral Contraceptive Pills too. The online pharmacy system and cyber doctor consultation obviously may add to and promotes self-medication. Students who obtain these medications may suffer drug–drug interactions and adverse effects, about which they may have no/inadequate prior warning or counseling.
72 URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN NEWBORNS AND INFANTS THREE YEARS OF AGE AND YOUNGER , Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva*, Eleonora Aleksandrovna Yuryeva, Galina Mikhailovna Dementieva and Angelika Khasabievna Zagashtokova
An analysis of the literature (71 references) on urinary tract infections (UTI) in newborns and infants 3 years or less is presented. The etiology and pathogenesis of diseases, the sensitivity of pathogens to antibiotics, the use of antibiotics for the treatment and prevention of infection are considered. The characteristics of laboratory diagnostics and the clinical course of UTI are given.
73 A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PATHYADI GUGGULU AND RASNADI GUTIKA IN CASES OF GRADHRASI W.S.R. TO SCIATIC SYNDROME , Dr. Yadav Shalini M.D, Prof. Saxena Chandra Prakash M.D. PhD., Dr. Garg Richa*, M.D., Dr. Sachdev Kamal, M.D., Dr. Dharmendra, M.D, PhD., Dr. Gupta Deepika, M.D.
Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of Pathyadi guggulu and Rasnadi gutika in cases of Gradhrasi (sciatic syndrome). Introduction: Gridhrasi i.e Sciatic syndrome is caused by pinching of sciatic nerve (nerve root is ventral rami of 4,5 lumbar and 1,2,3 sacral spinal nerve) which causing sharp shooting pain in the back of the leg running from the buttocks down the back of thigh into calf and foot. Settings and Design: For the present clinical study 68 Patients having Ruk (Pain which radiate to sphik, kati, uru, janu, jangha & pada successively), Sakthi utkshepa nigrahyad (restricted upward lifting of the affected lower limb), Stambha (Stiffness), Toda (Pricking sensation), Spandan (Tingling sensation), Tandra (Drowsiness), Gaurav (Heaviness) and Arochak (Anorexia) with Positive SLR TEST were registered. Materials and method: All patients were divided in two groups 34 patients in each. In Group A Pathyadi Guggulu were given orally 2 vati (500 mg each) 3 times daily after meal with Luke warm water for 60 days and in Group B Rasnadi gutika were given orally 2 vati (500 mg each) 3 times daily after meal with Luke warm water for 60 days. Type of study: Phase 2 rational, Randomized (Sequential) parallel group study. Statistical analysis used: p value, paired„t‟ test, unpaired „t‟ test, etc. Results: The trial drugs shows a significant results in terms of relieved & improvement in clinical parameters, out of 42 patients 64.28% were relieved, 28.57% patients were improved, 7.14% had no response, and there was no case of worsened had been reported. Conclusion: Trial drugs were well accepted and tolerated with good positive response and no any side effect has been observed.
74 MOYAMOYA: AN OVERVIEW OF THE DISEASE WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT , Garima Singh, Era Sharma, Pallabi Banerjee and Imteyaz Qamar*
Moyamoya is a chronic and progressive cerebrovascular disease, which is characterized by formation of occlusive lesions and stenosis in bilateral internal carotid arteries of brain. In such special cases aberrant vascular network is formed in close proximity to arterial occlusion. The process of narrowing down of arteries is followed, leading to repeated transient ischemic attacks, headaches etc. The ischemic attacks occur occasionally for short span of time and that may resolve in few minutes. This also causes involuntary movements of body parts such as legs, hands and even tongue. Revascularization method for symptomatic MMD is considered the standard treatment for preventing further stroke.
75 EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PLANTS FROM SIMAROUBACEAE FAMILY AGAINST HUMAN ORAL CANCER CELL LINE SCC-40 , Dr. Aruna Rai* and Deepa Dahar
Cancer is one of the most deadly type of disease, encompasses a broad group of syndrome involving unregulated cell population expansion and sustained focus on development of novel anticancer agents from medicinal plants. A number of plant derived compounds play important roles in treatment of cancer. India has the highest number of cases of oral cancer in the world and this is increasing. Because the aetiology of oral cancer is predominantly tobacco related, the immense public health challenge can be meliorated through habit intervention. Plants from simaroubaceae family has been the subject of many studies regarding its chemical constitution and numerous compounds have been isolated for the treatment of many diseases. Quassinoids can be considered a taxonomic markers of the simaroubaceae family. The leaf, stem and stem bark extracts of Ailanthus excelsa, Quassia amara and Simarouba glauca were used for anticancer potential using sulforhodamine B (SRB) cytotoxicity assay against human oral cancer cell line (SCC-40). Adriamycin was used as the standard to compare the results. The median growth inhibition (GI 50) concentration for extracts of Ailanthus stem and Bark, Simarouba leaf and Bark was <10μg/ml against human oral cancer cell line SCC-40 which indicates potential anticancer activity. It could be concluded that in vitro anti-cancer activity could be attributed to the presence of anti-cancerous phytochemicals like Quassinoids.
76 HISTORICAL OUTBREAK OF COVID-19 IN INDIA: A MECHANISM BASED OVERVIEW , Suresh Kumar Ghritlahare*, Pushpendra Kurre, Govind Panagar, Sarita Sahu
Corona virus is enveloped positive sense RNA virus belong to the Coronaviridae family and cause respiratory infection sneezing, coughing and cold including pneumonia. In Dec-2019, Wuhan, China, is a centre of a 2019-nCoV outbreak of unknown cause, in India first confirm case of novel corona virus reported 30Jan-2020. COVID-19 transmitted human to human or human to animal via close contact and airborne droplet infection. Prevention & managements of COVID-19, WHO give guidelines to avoid public place, maintain social distancing and close contacts to infected persons & pet animals. The International Federation Pharmaceutical emphasizing the crucial responsibility of community pharmacists can play major role in preventing the spreading of COVID-19.
77 PATHYA APATHYA IN VRANA , *Dr. Prajwala Amadihal, Dr. Syeda Ather Fathima, Dr. Shivalingappa J. Arakeri, Dr. Mohasin Kadegaon, Dr. Geethanjali Hiremath
Wound management is the one of the most burning problem during surgical practice. Improper nutritional intake is one of the main causes for delayed wound healing. Improper dietary habit will cause many metabolic changes in the body which delays wound healing. Proper nutritional support is considered as the fundamental part of the wound management. The treatments which are mentioned in the Samhitha are valid and successfully practiced till today. Still Acharya Sushruta gave prime importance to the wound care, Which should be managed by following strict dietary regimen (Pathya Apathya) explained in Susrutha Samhita so that the wound healing will be accelerated. Nutritional diet plays an essential role in wound healing; hence forth following Pathya not only promotes healing but also improves or stabilize the life qualities of the patient. Hence diet plays an important role in the wound healing process and also the person obtains long life.
78 DIODE LASER VS SURGICAL BLADE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ANKYLOGLOSSIA , *Dr. Md. Zeeshan Arif and Dr. Saket Kashyap
Ankyloglossia or tongue tie is a condition when the inferior lingual frenulum is attached to the tip of the tongue. Different surgical approaches has been used for the treatment of the same. This article focuses on the two techniques commonly used – surgery and lasers; and discusses both the techniques in brief.
79 MANAGEMENT OF LIP MUCOCELE – USING MICROSURGERY AND LASER , *Dr. Saket Kashyap and Dr. Md. Zeeshan Arif
Mucocele of the lip is one of the most common salivary gland pathology, presenting itself with soft tissue mass, often on the lower lip. The lesion is caused by extravasation or retention of mucous from the minor salivary gland, which may occur due to trauma or obstruction of the ducts of the salivary gland. Irrespective of the pathology, the management of the benign lesion mostly involves surgical removal of the mass. Due to the high recurrence rate, the involved salivary gland is also removed to prevent recurrence of the lesion. This case report presents the management of a mucocele lesion of the lower lip managed with a minimally invasive approach using microsurgery instruments and laser.
80 EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SANTALUM ALBUM ON ALBINO RATS , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam* and Aparna S.
Back round: Ulcer is the most common prevalent gastro intestinal disorder, which affects approximately 10 -15% of people in the world. It makes major global health problem today. Ulcer is an open sore, it can be developed inside the inner lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). Both the ulcers are also commonly referred to as peptic ulcers. Objectives: The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-ulcer activity of Aqueous and ethanolic extract of Santalum album on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out by NSAID induced ulcer models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Santalum album 250 mg and 505 mg/kg p.o. 5 days) was compared with standard drug (Lansoprazole). In NSAID induced ulcer model, the studied parameters were ulcer index and percentage protection. Results: In NSAID induces ulcer model, the ulcer index was significantly reduced at p<0.01 in 500mg/kg of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Santalum Album treated groups as compared with control. All the doses of AESA and EESA showed the dose-dependent antiulcer effect as well as significant (p<0.01) increase in percentage protection of ulcer as compared to control group in all the experimental models. The aqueous extract of AESA at 500 mg/kg has more potent antiulcer activity than 250 mg/kg of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Santalum album and 500mg/kg of EESA. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that the AESA has better potential against ulcer which supports the traditional claims in folklore medicine. Phytochemical investigation suggests the presence of, tannins which may be responsible for the anti-ulcer activity.
81 BOOSTING THE BRAIN’S INTRINSIC NEUROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY IN TREATMENT OF DEMENTIA , Gargi Velhal, Kedar S. Prabhavalkar* and Lokeshkumar Bhatt
Dementia is considered as a progressive disease, which is accompanied with irretrievable memory impairment, loss of cognitive abilities and reduction in the capacity for independent living. Population aging has a noteworthy impact on the occurrence of the dementia rampant. Individuals with dementia are known to suffer from problems affecting them throughout their life. Therefore, treating dementia in the initial stages has proved to be the current focus of the worldwide research work. By reviewing the current understanding of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches, this review intends to deliver new perceptions in treating dementia at the early stages by targeting the brain‘s intrinsic neuroprotective activity resulting in an increased resistance of the cells, increased cognitive function, and improved process of memory formation and lifestyle of an individual.
82 PROGNOSIS OF CORONA IN MODERN MEDICINE AND IN AYURVEDA CONTEXT AS THE SYMPTOMS IT POSSESS ARE OF TAMAK SHWASA - A REVIEW ARTICLE , Inderjit Kaur*, Shaleen Singh and Satyakam Rahul
CORONA needs no introduction now, everyone is well aware of it. CORONA has emerged from CHINA and affected globally. It is a strong virus which is affecting a large number of people as it spreads at a very fast speed. We had forgotten the term of communicable diseases; it is reminding us the term, described in our Scriptures. As the spread is fast and it is a new type of viral infection, no medicine has been discovered yet. Main purpose of writing this article is sharing the Prognosis of CORONA with respect to Ayurveda Prognosis (Samprapti) on the basis of the symptoms appearing in patients infected with it, so that we can help in developing some medicine for it. I am taking the pathophysiology of CORONA and relating it to the terms used in ayurveda. My study reveals that all the sites affected by the Corona are the KAPHA SITES in our body, starting from the Nose, Bucal cavity, Lungs, alveoli, brain, synovial fluid and plasma. Every symptom being possessed by the CORONA patient is described in the IN CHARAK SAMHITA CHIKITSA STHAAN CHAPTER 17, PAGE NO. 516 HIKKA SHWASA CHIKITSA ADHYAA). Here I am explaining the symptoms written in CHARAK SAMHITA in relation with various symptoms being possessed by the patient infected with the corona Virus. Various stages and types of swash roga can be associated with the symptoms of CORONA from simple infection to fatal, same as symptoms of SHAWASA from simple, then yapya and then fatal. See, how the parameters described in CHARAK SAMHITA ARE SO RELEVANT EVEN TODAY that is the importance and glory of Ayurveda. We categorize CORONA Infection in the Aagantuj Vyadhi (Accidental), As it has affected everyone, all of a sudden, but there are lot of aggravating factors existing in the people which have helped in spreading of CORONA. The compromised immunity of people due to various factors which has lead to higher mortality rate. I have come to this conclusion after reading various researches on the corona and the Autopsy reports of the patients who died due to CORONA.
83 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM (L.) BARK AND PEEL EXTRACTS , Yasmin Hassan Elshiekh* and Mahdi Abdelmageed Mohammed Ali
Punica granatum is the predominant member of Punicaceae family. The phytochemical screening was carried out using, Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and 70% ehanol, The results showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, Tannins, Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Coumarins and Anthraquinone glycoside. The different extracts of Punica granatum L. (bark and Peel) have been tested for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by cup diffusion method. The antibacterial activity shows that all of the extracts were found to be active against all bacterial strains tested.
84 AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF OCIMUMGRATISSIMUM AND ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE SYNERGISES INANTI-DIARRHOEAL PROPERTY , Ihekwereme C. P., *Bruce S. O., Orji C. E., Ibe C. I. and Iloh E. S.
Introduction: The present study was performed to substantiate the traditional claim of the anti-diarrhoeal activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale, in albino mice. Method: Acute toxicity study was determined. The dose levels 100, 200 and 400mg/kg of aqueous extract was tested in albino miceagainst castor-oil induced diarrhoea model and charcoal meal test/intestinal motility test. The symptoms observed were the consistency of faeces, onset of defecation and cumulative faecal weight in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea model, and the distance travelled by charcoal in the intestinal motility test. Results: The toxicological studies confirm that the aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale, in combined form, when administered, showed no mortality or any sign of toxicity at the dose level up to 5000mg/kg. A significant delay in the onset of defecation (p<0.05), reduction in the cumulative faecal weight (p<0.001), along with a change in the faecal consistency from watery to solid form was observed at the dose of 800mg/kg in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea model. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of leaves of Occimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale showed anti-diarrhoeal activity, which may be due to its anti-motility and anti-secretory effects, which thus proved the traditional claims.
85 SPIRITUAL SELF HEALING ON POST OPERATING SYNDROME OF PAIN IN LAPARATOMY PATIENTS , Jahidin Kuswanto*, Rr Sri Endang Puji Astuti and Bedjo Santoso
Surgical action is a treatment that uses an invasive method by opening the part of the body to be treated, after surgery the pain is physiologically felt, but this is the one complaint that is most feared by the patient after surgery. One of the complementariness used to reduce complications of postoperative syndrome of pain in Laparatomi patients is spiritual self-healing. Analyzing the effectiveness of spiritual self-healing against postoperative syndrome of pain in Laparatomi patients. This true experimental study used a pre-test and post-test control group design approach involving 60 post-operative laparotomy patients at the BLUD hospital RSD dr.H.Soemarno Sosroatmodjo Regency of Bulungan taken randomly with stratified random sampling. 30 respondents became the intervention group and 30 respondents became the control group. The intervention group received complementary spiritual self-healing therapy 7 times for 7 days with a duration of 15 minutes and the therapy was in accordance with the standard of postoperative patients in the hospital while the control group only received therapy according to the standard postoperative in the hospital. Data analyzed with repeated measure test. The results showed that there were differences in the mean pain scale in the intervention group and the control group after receiving therapy spiritual self-healing with a value of p = 0,000 which means that spiritual intervention is self-healing effective to reduce the scale of pain in Laparatomi patients. Spiritual self-healing is effective against postoperative syndrome of pain in Laparatomi patients.
86 AN OVERVIEW OF ENSETE SUPERBUM: CHEMISTRY & PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE , H. B. Mishal* and Dr. M. K. Shirsat
Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman is a wild banana species has been used widely by the tribals of Khandesh region of North Maharashtra for the medicinal and edible purpose. It is also endemic to Satpura range forests of northern Maharashtra, Western Ghats, Matheran and some other places in Southern India. The chemical ingredients reported from this plant belong to the different classes such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols, glycosides and flavonoids. It is commonly known as “Jungalee kela” or “rankeli” in this region and has a number of medicinal uses. Many of which have been verified and elaborated by different workers with scientific methods, in classical literature. This review article summarizes the chemistry and pharmacological profile of the plant.
87 HERBAL AND AYURVEDIC LEADS FROM PRECLINICAL STUDIES HAVING HEPATOPROTECTIVE POTENTIONAL - A REVIEW , Ruchi Sharma* and Mangala Jadhav
Liver disease is a major health problem worldwide, and it makes it necessary to develop new drug or formulation that help counteract or prevent these liver diseases. Liver plays a main role in the metabolism and excretion. Due to this reason, liver is exposed more to toxicity. In addition to it, there is still lack of some reliable hepatoprotective drug, which arose the scope for finding new drugs. There has been tremendous work done on herbal and ayurvedic formulation in invitro and invivo models to evaluate their hepatoprotective activity. In this study all the work done on 287 preclinical studies on hepatoprotective activity are review and were compiled. The drugs or formulation that show hepatoprotective potentional in preclinical studies are the source of lead for researchers/medicals in treating the patients with liver disease and also for evaluating their safety and efficacy in the human trials.
