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International Journal Of Modern Pharmaceutical Research

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2319-5878
Journal Papers (541) Details
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Indexed Journal

1 DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIENT ENRICHED FUNCTINAL BISCUITS FOR MALNOURISHED SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN , Sumaiya Mamun, Mohammad Abduz Zaher, Ielias Uddin and Prof. Dr. A. K. Obidul Huq*
A nutrient-enriched functional biscuit was developed for malnourished children as a supplementary food in the present study. One control biscuits and vitamin premix enriched three sample biscuits were formulated and organoleptic properties were tested for evaluation. Total 11 children performed sensory evaluation. Control biscuits were devoid of vitamin premix, whereas in sample-1, 2 and 3 incorporating 0.5, 0.75 and 1% vitamin premix added respectively. Proximate composition analysis showed that controlled biscuits contain 4.8% moisture, 2.3% crude fiber, 14.7% protein, 19.5% fat, 56.1% carbohydrate, 2.1% ash and energy 458 Kcal. In case of organoleptic evaluation, sample -2 biscuits was more acceptable compared to all other quality characteristics by the organoleptic test. Sample-2 biscuits contain 4.5% moisture, 3.5% crude fiber, 14.6% protein, 19.9% fat, 55% carbohydrate, 2.3% ash and energy 457 Kcal. Proximate analysis and sensory evaluation concluded that, our newly developed biscuit-2 has the optimum taste and nutrient content; therefore, further implications of this research are necessary in favour of school-going children.
2 INVESTIGATION OF APOPTOTIC AND ANGIOGENÄ°C EFFECTS OF BORON IN HUMAN LUNG CANCER CELLS (A549) , Hande AytuÄŸ* and Funda KarabaÄŸ Çoban
Today, lung cancer, one of the most important health problems, is the most common cause of mortality in both men and women. A549 lung cells derived from human alveolar carcinoma cells match the type II alveolar cell phenotype, have many characteristics of human primary alveolar epithelial cells. Boron is used in many fields such as , nuclear, glass, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, detergents, agriculture and its usage areas are increasing day by day. Recent studies have shown that boron is an important element for human health. Based on this information, this study investigated the effect of different concentrations of boric acid in the A549 human lung cancer cell line, by analyzing proliferation assay, TAS (Total Antioxidant Status), TOS (Total Oxidant Status), VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) and PARP (Poly (ADP-). Ribose Polymerase). Proliferation assay was performed using CCK8 Assay Kit. TAS, TOS, VEGF and PARP analyzes were performed using Sun-Red Human Total Antioxidant Status Elisa Kit, Sun-Red Human Total Oxidant Status Elisa Kit, Sun-Red Human (VEGF) Elisa Kit and Sun-Red Human (PARP) Elisa Kit, respectively. it is made. In the study, the proliferation test showed that the viability values decreased in proportions with doses at 5 mM, 10 mM, 20 mM, 40 mM and 100 mM concentrations and the IC50 value was determined as 20 mM. There was no significant difference between TAS and TOS analysis. In VEGF values, it was observed that VEGF values decreased at 10 mM and 20 mM boric acid concentrations compared to the control group, but there was no significant difference in 40 mM boric acid concentration. A significant increase in PARP values was observed at all concentrations of 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM. As a result; We may be think 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM concentrations of boric acid may decrease angiogenesis by decreasing VEGF levels. As a result of the increase in PARP values, we may be think boric acid leads to cell necrosis at concentrations of 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM.
3 FORMULATION OF A NEWLY DEVELOPED DIETARY SUPPLEMENT FROM MARINE SOURCES , Md. Sohel Rana, Mesbah Uddin Talukder, Sumaiya Mamun, Shireen Nigar, Mohammad Abduz Zaher and Prof. Dr. A. K. Obidul Huq*
Supplementation of foods is of current interest because of increasing nutritional awareness among consumers. A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. Spirulina is selected to this study for its high protein content and its varieties health benefits. The objective of this study is to produce dietary capsule from marine sources and evaluate its efficacy on health and nutrition. Proximate composition of Spirulina plus capsule was analyzed. Protein content of Spirulina plus capsule was (71.19±1.11) % and it removes protein energy malnutrition. It contains a considerable amounts of ash, fiber which has beneficial health effects. The final product Spirulina plus capsule contained (9.16±0.004) % fat which can help for brain development. Spirulina plus capsule had (12.09±0.02) % fiber which can remove constipation. Microbial test of final product represents that the product was safe. It was concluded that Spirulina plus capsule is enriched with the mixture of some other ingredients and it becomes a good dietary supplement to the consumers.
4 INVESTIGATION OF APOPTOTIC AND ANTIANGIOGENIC EFFECTS OF BORON IN MCF-7 CELLS , Ali Osman Albayrak*, Funda KarabaÄŸ Çoban, Mehmet Emrah Åželli and Hande AytuÄŸ
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women and ranks second among the causes of female death in the world. In order to find a solution to breast cancer, different studies are being conducted for the treatment and the effects of different drugs and substances on this disease are intensively investigated. Boric acid has been shown to control the proliferation of certain types of cancer cells. In the study, different concentrations of boric acid were applied on MCF-7 cell line to determine IC50 values of boric acid and its antiproliferative effect was determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) ELISA kit at 24, 48 and 72 hours. According to the results, other analyzes were performed over the 48 hour incubation period. After the IC50 values of boric acid at 48 hours were determined, Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) kit was used to determine apoptotic effects for boric acid. Cell lysates were obtained after the application of defined IC50 doses to the cells for determination of biochemical parameters. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) kit was used to determine the angiogenic effects with the obtained samples. As a result, in this study, it was observed that concentration and time-dependent boric acid decreased proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. At the same time, according to the PARP results, it was found that the concentrations of boric acid significant differences compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between boric acid concentrations and Cis Platin groups. It is thought that both groups showed an increase compared to the control group, and boric acid leads the cell to necrosis like Cis Platinum. When VEGF results were examined to explain the relationship between boric acid and angiogenesis, significant differences were observed with both control group and Cis Platinum. Boric acid groups have been shown to be more effective than Cis Platin in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and to be an antiangiogenic agent. In this respect, further studies are needed to investigate how the effects of molecular anticancerogenic mechanisms of MCF-7 cells and boric acid on cell polarization are realized.
5 AN AYURVEDIC VIEW OF UNDERSTANDING KANDA BHAGNA AND ITS GENERAL MANAGEMENT (A REVIEW ARTICLE) , Dr. Bharat Kumar M.*, Dr. Vishwanath Sharma, Dr. Shailaja S. V.
Bhagna in ancient period were encountered during war or animal attack but in present time it occurs due to large sudden force on bone, chronic repetitive force or due to road traffic accidents. It was very well explained by Acharya Sushruta depending upon nature of trauma, shape of fracture, displacement of fractured fragment and fracture with or without wound. Acharya Sushruta explained Bhagna of 2 types- Kandabhagna and Sandhimoksha.[1] Kandabhagna is of 12 types which has been explained elaborately.[2] The principle of Bhagna Chikitsa defined by Acharya Sushruta centuries ago are as per condition either conservative or surgical management. The modalities explained by Acharya Sushruta like kusha bandha, aalepa, chakrayoga are much beneficial in the management of bhagna.[3] Therefore the concept theories and techniques which were practical several years ago holds true even in modern era.