88 A CRITICAL STUDY ON AETIOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SVITRA , Dr. Samima Azmi and Dr. S. K. Chakraborty
ŝvitra is enumerated as raktaja vikāra and rakta and pitta are correlated with asraya asrayi bhāva. So, mainly pitta (bhrajaka) gets vitiated, which is responsible for normal skin color, leads to white colored skin patches, named as Švitra Vyādhi. though not included under kuṣtḥa by brihatrayi. separate ãhãraja vihãraja nidãna, purvarupa and samprãpti of ŝvitra has not been mentioned vividly in classics except Caraka who specified pãpa karma as nidãna for ŝvitra.It is basically of 3 types; Vãta-Pitta-Kapha. The nidāna for ŝvitrā is Astyã, Kṛitaghna, Nindāsurãnãma, Pãpakriyãpữrvakṛta, Virodhῖannā as mentioned by Caraka. Sādhyā Asādhya Lakṣana are vividly mentioned in all classics for Švitra Vyādhi.
89 A REVIEW ON TRADITIONALLY USED MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY IN NORTH- EAST (INDIA) , Moksood Ahmed Laskar*, Priyanka Goswami and Mrinmoy Basak
The investigation of this study reports on some medicinally important plants which are found to be used traditionally by villager and tribal peoples of North east (India) for the beneficial treatment purposes of various male and female reproductive procurements related disease conditions such as leucorrhoea, erectly dysfunction, infertility, dysmenorrhoea, menstruation disorders and pregnancy related problems. Over a survey of it has been found that there are more than 100 medicinal plants which has been used to treat the reproductive disorders out of which very few of them has confirmed with such potential. The plants belonging from the family like Musaceae, Sterculiaceae, Liliaceae, Rubiaceae, Apiaceae, Punicaceae etc. has found highest uses followed by members of etc. which were used by total 14 tribes and 3 communities distributed in various part of Assam. The observation obtained in this study gives a better knowledge focusing the medicinal plants available in area of North east (India), which may often be helpful for a pathway for further experimental studies, which will be beneficial for the mankind with better reproducibility, safe and economical purposes of such treatment.
90 MANAGEMENT OF AMALPITTA WITH SHATAVARI, AMALAKI AND YASHTIMADHU - A REVIEW , Monica Salaria* and Aditya
The Amalpitta is one among the several GIT upsets. It is the root cause of many other ailments, as shuktatva is told to be the reason of indigestion, grahani, atisar etc. Today’s human is following almost all nidanas of the Amalpitta like improper food intake, untimely food intake, junk foods, divaswapan, ratrijagran etc. This all leads to disturbance in digestion and improperly digested matter becomes shukta or amal. Most of the patients visiting the health centres complain of hyperacidity, GORD and resultant conditions such as peptic ulcers. The increased use on NSAIDS is a strong cause besides the dietary habits and nature of diet. Thus, restriction or decrease in use of such drugs and diet, change in dietary habits and intake of Ayurvedic treatment can be the game changer. Some yogic procedures as Dhouti can also be very useful. The line of treatment explained in Ayurveda is vamana, virechana procedures which take some time for completion and bed rest also. This is difficult for present society to do such procedures so the frequently useful drugs should be studied for the purpose. Shatavari, Amalaki and Yashtimadhu are among the drugs that will be evaluated on the basis of Pharmacological properties and already done research studies.
91 ENHANCEMENT OF CEFPODOXIME PROXETIL DRUG BY USING SOLID DISPERSION METHOD AND POLYMER USING CYCLODEXTRINS , Shruti Jaswal and Rajeev Garg*
The primary aim of this research was to improve the solubility and Bioavailability of BCS Class-IV drugs because of their low solubility and Low permeability and dissolution rate. Solubility is one of the important parameter to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for therapeutic response to be shown. The aim of research work is to prepare oral dispersible tablets using solid dispersion as a core material. Solid dispersions were prepared by kneading method, physical mixture and solvent evaporation method using varied concentrations of hydrophilic polymer (Cyclodextrins). Dissolution profile predicted that solid dispersion prepared with 1:2 % w/w CP and Cyclodextrins by solvent evaporation has shown highest drug release. Powder blend of all formulations was evaluated for pre-compression parameters (FTIR, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index and angle of repose) and it was observed that all excipients were compatible with CP and has excellent flow properties. Dispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression method using different concentration (0, 2.5 and 5 % w/w) of croscarmellose sodium and were evaluated for drug content, weight variation, friability, dispersion time and in vitro drug release studies. Drug content was found to be more than 94 % for all prepared tablets whereas friability and weight variation were below 1 % and 5 % w/w respectively. Tablet formulations containing 5% w/w of croscarmellose sodium showed least dispersion time (2.51 minutes) and highest drug release 96 % in just 30 minutes which was better than marketed formulation (CEFOPROX) as well as pure drug.
92 FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM OF LICORICE FOR THE TREATMENT OF MOUTH ULCER , Sheetal Parse* and Milind Umekar
Herbal medicine are important and good for action. Oral mouth dissolving drug delivery system is considered to be an important alternative to the peroral route for the systemic administration of drugs, as it considered the most convenient, easy, safest route of administration. Mouth dissolving film may be preferred over the mouth dissolving tablets in terms of flexibility and comfort. The aim of this study is to formulate and characterize oral mouth dissolving film of licorice. Oral films were prepared by Solvent casting method using HPMC-E 15, Propylene glycol, and other recipients. Films were evaluated for mechanical properties, disintegration time, and in- vitro drug release.
93 DESIGN, FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ACECLOFENAC FAST DISINTEGRATING TABLETS USING NATURAL POLYMERS , P.S.S. Prasanna Kumar*, A. Ravi Kumar, Srinivas Nandyala, B Devaki Devi, T. Anjali, Ch. Srividya, Ch. Divya, T. Pujitha, A. Evanjelin, N. Ramya Krishnaveni and Y. Sireesha
Aceclofenac is a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with marked anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of the present work is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action. The present study was to formulate and in-vitro evaluation of fast disintegrating tablets of Aceclofenac by using Natural polymer such as Pithecellobium dulce seed gum and Guar gum by direct compression technique using 3 different concentrations of 2%W/W, 4%W/W & 6%W/W. Each formulation was evaluate for various pre and post compression parameters such as Flow property, Bulk density, Tapped density, Weight variation, Hardness, Friability, Wetting time, Disintegration time, Assay, in-vitro dissolution. Among the 06 formulations, “F3” formulation Aceclofenac with 6%w/w of Pithecellobium dulce seed gum showed excellent disintegration time and best dissolution rate studies. In-Vitro dissolution studies showed (99.96%) release of drug within 20 minutes It was concluded that the fast disintegrating tablets are prepared by Natural polymer Pithecellobium dulce seed gum and Guar gum acts as a Fast disintegrant and the Pithecellobium dulce seed gum showed excellent disintegration time and enhance the dissolution rate compared to Guar gum.
94 IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BUCHANANIA LANZAN SPRENG. BARK , C. Pramod*, Dr. Ratheesh M., Svenia P. Jose and Feena Paul
Methods: The bark was shade dried and coarsely powdered and then subjected to hot continuous percolation by Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as solvent. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was carried out on extract. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic potential was evaluated by in vitro. In vitro methods include Nitric oxide scavenging assay, DPPH assay, Protein denaturation and proteinase inhibition methods. In vivo antiinflammatory activity was established by using carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton wool granuloma methods. In vivo antiarthritic potential was evaluated by collagen induced arthritis model. After 20 days of collagen administration, EEBL 200mg/Kg was administered to experimental Sprague dawley rats for next 20 days. Changes in body weight, paw volume, arthritic score were assessed weekly. In addition, on 41st day, radiological analysis, histopathological evaluation, TNF-α expression by RT PCR analysis were performed. Results and Discussion: In vitro studies showed that EEBL had got good nitric oxide and DPPH scavenging activity and also possess significant antiinflammatory activity. In in vivo studies, extract treatment in experimental rats at the dose of 200mg/Kg showed a decrease in the paw volume and granuloma weight indicating the possibility of EEBL be a promising antiinflammatory agent. Studies on EEBL treated collagen induced arthritic animals, showed an increase in body weight, significant reduction in paw volume, arthritic score and TNF-α expression. Radiological and histopathological analysis also strengthens the evidence of resolution of arthritis. Conclusion: The study confirmed the antiinflammatory and antiarthritic potential of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. bark belongs to the family Anacardaceae.
95 A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIABETES SELF MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES OF DIABETICS IN A SELECTED SETTING , Dr. Jeyadeepa R.*
Ancient Medical History had explained diabetes and how it affected people. Diabetes is a lifestyle disorder. To manage diabetes in an effective manner, the individuals have to take many decisions then and there regarding diet, exercise, medications, monitoring etc. Hence it is essential that knowledge on self-care plays an important role in diabetes management. The present study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of diabetes self-management training program on the physiological variables of the diabetics. Quantitative approach was adopted in this study. It was conducted by using true experimental research design. The study was conducted in two centres. 200 diabetics from each centre were selected. Randomization was done to allot the samples to either control or experimental group. The data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and lab reportsfor the physiological variables were assessment. The selected participants were given self-management training programme. The physiological parameters assessed were fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, HbA1c, body mass index, blood pressure and cholesterol. The data were analysed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that the intervention is effective in reducing BMI, PPBS, FBS, HbA1c and cholesterol. Even though the changes in the physiological variables noticed in the control group the rate of reduction is more in the experimental group which was statistically proved. Hence it can be concluded the treatment is effective when it is combined with self-management training.
96 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ACECLOFENAC FAST DISINTEGRATING TABLETS USING NATURAL POLYMER EXTRACTED FROM “PHYLLOPHORA RIBIS” , T. Anjali*, N. Srinivas, P. SS. Prasanna Kumar, P. Brahma Teja, D. Praneetha, P. DS Anjali, K. Vijaya, G. Swarajya Rao and S. Siva Saradhi
Aceclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of the present work is to design and formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly, give its rapid onset of action. The present study was to Formulate and evaluation of fast disintegrating tablet of Aceclofenac by using Natural polymer extracted from “Phyllophora Ribis” mushroom by direct compression technique in 05 different concentrations of 2%W/W, 4%W/W, 6%W/W, 8%W/W & 12%W/W. Each formulation was evaluate for various pre and post compression parameters such as Flow property, Bulk density, Tapped density, Weight variation, Hardness, Friability, Wetting time, Disintegration time, Assay, in- vitro dissolution. Among the 05 formulations, F5 formulation Aceclofenac with 12%w/w of mushroom extract powder showed the best dissolution rate studies. In-Vitro dissolution studies showed (99.98%) release of drug within 25 minutes and the mechanism of drug release from the tablets was followed to be first order kinetics. It was concluded that the fast disintegrating tablets are prepared by Natural polymer extracted from P.Ribis mushroom acts as a Fast disintegrant and the mushroom polymer powder showed excellent disintegration time.
97 A REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS VALIDATION AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE , Sirisha Pasupuleti*, G. Sushma Reddy and S. Supriya
Quality assurance functions primarily to monitor the fact that the quality function is being performed. Its role in process validation is readily associated with its main functions. Validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industries most recognized subjects. Validation is the art of designing and practicing the designed steps alongside with the documentation. Validation and quality assurance will go hand in hand, ensuring the thorough quality for the products. It analyzes the product complaints to learn how effective its test program has been in preventing rejectable product from reaching the market place. According to GMP validation studies are essential part of GMP these are required to be done as per predefined protocols, the minimum that should be validated include process, testing and cleaning as a result such control procedure stablish to monitor the output and validation of manufacturing processes that may be responsible for variability of drug product. The validation study provide the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the test methods employed by the firms, shall be established and documented. Thus validation is an essential part of quality assurance.
98 PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF PECTINASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS AWAMORI IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION , Praveen Kumar Dasari*
The present study deals with the process optimization and production of protease enzyme using Artocarpus heterophyllus as a substrate by Aspergillus awamori in a solid state fermentation process. Solid-state fermentation is defined as a process that occurs on a non-soluble material that acts both as support and a source of nutrients, with a reduced among of water, under the action of fermenting agent. In the process, the microorganism is cultivated on a solid substrate enriched with a high concentration of nutrients, micronutrients and materials and having large surface area. Process variables such as time, temperature, size of inoculum, pH and moisture content were optimized to get the maximum production of pectinase. The increased level of pectinase production was recorded at time 72hrs, temperature 30°C in solid-state conditions. The optimum inoculum level was 40%v/w, pH 5.0 and 70% v/w moisture content of the substrate were optimum for the maximum production of pectinase in solid-state condition. Increased yield of pectinase were observed when medium was supplemented with carbon (3% glucose) and nitrogen (ammonium sulphate, 0.4%) sources. A significant improvement in the enzyme yield was recorded when the basal medium was supplemented with different carbon and nitrogen sources.
99 A REVIEW ON CNS ACTIVITY OF METFORMIN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE , Nabeela C. H.*, Sherin A., Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K.
The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are major concern in medical field. Nowadays symptomatic treatment are preferred. Metformin has long since been used to treat type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. In vitro and in vivo studies shows beneficial effect in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses CNS Activities of Metformin in Alzheimer disease.
100 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF SALVADORA OLEOIDES: A REVIEW , *Rajshree Dahiya and Dr. Jai Singh Vaghela
Salvadora oleoides belong to the family Salvdoraceae is a small, multipurpose tree commonly grown in western Rajasthan and Gujarat states of India.It is known in India as “Mithi Jal” or :Peelu”. Many chemical constituents such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, mucilage, fats and oils have been reported from its leaves and stems extracts. Because of the presence of these active chemical constituents it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, analgesic, anti-ulcer, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal and diuretics.
101 HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE KIDNEY AND LIVER OF WISTAR RATS TREATED WITH CRUDE DECOCTION OF NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA, ENANTIA CHLORANTHA AND MANGIFERA INDICA (AGBOIBA PONTO) , Ogenyi Samuel Ifedioranma*, Onu June Amara, Okeke Monique Ugochinyere, Madukwe David Uche Promise, Ekenebe Dennis Chimaobi and Obikwue Chukwuemeka
The histomorphological and biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of wistar rats treated with Agboiba ponto was evaluated. Twenty-four male and female wistar rats weighing between 150 and 170g were divided into four groups (A-D) six rats each. Different doses of (500mg/kg, 600mg/kg, and 700mg/kg) of aqueous crude extract of Agboiba ponto were administered orally to the rats in groups B to D respectively, for a period of 28 days. Group A (control) received top feed and water only. Blood samples were collected from the rats for serum urea, creatinine, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) estimation, while kidney and liver tissue samples were excised for histological examination. The result, showed dose dependent progressive increase in serum urea and creatinine levels of test animals compared with the control, though not statistically significant. Serum ALT and AST levels progressively decreased from groups A to C but suddenly increased in group D. The histological findings revealed similar trend, the control showed normal histo-morphological architecture while test groups had progressive morphological degeneration ranging from mild histo-architectural distortion of the cortical structures to marked tubular necrosis, moderate-severe chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates and glomerulonephritis and hepatic periportal lymphocytic infiltration. Prolonged administration of higher doses of Agboiba ponto may cause adverse changes in the kidney and liver of wistar rats. Therefore, caution should be observed while usage.
102 VISITORS’ KNOWLEDGE REGARDING BLOOD DONATION AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL, CHITWAN, NEPAL , Jayalaxmi Shakya*, Bedantakala Thulung, Tripti Shrestha and Preeti Shakya
Human blood is an essential element of human life and there are no substitutes to blood as yet. The need for blood is growing day by day as a result of advancement in the clinical medicine but its supply remains short. Hence, it is essential to identify significant factors affecting blood donation. For this reason, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge regarding blood donation among patients’ visitors at Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. A descriptive cross sectional study design was used. Data were collected by using non-probability purposive sampling technique with face to face structured interview schedule among 100 respondents. Data were analysed in descriptive and inferential statistics. Results of this study revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 31.55 SD=11.72. The study revealed that the proportion of individuals with knowledge on blood donation is quite high. Majority of the respondents (88%) of them mentioned that the main goal of blood donation was to save someone’s life. Sixty percent of them answered that the major benefit of blood donation was a sense of psychological wellbeing. Only one-fourth of the respondents had ever donated blood. The major reason for not donating blood was the lack of opportunity to do so. It is important to increase the number of donors in order to meet the requirement of blood. Targeted strategies should be designed to increase more awareness among people about blood donation and to utilize potential donors who lack opportunities to donate blood.
103 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING FILM OF PANTAPRAZOLE SODIUM , Shalaka Vijay Borse* and Dr. Vaibhav Kumar A. Jagtap
New drug delivery system for the oral delivery of drug, was developed based on the technology of the transdermal patch. It consists of a very thin oral strip which releases the active ingredient immediately after uptake into the oral cavity. The technique involved in the preparation of mouth dissolving film was solvent casting method in which aqueous solution I (Pantaprazole Sodium, Sodium Starch Glycolate, Ascorbic acid, Vanilla flavour and Saccharin) and aqueous solution II (HPMC E15 and Glycerine) was prepared in specific proportion in distilled water. Both solution I & II were mixed & stir for 1 hour & kept for 1 hour to remove all air bubbles. Then the mixture solution was poured into petridish & it was dried in oven at 40-50 0C for 7- 8 hours then film was removed from petridish and cut according to Size (square film: 2cm length, 2cm width). Pantaprazole is a highly potent proton pump inhibitor, chemically a weak base, it concentrates under the acidic conditions of parietal cell secretory canaliculi where it is converted to a cationic cyclic sulfonamide by rearrangement. This activated molecule binds to two site of hydrogen/potassium ATPase (proton pump) in the gastric parietal cells, inactivating the system, which in turn blocks the final step of secretion of hydrochloric acid by these cells, producing a long lasting effect.
104 THE PREDICTIVE ROLE OF GALANIN IN GASTRIC CANCER , Hamit Karayagiz*, Umit Sekmen, Serra Bayrakçeken
Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the world.[1] In search of new approaches to diagnose or exclude gastric cancers, a number of tumor antigens have been identified, and many of these have been defined as immunotherapeutic agents.[2] However, therapeutic impacts of these agents have not been as satisfactory as expected. Galanin is a 29-amino acid COOH-terminally, highly conserved and only neuroendocrine peptide originally isolated from intestine.[3] The first 14 amino acids are fully conserved in near all species.[4] It modulates a diversity of physiologic processes, within perception, memory, sensory, pain processing, neurotransmitter, hormone secretion, and feeding behavior.[5] Various biologically active forms of galanin which have elongated or truncated NH2 terminal have been identified.[6]
105 PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY OF VAJRA DANTA MANJANA AND VIDANGADI GUGGULU- A POLY HERBAL MEDICINE , Dr. Priya Sharma*, Dr. Satish Sharma, Dr. Vijayant Bhardwaj and Dr. Priyanka Thakur
Dantveshta is a chronic disease of gums in which there is pus mixed blood discharge from gums with loosening of teeth, due to vitiation of Kapha Dosha and Rakta Dushti in Uttamanga. The clinical features of Dantaveshta as explained in Ayurvedic literature have the relevance with Pyorrhoea Alveolaris. Pyorrhea Alveolaris can be known as periodontitis which is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth. So the present study was carried out to standardize the finished product Vajradanta Manjana and Vidangadi Guggulu to confirm its identity, purity and quality. Physicochemical analysis of Vajradanta Manjan shows loss on drying 06.80%, total solid content is 93.20%, total ash 26.95%, Acid insoluble ash 03.36%, Water soluble Extractive 51.89%, pH 3.04, Thin Layer Chromatography showed 7and 7 Spots. Physicochemical analysis of Vidangadi Guggulu shows loss on drying is 04.83%, total solid content is 95.17%, total ash 06.33%, Acid insoluble ash 02.11%, Water soluble Extractive 34.07%, pH 3.90, average weight 532mg, Thin Layer Chromatography showed 7 and 8 Spots. This shows the presence of certain definite constituents in the Vajradanta Manjana and Vidangadi Guggulu and is helpful for the easy separation of these constituents.
106 PRACTICE ON PREVENTION OF NEEDLE STICK INJURY AMONG NURSES IN SELECTED TEACHING HOSPITAL, BHARATPUR, CHITWAN , Pratima Koirala* and Sushma Shrestha
A needle stick injury (NSI) is a common health hazards among health care workers which is known as percutaneous piercing wound typically set by a needle point, but possibly also by other sharp instruments or objects which may lead to serious blood-borne diseases like Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This study aimed to find out the nurses’ practice on prevention of needle stick injury. A descriptive cross-sectional observational research design was used for this study. A total 50 nurses who were working in Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMCTH), Bharatpur-10, Chitwan, having working experience of more than 3 months were selected by non-probability enumerative sampling technique. Observational check-list was used to collect data and the obtained data were analyzed into IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 program using descriptive and inferential statistics. Out of 50 nurses, 22.0% of nurses have satisfactory practice and 78.0% of nurses have unsatisfactory practice on prevention of needle stick injury. This issues need to be adressesed, through appropriate in-service education, training programs and interventional strategies.
107 HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIORS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A GOVERNMENT SCHOOL OF CHITWAN, NEPAL , Dipti Koirala*, Prof. Milan Lopchan and Assoicate Prof. Subina Bajracharya
Adolescent period is a foundation of the future life. Modifiable unhealthy behaviors during adolescence can lead to emergence of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in later stages of life. This study aimed to find out the health promoting behaviors among adolescents in a government school of Chitwan, Nepal. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 201 students of grade nine at a government school of Bharatpur, Chitwan. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire (a standard tool: AHP scale) and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean age of the respondents was 14.84±0.75 and majority of the respondents were male (51.7%). The total mean score of AHP scale was 78.95±12.20, and the percent of mean score was 75.19%. The highest score was obtained in the area of life appreciation (17.47±3.39), and least score in exercise (9.61±3.39). Statistically significant association was found between health promoting behaviors among adolescents and sources of health information {school teachers (p=0.008), family members (p=0.032), newspapers (p=0.003), internet (p=0.043), radio (p=0.025) and health workers (p=0.023)}. Statistically significant association was found between subscales (nutrition behavior) and father’s employment status (p=0.016), and between subscale (health responsibility) and mother’s educational status (p=0.021). Health promoting behaviors among adolescents was found inadequate, mainly in the area of nutrition and exercise. Thus, the school management and the parents, both needs to pay more attention to the adolescents; consultation and educational services to the adolescents need to be emphasized; internet, radio and newspaper need to be utilized to enhance health promoting behaviors among adolescents.
108 PATIENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS MEDICAL STUDENTS AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL, BHARATUR, NEPAL , Kalpana Basyal and Dipa Sigdel*
Patients are essential for the acquisition and development of medical students’ clinical skills thus, cooperation and positive attitude of patient towards medical students is very crucial. Therefore, this study was aimed to identify patients’ attitude towards medical students at a Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 119 patients admitted in the Tropical, Surgical, Gynecology/ Obstetrics and Orthopedic wards of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was adopted to select patient. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule from 27/08/2017 to 09/09/2017 and then collected data was analyzed and interpreted by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result of this study showed that majority of the respondents belongs to age group 19-39 years (54.6%) with mean age of the respondents 40.7 ± 17.79 and female (54.6%). The total mean score of attitude towards medical students of respondents is 3.38 ± 0.34. More than half of respondents (52.1%) had positive attitude however negative attitude had found in the area of communication skills of medical students with mean score of 3.04 ± 0.21. The significant variable for the respondents’ attitude towards medical students was admitted wards (p= 0.03). It is concluded that even though more than half of the patients’ attitude towards medical students is positive, the hospital needs to plan and implement various programs to maximize positive patient- medical student relationship emphasizing on the area of communication skills.
109 PUREESHA JANAKA DRAVYAS: THE PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE , Dr. Prayagaprasad U. R.*, Vasudha V. G. and A. S. Prashanth
Lifestyle of humans has improved substantially in this modernized world. Technology has set easy access to almost everything under our fingers, but has led to reduced physical activity leading to increased incidence of lifestyle related disorders. Recent trends have shown people taking high extent of calories, Junk food and Consumption of fibers in the diet has reduced. Further level of stress has increased both at personal and professional life. All these factors are having ill effects on every organ system of body. Due to these lifestyle changes gastrointestinal symptoms like constipation, heartburn, abdominal discomfort & diarrhea are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Constipation is a common prevalent problem in general population with prevalence 2-28% which is associated with significantly impaired quality of life and psychological distress, as well as increased health care costs and impaired work productivity. Different classes of laxatives have various limitations in one or another form. These dravya add soluble fiber to the stool causing the stools to absorb more water thereby creating larger, softer stools. So here an effort is made in understanding the dravya which help in increase the bulk of stool and easy evacuation of bowel as mentioned in Ayurveda (Pureesha Janaka Dravyas).
110 ROLE OF PORT SITE INFILTRATION OF LONG ACTING LOCAL ANAESTHETIC AGENTS IN POST-OPERATIVE PAIN REDUCTION, EARLY RECOVERY AND OVERALL PATIENT SATISFACTION AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY , *Dr. Goel Apoorv, Bansal Roli, Garg Prakhar and Kothari Shyam
Background: In today’s era of minimally invasive surgery early post-operative pain reduction, early recovery and return to normal activities is also an important aspect. This study has been designed to analyze the effect of a long acting local anaesthetic agent (0.25 % Bupivacaine) infiltration over port sites in cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: This is a comparative study carried out at St Joseph Hospital, Ghaziabad from September 2019 to March 2020 on 124 patients who underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Group I was control group in which no local anaesthesia was offered and Group II received 20ml of 0.25 % Bupivacaine infiltrated over port sites. Various parameters were assessed during intra-operative and post-operative period. Pain was analysed using Visual Analogue Scoring (VAS) for first 24 hours and overall patient satisfaction scoring was done using questionnaire and scorecard. Results: Cholelithiasis is a disease of middle aged females. Post-operative pain was significantly reduced in group II receiving port site infiltration with 0.25% Bupivacaine. Early recovery, return to normal activities and overall patient satisfaction was significantly better in group II. Conclusion: Port site infiltration with 0.25% Bupivacaine significantly reduces early post-operative pain, enhance early recovery and improves overall patient satisfaction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
111 GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS IN FICUS MOLLIS VAHL LEAVES , Narendra Shahare* and Shroni Bodele
Ficus mollis Vahl is an important medicinal plant belongs to family Moraceae. The leaf extract of this plant in different solvents were analyzed for different phytochemicals. It shows presence of different phytochemicals like carbohydrates, phenol, tannins, proteins, amino acids, anthocyanin, saponin, flavonoid anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. The analysis of the volatile compounds in the methanolic leaf extract was performed using GC-MS. About 100 compounds were reported out of which ten compounds are major while others are minors. The major compounds include Deoxyspergualin (7.79%), ç-Sitosterol (7.05%), Cyclopentasiloxane, decamethyl- (5.07%), dl-à-Tocophero (4.25%), 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-(3,8,12,16-tetramethyl-heptadeca-3,7,11,15 tetraenyl)-cyclohexanol (2.75%), à-Amyrin (2.43%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, 2,3-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]propyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.41%), Phytol (2.39%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, 2,3-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]propyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.31%) and Cyclohexasiloxane, dodecamethyl- (2.12%).
112 THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC UNIFLORAL ATAMISQUI HONEY (ATAMISQUEA EMARGINATA): IN VITRO AND IN VIVO BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION , Marcos A. Reynoso, Franco A. Medina and Nancy R. Vera*
The present study was carried out to investigate the medicinal properties and safety of organic unifloral atamisqui honey (Atamisquea emarginata). We evaluated the antioxidant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of honeys with a previous quantitative analysis of some phytoconstituents such as total phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Safety was evaluated with the acute toxicity test. The unifloral atamisqui honey (UAH) presented an important antioxidant activity with values higher than 90% (from 400 μg / ml) in both methods (DPPH and β-carotene bleaching) and similar to the positive patterns (BHT and quercetin). In addition, UAH exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the acute and chronic inflammation models. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in animals treated with both doses 14 days prior to the trial (84.13% reduction in edema and 42.63 % reduction the weight of exudate). UAH has antinociceptive activity at both central and peripheral levels. Acute toxicity results suggest that single oral doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg b.w. are safe to use in rats. Our data indicate that UAH is a natural source of bioactive substances with promising beneficial properties for human health.
113 MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS IN A PATIENT WITH BELL’S PALSY: A CASE REPORT , Maryam Jalali, Navid Kalani, Farshid Javdani and Naser Hatami*
Bell's palsy is a facial paralysis due to the demyelination of peripheral nerves of the face and it affects the person's face. In some cases, Bell's palsy is associated with multiple sclerosis, which despite the Bell’s palsy is a central nervous demyelination disease. This suggests the need to consider demyelinating autoimmune diseases, including MS, in identifying the cause of Bell’s palsy.
114 ASYMPTOMATIC CENTRAL PONTINE MYELINOLYSIS IN HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDIUM , Maryam Jalali, Dr. Navid Kalani, Farshid Javdani and Naser Hatami*
Central pontine myelinolysis occurs due to demyelination of the myelin sheath of the neurons of the Pons region of the brain stem, which may have different neurological symptoms. The case presented in our study was a 29-year-old pregnant woman who had no signs of neurological findings and was asymptomatic. The cause of the occurrence of Central pontine myelinolysis is mainly due to the incorrect correction of blood electrolytes. However, she did not show any clear electrolyte disturbances, which rejects that as an etiologic cause of this case. The similarity of this patient with other cases was malnutrition due to hyperemesis gravidium. However, Regarding to four weeks postpartum MRI, CPM complication was eliminated and normal MRI results were reported.
115 EVALUATION OF MEDICINES PRESCRIBING PATTERN AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN AT THE PRINCESS CHRISTIAN MATERNITY HOSPITAL IN FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE , Oluwatoba Atolagbe*, Joseph Sam Kanu, Mohamed Bella Jalloh, James B. W. Russell, Joseph B. A. Beckley, Onome Thomas Abiri
Background: Appropriate use of medications during pregnancy is an essential part of prenatal care, since it can affect not only the health of the pregnant woman but also that of the developing foetus. This study evaluated prescribing patterns, rational prescribing and occurrence of contraindicated medicines among pregnant women at the Princess Christian Maternity Hospital in Freetown. Materials and Methods: 314 antenatal prescriptions were obtained from the pharmacy of the Princess Christian Maternity Hospital and evaluated retrospectively. Prescription patterns, rational prescribing and risk to the foetus were evaluated using the WHO core prescribing indicators, index of rational drug prescribing (IRDP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy risk classification of medicines. Results: Excluding minerals and vitamins, 25 (8.0%) of pregnant women received at least one drug. The average number of drugs per encounter, percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name, percentage encounters with an antibiotic and an injection and the percentage of drugs prescribed from the NEML were 3.9, 49.5%, 53.5%, 2.2% and 99.9% respectively. The congruent indices of rational drug prescribing were 0.09. 0.50, 0.56, 4.55 and 0.99 correspondingly. Minerals and vitamins 394 (32.6%), were the most frequently prescribed medicines. Of all the medicines prescribed, 221 (43.1%) were FDA category C medicines followed by category A 125 (32.3%). Conclusion: The prescribing pattern was not rational as three of the prescribing indicators fell short of the WHO standard. The existence of contraindicated medicines was suitably low. Therefore, there is need to improve rational prescribing.
116 VAGINAL IMMUNITY – REVIEW ARTICLE , Bharti Mittu* and Neha
The innate immune system is the most primitive and evolutionary conserved arm of the immune system. It triggers a sequence of events leading to release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of the acquired immune system (T and B lymphocytes). Once T and B lymphocytes activated, these lymphocytes generate microbial antigen-specific cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity. A delicate balance is maintained by a complex interplay of local humoral, cell mediated and innate immunity in female reproductive system (Summers et al., 2010). Innate immune system can recognize multiple microbes and components of their cell walls. The potential pathogens can be eliminated by multiple mechanisms, which include antimicrobial factors secreted by local epithelial cells, ingestion by resident phagocytes and activation of an inflammatory response (Janeway et al., 2005).
117 DANTA SHAREERA AVALOKANA & DANTA ROGAS- A CONCEPTUAL STUDY , *Dr. Snehapriya P. R. and Dr. Venkatesh B. A.
Mouth is considered as a window into health of the body by being a gateway of the alimentary canal and by this fact it is to be understood as one of the most important part of the body. Importance has been put on to Dental hygiene to maintain health and beauty. The glorious and beautiful smiles flash only with glossy white and well arranged teeth. These are the most important organ of mechanical digestion in body. Main function of teeth is to pulverize the food, the enzymes cannot chemically digest it. Therein, painful teeth, absence of teeth or diseased teeth and gums often lead to indigestion and insufficient utilization of the undigested food, results in malnutrition. The Healthy Status of the Tooth can effectively managed with Nidana parivarjana and regular practice of Dinacharya. Maintaining proper oral hygiene helps in preventing dental health and other diseases of oral cavity. Early management of dental pathology helps in saving the teeth and its associated structures.
118 A VIEW ON HERBAL MEDICINES AND FOOD HABITS OF INDIANS AND IT’S EFFECTS ON COVID-19 AND MORTALITY RATE , Divya R., Dr. Gururaj S. Kulkarni*, Dr. Padma M. Paarakh
Since last decade the most of new infections which are causing panic effects in humans are viral infections. Many viral infections have attacked on humans and cause numerous losses of human lives. Despite of this scientists and health professional are struggling to find a right therapy to treat or eradicate completely these viral infections. There are various reasons for this delaying getting right medicines or vaccines. In such difficult situation the Indian herbal medicines and spices used in the regular food preparations proved savior to treat or control these viral infections particularly in this pandemic COVID-19. Indian herbs and spices have enormous medicinal and antioxidant properties, this prevents the effects of viral infections either by killing theme by its anti-viral properties or boost the immunity to minimize the effects of viruses. The best example for herbal medicines is turmeric curcumin, which has both anti-viral, antioxidant and prophylactic properties. Such herbs or spices helping in combating the pandemic COVID-19.
119 DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FACE PACK FOR COSMETIC PURPOSE , Kolhe Rohini C.*, Chatur Vibhavari M., Patil Sheetal V. and Dr. Ghode Shweta P.
Objective: The main objective of the work is to formulate and evaluate a face mask for cosmetic purposes. Materials and method: Sandalwood, Turmeric, Aloe vera extract, Neem, Amla, Tulsi and fullers earth were purchased at the local market and dried, pulverized and then passed through sieve no. 100, mixed geometrically and packaged in an airtight container for further evaluation. Results and Discussion: the distinctive microscopic characters of the individual powders were observed and quantitative measurements were taken. The particle size of the powder was found between 20 and 30 μm. Conclusion: Herbal compresses or masks are used to stimulate blood circulation, rejuvenate the skin and help maintain skin elasticity and remove dirt from skin pores. The advantage of herbal cosmetics is their non-toxic nature, reduces allergic reactions and the usefulness of many proven ingredients over time. Therefore, in the present work, we have found good properties for masks and more optimization studies are needed in this study to find the useful benefits of masks in human use as a cosmetic product.