6 DRYING AND SALTING FISH USING DIFFERENT METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE SENSORY, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL INDICES , *Hassan Hadi Mehdi AL- Rubaiy, Khalid Hassak Abdul Hassan and Mohammad Zyarah Eskandder
Different types of fish, such as sardines, Hamour, noebi, fsikh, carp, and other kinds, were salted and dried by different drying methods such as natural sun drying, drying by vacuum solar dryer, drying by electric ovens and by using a microwave oven, In different regions of the world. The studies indicated that the drying efficiency was varied with the different drying methods in terms of drying rate and storage period of dried fish and its effect on the organoleptic, chemical and microbial indices. In general, all the drying methods used to drying fish gave a high efficiency except natural sun drying. Even though different methods were used to dry the salted fish, the percentages of chemical composition and indices were close. As for the microbial indices, the microwave drying efficiency exceeded compared with all the drying methods. The natural sun drying method gave less efficiency in eliminating microbes, and it also differed whether the fish was salted or unsalted, and this affected the storage periods. The different methods in drying and salting fish were affected by the rate of dehydration, which led to a variation in the percentage.
7 TWO CASES OF DIABETIC CRANIAL NEUROPATHY , *Dr. Pranav Bhagwat
Diabetes has become one of the largest global health-care problems of the 21 st century. The number of people with diabetes worldwide is predicted to double between 2000 and 2030, reaching a pandemic level of 366 million people.[1] Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes [2] in which cranial nerve palsies are rare and associated with long-standing poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.
8 ASSESSMENT OF ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF A POLYHERBAL FORMULATION BA019 , Aparna P. and Dr. Brahma Srinivasa Rao Desu*
In this study, anti-hyperlipidemic activity of polyherbal formulation BA019 was assessed by two animal models, Triton induced hyperlipidaemia and fructose diet induced hyperelipidaemia in wisar rats. In both animal models, BA019 produced a significant reduction in serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides. The effect of 200 mg/kg of BA019 was significant when compared to vehicle treated group. The effect of 400mg/kg of BA019 was nearly equal to standard drug Atrovastatin (10mg/kg, p.o). These results showed that polyherbal formulation BA019 possessed anti-hyperlipidemic activity.
9 RATIO SUBTRACTION COUPLED WITH EXTENDED RATIO SUBTRACTION METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL AND ORPHENADRINE CITRATE IN THEIR COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS , Mahmoud M. Sebaiy* and Amr A. Mattar
A simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method was settled for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and orphenadrine citrate in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. Ratio Subtraction coupled with Extended Ratio Subtraction has been used in simultaneous determination of both drugs without prior separation. Ratio Subtraction coupled with Extended Ratio Subtraction method parameters were validated according to ICH guidelines in which accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found in accepted limits. Advantages and disadvantages of Ratio Subtraction coupled with Extended Ratio Subtraction were discussed and statistical comparison between the proposed method and the reference method was performed.
10 A CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF ROOKSHANA POORVAKA VAMANA KARMA IN PCOS , Seetharamu M. S.*, Kiran M. Goud and Shreyas D. M.
Polycystic ovarian disease or syndrome is a condition characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbances, obesity, hirsutism and infertility. It is a health problem that affects three in ten women of the child bearing age group. Menstrual disturbances include amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea and irregular menstruation which further leads to infertility. Ultrasound examination shows cysts in the ovaries. Conventional treatment for PCOS includes lifestyle changes, ovulation induction, surgical theraphy and other symptomatic treatment modalities. Considering the menstrual abnormalities and anovulation, pcos can be correlated to Arthava kshaya, where prakupitha Kapha does the avarana of Apana vata. Sarvanga Udhwartana followed sarvanga basshpa sweda as vishista poorva karma and Vamana karam is a treatment modality applied to enhance the suppressed action of vata by relieving the Kapha Avarana. Vamana karma helps in decreasing saumya guna and increases Agneya Guna. It was observed that Maximum patient in the study given statistically significant relief in almost all Parameters. The results of the present clinical study has given (p<o.oo1) which shown statistically highly significant.
11 CONCEPT OF GURU CHA ATARPANA IN THE PRESENT ERA W.S.R TO STHOULYA , Dr. Manjula*, Dr. Lolashri S. J., Dr. Kiran M. Goud
In the present era of modernization, people are dependent on modernized technologies forcing them to live in sedentary life style and every lifestyle has drastic changes in their dietary habits and regimens leading to chronic and non communicable diseases. Among them Sthoulya is one of the major risk factor. Sthoulya is common nutritional disorder in affluent societies and most prevalent in developed countries. The management of Sthoulya as described in Ayurvedic classics are Nidanaparivarjana, Apatarpana chikitsa and Shamana and Shodhana chikitsa, among them Guru cha Atarpana is selected as low calorie diet therapy to discuss its importance and way of use in the present era. So the Aim and Objective is to highlight the importance of Guru and Atarpana in the form of Ahara and Pana as low diet calorie, high fiber and protein in the context of Chikitsa of Medoroga or Santarpanottajanya vyadhi chikitsa as explained by our Acharya.
12 ALOPECIA MANAGEMENT MINOXIDIL IMPROVING HAIR GROWTH: AN OVERVIEW , Suresh Ghritlahare*, Pushpendra Kurre, Govind Panagar and Trilochan Satapathy
Hair is one of the important parts of our body. Hair failure is a familiar complaint, both men and women & use of prescription medications is well-known. Hair loss can be divided into three types: 1. Noncicatricial (potentially reversible), 2. Cicatricial 3. Due to hair shaft abnormalities. The scalp hair grows in cycles of anagen (growth), catagen (involution), telogen (resting), and exogen (release of dead hair) phases. Causes of hair loss: Hair loss is a dermatological disorder that has been recognised for more than 2000 years. Drugs that cause hair loss Drugs can cause telogen hair loss that starts about 12 weeks after starting the drug and continues while on the drug. 10 Dosing changes can also precipitate hair shedding. Any medication or over the counter product the patient is taking should be suspected in hair loss. Drugs known to cause telogen effluvium are oral contraceptive pills, androgens, retinoids, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and the anticoagulants heparin and warfarin. Medicines used to treat arthritis (Penicillamine, Indomethacin, Naprosyn and Methotrexate), parkinson’s disease (levodopa); any other medication which has an androgenic (male) hormone action, such as - anabolic steroids, often used by athletes and bodybuilders or danocrine used for treating endometriosis in women causes hair loss. Diagnosis of hair loss: Biopsy of central scalp, daily hair count, wash test, Hair pull test etc. Treatments of hair loss: a herbal drug used in treatment of alopecia i.e. Common names are Avocado Shikakai, Arnica, Onion, Birch, Mustard, Tea, Marigold, Pepper, Mandukparni ete. Synthetic drugs used for treatment of hair loss are Minoxidil, Finasteride, Zinc, Skinoren/Azelaic Acid, Ketoconazoie, Cyproterone Acetate with Ethinyl oestradiol, Cimetidine, Cyproterone Acetate, Spironoloactone, Prezatide copper etc. minoxidil was transformed from an antihypertensive to hair-loss drug, Minoxidil affects hair follicles by inducing proliferation and differentiation of the dermal papilla cell at the bulb base. FDA approved 2% solutions for female patients. This stops the hair loss in patients with AGA and stimulates new hair growth.