120 EFFECT OF VYAGHRI TAILA NASYA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VATAJA PRATISHYAYA W.S.R. TO ALLERGIC RHINITIS , Dr. Priyanka Thakur*, Dr. Vijayant Bhardwaj, Dr. Satish Sharma, Dr. Rajika Gupta and Dr. Priya Sharma
Pratishyaya is A condition of continuous Nasal discharge, Vata Pradhana disease occur due to accumulation of Doshas in Uttamanga. Vataja Pratishyaya is explained in Ayurvedic system of medicine as Sneezing, Watery discharge from nose, Stuffy nose, Itching in nose etc. which have relevance with Allergic Rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is an IgE mediated immunologic response of nasal mucosa to airborne allergen and is characterized by watery nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, sneezing and itching in the nose. In the present study 10 patients were selected randomly and treated with Vyaghri Taila as Nasya which is mentioned as best treatment modality for uttmanga shudhi by Acharyas. The signs and symptoms were studied before and after treatment. Results of study showed moderate(50%) and marked (50%) improvement in patients.
121 CHENGE IN PROPERTIES SOIL DUE TO APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SILICO IN GARLIC FIELD , *Prof. B. J. Shete and P. U. Bhosale
The present investigation was under taken on garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Phule Nilima to study the effect of silicon at All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Department of Horticulture, MPKV, Rahuri, Dist. Ahmednagar in rabi season of 2017-18, by using different sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil and silicon availability in the soil related to growth, yield and quality characters in garlic. Fifteen treatment combinations formed by three sources of fertilizer silicon (viz., diatomaceous earth, calcium silicate and bagasse ash) with five levels of silicon (viz., 0,100,150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1) and one absolute control, were tried and each replicated three times. The basal dose of fertilizer 100 N, 50 P2O5 and 50 K2O kg ha-1was applied before planting. In case of effect of sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil, source A1 (DE) recorded significantly highest OC, while source A2 (CS) recorded significantly highest pH and EC (dsm-1) while in case of levels (B5) application of Si @ 250 kg ha-1 recorded significantly highest pH, EC, and OC. The interaction effect of sources and levels of silicon was not significant for all three soil properties under study. The pH, EC and Organic Carbon were significantly increased with treated over control.
122 CHANGE IN PROPERTIES OF SOIL DUE TO APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SILICON IN GARLIC FIELD , *Dr. B. J. Shete and P. U. Bhosale
The present investigation was under taken on garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Phule Nilima to study the effect of silicon at All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Department of Horticulture, MPKV, Rahuri, Dist. Ahmednagar in rabi season of 2017-18, by using different sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil and silicon availability in the soil related to growth, yield and quality characters in garlic. Fifteen treatment combinations formed by three sources of fertilizer silicon (viz., diatomaceous earth, calcium silicate and bagasse ash) with five levels of silicon (viz., 0,100,150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1) and one absolute control, were tried and each replicated three times. The basal dose of fertilizer 100 N, 50 P2O5 and 50 K2O kg ha-1was applied before planting. In case of effect of sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil, source A1 (DE) recorded significantly highest OC, while source A2 (CS) recorded significantly highest pH and EC (dsm-1) while in case of levels (B5) application of Si @ 250 kg ha-1 recorded significantly highest pH, EC, and OC. The interaction effect of sources and levels of silicon was not significant for all three soil properties under study. The pH, EC and Organic Carbon were significantly increased with treated over control.
123 EFFECT OF TRUNCAL VAGOTOMY ON MOTOR FUNCTION OF GALLBLADDER-A PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS , Dr. Abhijit Sarma and *Dr. Purujit Choudhury
A prospective clinical study on choleakinesia following total vagectomy (Bilateral truncal vagotomy) was carried out during the period from April 2010 to December 2016.Total 55 cases were studied who was suffering from chronic duodenal ulcer. Out of these total 55 cases fifteen cases had gastric outlet obstruction with hugely dilated stomach which was considered as control group in this study. Other 40 cases were considered as study group.Truncal vagotomy with retrocolic isoperistaltic GJA done in study group and only retrocolic isoperistaltic GJA operation done in control group. Two patients had incomplete vagotomy.All the patients were male and average age was 38.1 years.32.7% cases were belonging to the age group between 26-35 years which was the highest. Though the cases were operated till September 2016, they were followed up till December2016.Gastric acidity, oral cholecystography and ultrasonography of upper abdomen was done in both pre and post operative period. All cases were meticulously examined to exclude other associated pathology. Cases were diagnosed by Barium meal and clinical analysis.14 days post-operatively gastric acid analysis and three months post-operatively oral cholecystography was done. In the post-operative follow up period ultrasonography upper abdomen was done.39 (71%) patients were turned up for check up in post-operative period out of which 29 patients belong to complete vagotomy group. In conclusion it was seen that following total vagotomy the contraction of gall bladder was definitely reduced with decrease % loss of bile results stasis of bile. There was more than double dilatation of the gall bladder.[1,4] as detected three months post-operatively after complete section of vagus. 7.5% of patients of complete vagotomy group developed gall stones till three to four years post-operatively.[1] and 20% patients developed minimal gall bladder sludge and 5% patients developed dense peripheral sludge with wall thickening till that period. Incomplete vagotomy and control group didn’t show such significant changes. More than 50% acidity was reduced following truncal vagotomy in fasting, basal and maximum acid output in both free and total state.
124 MANAGEMENT OF PREMATURE CONTRACTIONS WITH SHATHAVARI KSHEERAPAKA BASTHI – A CASE REPORT , *Dr. Amrutha B. S. and Dr. Padmasaritha K.
Preterm labour is defined as one where the labour starts before the 37th completed week (<259 days), counting from the first day of last menstrual period. Premature contraction of the uterus is the very first sign of premature labour and Preterm birth is the significant cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In about 50% cases, the cause is not known. As per Ayurveda, akala prasava , ie preterm labour, results due to apana vatha vaigunya, the type of vatha which helps in Garbha nishkramana kriya. Basthi is considered as the best treatment for management of vitiated vatha dosha. In Garbhini, basthi is indicated after completion of 7 months of pregnancy. Here, in this study, a 20 year old, primi gravida of 36 weeks of gestation with premature contraction and reduced fetal movements is administered with shathavari ksheerapaka basthi. Per rectal basthi with 300ml shathavari ksheerapaka administerd for 3 consecutive days. This was found effective in preventing uterine contractions and further advancement of preterm labour.
125 IDENTIFICATION OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF ALBAHA PLUECHEA OVALIS AND THEIR POTENT MANIFOLD BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES , Saleh B. Alghamdi*
Cancer and microbial infections are main causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Pluchea is a genus of flowering plants belongs to Asteraceae (compositeae) family, Pluchea ovalis (PO) is one of its species growing in Albaha region. The volatile constituents were extracted with pet. ether and were identified using GC/MS analysis. It was found that, the volatile constituents consist of a mixture of 15 - selinene, humulene oxide and β- eudesmol constitutes about 61%. The aerial parts of PO were extracted with pet ether. The pet ether extract was fractionated into unsaponifiable fraction and fatty acids and their constituents were identified by GC/MS analysis. In the present study Gram (+) bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Gram (-) bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa have been used. In addition; fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were also studied. The results of antimicrobial activity of different extracts demonstrated that, pet. ether extract exhibited highest activity against B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aureus with MIC=6.4, 10.0 and 7.2 mg/ml respectively. The results of antitumor activity against colon carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) showed that alcoholic extract is most active extract with IC50 = 21.4 ± 1.3 μg/ml.
126 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON LIPOSOMES , Zaquiyya Naaz*, Dr. Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
This article is intended to provide an overview of liposomal drug delievery system. In this, we focussed on the factors affecting the behaviour of the liposomes, these are one amongst the various drug delievery system is used to target the drug to particular tissue. Because of structure similarity between the lipid bilayer and cell membrane, lip[osomes can easily penetrate and show their effect and a free drug would not penetrate. Liposome were first made by A.D Bangham in early 1960. Their size range from 25 to 500nm.
127 PHARMACOSOMES: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Kirti Negi*, Dr. Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
Pharmacosomes are colloidal dispersion of drugs covalently bound to lipids and may exist as ultrafine vascular, micellar or hexagonal aggregates, depending on the chemical structure of drug-lipid complex. Pharmacosomes are the amphiphilic phospholipid complexes of drug bearing active hydrogen that bind to phospholipid. It is based on the principle that the drug binds covalently to a lipid where the resulting compound is the carrier and the active compound at the same time. The physicochemical properties depend on drug as well as the lipid. They are mainly prepared by hand-shaking and ether injection method. The Pharmacosomes were evaluated for different parameters such as size, NMR, surface morphology and invitro release rate. This review describes all aspect of Pharmacosomes including composition, method of preparation, method of characterization and their therapeutic application. Pharmacosomes have been prepared for various non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins, cardiovascular and anti-neoplastic drugs.
128 RARE COLLISION TUMORS IN THE PROSTATE , Dr. Spasimir T. Shopov*
Collision tumors are rare, consisting of two or more distinct neoplasms that develop adjacent to one another and coexist with no or minimal intermingling between them. Their diagnosis is often incidental and their behavior remains widely unknown. Several theories have been proposed regarding their pathogenesis. I report a 75-year-old man with a mictional disturbances for several years. Ultrasound examination of organs in a small pelvis: enlarged prostate, and stagnant urine in the bladder. Paraclinical: PSA 19,7 ng/ml. Histologically: a collision between two tumors in the prostate.
129 STUDIES ON ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MUD WASP NEST ACTINOMYCETES AGAINST MTCC BACTERIAL STRAINS BY SCREENING METHODS , Nithiya G., Umadevi D., *B. K. Nayak and Anima Nanda
During the study period, actinomycetes were isolated from mud wasp nest by serial dilution pour plate method. All the actinomycetes were curtained for their antagonistic proeprties against pathogenic bacterial strains procured from IMTECH, Chandigarh, India. Initially the actinomycetes were primarily screened by cross streak method and only two potential actinomycetes were tested subjected to secondary screening which was done by Agar well diffusion method. Most of the isolates were found active against E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Vibrio cholerae. Most of the actinomycetes (around (80%) showed good antagonistic effect against most of the tested pathogens and 20% of the total actinomycetes were found non-effective against the test pathogens.
130 STUDIES ON THE FUNGAL DIVERSITY AND THEIR PREVALENCE ON THE ANTHILL SOIL COLLECTED FROM PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY CAMPUS , Ramkumar R., Surendra S., *B. K. Nayak and A. Nanda
Studies on fungal diversity of diverse soils mostly trust on its fruitful implication to find bio-compounds for the purpose of bioprospecting. Fungi not only provide pharmaceutical products, such as antibiotics and other valuable substances, but also organic acids, enzymes, pigments and secondary metabolites which are employed in the food and fermentation industry. Many soil fungi are used as biological control agents for plant pathogens and insect pests. In our recent work, anthill soil samples of Pondicherry University campus were studied to record the incidence of fungal composition and their diversity. Aspergillus niger was found as the dominant one and it was followed by Penicillium chrysogenum and Sterile mycelia. One-gram anthill soil was found to harbor 5000 to 6000 fungal spores in our study. The results obtained clearly indicated that Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus awamori and Penicillium digitatum, Trichoderma were of high occurrence in anthill soil and other fungi like Fusarium, Cladosporium sp., Curvularia and Rhizopus were isolated with least numbers. Among the isolates, aspergilli, penicilli and white sterile mycelia were dominant in anthill soils due to their high sporulation capacity and high adaptability nature. The frequency of mycoflora in anthill soil were found to be regulated by many factors like humidity, vegetation, temperature, inorganic and organic materials, soil type and its texture.
131 EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS SEED EXTRACTS AGAINST PECTOBACTERIUM CAROTOVORUM CAUSING BLACK LEG AND SOFT ROT OF POTATO   , G. Biswal* and N. K. Dhal
Studies were conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar following inhibition zone technique to test the bio-efficacy of seed extracts in vitro against Pectobacterium carotovorum causing pre-emergence and post–emergence rotting, black leg in field soft rot in storage in potato. The seeds used in the tests were Terminalia chhebula (Chhebulic myrobalan),T. belerica (Beleric myrobalan), Emblica officinalis (Indian goose berry), (Azadirachata indica (Neem), (Greater cardamom), Rauvolfia serpentina (Snake root), Coriandrum sativum (Dhania), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Nigella sativa (Black cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Cassia fistula (Indian laburn), Cassia tora (Senna tora). The results revealed that R.serpentina exhibited maximum size of inhibition zone 13.53 followed by A.subulatum(11.33) against the test bacterial species .The inhibition zone was found to be10.0mm in seed extracts of T.chebula while 9.30mm in F.vulgare 8.68 in C.cyminum and 8.03mm in N.sativa. There was no significant difference in antibacterial activity between A aromaticum (7.97) and A.indica(7.92). The antibacterial activity was same(7.01mm) in T.bellirica and C.viscosa. In P.nigrum, C.fistula and C.tora expressed same inhibiting activity (6.95mm). Minimum inhibition zone was observed in E.officinallis (6.68mm).  
132 ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE PROFILE OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM DAIRY FARMS MANURE IN BAHRI LOCALITY, SUDAN , Sarah Azhary Mohamed, Yassir A. Almofti*, Elniema A. Mustafa and Sheimaa S. A. O. Fagirii
This study was conducted between November 2016 and February 2018 and aimed to isolate some bacteria, mainly E. coli, Staphylococci and Salmonella from dairy farms manure and to assess their antibiotics resistance profile to different antimicrobial agents. This study included 19 dairy farms distributed in Bahri locality, Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 95 manure samples were collected from these farms and a questionnaire was introduced to each dairy farm owner before samples collection. The questionnaire showed that the density of the cows within the farms was appropriate. Mastitis was common in visited farms and the control of mastitis was made by the owners. The majority of the farms had no hoof care and the incidence of lameness was frequent. Also multiple diseases such as abortion, metritis, retention of placenta, pneumonia, eye infection and calf diarrhea that requires antibiotic treatment were prevalent in the visited farms. The majority of the cows received at least two courses of antibiotics treatment per year. In addition to that the most commonly used antibiotics were tetracycline and tylosin, penicillin and the least used antibiotic was ciprofloxacin. These antibiotics were mostly administered by the owners rather than veterinarians. A total of 68 bacterial isolates were identified using the conventional bacteriological isolation method. These include 28 isolates as E. coli (41.18%), 26 isolates as Staphylococci (38.23%) and 14 isolates as Salmonella (20.58%). The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using broth microdilution method. The three isolates showed resistance to Erythromycin, Azithromycin and Tetracycline but demonstrated susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin. Therefore, it could be concluded that untreated manure could impose a great risk if it is used as a fertilizer in vegetables farms as the resistant bacteria in manure may transferred to humans through contaminated vegetables.
133 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF TUBER EXTRACTS OF CHLOROPHYTUM BORIVILIANUM , *Sunil Kumar and Vinai Kumar
Chlorophytum borivilianum is an important medicinal plant knows as 'Safed musli' and is used in herbal drug industries. In the present investigation the extracts obtained from tubers of C. borivilianum were used to evaluate in-vitro antibacterial activities against three bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus and Paenibacillus. Glacial acetic acid, petroleum ether, methanol and water were used as solvent to prepare tuber extract. The antibacterial activity of tuber extract for the micrococcus sensitivity was observed as 6, 15, 18 and 12mm zone of inhibition at 50 mg/ml conc. of water, methanol, glacial acetic acid and petroleum ether respectively. The most effective conc. for the antibacterial activity of tuber extract was 50 mg/ml conc. of glacial acetic acid.
134 CONTRIBUTION OF HOSPITAL SERVICES TO THE OCCURRENCE OF ADVERSE EVENTS AFTER DISCHARGE FROM A SECONDARY HOSPITAL IN NORTHERN GHANA , Inusah Deunaa Iddrisu*, Akwasi Anyanful and Samuel Victor Nuvor
Background: Being discharged from the hospital is sometimes associated with complications which may be dangerous to the patient. Adverse events are unintended injuries or complications which may result in death, disability and prolonged hospital stay after discharge or related to the hospital visit. 6th to 19th of January 2018 and the incidence, types and severity of adverse events after hospitalization in a secondary hospital in Northern Ghana. Method: A prospective cohort study was used to establish the relationship between adverse events and hospital services. This was carried out with patients admitted and discharged from Wa Hospital. A total of 206 patients were recruited from the medical, surgical and emergency wards of the hospital. Finding: the result shows that there was a significant influence of the type of hospital ward a patient was admitted to on types of adverse events reported (r=-0.251, p=0.005) 6th to 19th of January 2018. However there were no other significant influences of service delivery factors on the severity of adverse events reported. There were also no significant influences of specific service delivery factors on the general incidence of reported adverse events. Conclusion: Understanding of how health services delivered leads to adverse events will help in improvement in patient outcomes and reduce the occurrence of adverse events after patients had been discharged from the hospital.
135 COSMETOVIGILANCE: COSMETICUTILISATION PATTERN, ADVERSE EVENTS AND AWARENESS ABOUT COSMETOVIGILANCE AMONG PARAMEDICS IN SOUTH KERALA , Dhanya Dharman*, Shammy Rajan, Prof. Shaiju S. Dharan
Cosmetovigilance is an ongoing process and systematic monitoring of the safety of cosmetic in terms of human health. The aim of Cosmetovigilance is to detect the best effect of cosmetic product and to prevent adverse effects by taking appropriate measure. The study was conducted among pharmacy students and pharmacy graduate in Kerala by KAP questionnaire for a period of 6 month. Approximate 67 pharmacy students and pharmacy graduates were responded to this study. Among this 67 peoples, they use cosmetics to boost their confidence, for leisure purpose and without any indications, and they experiences the type of reactions were itching,burning sensation, hyper pigmentation, hair loss and running eyes. The process of Cosmetovigilance is evolving and coming up as a strong regulatory science to protect public health and beauty. In European Union, directive 76/768/EEC regulates the monitoring of cosmetics. The unwanted or adverse reactions due to cosmetic products are very low go unnoticed,or unde reported due to lack of proper organized reporting system. India can initiate to have formal Cosmetovigilance system. In future it could contribute to increased safety of cosmetics use which is important for the safeguard of public health.
136 RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CANDESARTAN AND AMLODIPINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS , M. K. Ranganath, Kalyani Arikatla*, Prasanta Deka
The main objective of this study is to develop a reverse phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of candesartan and amlodipine bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form with a simple, rapid, specific, validated and sensitive method. An isocratic separation is achieved using C18(150 x 4.6mm, 5μ) with mobile phase comprises of water and methanol in the ratio of 10:90 v/v. candesartan shows a retention time 3.5min and amlodipine shows 1.17min at 1ml/min flow rate and the wavelength was detected at 355nm. Robustness, specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, LOD and LOQ was validated using this method. The LOD and LOQ are 0.48 and 1.5 for amlodipine and 0.75 and 2.3 for candesartan respectively. The calibration curve in the concentration range of 4-24 mcg/ml for both AMLO and CANDE are linear with the coefficient of correlation 0.997 and 0.998 respectively. The % of recovery of candesartan is 99.5% and amlodipine is 100.3% and the % od RSD is <2%. This method is successfully applied for quantitative determination of candesartan and amlodipine bulk as well as the formulation.
137 ROLE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS BY TRADITIONAL PRACTITIONERS OF KADAPA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA , *S. Rajagopal Reddy and A. Madhusudhana Reddy
Plants occupy an important place in Indian medical systems. Every nation has its own set of medicinal plants. Plants are integral parts of Indian life and culture. The present article attempts to highlight the importance of some medicinal plants which are traditionally used in the treatment of psychological disorders by the people of Kadapa District. About 33 plant species belonging to 31 genera and 23 families were documented. All these plant species are used to treat 20 psychological disorders. Significance of these plants in different psychological disorders has been discussed. People of this study area are highly conscious about medicinal plants which have their defined roles and importance. These plants are found in wild as well as grown in close vicinity of people in various places of this study area. These medicinal properties are not only showing the human relation with plant diversity, but also help in the conservation of species.
138 EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ACACIA MODESTA , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam*
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate in-vitro efficacy of antibacterial activity of crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Acacia modestaagainstsome human pathogenic bacterial strains.Acacia modesta, commonly known as Phulai, is a member of the family Leguminosae) and sub-family Mimosaceae. It is a deciduous, slow-growing small tree with thorny young shoots and dark brown and black wood. The plant is also popular in herbal medicines, including those for the treatment of muscular conditions, back pain, and stomach problems. Methodology: Crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Acacia modestawere used for antibacterial screening. Antibacterial activity was tested against pathogenic bacterial strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus Pumilus, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Enterobacteraerogenesand Streptococcus pneumonia.Antibacterial activity of Acacia modesta extract was carried out by using disc diffusion method. Results: The crude methanolic extract showed moderate activity against E. coli (40.74%), P. aeruginosa (40.74%) and B. pumalis (40%), low against S. epidermidis (34.61%), S. typhi (22.22%), S. pneumoniae(27.58%) and E. aerogens (31.03%) and no activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. The n-hexane fraction was significantly active against K. pneumoniae (66.66%) and moderately active against E. coli (48.14%), S. typhi (51.85%), P. aeruginosa (51.85%) and B. pumalis (40%). It showed low activity against S. epidermidis (34.61%), S. pneumoniae (20.68%), S. aureus (38.46%) and E. aerogens (34.48%). Chloroform fraction was moderately active against K. pneumoniae (57.14%), S. typhi (48.14%), E .aerogens (41.37%) and B. pumalis (40%) and low active against S. aureus (38.46%), P. aerugenosa (37.03%), S. epidermidis (34.61%), E. coli (33.33%) and S. pneumoniae (24.13%). Significant activity was shown by theEtOAcfraction against K. pneumoniae (61.90%), moderate against S. typhi (48.14%), E. coli (44.44%), P. aeruginosa (44.44%) and B. pumalis (40%) while low activity against E. aerogens (37.93%), S. aureus (34.61%), S. epidermidis (34.61%) and S. pneumoniae (24.13%). The aqueous fraction showed moderate activity against S. epidermidis (53.84%), B. pumalis (44%), E. coli (48.14%) and S. typhi (40.74%), low activity against K. pneumoniae (38.09%), P. aeruginosa (37.03%), E. aerogens (37.93%), S. aureus (34.61%) and no activity against S. pneumoniae.The n-hexane and EtOAc fractions exhibited significant while CHCl3fraction showed moderate activity against K. pneumoniae. The aqueous fraction showed low activity against the majority of test pathogens.The crude methanolic extract have low activity against most of the test pathogens. Conclusions: The results concludes that n-hexane, ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia modesta possess antibacterial activity.
139 INCIDENTAL RISK OF PRE-DIABTES AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAKKARDARA REGION AT NAGPUR : AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , *Dr. Anjali Turale, Dr. Vrushali Khandekar, Dr. Shubhangi Kshirsagar, Dr. Madhavi Charmode and Dr. Vijay S. Jadhav
Introduction-Pre-diabetes is a precursor condition for type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Although in many cases it is reversible, Pre-diabetes frequently remains undiagnosed and therefore risk of developing type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increased. The risk factors for pre-diabetes are same as those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. An individual’s risk factors for pre-diabetes include obesity, high waist circumference, family history of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. Pre-diabetes itself is a risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.(4) Material and Methods-In this study 66 individuals were selected from our institutions on the basis of Indian diabetes risk score and blood sugar level. After diagnosed pre-diabetic individuals all were observed for demographic characteristics andthe statistical analysis done. conclusion-In this observational study we can conclude that Age, occupation, dietary habits, frequency of micturition at night, physical Inactivity, diwaswap( day time sleep), overweight or abnormal BMI, Kapha predominant prakriti all these factors might be the risk factors for Pre-diabetes and Diabetes.
140 HOW FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM HELPS YOU TO MAKE YOUR DOSAGE FORM MORE RELEVANT: A REVIEW , Modi Yagneshkumar Dipakbhai*, Dr. Chainesh Shah and Dr. Umesh Upadhyay
The foremost goal behind the composition of this article on the floating drug delivery system (FDDS) was to systematize the ongoing writing with the center cycle of floatation in gaining gastric maintenance. The various procedures utilized in the improvement of FDDS by developing the bubbly and non bubbly kind of floating tablets premise of which is lightness system. FDDS is a strategy to convey the drugs that are dynamic locally with a thin retention window in the upper gastrointestinal plot, unsteady in the lower intestinal climate, and have low solvency with higher pH esteems. The tale techniques in FDDS incorporate ways to deal with plan a solitary unit and different unit floating systems, the physiological and definition changeability influencing gastric maintenance alongside the utilization of as of late concocted and created polymers. This audit likewise centers around different in vitro methods and in vivo examinations taking into account execution and use of floating systems. Floating dose structures can be conveyed in customary structures like tablets, containers with the expansion of reasonable fixings alongside the gas producing operator. This survey additionally illuminates various strategies utilized in creating floating dose shapes alongside current and novel progressions.
141 IMMINENT ATTRIBUTES OF SPLENDID STAR FRUIT (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L.) , Lakha Ram, Sukhraj Punar, Sulochana Sharma, Ashok K. Kakodia, Raaz K. Maheshwari
Indisputably, fruits are very important in our daily diet for various health benefits. However, some fruits may contain high amounts of unique secondary metabolites, which are hazardous to our health. Star-fruit plants are cultivated commercially in tropical countries for their fruits. This fruit have several medicinal properties; hence, it is used medicinally for many years in Ayurvedic treatments. Star-fruits contain various antioxidants which are considered medicinally important and beneficial for the health. The Starfruit is sweet tasting fruit that possesses high nutritional value. From the time immemorial, the whole starfruit tree is used as a traditional medicine. The medicinal properties of Starfruit include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, anti-ulcer, hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, anti-tumor activities. It is effectively used in diabetes and help to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. The endeavour of this review is to highlight the nutritional aspects, medicinal value, toxicological traits, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities along with the current trends in research on starfruit.
142 DETECTION OF LEISHMANIA TROPICA USING NESTED PCR AND MEASURE SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN THI-QAR PROVINCE, IRAQ: EARLY DERMAL LESIONS , Mohammed Hassan Flaih*, Fadhil Abbas Al-Abady and Khwam Reissan Hussein
The study includes three local locations, Al-Hussein Teaching, Suq Al-Shyokh General and Al-Shatrah General Hospitals in province for the period from December 2018 to September 2019. The samples were collected from 80 patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Nested-PCR was used to amplify kinetoplast minicircle fragments DNA (kDNA). Also, 3ml of the venous blood was collected before they take a drug, then putted in EDTA tube for order complete blood count (CBC) test. Electrophoresis results for 80 samples of kinetoplast minicircle fragments DNA gene were amplified by Nested PCR, discovered 65 positives for cutaneous leishmaniasis and Furthermore, the results were recorded 46 (57.5%) positive samples of L. tropica at 750bp. In present study, there are not significant differences of erythrocytes count and hemoglobin concentration by compared between patients and control, whereas platelet blood count showed a significant increase. On the other hand, the statistical analysis findings were showed significant differences by compared between leukocytes count and WBC differential (neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils) of patients group and control specimen, except of monocytes which showed an insignificant difference at compared between patients group and control.
143 A CLINICAL STUDY OF CBD STONE WITH DIFFERENT SURGICAL MODALITIES OF MANAGEMENT , Dr. Abhijit Sarma and Dr. Purujit Choudhury*
Gallstone diseases are one of the most common biliary pathology. Prevalence of gallstone is 10-14% in adult population of eastern world. About 3-14.7% of cholelithiasis may be associated with common bile duct stones. The aim of this study is to study the clinical spectrum of choledocholithiasis and to study the various surgical methods available of the disease. This study also aims primarily to compare t tube closure of CBD with primary closure of CBD in terms of complication and hospital stay. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study carried out in the department of surgery of Guwahati Medical college since June, 2017 till July,2018. This study includes 110 patients who underwent various types of surgeries for choledochotomy. Stones in the CBD were detected on the basis of preoperative USG and MRCP. Results: The mean age of patients was 46.37±10.7 years and pain was the most common presenting symptom. Pain abdomen was present in 72 patients at the time of diagnosis. Jaundice was present in 42 patients where as fever was present in 30 patients. Open choledochotomy with t tube closure was done in majority of patients. Out of 110 patients 17 patients had developed various complications. Mean hospital stay of patients underwent surgery for choledochotomy is found to be 8.69 days. Mean hospital stay in primary closure is 5.86 days as compare to 10.16 days in t tube closure Conclusions: MRCP is more sensitive than USG and there is no significant difference between primary closure and T tube closure in terms of complication but primary closure is way better than t tube closure in terms of hospital stay.
144 MECHANISTIC EVALUATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULANT PROPERTIES OF TEA ON MURINE MACROPHAGE (RAW264.7) CELL LINE , Vishal Sharma, Piyali Das, Shila Elizabeth Besra*
NO plays many more roles in the immune system as well as in other organ systems. Macrophages are key modulator and effectors cells in the immune response, their activation influences and respond to other arms of the immune system. Generation of NO is a feature of genuine immune-system cells (dendritic cells, NK cells, mast cells and phagocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages, microglia, Kupffer cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils). The present study elaborated the immunomodulatory effects of Tea on RAW264.7 cell line. Tea treated cells showed enhancement in NO production whereas it showed marked enhancement when cells were stimulated with rIFN-ϒ. Pretreatment with PDTC and NGMMA to the rIFNϒ plus Tea treated RAW264.7 cells ameliorated NO production as compared to the primed cells. It was found that Tea acted as an accelerator of activation of RAW264.7 cells by rIFNϒ via a process involving L-arginine-dependent NO production and that Tea elevated NO production via activation of NF-Kb signaling pathway. These findings suggest that Tea can be a potential immunostimulant beverage.
145 FREE-RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF FLOWER AND FRUIT EXTRACTS CADABA FRUTICOSA (L.) DRUCE , A. Valankanni*, T. Sekar, P. Gurusaravanan and S. Sujatha
Objective: In the present study, antioxidant activities flower and fruit of the pet-ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts from Cadaba fruticosa (L.). Flower and fruit were investigated by employing established in-vitro studies. C. fruticosa is one of the folk herbal used in various traditional medicaments. Many people of rural and urban areas depend upon treatment, which has been developed through prolonged traditional experience. Method: The ability of the plant extract to act as hydrogen/electrons donor or scavenger of radicals were determined by in-vitro antioxidant assays using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH.) scavenging, reducing power assay, superoxide radical (O2*-) scavenging activity, phosphomolybdenum assay, FRAP and metal chelating activity ,were performed to know the antioxidant potency of the plant extract of flower and fruit of C. fruticosa. Result: Results are evaluate higher in flower and fruit of C. fruticosa recorded antioxidant as well as to phytochemical quantitative of total phenol and flavonoid present in the plant extracts of C. fruticosa. The plant C. fruticosa methanolic extract of flower showed greater IC50 for DPPH assay (11.23μg/ml) and compare to other extract, higher Reducing power activity flower in methanol (1.296 ascorbic acid /100g extract), better fruit in phosphomolybdenum reduction (104.6mg/g extract) and higher superoxide radical scavenging activity in fruit extract (92.06%). However, the better metal chelating ability was shown by the water extracts of flower (9.11 Ascorbic acid /100g) compared to other solvent extracts. Conclusion: The result indicates the antioxidant and total phenol activity potential of C. fruticosa.
146 A LACONIC APPRAISE OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF INDIAN DEVIL TREE - ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS (L.) R.BR. , Lakha Ram, Sukhraj Punar, Ashok K. Kakodia, Bina Rani, Upma Singh and Raaz K. Maheshwari*
The decoction, mostly prepared from the bark, is used to treat a variety of diseases, of which the most important is malaria. In Ayurveda, it is used as a bitter and as an astringent herb for treating skin disorders, malarial fever, urticaria, chronic dysentery, diarrhea, and in snake bite. Alkaloids such as chlorogenic acid and several other hallucinogenic indole alkaloids which have been reported in the seeds of A. scolaris are chlorogenine, alstovenine, reserpine, echitamine, ditamine, and venenatine. 7-megastigmene-3, 6, 9-triol and megastigmane-3β, 4α, 9-triol are the two important structures which have been identified and were extracted from the leaves of A. scholaris and are known to be C13-norisoprenoids. Alstonic acids such as 2, 3-secofernane triterpenoids were also found to be isolated from leaves of A. scholaris. The plant Alstonia scholaris has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. It is reported to contain various types of alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids. A. scholaris is also observed to possess antioxidant, immunomodulatory effects, and free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, analgesic, hepatoprotective, wound healing, antidiarrheal, and antiplasmodial activities. The current review summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological delineation on A. scholaris.
147 MICROSPHERES AS CONTROLLED & SUSTAINED ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Patel Parita N.*, Dr. Chainesh Shah and Dr. Umesh Upadhyay
Microspheres are naturally free flowing powders having molecule size going from 1-1000 μm comprising of proteins or polymers. Commercially available in wide variety of materials, including ceramics, glass, polymer & metals. Microspheres are spherical microparticles. In general microspheres are solid or hollow & do not have fluid inside, as opposed to microcapsules. There are different methodologies in conveying remedial substance to objective site in sustained controlled delivery style. Very much planned controlled medication conveyance framework can conquer issues of show drug treatment and gives better restorative adequacy of medication. It is dependable way to convey medication to objective site with explicitness, whenever altered, and to keep up ideal fixation at site of intrigue. Besides microspheres are of micron size so they can undoubtedly find way into different hair like beds which are likewise having micron size. Microspheres got lot of consideration for delayed delivery, yet in addition for focusing of anticancer medications. There are different branches of medication like malignancy, pneumonic, cardiology, radiology, gynaecology, and oncology and so on, various medications are utilized and they are conveyed by different sorts of medication conveyance framework. Among them microspheric drug conveyance framework has increased tremendous consideration. Motivation behind audit is to gather different kinds of microspheres, various techniques to readiness, its applications and furthermore different boundaries to assess their proficiency.