13 AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT OF PCOS WSR TO PUSHPAGNI JATAHARINI-A CASE STUDY , Dr. Raksha S.* and Papiya Jana
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) is the most common endocrine abnormality in reproductive aged women affecting approximately 5-10% of this population. The classis triad of this syndrome consists of chronic ovulation dysfunction, hirsutism (male pattern hair growth) and obesity. The exciting news recently involves understading the contribution of insulin resistance to the etiology and treatment of PCOS as well as the recent addition of ultrasound diagnostic tool. In Ayurveda, Pushpagni jataharini mentioned in kasyapa samhitha presents a clinical picture somewhat similar to that of PCOS. Analysing the signs and symptoms of disease, it can be inferred that vitiated kapha causes srotorodha resulting in vatavaigunya. Agneya property of pitta is also depleted. So adopting vata kaphahara and pitta vridhikara treatment, we can manage the disease through Ayurveda, which is affordable and devoid of major side effects.
14 APOPTOSIS AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE PROPERTIES OF LUPEOL ON HUMAN TUMOR CELLS , Madhan Mohan T., P. Arul Prakash and A. Jayachitra*
Lupeol, a triterpene found in plant source like fruits and vegetables which selectively induced apoptosis of cancer cells. It also regulates several apoptosis signaling pathways in cancer cells. It has downregulated the proteolysis activity of secreted MMP-2 protein suggesting the efficacy of Lupeol against the spread of Cancer cells. Its role in induction of pro-apoptotic protein indicates that Lupeol rectifies the errors in apoptotic machinery of cancer cells. Lupeol treatment showed cell growth inhibition, anti-inflammatory effects, and tumor regression using FACS for cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, ROS. Furthermore, Lupeol showed antiproliferative action towards U87MG cells at the Inhibitory concentration of 33.76μM. On cell cycle analysis, Inhibition of cells at various stages by lupeol was observed between control and treated. The vast difference in peak count revealed with treated sample count at 300(peak 1) & 240(peak 2) whereas control count at 440(peak 1)& 300(peak 2). The apoptosis inducing activity of lupeol on U-87MG cells shows mean difference treated at 64.982 compared to control at 80.823. Lupeol also regulated the reactive oxygen species in the cells in which excessive distribution occurred at the range of 50-150. These studies conclude that lupeol has the ability to inhibit and induce the Apoptosis, ROS. Thus, confirming anti tumor properties of lupeol.
15 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SINGLE POTENT BIOAGENT AGAINST THREE SPECIES OF MOSQUITO LARVAE , Selva Seematti R.* and Prabakaran V.
Mosquitoes are the most important transmitted vector. It can able to carry many disease-causing viruses and parasites. Several species belonging to genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex are vectors for the pathogen of various diseases like dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. Anopheles stephensi are major malaria vectors in India. With an annual incidence of 300-500 million, malaria is still one of the most important communicable diseases. Currently, about 40% of the world s population live in areas where malaria is endemic. Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of lymphatic filariasis, is widely distributed in tropical zones with around 120 million people infected worldwide and 44 million people having common chronic manifestation. Aedes aegypti is known to carry dengue. In the present study focused with three-difference mosquitoes were selected, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The three different mosquito larvae were selected based on instar 2nd, 3rd, 4th. In order to study the Predatory potential of Diplonychus indicus and the prey preference of various nymphal instars like III, IV, V, Male and Female were chosen. Hence the efficacy of three different mosquito larvae were exposed to Diplonychus indicus has been reported to show selective feeding behavior on mosquito larvae. Beyond, which in overall experiment denoted the predators (Diplonychus indicus) were studied, comparative between various larvae only the maximum activity exposed to Aedes aegypti at 4th instars larvae to the dominant exposure in male predators. The success of biological control agents using natural enemies depends on the ability of the predator to select target prey populations.
16 VANDYATVA – A CASE STUDY , Dr. Chaitra N.*, Dr. Papiya Jana
Motherhood is near to divinity. There are many conditions which prevent a woman from being a mother. A remarkable decline in fertility is observed beyond the age of 30years due to poor quality of ovum and quantitative reduction in the number of follicles. Conception depends on multiple factors, ovulation being one among them. Infertility is that, in which the ability to reproduce becomes impaired. Anovulation is one of the causes of infertility in 25% to 40% of women in child bearing age group. In ayurveda Vandhyatva is a vata dosha pradhana vyadi, Ovulation is under control of vata especially Apana vata. Here phala ghrita, Yosa jeevani lehya and Maharsi Amrita kalasha is been used and treated the present case successfully and proved effective. Present article will explain how to understand and manage infertility based on ayurvedic perspective.
17 SULPHONAMIDE DRUGS AND PSEUDOMONAS AEROGINOSA RESISTANCE: A REVIEW , Egbujor Melford C.*, Nwobodo David C., Egwuatu Pius I., Abu Ifeanyichukwu P., Ezeagu Casmir U.
Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial agents to be used systematically which have also been widely utilized as antimalarial, anticancer, antiretroviral, diuretic, antihypertensive agents to mention but a few. Sulphonamide was first isolated from coal tar in 1935 for the treatment of bacterial infections due to its selective toxicity against bacterium cell thereby paving the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. Over the years, sulphonamide drugs lost its preference as the first line drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial infections because of the increased resistance exhibited by certain bacteria especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The unique resistance of Pseudomonas aerusginosa against sulphonamide is quite worrisome due to the fact that this bacterium being one of the scariest bacteria in the world is responsible for several serious infections that were erstwhile curable with inexpensive sulphonamide drugs. Several isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have considerable defense against reliable antibiotics and their concomitant infections are difficult to treat because of complex enzymic and mutational mechanisms of resistance exhibited by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review observed and proposed the potential ways of tackling the recalcitrance of Pseudomonas aeroginosa to sulfonamide though structural modifications and derivatization.
18 STUDY OF PHYSICO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BUCCAL PATCHES ALONG WITH THE PERMEATION OF LOADED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG , Gopa Roy Biswas*, Simran Shaw, Parna Pati, Sutapa Biswas Majee
The buccal patches of Atenolol were designed in such a way that the mucoadhesive layers was incorporated along with the circumference of the circular patch. The major ingredients selected for the matrix layer were the drug and control release polymer (either HPMC K15M or HPMC K4M) while the Mucoadhesive layer was predominantly comprised of gum karaya. The designed patches were subjected to different evaluations like thickness uniformity, average weight, folding endurance, mucoadhesion strength, swelling behavior. The physico mechanical properties of the patches found to be satisfactory and they were subjected to permeation studies. In vitro permeation study was conducted for 8hrs in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 using dialysis membrane. The cumulative drug permeated from formulation was found to be 32 - 49 % and the permeation profiles for each batch was almost linear. The permeability coefficient was found in a range of 0.041 cm/h. to 0.053 cm/hr and flux was found in a range of 1.43- 1.85 mg cm-2 hr -1.