148 INTERVENTION OF ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY AND RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISE TO INCREASING MUSCLE STRENGTH IN NON-HEMORRHAGIC POST STROKE PATIENTS , Ismunandar Wahyu Kindang*, Rr. Sri Endang Pujiastitu and Arwani
Background: The function of the brain is as the control center of every member of human movement, so the damage to the brain causes loss of brain function. Disturbances that occur in sensory and motor functions in stroke patients cause imbalance and difficulty walking due to disturbances in muscle strength, balance and coordination of movements. Motor neuron disorders with symptoms such as limb movement disorders, loss of voluntary movement control (conscious movement), limited muscle tone, and limited reflexes that can result in weakness and contractures for a long time which can result in paralysis of the upper extremities and lower extremities. Objective: Analyzing the effect of the combination of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention and Range of Motion on the improvement of motor function in non-hemorrhagic post stroke patients. Method: This study used a Quasy Experiment research method and used a pretest - posttest design with a control group design. 60 respondents were divided into 2 groups, the intervention group (n = 30) was given a combination of ACT and ROM while the control group (n = 30). Data analysis using Friedman. Result: shows that there is a significant difference in upper limb muscle strength with p value = 0,001 and lower limb muscle strength p value = 0,001 while the range of motion of the upper limb p value = 0,001 and the range of motion of the lower limb p value = 0,001. Conclusion: The combination of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Range of Motion affects the improvement of motoric function in non-hemorrhagic post stroke patients.
149 MOTOR RELAXATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS , Rizkaningsih*, Rr. Sri Endang Pujiastuti and Supriyana
Background: Hemodialysis is one of the management measures for patients with chronic renal failure, apart from having benefits, on the other hand, it can generally cause physical, psychological stress to patients during and after hemodialysis, one of which is blood pressure instability. Motor relaxation is a physical exercise on the patient's upper and lower extremities during hemodialysis which can cause the patient's relaxation response during hemodialysis. Objective: To analyze the effect of motor relaxation on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Methods: Used a True Experimental approaches pre-post test design with control group, research was conducted in RSU Anutapura Palu with the number of 40 respondents who met the inclusion criteria using the technique of simple random sampling. Respondents were divided into intervention groups (n = 20) and control groups (n = 20). Data analysis used Repeated Measures ANOVA test. Results: It shows that there is a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in the intervention group before and after the intervention with a p value of 0.000 <0.05 and there is a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure in the intervention group before and after the intervention with p value 0.000 <0, 05 Conclusion: Relaxation motor effect on the blood pressure fitting ie n undergoing hemodialysis. It is suggested that this intervention could be used as an independent nursing measure in reducing complications of hemodialysis.
150 FLAVONOIDS, PHENOLICS, AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF THE SEAGRASSES ENHALUS ACOROIDES AND THALASSIA HEMPRICHII OF GO-SOON CARMEN, AGUSAN DEL NORTE, PHILIPPINES , Efren Tangon*, Elvinia R Alivio, Jocelyn A. Pajiji and Kingpu O. Ajik
The total flavonoids and total phenolics contents are important parameters of the antioxidant that inhibit oxidation or reactions promoted by oxygen, peroxides, or free radicals. The total flavonoids and total phenolics contents and antioxidant activities of the seagrasses Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii collected from Go-soon, Carmen, Agusan Del Norte, Philipines were determined using Aluminum Chloride complex forming assay for the total flavonoid content, Folin-Ciocalteu reagents with analytic grade gallic acid as the standard for the total phenolic contents and the antioxidant activities were determined using DPPH and ABTS. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Thalassia hemprichii had the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents which values were 0.078 mgGA/g and 0.454 mg Q/g, followed by Enhalus acoroides which values were 0.037 mgGA/g and 0.096 mg Q/g. The strongest free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) of the extracts were recorded by Thalassia hemprichii followed by Enhalus acoroides which values were 0.006 and 0.005 mg trolox/g respectively. The results of the radical cation decolorization power (ABTS) showed Thalassia hemprichii 0.252 mg trolox/g and Enhalus acoroides 0.005 mg trolox/g. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS demonstrated a strong linear relationship with the phenolics and flavonoids. The results suggested that the seagrasses have strong antioxidant potential and could be a source of natural antioxidant compounds.
151 CARBAMAZEPINE IN BIPOLAR DISORDER: AN OVERVIEW , Vijay D. Havaldar*, Snehal S. Shinde, Nilam Y. Jadhav and Savita S. Mali
The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the bipolar disorder and potential use of carbamazepine (CBZ) in such bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is characterized by affective episodes such as manic, hypomanic or major depressive. This paper covers the information about the bipolar disorder, its consequences and pathophysiology in brief. Also, it focuses on the potential use of anticonvulsant drug, carbamazepine in such disorder and its superiority over other drugs such as chlorpromazine and lithium. Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder and carbamazepine is effective in combination therapy with other drugs as compared to monotherapy. More emphasis should be given on the treatment adherence by the patient while treating bipolar disorder.
152 INCREDIBLY VIVACIOUS AEGLE MARMELOS L. CORR. (GOLDEN APPLE) AND ITS COMPREHENSIVE THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS: AN EYE-CATCHING REVIEW , Ravi Sharma, Abhilasha Chaudhary, Lakha Ram, Ashok K. Kakodia, Sukhraj Punar, Sulochana Sharma and Raaz K. Maheshwari*
Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. Several parts of A. marmelos have been reported as various traditional healers for treating various ailments of mankind. These contains Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antidiarrheal, Antidiabetic, Antiproliferative, Cytoprotective, Hepatoprotective, Antifertility, Analgesic, Antiarthritis, Contractile, Antihyperlipidemic, Cardioprotective, Radioprotective, Anticancer, Antiviral, Anti-ulcer, Immunomodulatory and Wound Healing properties. A number of biologically active compounds isolated from various parts of A. marmelos which Baelongs to various chemical groups. The isolated components Baelong to Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Vitamins, Coumarins, Tannins, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids, Fatty Acids, Essential Oils and some other miscellaneous compounds. This review mainly focused on several phytochemical and pharmacological studies which have explained phytoconstituents and therapeutic potential of A. marmelos.
153 INCIDENTAL RISK OF PRE-DIABETES AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAKKARDARA REGION AT NAGPUR: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , *Dr. Anjali Turale, Dr. Vrushali Khandekar, Dr. Shubhangi Kshirsagar, Dr. Madhavi Charmode and Dr. Vijay S. Jadhav
Introduction-Pre-diabetes is a precursor condition for type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Although in many cases it is reversible, Pre-diabetes frequently remains undiagnosed and therefore risk of developing type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increased. The risk factors for pre-diabetes are same as those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. An individual’s risk factors for pre-diabetes include obesity, high waist circumference, family history of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. Pre-diabetes itself is a risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.[4] Material and Methods-In this study 66 individuals were selected from our institutions on the basis of Indian diabetes risk score and blood sugar level. After diagnosed pre-diabetic individuals all were observed for demographic characteristics andthe statistical analysis done. conclusion-In this observational study we can conclude that Age, occupation, dietary habits, frequency of micturition at night, physical Inactivity, diwaswap (day time sleep), overweight or abnormal BMI, Kapha predominant prakriti all these factors might be the risk factors for Pre- diabetes and Diabetes.
154 INVESTIGATION OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CHRYSANTHEMUM BALSAMITA AND APONYCEPUM VENETUM FOR ANTI DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY , Dr. Mehnoor Farheeen*, Neha Jabeen, Syeda Qadar Unnisa and Zehra Fatima
The testimony presented hereby fortify the entrenched use of Apocynum venetum and Chrysanthemum balsamita to alleviate depression. Regardless of extensive use of Apocynum venetum and Chrysanthemum balsamita for treating assorted affictions there is no report/ knowledge of scientific appraisal in combination of Apocynum venetum and Chrysanthemum balsamita of its anti-depressant activity. Investigation performed shows that, when the extracts of Chrysanthemum balsamita and Apocynum venetum administered to an animal model (mice), had conspicuous effects on depression pertinent related behavioral parameter’s on vulnerability to TAIL SUSPENSION TEST &FST in mice. Extracts of A. venetum and C. balsamita in combination causes anti-depressant behavior comparable with the effects of imipramine. Further investigations should be focused on neurobiological MOA and potential synergy of Chrysanthemum balsamita and Apocynum venetum extracts in combination with phytoconstituent (s) and neurotransmitters responsible for observed central actions has to be confined and recognized.
155 DETERMINATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY USING PLANT EXTRACT IN ISONIAZID –RIFAMPICIN INDUCED HEPOTOTOXIC RAT MODELS , Dr. Mehnoor Farheen*, Syeda Khairunnisa Amreen, Zehra Fatima and Syeda Qadar Unnisa
The study was conducted which involves the investigation of protective action of liver by using tubers of juncus sabulatus and the leaves of cordia macleodii against isoniazid and rifamocin induced toxic rats models.the action was assayed using ethanolic extracts by using maceration technique. The extract were screened for standard phytochemical screening. The study was analysed by invitro and invivo methods by i.p administration and the mortality and toxic signs was observed for 24hrs.The study was carried out for 21days, and were administered with dose of 200mg/kg body weight and 400mg/kg bof dy weight both individually and in combination respectively against isoniazid and rifampicin toxicated rats. Silymarin was used as a refrence standard.The biochemical parameters ,ic50 value and histological resukts wre carried out. The reults shows the effects by decrement in the levels of GOT,ALP,MDA,alkaline phosphate and total bilirubin and increasing the levels of total protein,albumin,SOD and CAT. By this study it as found that the plants contain moderate effect of protective action which was supported by the histopathological reports.
156 A BASIC REVIEW ON FLOATING TABLETS , *Kamal Kant Ravi, Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
This article is intended to provide an overview of floating drug delivery systems [FDDS]. Floating tablets prolong the gastric residence times of drugs, improve bioavailability and facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach. Floating drug delivery systems or hydro dynamically balance systems have a bulk density lower than gastric fluid and thus remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time. This results in an increased gastric retention time and a better control of the fluctuations in plasma drug concentration.
157 OVERVIEW OF TRADITIONAL USE, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE) , Riska Sri Rahayu Ningsih, Ridho Asraˡ and Harrizul Rivai*
Foeniculum vulgare is commonly known as fennel. Foeniculum vulgare is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to find information about this plant's traditional uses, phytochemicals, and pharmacological activities. Information searches were performed using Google Scholar using the keywords "Foeniculum vulgare," “fennel,” "traditional uses," "phytochemical," and "pharmacological activity." The results show that, in traditional medicine, fennel has been many traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, fever, abdominal pains, flatulence, gastralgia, gastritis, insomnia, liver pain, mouth ulcer, stomachache, and others. Fennel seeds have been shown a potential drug for the treatment of hypertension. The main components of F. vulgare seed essential oil, such as anethole, estragole, and fenchone. The researchers showed several pharmacological activities in these plants, such as antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antihepatotoxic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, antifungal, cardiovascular, and anticancer. The conclusion is that fennel is proven to have a phytochemical component, which can be used as a medicinal ingredient as a phytopharmaca.
158 HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS OF SEAGRASSES ENHALUS ACOROIDES AND THALASSIA HEMPRICHII IN BUTUAN BAY, PHILIPPINES , Jocelyn A. Pajiji*, Elvinia R. Alivio, Kingpu O. Ajik and Efren Tangon
Environmental pollution of heavy metals is increasingly becoming a problem and nowadays become a great concern due to its adverse effects. Thus, it is essential to determine the heavy metal concentrations when considering seagrasses as resource of food stuffs and medicinal purposes. The heavy metal concentrations of the seagrasses in this study were determined using a Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 200 atomic absorption spectrophotometer with acetylene as gas fuel. The results of heavy metal concentrations of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii were Zn > Cr > Pb > Cd (mg/kg), while Enhalus acoroides were Cr > Zn > Pb > Cd (mg/kg). The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations of the seagrasses were all classified as non-polluted except for the chromium concentrations of the seagrass Enhalus acoroides, which was slightly polluted. The results could be utilized also in policy decisions to strengthen the Butuan Bay integrated coastal resource management in addressing other environmental issues considering seagrasses, an important food stuffs’ resource in the area.
159 CONTRACEPTIVES IN AYURVEDA , Dr. Vidyavati R. Chavan*, Dr. Papiya Jana and Dr. Shridevi M. Reddi
Family planning is important for health of a mother and her children, as well as the family‟s economic status as parents are responsible for providing education, shelter, clothing, and food for their children. Family planning also known as contraception which includes all measures temporary and permanent, designed to prevent pregnancy due to coital act. According to WHO it is defined as “A way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily upon the basis of knowledge, attitude and responsible decisions by individuals and couples, in order to promote health and welfare of the family group and thus contribute effectively to the social development of a country. In Ayurveda it is termed as Garbha Nirodha which means control of conception. Various side effects have been observed with modern contraceptives. An incantation in the Rigveda says “A man with many children succumbs to miseries”. This is perhaps the oldest statement with a suggestion against a large family. Some local and oral contraceptives described in the ancient classics and treatises like Yogaratnakara, Brihat Yoga Tarangini, Tantra Sara Sangraha, Brihat Nighantu Ratnakara, Rasa Ratna Samucchya etc are listed. Some claims have been tested scientifically and some yet to be tested. This has been based on the wise knowledge of physiology of conception, healthy methods of fertilization, stressing on the quality of progeny and family welfare.
160 A REVIEW ON VIRAL INFECTIONS INCLUDING SPECIAL MAGNITUDE ON SYNTHETIC AND HERBAL REMEDIES , Mohini Upadhye*, Shailja Kadam and Priyanka Mule
This review describes the viral infection of the interactions between stress proteins and viral components have been described in a large variety of experimental models at different stages of the viral life cycle depending on the type of virus and host cell. viruses get more important perform and functions for humans, plants, animals, and the environment. viral infections cause of death worldwide. in addition to the viruses such as influenza, Ebola, HIV/Aids, Smallpox and Pneumonia, Herpes, Rotavirus and Chicken Pox are responsible for emergent epidemics that threaten global health. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects, also gives a special emphasis on important herbs used for treating these infections.
161 SUTIKA PARICHARYA AND ITS IMPORTANCE , *Dr. Jyoti Sharma and Dr. Papiya Jana
Post Natal Care refers to as Sutika Paricharya in Ayurvedic classics and Sutika is the phase of the woman which starts immediately after the delivery of a baby followed by expulsion of placenta. Sutika Paricharya as mentioned in classics emphasises on appropriate diet and regimen that should be followed by women in puerperium which helps restore her health and revert to normal pre pregnant state. A proper Sutika Paricharya leads to faster recovery of women in terms of her strength and health.
162 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF FAGONIA INDICA: A REVIEW , Rajshree Dahiya* and Dr. Jai Singh Vaghela
Fagonia indica belong to zygophyllaceae family commonly known as dhamasa. It is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. Many chemical constituents such as alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, flavonol, ursolic, saponins and oleanolic acids have been reported. Because of the presence of these active chemical constituents it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, astringent and analgesic.
163 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS SELF MEDICATION IN GENERAL POPULATION: A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY , Kartikey Pathak*, Irfanul Haque, Sarita Jangra Bhyan, Anjali and Purna Atray
Self-medication can be defined as taking and consuming drugs without physician’s advice for prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. Self-medication is widely practiced in urban as well as in rural population including developing countries like India because OTC medications are dispensed without prescription as it provides low-cost alternative for people. A cross-sectional, observational study was designed based on a self administered questionnaire which was designed by Google forms. From 216 respondents, 142 (65.74%) practiced self-medication in last 6 months out of which 35 were females and 107 were males. About 108 (50%) respondents have self-medicated themselves with an antibiotic. About 166 (76.85%) respondents agree that self medication is harmful where as 50 (23.15%) disagree from this fact. 175(81.02%) people think that OTC medications are effective and 130(60.19%) think that they are safe. People are well known about the consequences of self medication but still they self-medicate themselves for their convenience. Self-medication is a boon as well as a curse to the society.
164 EFFLUX PUMPS IN THE INSURGENCE OF MDR CONCEIVABLY CURATIVE WITH EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS OF THERAPEUTICALLY ORIGIN FROM PLANT SOURCES , Navroop Kaur*, Premnidhi Yadav, Hemant Kardam, Ram Pramod tiwari, Mohit Chaudhary, Deepali Vashisth, Jaya Malik, Shivani Singh, MS Laxmi, Rupal Chauhan, Poonam, Satakshi Singh, Neha Sharma
With the appearance of antibiotics, bacterial infections have been speculated to be a factor of past. However, this rather brought about the selection and evolution of microorganism with mechanisms to counter the movement of antibiotics. Antibiotic efflux is one many of the principal mechanisms, wherein microorganism pump out the antibiotics from their cell indoors to the outside surroundings the use of unique transporter proteins referred to as efflux pumps. Inhibiting those pumps appears to be a stunning approach at a time whilst novel antibiotic materials are dwindling. Molecules able to be inhibiting those pumps, referred to as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), had been considered as capability healing marketers that may rejuvenate the interest of antibiotics which are not powerful towards bacterial EPIs comply with a few well-known mechanisms of efflux inhibition and are derived from numerous herbals additionally as artificial sources. This assessment makes a specialty of EPIs and identifies the demanding situations which have stored those futuristic therapeutics far far from the industrial realm so.