19 BOTANICALLY DERIVED FRIEDELANE TYPE ISOPRENOIDS: A MINI-REVIEW ON THEIR PESTICIDAL POTENTIALS. , Ekenna I. C. and Afieroho O. E.*
Friedelane-type isoprenoids are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes that includes friedelin and its derivatives. Several reports on their numerous biological activities in both in vivo and in vitro experimental models have been reported. This report is a review on the pesticidal friedelane-type isoprenoids of botanic origin, their mechanisms of action and salient structure activity relationship. Generally, the type and stereochemistry of the substituent at position C-3 of the friedelane 1 triterpene skeleton greatly affects biological activity of these phyto-constituents.
20 EXTRACTION, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW COMPOUND AND ANTI-BACTERIAL POTENTIALS OF THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPOUND FROM LEPTADENIA HASTATA LEAF EXTRACT , Isaac John Umaru*, Fasihuddin A. Badruddin and Hauwa A. Umaru
This study was carried out with the aim of exploring the chemical constituents medicinal plant Leptadenia hastata. Identification of the compounds were based on the molecular structure, molecular mass and calculated fragments. Interpretation on mass spectrum GC-MS was conducted using the database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST). The name, molecular weight and structure of the components of the test materials were ascertained using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrometry (FTIR). Phytochemicals were isolated from the leaves extracts of Leptadenia hastata, after the extraction from solvent, dichloromethane The chemical compounds isolated include Benzyl alcohol (1), 3-Pyridine carboxylate (2), 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol (3). This study revealed that this medicinal plant Leptadenia hastata extract from dichloromethane had some potential phytochemicals. These chemical constituents were isolated and characterised for the first in the leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata.
21 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS , Deshpande S.N.*
Plants are rich in phytochemicals. These play active role in the treatment of diseases. Though chemotherapeutic drugs are used to treat diseases they have side effects and develop resistance, hence there is need of alternative medicine. The present study was therefore undertaken to screen some medicinal plants for phytochemical constituents by simple chemical qualitative tests. For this ethanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of leaves of Abrus precatorius L., Psidium guajava L. Piper betle L., Azadirechta indica L.and stem bark of Acacia nilotica L.were prepared by Soxhlet method. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phytosterols and tannins in all selected plants extracts. However amino acids were absent in all selected plants extracts. Saponins and cardiac glycosides were found in all selected plants extracts except ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extract of Abrus precatorius L. Flavonoids and anthraquinones were found only in Acacia nilotica L.Fixed oils and fats were present in only Psidium guajava L however,proteins in Psidium guajava L. and Acacia nilotica L.Presence of various phytochemicals in the plants selected for study is suggestive of their medicinal use in folk medicine.
22 HAEMATOLOGICAL STUDY OF FRESH WATER FISH- LABEO ROHITA & CATLA CATLA , Sadaf Anis Don*
There are variations in blood cell count and percentage haemoglobin in different fish species, these variations are remarkable in planktophagous and carnivorous fishes found in fresh water reservoirs. In relation to change in habitat, seasonal changes, parasitic infection, effect of pollutants, relative physiological activities shows difference in haematological parameters. The blood sample of fish –Labeo rohita and Catla Catla were examined to study the blood cell count and haemoglobin percentage from vasundri Talao, Titwala (Distric-Thane.) The present study suggested that these fishes are important sources of animal protein and good for human health.
23 ADVERSE EVENTS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS AT WA, THE UPPER WEST REGIONAL HOSPITAL OF GHANA , Inusah Deunaa Iddrisu*, Akwasi Anyanful and Samuel Victor Nuvor
Background: Being discharged from the hospital is sometimes associated with complications which may be dangerous to the patient. Adverse events are unintended injuries or complications which may result in death, disability and prolonged hospital stay after discharge or related to the hospital visit. This paper aims at giving an insight into the relationship between patient demographic factors and the incidence, types and severity of adverse events after hospitalization in a secondary hospital in Northern Ghana. Method: A prospective cohort study into the relationship between adverse events and patient demographic factors. This was carried out with patients admitted and discharged from Wa Hospital. A total of 206 patients were recruited from the medical, surgical and emergency wards of the hospital. Findings: Adverse events were found to increase with age. The adverse events at age of less than 20 years was 2.4%, between 31 to 40 was 3.3% , 41 to 50 was 3.8%, 51 to 60 was 7.2% and 61 and above was 7.2%. However, 21 to 30 years age group had 9.2% of adverse events. There were no differences in occurrence of adverse events among sexes and other demographic characteristics of the patient with exception of age groups (p<0.050) which had influence on the type of adverse events. The level of literacy and education did not also influence the occurrences of adverse events. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics of patients might not contribute to the development of adverse events after they are discharged from the hospital. However, the age of patients may influence adverse events development probably because of their weaknesses in old age. Improvement in patients social lives will help to reduce the occurrence of adverse events after patients had been discharged from the hospital.
24 THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF BAUHINIA RACEMOSA LAM BARK ON CYSTEAMINE INDUCED ULCERS , Dr. C. Girish*, A. Neelima and D. Haritha Goud
An experiment was conducted to study the antiulcer effect of the dried bark powder of the plant Bauhinia racemosa in wistar albino rats. Cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in the rat is widely used as a model of peptic ulcer disease. 36 wistar rats of either sex weighing between 180 -200gm were selected and divided into six groups, each comprising of 6 rats. 6 groups of rats were given with 0.5% CMC solution, 50 mg/kg of Ranitidine, 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Bauhinia racemosa, 400mg/kg of aqueous extract of Bauhinia racemosa (AEBR), 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract of Bauhinia racemosa and 400mg/kg of methanolic extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR) respectively. After one hour all the groups were administered with cysteamine at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight orally. After 24 hrs, note down the number of ulcers, ulcer score, percent incidence, ulcer index and healing index were recorded. From the results obtained it was concluded that the methanolic extract at a dose of 400mg/kg shows antiulcer activity.
25 VIROSOMES; A NOVAL APPROACH IN NOVAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW , Mufeeda P., Nishad K. M.*, Sirajudheen M. K. and Shiji Kumar P. S.
Promising drugs are often discontinued during development because they cannot be suitably delivered to target cells, tissues and organs. The new generation therapy for various disorders needs a delivery system that target drug to specified cell types and host tissues. Virosomal technology represents a novel sophisticated delivery system to meet these challenges .Virosomes are reconstituted viral envelops that can fill in as vaccines or it can be utilized as vehicles for conveying peptide, nucleic acids and various medications like antitoxic ,anticancer agents and steroids. This safely modified viral envelop mainly consist of a phospholipid membrane and surface glycoprotein. It is derived from several virus envelops .Influenza virosome and sendai virosomes are most common. Their surface can be suitably modified to facilitate targeted drug delivery. How ever their pharmacokinetics clinical effect, bioavailability, stability etc. should be thoroughly studied to ensure long term reliability as safe, effective and affordable means of drug delivery. Thus drug delivery by using biomimetic novel drug delivery systems such as virosomes is a motivating research and development field. This review focus on various features of virosomes such as structure, advantages, disadvantages, formulation, application, kinetics etc
26 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF SPHAGNETICOLA TRILOBATA (L.) , A. K. Anjana, P. L. Rajagopal*, P. N. Sajith Kumar, I. Arthi, Meera B. Nair and S. Aneeshia
The invitro antioxidant properties of the whole plant were studied in ABTS ,NO and Superoxide dismutase models. The antioxidant study had been carried out with the leaves of the plant. The leaf extract of the plant showed significant antioxidant properties. The plant was also reported to contain secondary metabolites like phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The antioxidant property exhibited by the leaf extract of the plant could be due to the presence of these secondary metabolites.