165 A REVIEW ON GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME , Aparna P.*, Subash Chandran M. P., Prasobh G. R., Remya S. B., Blessy M. R., Anu A. L.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a very rare immune mediated disorder which is associated with demyelination of peripheral nervous system and progressive muscle weakness that occurs mostly in previously healthy individuals. It usually presents with ascending paralysis and is severe enough to warrant hospital admission for its management. The incidence of GBS is 1.1-1.8 cases in 100,000 per year and the incidences increases with age. GBS clinical spectrum is heterogeneous and encompasses Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (AIDP), Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy (AMAN), Acute Motor and Sensory Axonal Neuropathy (AMSAN) and Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS). The disease is typically characterized by a rapid onset of symmetrical limb weakness, which progresses over days to 4 weeks, and occurs in patients of all ages. Most patients also have sensory disturbances such as tingling or dull feelings. In developed countries GBS has become the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis. Despite improved recognition and treatment, GBS continues to be a severe disease. Efficacious treatments include intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange but supportive care during and following the hospitalization is also very much crucial.
166 DRUG SCREENING METHODS FOR PSORIASIS PLAQUES - A REVIEW , Sagar N. Ande*, Ravindra L. Bakal, Mahendra D. Kshirsagar, Anil V. Chandewar, Nitin I. Kochar, Deepak S. Mohale and Harigopal S. Sawarkar
Psoriasis is an autoimmune inflammatory skin disease characterised by red plaques with silver or white multi-layered scales and a thickened acanthotic epidermis that is markedly demarcated from the adjacent non-lesion skin in affected individuals. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial; genetic, immunological and environmental factors influencing the disease. The major lacuna in designing a dermatological disease model is recapitulating the pathophysiology of the disease from its origin until its manifestation and progression. Each model is based on a slightly different pathogenic mechanism, and each has its strong points/similarities to psoriasis, as well as its limitations, not the least of which are the fundamental morphologic differences between human psoriatic skin and murine psoriasis models. As on today, a relatively large number of models have been developed to study the disease, each trying to mirror the complexity of the mechanisms. The objective of the current review article is to consolidate all the relevant literature pertaining to the various screening methods that have been employed to study psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. This review has shortlisted the ex-vivo, in-vivo and in-vitro animal models for psoriasis which have been developed till date. Murine models in use employ xenotransplantation, direct induction method or knock-in and knock-out studies whereas models currently in use, in-vitro are 2-D and 3-D cell cultures. Also, the various therapies in existence to combat the disease have been highlighted. Although findings have been impressive, there still remains scope for identifying the ideal model of psoriasis which can mimic all the features of the disease.
167 SUSTAINED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF NOVEL APPROACH. , Prof. Remya S. B.*, Subash Chandran M. P., Prasobh G. R., Aparna P., Blessy M. R., Anu A. L.
Drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is a highly variable process and prolonging gastric retention of the dosage form extends the time for drug absorption. Novel drug delivery system overcomes the physiological problems of short gastric retention through various approaches including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), these systems float due to bulk density less than gastric fluids and so, remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time, releases the drug slowly at the desired rate from the system and increase the bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs. This review entitles the applications of sustained release floating tablets, suitable for sustained release of those drugs incompatible with floating constituents over an extended period of time for better patient compliance and acceptability. The purpose of this paper is to review the principle of sustained release drug delivery system, current technology used in the development of same as well as summarizes the applications, advantages, methodology, evaluation methods and future potential for sustained release drug delivery systems.
168 GARBHOPAGHATAKARA BHAVA – A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW , *Dr. Hamsashree and Dr. Anupama V.
Ayurveda – An ancient system of medicine, along with preventive and curative aspects of health, also explains about obtaining healthy progeny. Pregnancy which is a delicate condition gets affected by enormous factors such as food habits, lifestyle and psychological factors. The foetus, in the intra–uterine life, is in constant relation with the mother for both growth and nourishment. While explaining Garbhini Paricharya, the Ayurvedic classics have explained about the things to avoid in pregnancy called Garbhopaghatakara Bhavas. They are certain factors which when followed by a pregnant lady can harm or destroy the foetus. Data reveals that 10-20% of all pregnancies result in miscarriage, out of which 75% occur before 16th week, and 5-10% of the pregnancies lead to Preterm Labor. In today’s fast moving life, all women unknowingly follow certain things which are told as contraindications during pregnancy, due to negligence or unawareness, leading to abortions, preterm labor and other obstetrical complications. Hence, attempt is made to critically study the impact of Garbhopaghatakara Bhavas on the mother and progeny.
169 EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZERS ON SEEDLING GROWTH OF PADDY (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CV. PANVEL 3. , N. B. Pawar and N. S. Suryaawanshi2*
The present investigation was carried out in kharif season, during 2015 and 2016 at research farm, ‘Rayat Shikshan Sanstha’s, M.P.A.S.C. College Panvel, District- Raigad (Maharashtra), India. To observed the effect of different biofertilizers on growth and yield parameters on Paddy (Oryza sativa L. cv. Jaya). The experimental farm was geographically situated at 18°, 59” 40' N latitude and 73°, 06' 50” E longitude at an altitude of 28 meters above mean sea level.The experiment was laid out in RBD replicated thrice with twelve treatmentsi.e.(T0) Control (without fertilizer), (T1) Chemical fertilizer(19:19:19,) (T2) Blue green algae,(T3) Azospirillum brasilense, (T4) Bacillus megaterium, (T5)Trichoderma viride,(T6) Mycorrhizae, (T7) Pseudomonas aeruginosa,(T8)T2+T7,(T9)T2+ T6, (T10) T3+T4, and (T11) T3+T4+T7. RDC fertilizer was applied in three splitted doses. The first dose, consisting of 1/3 the normal dose, was applied before transplantation; the second 1/3 at the time of tillering; arid the last 1/3 at the panicle initiation phase. The study revealed the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, and dry matter production at various stages of growth in Paddy (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Jaya were favorably influenced by biofertilizers treatment. Overall results suggest that combine effect of Biofertilizers improves vegetative and reproductive growth of Paddy (Oryza sativa L. cv. Jaya)”.
170 ANTIMICROBIAL ASSAY OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM RHIZOSPHERE AND NON-RHIZOSPHERE AREA OF PLECTRANTHUS ROTUNDIFOLIUS POIR. , Pavithra G., Surendra S., Ramkumar R, *B. K. Nayak and A. Nanda#
Soil fungi are generally very reachable to different sources and their involvement in providing the basic needs for bioprospecting. Rhizosphere micro fungi are considered as significant decomposers in the root ecosystems, ensuring the assimilation of dead plants and animals into smaller molecules that can be used by other organisms of the soil ecosystem. During the present study, rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of the plant, Plectranthus rotundifolius Poir. were studied to record the prevalence of fungal communities. Rhizosphere soil was dominated (81%) with the fungal flora than Non-rhizosphere (19%) in our study. Aspergillus niger was found as the dominant one in Rhizosphere soil but Penicillium chrysogenum was the dominant one in Non-rhizosphere soil. The results obtained clearly indicated that Aspergillus awamori, A. flavus, A. terreus, Aspergillus niger, White sterile mycelia, Gray sterile mycelia and Penicillium citrinum were recorded at different concentration in both the soils. Among the isolates Aspergillus and white sterile mycelia were dominant in all the soil conditions due to high sporulation capacity. Quantitatively, the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils contributed 3000 and 1000 fungal spores respectively in their environments. Antimicrobial properties of the active grown agar plug of the isolated dominant fungi were found very good against all the pathogens but Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were found as more susceptible towards the fungal extracts in comparison to other bacteria and Candida albicans, the later one was the third susceptible microbe among all.
171 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES ABOUT GENERIC MEDICINES AMONG DOCTORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF NORTH INDIA- A CROSSSECTIONAL STUDY , *Roshi, Sapna Gupta, Brij Mohan Gupta, Vishal R. Tandon
Background: The assessment of doctors’ perceptions and understanding about generic medicines may help in recognizing possible barriers to greater generic medicine usage. The primary objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of doctors toward generic medicines. Methods: A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary-care teaching hospital of Jammu. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP about generic medicines. The doctors working in this institute during the study period were included. Results: All the participants had fair idea about generic medicines and Jan Aaushadi scheme, maximum (92.7%) of them knew about the Jan Aaushadi store near the hospital. 90.9% of the participants had knowledge about the cost of generic medicine. Only 72.7% knew about the bioequivalence studies being conducted. Only 36.36% of the doctors had an attitude that generic medicine should be prescribed over branded medicine. No one among the participants had an attitude that generic medicines are for poor. 97.2% of the participants were of the attitude that continuous monitoring should be done to see the efficacy and safety of generic medicines. 99% of the doctors said that they prescribe generic medicines, 18.18% of them used to read articles comparing efficacy and safety of generic and branded medicines. Conclusion: The study showed that the doctors were well aware of generic medicines and Jan Aushadhi scheme of Govt. of India. It was also observed that efficacy, safety and quality profile of the medicine were the most important factors considered by doctors when they prescribe drugs.
172 REGULAR CLEANING OF EAR CANAL WITH BETADINE SWAB AND COTTON PLUG APPLICATION IN THE CANAL IN PATIENTS OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA (CSOM) – DO THESE REALLY HELP? , Dr. Pankaj Srivastava*, Dr. Rohit Mehrotra, Mansi Pankaj, Manvi Pankaj
Introduction- Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases worldwide especially affecting children. Hearing impairment is one of the most common sequelae of CSOM if not treated early. In this prospective study patients mostly had ear discharge as chief complaint. Itching being the second complaint. Third was hearing impairment. Although in all available literature betadine cleaning is advisable and has shown beneficial effect and seems to be logical. But in this study the effect of betadine ear cleaning and cotton application in the ear of CSOM patients has not shown any beneficial effect, rather it has shown a worse result. Method- Patients having Tubotympanic type CSOM, who had unilateral or bilateral ear discharge were divided into two groups. One group was advised to do Betadine dipped cotton swab cleaning of ear canal twice a day and keep a clean cotton in the ear all the time, it was called Group A. Second group was asked not to clean their ear and apply cotton in their ears. This was called Group B. Both group of patients were prescribed Ciprofloxacin ear drops for two weeks and if after two weeks discharge persisted, oral Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid was given for 5 days. Patients were followed every two week and the amount of discharge and other complaints were noted. Data was collected and filled in Performa. Conclusions- Antibiotics in the form of ear drops or sometimes oral are mainstay antibiotic treatment in CSOM. In addition patients are advised to clean the ear with betadine and to apply cotton to keep ear dry and clean. In our study these two precautions were not found to help the patients.
173 AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY TO EVALUATE KNOWLEDGE AGAINST ADVERSE EFFECTS OF MEDICATIONS USED IN COVID-19 PATIENTS IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Dr. Namrata Pawar, *Dr. Vasundhara Bhople, Dr. Suhaas Wighne and Dr. Uma Bhosale
Purpose: With the currently growing spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, its affective treatment is also a major concern for the medical fraternity. At present there are no proven effective therapies for COVID–19 and the vaccine is also not available yet. The current treatments mainly focus on symptomatic relief and respiratory support. Various pharmacological treatments are currently being tested for patients with COVID–19. The elderly population and patients with underlying disease are at high risk of severe illness from COVID–19.These patients were more prone to experience adverse events (AEs) due to the use of concomitant medications and limited knowledge and inappropriate promotion of unproven therapies by the media and certain public figures leading to some severe ADRs. Thus, quality pharmacovigilance has become more important than ever. Methods: An Observational, non-interventional, questionnaire-based study was conducted by the Department of Pharmacology in the COVID ward of SKNMC & GH, Pune. This was a questionnaire-based study including 12 questions on adverse effects experienced due to medication in Covid-19 positive patients. Results: Out of the total, about 14% of patients suffered from ADR due to COVID medications while 76% experienced no ADR and 10% didn’t know about any ADR. When asked about the severity of ADR; out of 14% of patients,6% wrote as they were having mild symptoms, 6% were moderate and 2% were severe. Conclusions: The study indicates that there are few ADRs related to the COVID 19 treatment. Those ADRs were not life-threatening ones.
174 ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SEA BEACH AND DRY FISH AREA OF PUDUCHERRY COAST , Nithiya E., Nayak B. K.*, Ramkumar R., Surendra S., Pavithra G. and Nanda A.
Fungi from different sources regularly soil provide pharmaceutical products and other valuable substances, including organic acids, enzymes that are used in varied ways for the mankind. In the present study, Beach soil and Dry Fish area soil of Muthialpet coast, Puducherry were studied for the isolation and enumeration of fungi based on their availability. Dry Fish area soil (73%) was dominated with the fungal flora than Beach soil (27%) in our study. Aspergillus niger was found as the dominant one in Dry Fish area soil but Penicillium chrysogenum was the dominant one in Beach soil. The results obtained clearly indicated that Aspergillus flavus, A. terreus, Aspergillus niger, A. terreus and Penicillium verruculosum were recorded at different concentration in both the soils. Among the isolates, aspergillus and penicilli were dominant in all the soil conditions due to high sporulation capacity. Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus flavus were found to be more effective fungi in order to prevent the growth of the pathogenic bacteria and Candida albicans than other isolated fungi in our present study. The frequency of mycoflora in soil samples in beach area were found to be regulated by many factors like temperature, humidity, vegetation, organic and inorganic materials, soil type and texture. Pseudomonas sp. and Candida albicans were found as more susceptible pathogens towards the fungal active plugs in our study. The present would be helpful to the enthusiastic people who have great interest to find out stressful microbe in particular with fungi from these types of environments to find any bioprospecting fungi.
175 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-UPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF AMLODIPINE AND OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL IN TABLET FORMULATION , Shweta Rajendra Yadav* and Dr. Shailesh B. Patil
A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible gradient phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and fully validated for the estimation of Amlodipine Besylate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form gradientlly using acetonitrile: triethylamine buffer(pH4.0+0.5) as mobile phase and Acquity BEH C8 column (4.6x 150 mm,2.6μg) as stationary phase and chromatogram was recorded at 237nm at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The retention time of AML were 1.5to 2.8 and OLM 3.2 to 5.5 min respectively and showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 5-25μg/ml with a concentration coefficient (R) of 0.99956 and 0.99985 respectively. The developed UPLC method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, ruggedness (reproducibility), robustness and stability. The recovery data was in the range of 98.0%to 102.0%. the proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to the development and validation of AML and OLM in tablet formulation.
176 EFFECT OF NUTRIENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON NITROGEN FIXING ABILITY OF AZOTOBACTER ISOLATED FROM DROUGHT AREA. , Pawar Jyotirmayee S.* and Khambe S. D.
Azotobacter is free living, diazotrophic bacteria found in soil, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen non-symbiotically. Isolation, characterization of Azotobacter from drought area and testing its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen can be helpful to use it as a biofertilizer in such area. Thus we can enhance the crop yield in these area. Nitrogen fixing ability of isolates is studied using different nutrients like, carbon source, molybdenum, ferrous and at various temperature, pH. NFA of the isolate can be enhanced by adding the nutrients at specific conc.
177 A CASE STUDY ON MANAGEMENT OF BHAGANDARA (FISTULA-IN-ANO) WITH CHEDANA KARMA FOLLOWED BY PRATISARNIYA KSHARA KARMA , *Dr. Prashant Saini and Dr. Anukriti Guar
Bhagandara (Fistula-in-ano) considered difficult to treat due to its high recurrence rate thus it is mentioned as Mahagada in Sushruta Samhita. A very much similar condition is described in modern medical science as Fistula-in-ano. We present a case of Kaphaja Bhagandara (Low anal Fistula-in-ano) in a 32 years old man. The case was evaluated with physical examination. Chedana Karma (Fistulectomy) followed by application of Mridu Pratisarniya Palasha Kshara under local infiltration anaesthesia was performed. There were no complications during and after procedure. No recurrence was noticed during follow-up and each complaints were also resolved.
178 PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AMONG HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS RECEIVING ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AT A TERTIARY TEACHING HOSPITAL IN FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE , Onome T. Abiri,* Diane A. Kawa, James P. Komeh, Sulaiman Lakoh, Alren O. Vandy, Abdul J. Njai, Gibrilla F. Deen, Zikan Koroma, James B.W. Russell, Samuel Massacquoi, Abdulai J. Bah, Richard M. Conteh, Thomas A. Conteh, Fawzi Thomas, Joseph S. K.
Background: Despite the benefits of Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing morbidity and mortality related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, it is associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study was therefore conducted to assess the nature, prevalence, and severity of ADRs in HIV positive patients receiving ART since no such data is available in Sierra Leone. Methods: A crosssectional descriptive study was conducted by interviewing and reviewing medical charts of 384 HIV-positive patients receiving ART at Connaught hospital in Freetown Sierra Leone. Information on socio-demographic characteristics of patients, details of medicines used, and adverse effects were collected and assessed. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the associations of the dependent variable with a 95% confidence interval and P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Of the 384 patients sampled in this study, 157(40.8%) reported at least one ADR. Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz accounted for 87(38.0%) of the ADRs, while symptoms associated with the nervous system like dizziness and sedation were the most frequently occurring ADRs 97(42.4%). Causality assessment conducted revealed that most of the ADRs were of „possible‟ causal association with the ART 129(82.2%) while severity assessment showed that 108(68.8%) were mild. In the simple logistics regression analysis, only employment status (OR=0.558, 95%CI=0.367-0.846, P=0.006) and CD4 counts (OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.093-3.005, P=0.021) were significantly associated with severity of ADR. Conclusion: Adverse drug reactions were prevalent and some caused moderate and severe ADRs that necessitated a change in therapy and medical intervention.