27 MANAGING ANXIETY IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE , Irfat Ara, Shazad Yaqoob, Basharat Bukhari, Weeqar Younis Raja and Mudasir Maqbool*
Anxiety (Izterab-eNafsani) is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, cognitive, emotional and behavioural components. As per Unani Medicine, anxiety comes under the Infialat-e-Nafsaniyah (Psychic Reactions). Terminologically Infialat-e-Nafsaniyah is the movements of ruh (pneuma) and blood with the help of Quwwat-e-Haiwaniyah (vital faculty). Unani Medicine treats the patient on holistic parameters jointly together for preventive and curative aspects. In preventive aspect different high protein seeds are used to provide stimulus as brain tonic and strengthen the nervine activity for example almond, pistachio, kaju, kaddu and kahu seeds etc. Unani physicians use many single and compound drugs for the treatment of anxiety (Izteraab-e- Nafsaani), which is mentioned in their classical texts. The purpose of the drugs used in Unani system of Medicine is correction of Su-e- Mizaj (Abnormal Temperament) as they are of the opinion that anxiety (Izterab-e- Nafsani) is due to Su-e- Mizaj Har Sada and Su-e- Mizaj Maddi i.e Su-e- Mizaj Safrawi and Su-e- Mizaj Saudawi. This review briefly explains about Anxiety (Izterab-eNafsani) in terms of Unani medicine and some Unani and herbal drugs used in its treatment.
28 ANTIMICROBIAL USE IN LIVESTOCK AND AGRICULTURE: EXPLORING THE CONSEQUENTIAL RESISTANCE , K. K. Safdar*, Rashid K., Anwer K., Shana Thasni A. K. and Dr. Shiji Kumar P. S.
The use of antimicrobial compounds in the production of animal feed has demonstrated benefits, including better animal health, greater production and, in some cases, reduction of foodborne pathogens. However, the use of antibiotics for agricultural fins, in particular to stimulate growth, was closely monitored, as it demonstrates a contribution to the increased prevalence of bacterial antibiotics resistant to human importance. The transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and the selection of resistant bacteria can be done by different mechanisms, which are not always linked to the use of applicable antibiotics. Prevalence data can provide insight into the occurrence and changes in resistance over time; however, the reasons are diverse and complex. This issue has been widely discussed in the past nationally and internationally, and several adopted countries are either considering stricter restrictions or prohibitions on certain types of use of antibiotics in the production of animals for food. In some cases, the ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics appears to result in a decrease in the prevalence of certain drug-resistant bacteria; however, subsequent objects in animal morbidity and mortality, particularly in young animals, sometimes result in increased use of therapeutic antibiotics, which generally occur in families of drugs more relevant to human medicine.
29 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON PREVALENCE OF COLORECTAL CANCER WITH RANITIDINE , Naseeh P. K.* and Amit Ranjan
The relation between use of histamine-2-receptor (H2-receptor) antagonists and colorectal cancer risk was investigated in an exceedingly case-control study. The incidence of gastric cancer was raised for the primary few years once the beginning of treatment with H2-receptor antagonists, this could replicate misdiagnosis of some early gastric cancers. The findings square measure against long persistence of AN excess risk of gastric cancer in association with use of H2-receptor antagonists. In this review article, Includes the some of the article wised study review on prevalence of colorectal cancer with ranitidine.
30 A NARRATIVE REVIEW ARTICLE ON CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INTERRACTION OF DRUGS WITH GRAPE FRUITJUICE , Mohamed Fayis P.*, Dr. Lita Susan Thomas, Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K. and Sherin A.
 The aim of the review is to study the interaction between drugs and grape fruit juice. Grape fruit is a nutrition fruit. Many patient are concerned about the potential for drugs interaction with grape fruit juice. Grape fruit juice interact with many of the drugs produce severe problems. Grape fruit or grape fruit juice can alter enzyme in the body and effect how drugs are changed in the body before eliminated. Grape fruit juice decrease the activity of the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme that are responsible for taking down many drugs and toxins. It contains compound known as Furano coumarin that block CYP3A4 enzymes (CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition) which in turn affect s the metabolism of the drugs by this enzyme. Blood levels of the drug may rise, resulting in a risk for new or worsened side effects. The literature shows that one whole fruit or 200 milliliters of grape fruit juice can block the CYP3A4 enzyme and leads to drug toxicity metabolized by this enzyme. The review is done to analyze the alteration in clinical significance, class of drugs and the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs due to the interaction with the grape fruit juice. Therefore it is highly importa nt to know the effect of grape fruit juice on the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs involved. The same information can be shared and highlight it importance while prescribing the drugs among the healthcare professionals specially the prescriber and t he public health promoting safe effective and rational use of drugs in the society.
31 A REVIEW ON EVIDENCE OF VISUAL HALLUCINATION ON METOPROLOL USAGE , Naseemussalam P. T.*, Amit Ranjan
Metoprolol, a widely used beta blocker, has been associated with visual hallucinations and CNS disorders. Multiple reasons can lead to under- recognition and under-reporting of this adverse drug effect by both patients and physicians. The true incidence of metoprolol-related visual hallucinations is unknown. Doctors are urged to maintain diligent vigilance when managing patients receiving this medicine. We suspect that metoprolol-induced visual hallucinations may be under- recognized and under-reported. Patients may often fail to recognize this adverse effect, believing they are just dreaming, or may be ashamed to report visions that they think will not be perceived by others as real. Similarly, healthcare professionals may also fail to recognize this visual toxicity or attribute visual hallucinations to concomitant illness or other medications. Physicians should maintain diligent vigilance when managing patients receiving this medicine.
32 INDIVIDUALISING PERIODONTAL THERAPY NEED TO INDIVIDUALISE PERIODONTAL CARE , Javeria Khan, Pramod Virupapuram*
The basis of individualised periodontal therapy and medicine is targeting treatment to a patient‟s specific needs on the basis of genetics, biomarkers, epigenetic, phenotypic, and socioeconomic or psychosocial determinants that distinguish an individual from others with similar clinical presentations. The clinical experimental gingivitis studies in dental students and the experimental periodontitis studies in dogs strongly supported the general concept that bacterial accumulations on the teeth predictably led to gingivitis and, if untreated, progressed to periodontitis. This led to the basic understanding of the concept of non specific and specific plaque hypothesis and the treatment aimed at eliminating microbial insults to gingival and sub gingival areas. But on the other hand this concept suggested that the severity of periodontitis was a simple function of the magnitude of bacterial accumulations and the time of exposure and all individuals are equally susceptible to periodontitis, and if treated according to the proven principles from the longitudinal studies patients should respond in a predictable manner. If those concepts are correct, there is no clear value to stratifying a patient‟s risk for developing periodontitis or responding predictably to therapy.
33 TO STUDY THE ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF A POLY-HERBAL EXTRACT IN SWISS ALBINO MICE , *K. Sivaji, P. Sowjanya, B. Devi, G. Ratna Kumari, B. Tejaswini and N. Jayasri
Medicinal herbs are moving from fringe to mainstream use with a greater number of people seeking remedies and health approaches free from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to utilize eco-friendly and bio-friendly plant based products for the prevention and cure of different human diseases.
34 MORINGA OLIEFERA SEEDS FORMULATION AND ITS EFFECT AS A BIOACTIVE TOOL ON GLYCEMIC INDEX OF HEALTHY ALBINO RATS , *Kerenhappuch Isaac Umaru and Madu Sharif
Introduction: Glycemic control through diet is necessary for preventing or limiting the consequences of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the consumption of functional foods and nutraceutical or bioactive compounds derived from plants used as food can be used as nutritional tools because of their clinical effects. Thus, Moringa oleifera is a vegetable plant protein with bio-active multipurpose, it has been used as a food source and for traditional medicine purposes due to possible antihyperglycemic properties. These properties may be explained by the presence of numerous phytochemicals in the seeds. The aim of this study was to determine the bioactive potential of Moringa oliefera seed on glycemic index on healthy albino rats. Materials and methods: The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected in Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria and the rats weighing 110-120g were procured from Faculty of Pharmacy Animal farm. The seed was dried and grinded into powder using pestle and mortar. The milk like powder was weighed and stored in an airtight container. The animals were acclimatization and randomly divided into Four groups of three animals per group, with one group serving as control. They were weighed and fasted for twelve (12) hours (overnight) before diet administration. Result: The Postprandial glucose Level of rats treated with Moringa oleifera formulated diet indicated significantly result with p<0.05 lower compared to the test control. Conclusion: The scarce number of human studies, together with a diverse range of methodologies and Moringa oliefera seed doses, should be encouraged. In addition, evidence regarding changes in insulin levels due to Moringa oliefera seeds indicated potential intervention hence could be used an agent to cutile the hypoglycemic case.
35 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF RAFT FORMING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF FAMOTIDINE , Manasi Nikam*
The objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate raft forming chewable tablets of Famotidine for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux diseases. The purpose of this research work was to formulate raft‑forming tablets of Famotidine using a raft‑forming agent along with an antacid‑ and gas‑generating agent. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and evaluated for raft strength, acid neutralization capacity, weight variation, % drug content, thickness, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release.A 32 full‑factorial design was used in the present study for optimisation. Tablets containing sodium alginate were having maximum raft strength as compared with other raft‑forming agents. Acid neutralisation capacity and in- vitro drug release of all factorial batches were found to be satisfactory. The F9 batch was optimised based on maximum raft strength and good acid neutralisation capacity. Drug–excipient compatibility study showed no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that raft‑forming tablets prepared using an optimum amount of sodium alginate and sodium bicarbonate could be an efficient dosage form in the treatment of gastro esophageal reflux disease.
36 COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON NOVEL CORONA VIRUS - COVID 19 OUTBREAK , K. Naga Surya Sneha Sumanjali and C. Girish*
Corona viruses are the group of viruses which infect human respiratory system. There are 6 different types of corona viruses which are identified earlier. Recently a 7th group of corona virus made a sensation in Wuhan city of china. This corona virus is named first as Nova corona virus (2019-nCoV) and later as COVID-19. The virus seems to be a mix of two corona viruses known to infect bats and another corona virus is from unknown origin. They are called as zoonotic and they can be transmitted from animals to human. It is a contagious viral infection, caused by inhalation or ingestion of viral diseases as a result of coughing and sneezing, handshake, touching infectious surfaces is the primary source for infection. The symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, shortness of breath, pneumonia. There is no vaccine for the corona virus. The treatment of corona virus mainly consists of care in alleviating symptoms and preventing the transmission of viruses.
37 FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL ALOEVERA GEL FOR WOUND HEALING , Tole S. B.*, Joshi A. A., Korekar S. L., Dongare G. S. and Fawade M. M.
Gels are semisolid systems in which a liquid phase is constrained within a three dimensional polymeric matrix in which a high degree of physical cross linking has been introduced. The polymer used to prepare pharmaceutical gels include the natural gums, Tragacanth, pectin, carrageen, agar and alginic acid, synthetic and semisynthetic materials such as methyl Cellulose, Hydroxy ethylcellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose and the carbopols, which are synthetic vinyl polymers with ionizable carboxyl groups. The bulk of these semisolid preparation are applied to the skin, where they usually serve as vehicles for topically applied drugs, as emollients or as protective or occlusive dressings.
38 CURRENT NOVEL CORONA VIRUS COVID-19- A REVIEW , Swarupa Arvapalli*, V. Lalini, J. V. C. Sharma and A.V.S.S.S. Gupta
This review mainly focuses on the recent outbreak novel corona virus in Wuhan, China. Covid-19 most likely spreads via contact with virus-laden droplets expelled from an infected person‘s cough, sneeze or breath. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, such as fever and sore throat from swollen adenoids, primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and may cause bronchitis either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis. The 2019-nCoV infection was of clustering onset, is more likely to affect older males with comorbidities, and can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome.
39 PHARMACOGNOSITICAL STUDY OF ZIZYPHUS MAURITIANA , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam*
Objective: The present investigation has been carried out to determine preliminary and pharmacognostic characteristics of Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber. Its leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, gastric disorder, fever, liver damage and pulmonary disorders. Method: Macroscopic and microscopic study of the fresh and dry drug and determination of physicochemical parameters were performed. Results: Leaves are oval or sub-orbicular, alternate and petiolate from 4 mm to 5 mm. The limb, dark green in colour, is polished on the upper side and whitish and then densely tomentose on the lower side. The anatomo-histological cut of the limb showed a median rib slightly curved on the upper surface and strongly bulging on the lower side and a broader limb. Each epidermis consisted of small, visible cells more or less rectangular, is covered with a cuticle, outer lipoidal covering; impermissive and resistant, giving it a protective role. The cross-section of the stem, revealed a quadrangular shape, has two distinct zones: the bark and the central cylinder. The less developed bark comprises of 4 tissues (cuticle, epidermis, collenchyma and cortical parenchyma). The central cylinder, more developed than the bark, is composed of primary tissues (bone, wood, medullary parenchyma, sclerenchyma, and perimedullary fiber). The sclerenchyma occurs in small clusters around the conductive system. The chemical compositions of the leaves are proteins & amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, saponins, fibers, tannins and phenolic compounds. Conclusion: Pharmacognostic analysis and physicochemical characteristics can help in the efficient utilization of this medicinal plant.
40 A REVIEW ARTICLE ORGANOZINC REAGENT PREPARATION METHOD , Ramesh Gawade*, Arvind Burungale, Ashok Pise, Santosh Devkate and Sunil Jadhav
Organozinc reagents have unique ability to tolerate high functional group, valuable in many organic transformations via nucleophilic addition and cross coupling. The synthetic utilities of available organozinc reagents lead to development of various method of their generation. Now day pyrophoric and moisture sensitive organozinc reagent is replaced by solid air stable organozinc reagent.