179 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED CAMEL MILK AND ITS EFFICACY AS PROBIOTIC , Amel Alkinany*, Adil M. A. Salman, Iman M. Elnasri and Hind A. Elnasri
Lactic acid bacteria (LABs) are important microorganisms that are becoming widely used as probiotics. They have a positive effect on human health and are commonly used in food industry. Camel milk is believed to have the ability to treat many diseases, and is considered an important source for LABs. This study aimed to identify LABs isolated from fermented camel milk and investigate its antagonist effect towards other bacteria. Twenty four samples of camel milk were obtained from different camel farms. Milk samples were allowed to ferment naturally and then isolation of LAB was carried out using MRS medium. The isolates were then subjected to different biochemical tests for identification. The tolerance of the isolates towards different temperature, pH, NaCl and bile salt concentration was also tested. The antagonist effect of the different isolates was tested against Salmonella spp, E. Coli, and Staphylococcus aureus The identified isolates were: Lactobacillus spp. (29.4%), Lactococcus spp (35.3%) and Enterococcus (17.6%) Leuconostoc mesenteroides (5.9%) and Pediococcus spp (11.8). Two isolates namely: Lactobacillus brevis and Enterococcus. faecalis were found to have the best antagonist effect against the tested bacteria. This study revealed that LAB bacteria isolated from camel milk has the potential to be used as probiotics.
180 MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF YOGHURT PURCHASED IN KHARTOUM STATE, SUDAN , Mishkat, O. Karar Altayeb, Fatima A. Douda, Elniema A. Mustafa and Prof. Adil M. A. Salman*
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of yoghurt purchased in Khartoum State during its shelf life and to compare the yoghurt produced in different factories. A total of 36 yoghurt samples were collected from December to February/2019-2020. Samples were collected from 9 groceries and 9 supermarkets with 18 samples for factory A and B in the three localities of Khartoum State. The samples were subjected to the total coliform count (TCC), tentative isolation of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella and the detection of pH and temperature values of yoghurt. By using the Most Probable Number Method (MPN) the TCC in day one of factory A was found 4.6±1.8cfu/ml and 315.2±105.2cfu/ml for factory B, whereas it was found 6.9±4cfu/ml for factory A and 1100 cfu/ml for factory B in day ten. There were significant differences in the TCC of day one and day ten between the two factories with p≤0.05. The TCC in day one for the groceries and supermarkets in the State was 129.8cfu/ml and 190cfu/ml and increased in day ten to 551cfu/ml and 555cfu/ml, respectively. Statistically there were no significant differences between groceries and supermarkets in day one and day ten with p≤0.05. The mean pH observed in these samples in day one for factory A was 5.6 and 5.2 for factory B, and decreased in day ten to 4.6, 4.4 for factory A and B, respectively. These values were above the yoghurt acceptable pH of Sudanese standard and metrology organization (SSMO) (4.5) in day one, but it decreased in day ten matching the SSMO with about 17 (48.6%) of samples. E. coli was detected in 12 (33.3%) of the samples. One sample was positive for both Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The refrigerator temperature of the groceries and supermarkets in the three localities was above the optimum storage temperature (5℃). The highest ambient temperature in the groceries and supermarkets was detected in Bahri 39.5℃ and 38℃ in groceries and supermarkets, respectively. In conclusion the overall hygienic quality of yoghurt samples was lower than the limits recommended by the SSMO. It was recommended that all producers should maintain adequate hygienic practices to produce good quality and healthy yoghurt.
181 BANDHA VIDHI - THE CONCEPT OF BANDAGING IN AYURVEDA , Dr. Suchitra N. Adiga*, Dr. Shankar S. and Dr. Shailaja S. V.
One of the common problems and challenges to the modern world is trauma and its management. The observance of immobilisation is the key to treat fracture or a wound. A bandage plays a more important part as regards its healing and curative efficacy, inasmuch as it materially contributes to the purification and healing of an ulcer and also keeps the joints steady. Bandhana is the technique of bandaging mentioned in Susrutha Samhita written around 1st BC. Acharya Susrutha mentioned about this in Susrutha Samhita in vrana alepana bandhana vidhi. The chapter includes basic principles to be followed during a bandaging, location where it is applicable, Dos and don’ts, when to change a bandage, pressure of bandages on various situations, materials for preparation of bandage etc.
182 ROLE OF GARBHINI PARICHARYA IN THE PREVENTION ASPECT OF GDM , *Dr. Vidyavati R. Chavan, Dr. Papiya Jana and Dr. Chaitra N.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is an important important public health problem, given its high prevalence and its high prevalence and its association with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Recent evidence has confirmed that risk of adverse outcomes is a continuum, women with GDM are a high risk group for the future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. GDM affects roughly 7% of pregnancies with an incidence of more than 20,000 case per year. The prevalence, however varies from 1-14%, depending on population the diagnostic criteria that have been used. Women with GDM have a 40-60% chance of developing diabetes mellitus over the 5-10 years after pregnancy. Through Ayurveda GDM can be efficiently managed with our medications without interfering in the gestational health of the woman in the present case the diagnosed GDM patient has been managed with the Tab Nishaamalaki and modification in her Ahara sevana the outcome of the patient has been recorded accordingly.
183 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TOWARDS PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES IN SIERRA LEONE (FREETOWN, WESTERN AREA URBAN) , Fawzi Thomas*, Joseph Sam Kanu, Onome T. Abiri, Thomas A. Conteh, James P.Komeh, Mohamed Sesay, Jennet Buck and Joy B. Johnson
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of infirmity. Donald Acheson in 1988 defined public health as: “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting, protecting and improving health through the organized efforts of society”. Community pharmacists are the health professionals most accessible to the public (WHO 2019). They supply medicines in accordance with a prescription or, when legally permitted, sell them without a prescription. In addition to ensuring an accurate supply of appropriate products, their professional activities also cover counselling of patients at the time of dispensing of prescription and non-prescription drugs, providing drug information to health professionals, patients and the public, and participation in health-promotion programs. They maintain links with other health professionals in primary health care WHO (2010). This study was conducted to assess the role of community pharmacists in public health to determine the level of community satisfaction on the services provided by community pharmacists, to determine community perception on the services provided by community pharmacists. Method: This study was a Descriptive Cross-Sectional study with a convenience sampling method of Pharmacist working in community pharmacies using a self-administered questionnaire giving a total of 125 community pharmacists working in this study setting. The study also included community people using a P value of 0.85 from a previous study by Al-Arifi MN, (2012) giving a sample size of 196. The outcome measured were demographics, role in public health services, perception and satisfaction. The data was analysed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel to produce Figures and Tables. Result: The results of the study points towards the fact that community pharmacists are contributing towards public health in the areas of screening and health promotion as 76(60.8%) are involved in promotion of smoking cessation, 61.2% are very involved promotion of weight management. 72.0% very involved in screening for hypertension whilst 64.8% are very involved in screening for diabetes. 64.8% of community people strongly agree that pharmacists are integral part of the health system.59.2% and 64.3% of community people strongly agree that community pharmacists should provide blood pressure and blood sugar monitoring services respectively. 71.2% are very involved in counselling on treatment for STDs whilst 47.2% are very involved in counselling on emergency and other contraception
184 PALANDAANJANA – AN OPHTHALMIC PREPARATION , Tejaswini L. N.*, Dr. B. A. Venkatesh and Dr. Sunitha G. S.
Eye, one of the most important sense organs, is given utmost priority in the field of the Ayurvedic medical science, which considers it as the pradhana anga, taking ashraya in the uttamanga.[1] Adhering to the fundamental principle of Ayurveda, ―Swasthasya Swasthya rakshanam‖, the present preparation is carried out with the intension of protecting the eyes and preventing it from possible diseases. In the present world, a wide range of population is involved in the use of mobiles or laptops, whose light rays have been proved to cause lenticular changes. Also, owing to the increase in the cases of senile and pre-senile cataract, the population would be benefitted by an ophthalmic formulation, that, in the current study, is analyzed to have a prophylactic effect in the above conditions of lenticular changes such as presbyopia and cataract. The palandanjana is a unique preparation, whose drug action is assessed to have a potential role in the prevention of the ophthalmic diseases involving the lenticular changes, such as cataract, presbyopia etc., which are considered under one big umbrella called Timira, according to Ayurveda. This unique preparation serves the dual purpose of medicinal usage as well as cosmetic use.
185 PHYTOCHEMICAL & PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM SPRENGE , Vipin Tiwari*, Tailor Chandra Shekhar and Bahuguna Yogendr
Eupatorium adenophorum Sprenge is a weed found at the hills of northern India, southern Nepal and Bhutan. It has many common names, including eupatory, Mexican devil, Sticky snakeroot and crofton weed. Ageratina adenophora is a synonym.Various species of Eupatorium adenophorum sprenge have been used in the traditional system of medicine across the world. Eupatorium adenophorum is accredited for diverse medicinal properties and finds therapeutic applications in traditional medicines asantiseptic, antimicrobial, blood coagulant, antipyretic, and analgesic. The total ash value is an indicative of total amount of inorganic material after complete incineration and the acid insoluble ash value is an indicative of silicate impurities, which might have arisen due to improper washing of drug. The results of phytochemical tests indicate the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and sugars. The result of present study will also serve as reference mono graph in the preparation of drugformulation.
186 PECTINASE PRODUCTION FROM THUJA OCCIDENTALIS IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION , Praveen Kumar Dasari*, Ashok Babu Chokka, Bhavya Sai Kumari Mallelli and Satyanarayana Tanuku
The present research work is about the production and process optimization of pectinase enzyme using substrate Thuja occidentalis leaves by Aspergillus awamori in solid state fermentation. Pectinase having varied applications in food industry such as fruit juice extraction, coffee and tea fermentation, textile, paper and pulp industries and in waste-water treatment. Solid-state fermentation is expressed as a process that take place on a non-soluble material that performs both as support and a source of nutrients, with a reduced among of water, under the action of fermenting agent. Optimizing process evaluations like time, temperature, size of inoculum, pH and moisture content were optimized to induce the high yield of pectinase. The increased level of pectinase enzyme production was detected at time 72hrs, temperature 30°C, optimum inoculum level was 50%v/w, pH 5 and 60% v/w moisture content of the substrate were foremost for the maximum production of pectinase in solid-state condition. A remarkable enzyme production was enhanced and recorded when the basal medium was supplemented with carbon (4% glucose) and nitrogen (ammonium sulphate, 0.4%) sources.
187 TOXICITY STUDY OF LANTANA CAMARA LEAVES , Dr. Shirish S. Pingale*
The aim of the present work is to study the toxicity of slurry of dry powder aimed from leaves of Lantana camara. The leaves of this plant were collected from Rajgurunagar, Pune, Maharashtra. The fresh leaves were dried in shade and grinded with high power electric mixer. The dry sample was kept in airtight plastic container and was used for toxicity study as per OECD guidelines by using white albino Wister Rats. The plant material was administered orally at dose of 2 to 10gm/Kg body weight of Swiss mice. The animals were observed continuously for the period of first 4 hours continuously for behavioral changes and then they were kept under observation for 14 days after administration of powder in the form of slurry with the help of gavage. The mortality observations were reported to find out the toxic effect of leaves of Lantana camara. From these results it is observed that Lantana camara leaves powder at doses of 10gm/kg body weight is found to be nontoxic as no any type of abnormal changes were reported in behavior, food and water intake of the administered animals. The Lantana camara plant material was found to be relatively safe when administered orally in Swiss mice. Lethality or adverse toxic signs were not at all observed during the experimental period for our sample.
188 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF COLEBROOKEA OPPOSITIFOLIA SMITH. , Darshan Kathait*, Bahuguna Yogendr, Tailor Chandra Shekhar
The species Colebrookea oppositifolia smith is one of the largest family member of dicotyledons, in plantae kingdoms and highly aromatic, due to the external glandular structures which produce volatile oil.[1] The volatile oil of the plants is importants in pharmaceutical, pesticide, and others usese. The investigation present deals with importantsphyto-constituents which is usese as various disorder such as eplipepsy,[3,4] ulcer, hepatitis, antibacterials, antifungals, wound healing, bleeding[6] (heamostatic) anti-inflammatory[7] etc.C.oppositifolia Sm indicated the presence of various phyto-constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and saponins terpenoids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides are showed only in different medium.
189 INFLUENZA SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE BASED ON SENTINEL PHARMACIES IN CATALONIA (SPAIN) IN 2017−2020 , Pedro Plans-Rubió*, Anna M. Jambrina, Glòria Carmona, Manel Rabanal, Mireia Jané and Pilar Rius
Objective: To analyse influenza surveillance data obtained from sentinel pharmacies of Catalonia, Spain, in 2017−18, 2018−19 and 2019-20 influenza seasons. Methods: Influenza surveillance information was collected from a representative sample of community pharmacies of Catalonia. Influenza-like cases were identified based on the ECDC criteria.The Chi-square test and Odds ratios were used to compare percentages between different population groups, with a p <0.05 considered as statistically significant. The screening method was used to assess influenza vaccination effectiveness. The moving epidemic method (MEM) was used to assess influenza epidemics in the three influenza seasons. Results: A total of 836, 1,000 and 587 influenza-like cases were reported in 2017−18, 2018−19 and 2019−20. Sentinel pharmacies dispended medications to 94-98% of patients. Paracetamol, cough medication, ibuprofen and antihistamines were dispended to more than 25% of patients. Dispensation of antibiotics decreased by 57% from 2017-18 to 2019-20 (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.28-0.74, p < 0.001). Physicians prescribed medications to 30-38% of influenza-like patients. The influenza vaccination effectiveness in individuals aged 65 or more years was 51.4% (95% CI: 41.9−60.7) in 2018-19 and 67% (95% CI: 53.4−79.8) in 2019-20 influenza seasons. Influenza epidemics occurred from week 50 of 2017 to week 7 of 2018; from week 51 of 2017 to week 8 of 2019; and from week 2 to week 7 of 2020. Conclusion: The influenza surveillance system based on sentinel pharmacies provided consistent information on the influenza epidemic, influenza morbidity not assisted in health centres and medications used to treat influenza-like cases during 2017−2019.
190 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF PARKIA BIGLOBOSA , Oyero A. B.*, Ekeleme I. K. and Obiekezie S. O.
Phytochemical and Antibacterial activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Parkia Biglobosa. The antibacterial potential of Parkia Biglobosa, Bark, root and leaf extracts against bacteria isolated from food items. The test bacteria were isolated from food items and identified using standard microbiological methods; ethanol and ethyl acetate were used as solvents in the extraction of the extract from the Bark, root and leaf of Parkia Biglobosa. The phytochemical screening showed that the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts contained tannins, Phenols, Steroids and saponins in varying proportions. The Antibacterial activity of the extract against the test bacteria was determined using cup agar plate method and diameter inhibition zones formed around wells on the agar plates were measured. The mean antibacterial activity of the extracts in vitro showed that the Ethyl acetate extract of leaves was most efficacious at 50mg amount of the concentration inhibiting Salmonella sp (11.02mm), E. coli (14.10mm), Klebsiella sp (18.0mm), Bacillus sp (15.0mm) and S. aureus (13.0mm). The ethanol extract at 12.5mg amount of the concentration inhibited Salmonella sp (7.0mm), E. coli (8.0mm) and Klebsiella sp (10.0mm). The ethyl acetate extract of the Root of P. biglobosa inhibition zone varied from 7.0mm - 21.0 mm against the tested bacteria such as Salmonella sp, E. coli, Klebsiella sp, Bacillus sp and S. aureus. The ethyl acetate Bark extract of P. biglobosa extracts were found to be less efficient than ethanol extracts. This study has revealed that the extract of P. biglobosa contains antibacterial and phytochemical substances which can be harnessed.
191 INTERVENTION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND SELF EFFICACY TRAINING ON SELF MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW , Nadhifah Rahmawati*, Tri Johan Agus Yuswanto and Diyah Fatmasari
Chronic kidney failure (CRF) is one of the leading causes of death in Indonesia. This is a concern for health workersto keep the disease under control, prevent physical, psychological and social damage and complications. KActive involvement in patient self-management is one of the keys to prevent further damage to kidney function and slowing the progression of the CRF stage. Improved self-management of CKD patients can be provided through education and training programs such as self-efficacy training and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Both methods focused on reducing anxiety and depression as well as increasing self-efficacy have been shown to improve patient self-management behavior. In this systematic review study, several research literature on CBT interventions and self-efficacy were reviewed in patients with end-stage renal failure. This study reviews CBT interventions and self-efficacy training on self-management in chronic renal failure patients. Systematic review by looking for research studies from electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Science direct and ProQuest) with randomized control trial and quasi-experimental designs published in 2015-2020 and have been published internationally indexed Scopus Q1, Q2 and Q3 and indexed SINTA-2. The research studies analyzed were related to CBT, self-efficacy training and self-management with chronic kidney failure patient respondents. Based on the literatures, therapies that have a high level of recommendation in improving self-care in patients with CRF are CBT and training to increase self-efficacy. This is evidenced by the strong effect size value. However, some journals use a sample size that is not representative, the instrument used is the previous instrument and the intervention method used is quite complex. Twenty five reports have been reviewed shows that CBT and self-efficacy can be an effective intervention that can be applied to improve self-management in CRF patients.