41 NOVEL INHIBITOR FOR COVID-19 FROM ZINC NANO-BASED AZA-PC AND CQDS , Fadi Ibrahim*
In this article, the antiviral activity of seven different carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with Azaphthalocyanin (Az-Pcs) for the treatment of human coronavirus infections was investigated. Az-Pcs used to adsorb UV light and concentrate it to CQDs to avoid destruction of tissue and cells by high energy. The first generation Az- Pcs-CQDs antiviral with nanostructures showed a concentration-dependent virus inactivation with an expected estimated EC50 of 50±8 μ gmL-1. The underlying mechanism of action of these Az-Pcs-CQDs could be due to interaction of the functional groups of the CQDs with COVID-19 entry receptors; surprisingly, an equally large inhibition activity was observed at the viral replication step. Az-Pcs with boronic acid derivatives have been proposed as low toxicity agents for inhibiting the entry various viruses. The underlying mechanism of action of these CQDs was revealed to be the CQDs interaction with the COVID-19 S-protein. The antiviral activity of Az-Pcs-CQDs with different Zn nano-size need to be evaluated on Huh-7 cell monolayers infected with COVID-19.
42 ADRENOCORTICAL CARCINOMA , Mandava Mahima Swaroopa*, Chinnam Sri Varsha, Pulimala Saranya Raj and Sajja Sai Premika
Background: ACC seems to be commonest within the fourth and fifth decades in life, though there's a second peak in infancy, probably associated with genetic predisposition syndromes. Adrenocortical tumors are divided into benign and malignant teams, either hormonally silent or internally secreting. ACC enters through Mono-clonality which indicates that growth progression is the effect of associate intrinsic mutation, whereas polyclonality suggests that growth cells are plagued by native or general stimuli. Ras proteins, a layer related proteins which are associated with downstream flagging, when ligand incitement of receptor happens. X-ray gives data about the intrusion of an adrenocortical carcinoma into veins, especially the second rate vena cava, the adrenal and renal veins, in which tumor thrombi might be recognized sometimes.
43 ALPHA- SMOOTH MUSCLE ACTIN, C-KIT AND DESMIN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION FEATURES OF COMMONLY DIAGNOSED SARCOMAS IN NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL NNEWI , Samuel Ifedioranma Ogenyi*, Anthony Ajuluchukwu Ngokere, Anuli Obianuju Onyemelukwe and Jonathan Madukwe
Sarcoma is a group of complex heterogeneous malignant tumours of soft tissues and bones with mesenchymal origin with lots of diagnostic challenges unconnected with their heterogeneous nature, varied histological types and subtypes with considerable morphological overlaps between the different diagnostic entities, hence the need for immunohistochemical diagnosis and classification for specific management strategies and prognosis. The present study was aimed at evaluating α- smooth muscle actin, c-kit and desmin immunohistochemical expression features of commonly diagnosed sarcomas in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi. Twenty four (24) archived paraffin wax processed sarcoma samples were sourced from the histopathology laboratory and museums of the hospital while necessary data were obtained from records. Tissue blocks were re-embedded with fresh paraffin wax and 3μ thick sections cut with the aid of a rotary microtome. Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method was employed to confirm diagnosis before proceeding to immunohistochemistry. Monoclonal antibodies for α- smooth muscle actin, c-kit and desmin were employed for immunohistochemistry while exposed mouse and rabbit specific horseradish peroxidase/diaminobenzidine detection IHC kit was employed for immunostaining. Mean age of patients was 26 years, 14 (58.3%) females and 10 (41.7%) males. There were 9 commonly diagnosed sarcoma types α-smooth muscle actin and desmin were positive for 12 and samples respectively while as c-kit was negative for all samples. SMA and desmin co-expressed in metastatic liposarcoma and low grade leiomyosarcoma. Alpha-SMA, desmin and c-kit showed consistent expression features in many sarcoma types and could be explored further for sarcoma characterization in Nigeria.
44 REVIEW ON NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR THE CANCER TREATMENT , Aduri Prakash Reddy*, G. Suvarsha, SK. Uddandu Saheb, Dr. G. Nagaraju and S. Madhu Charan
Nanoparticles are rapidly being developed and trialed to overcome several limitations of traditional drug delivery systems and are coming up as a distinct therapeutics for cancer treatment. It also discusses specific drug delivery by nanoparticles inside the cells illustrating many successful researches and how nanoparticles remove the side effects of conventional therapies with tailored cancer treatment. Recent scientific evidence shows the potential uses of nanomaterials as therapeutic agents, systems for selective and controlled drug release, and contrast agents for diagnosing and locating tumors. Finally, nanotechnology is still developing science can be defined as next generation techniques for cancer disease; at the same time it comes with many advantages to treat cancer patients.
45 FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ORAL DISPERSIBLE TABLET OF DICYLOMINE HCL , Shivendra Agarwal*, Girendra Kumar Gautam, Neetu Rajpoot and Jagpal Singh
Dicyclomine HCL is an antispasmodic drug which is widely used in treatment of smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract but it undergoes to first pass Metabolism. So that to develop Fast dissolving tablet of Dicyclomine HCL to avoid first pass metabolism and increase bioavailability. This offers a new range of product having desired characteristics and intended benefits. In this research, orally dispersible tablets of Dicyclomine HCL were prepared using direct compression method. Tablets produced by direct compression method contain Lactose as diluent, Crosscarmellose sodium, crosspovidone and husk as a superdisintegrant and aspartame as a sweetener. The dissolution study was performed on PBS 6.8 (salivary pH) and the In-vitro release was found 98.51% without leaving residue for F3 Batch.
46 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHENOLIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CAFFEINATED AND NON-CAFFEINATED INFUSIONS , Sharmila Donepudi*, Dolavathi Pinjala, Padmini Mokka, Rajashekar Gandamala, Rama Rao Nazneen Begum Md and Lakshmana Rao Atmakuri
Tea is the second most consumed beverage aside from water and has gained much attention due to its health-promoting benefits. This study aimed to quantify the levels of phenolic and antioxidant content in various caffeinated (Green tea, White tea) and non-caffeinated (Hibiscus Sabdariffa tea) infusions and identify the most suitable infusion for consumption. UV spectroscopy analytical method was used for the quantification of phenolics and antioxidants. The results of present study indicate the total phenol and total flavonoid content of teas are high, and Hibiscus Sabdadiffa show considerable amount that of caffeinated teas. The study therefore contributes to the evaluation of antioxidant activity provides evidence that non-caffeinated infusions are equally good.
47 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FUROSEMIDE: AN APPROACH FOR THE FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT , Navneet Kumar Verma*, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Prem Chand Mall, Vikas Yadav, Rupali Jaiswal
The development of this buccal and fast acting highly efficacious diuretic was a breakthrough. Its maximal natriuretic effect is way greater than that of other classes. The diuretic response goes on increasing with increasing dose: upto 10 L of urine could even be produced during each day . it's active even in patients with relatively severe renal failure . The onset of action is prompt &#40;i.v. 2-5 min., i.m. 10-20 min., oral 20-40 min.&#41; and duration short (3-6 hours) the main site of action is that the thick Asc LH (site II) where Furosemide inhibits Na+- K+-2Cl cotransport. A rare component of action on PT has also been indicated. it's secreted in PT by organic anion transport and reaches Asc LH where it acts from luminal side of the membrane. It abolishes the corticomedullary osmotic gradient and blocks positive also as negative free water clearance. K+ excretion is increased mainly because of high Na+ load reaching DT. However, at equinatriuretic doses, K+ loss may be a smaller amount than that with thiazides. Identification test was done by estimation of drug, infra-red spectroscopy, FTIR, UV-Spectroscopy, freezing point determination etc.
48 RAPID GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS IN ALCOHOL BASED HAND SANITIZERS PRODUCTS , Dr. Rafael N. Infante*, Andrea Rodríguez and Mariangely Vélez
Demand for hand sanitizer is surging around the globe as the new coronavirus (convid-19) spreads. Sales of hand sanitizers and similar products have swelled across several international markets since the COVID-19 outbreak began in January. The virus, which originated in China, has now spread to more than 190 countries. As of March, 2020 over 400,000 confirmed cases and more that 20,000 deaths worldwide. Alcohol based hand sanitizer companies are struggling to supply the world demand while assuring the public that the product meet requirements set by regulatory agencies and the World Health Organization regarding the content of active ingredients. The most common alcohols used in hand sanitizers are methanol, ethanol, iso-propyl alcohol, and n-propanol or a mixture of thereof. The firms must use the most accurate method of analysis available for verification of the alcohol content in samples of the finished product before each batch is released for distribution. Discussed here is rapid method to analyze for alcohols in finished hand sanitizer products using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The method is aimed at assuring that the product complies with the alcohol % specification in the product label.
49 SINGLE CRYSTAL X-RAY STUDY AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF 5, 5-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE 1, 3-DIONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES , Kavita S. Mundhe*, Nirmala R. Deshpande and Rajashree V. Kashalkar
X- ray crystallography is an important modern technique for determination of structure of a molecule. 5, 5- dimethylcyclohexane 1, 3-dione and its derivatives are synthesized. Single crystal of synthesized compound has been studied by X-ray crystallography. Oak Ridge Thermal Elipsoid Plot (ORTEP), Crystal data and structure refinement for compound shows that molecules are inter molecularly hydrogen bonded with hydrogen atom of NH group. A linear chain of molecules is formed via N-H…O hydrogen bonding with x y z…x 1+y z and N…O while the distance noticed is 2.865 Å. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of synthesized compounds has been performed to obtain order of reaction and energy of activation which will be helpful in determining the biological potentials. Thermo gravimetric analysis of almost all synthesized compounds indicates that all molecules decompose in two steps. The first step starts around 950c to 350 0c and the second step extends from 267 0C to 657 0C. Compound 5 decomposes in three stages which correspond to 710C to 1060C, 106 0C to 2180C and 2180C to 5060C. It is very clear from the results that all molecules have order of reaction (η) of 0.8.The calculated energy of activation indicates an increase in Ea from first stage to second stage for all compounds except compound 5. The energy of activation (Ea) is very high (13.85 kJ) during first stage. It decreases to 6.59 KJ for second stage; while a significant increase (9.87 KJ) is noticed during third stage of compound 5.
50 SHORT ARTICLE ON HOME REMEDIES IN TREATING TOOTH ACHE OR DENTAL PAIN DURING LOCKDOWN , Dr. A. K. Anjali Tutor*
Pain can be defined as an unpleasant generation that can range from mild localised discomfort to Agony. There are different types of pain which include the acute chronic and nociceptive type of pain dental pain has been attributed as one of the most significantly prevalent pain seen in every individual it is one of the phase by which each individual and yours in his or her lifetime.[1] WHO have recommended the reduction of toothache as one of the oral priority issues in global health promotion agenda.[1] There have been evidences where in the epidemiology and the prevalence of oral diseases have been diverse in nature and also show regional variations. Many a times the majority of population in India have resorted to home remedies for dental pain rather than seeking help from dentist. Thus, this study has been penned down to focus on the use of home remedies to cure dental pain during lockdown period using available household commodities in a judicious way using multimodal approaches.
51 ANALYTICAL STUDY ON ONLINE ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS , A. K. Anjali*
Introduction: Online activity based learning or the distance learning is the current and favoured form of education network. Within the past decade, it had a marked influence on higher secondary students, college students’ part time working students. There has been a drastic shift from the past to the current scenario and the vogue is still shooting up. Aim: The aim of this study is to know about the online activity based learning engages the students who are unable to throw oneself into conventional classroom learning. Materials and Method: The pivot of this study concentrates on the effective online based learning by a group of students from the age group of 19 – 20 years of Saveetha Dental College (26 students)over a time period of 1 week. The method incorporated was that of a combination of both online and live teaching where video calling apps were used and the session was conducted. Results: The results were obtained based on the study conducted through a questionnaire consisting of 11 questions distributed to a set of 26 questions and the results were cumulated using a doughnut chart which divulges that majority of the students are interested in online activity based learning activity than in conventional classroom learning. Conclusion: This study can be concluded by saying that majority of the children experienced a shift from conventional classroom learning to online activity based learning which turned out to be positive.
52 EARLY REPAIR OF POST CHOLECYSTECTOMY CBD TRANSACTION AS DETECTED DURING OPERATION AND REFERRED IMMEDIATELY: AN EXPERIENCE , *Dr. Purujit Choudhury and Dr. Abhijit Sarma
Postcholecystectomy bile duct injuries are the causes of significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Intra-operative recognition and repair of complete biliary transaction with hepaticojejunostomy is the recommended treatment; however, it is possible only in few patients as either the injury is not recognized intraoperatively or the center is not geared up to perform an urgent hepaticojejunostomy in these patients with a nondilated duct. Retrospective analysis of data from our tertiary care referral center over a period of 10 years from January 2010 to December 2019 to report the feasibility and outcomes of prompt repair was done (defined as repair within 72 h of index operation) of postcholecystectomy bile duct injury. Ten patients of postcholecystectomy bile duct injury detected intra operatively and referred early underwent prompt repair. All patients had a complete transaction of the bile duct (type of injuries as per Strasberg classification: Type EV 1, Type E III: 7, Type E II : 3 and Type E1:1). The mean duration between injury and bile duct repair in the form of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) was 22.7 (range 5-42) hours. The mean stomal diameter of the anastomosis was 1.63 (rangel – 2.1) cm, and the anastomosis was stented in 7 patients. The mean duration of surgery was 4.6 + 1.7 h. One patient developed bile leak on the first postoperative day, which were settled by day 5. The mean duration of hospital stay was 8 (range 8-12) days. With a mean follow-up of 42 (range 24-110) months, all patient had excellent (70%) or good outcome (30%). Prompt RYHJ (within first 72 h) for postcholecystectomy biliary transaction is an effective treatment and potentially limits the morbidity to the patient.
53 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTANTS IN TEXTILE INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS FROM PANCHAGANGA RIVER, ICHALKARANJI, M.H., (INDIA) , J. P. Sarwade and S. J. Mankar*
The pollution of water bodies is a worldwide concern nowadays. The textile industrial effluent water is responsible for freshwater pollution. This paper mainly included the analysis of heavy metal like Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Iron(Fe), Lead(Pb), Nickel(Ni), Zinc(Zn), Cobalt(Co) from pre-confluence(site 1), at confluence(site 2) and post confluence site(site 3) on river Panchaganga of Ichalkaranji. The contents of heavy metal analysis were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (APHA2009).The results indicate that concentrations of heavy metals in studied water samples recorded higher than the standards proposed by WHO(2011) and the Indian Standards (2012).In this study, the concentration of each of the metal varies in all the samples. The average concentration of Lead recorded at three sites was (site 1=0.0059 mg/L, site 2=0.38mg/L, site 3=0.26mg/L) and chromium (site 1=0.041mg/L, site2=0. 24mg /L, site 3=0.094mg/L) were found to be high. The concentration of Zn in a water sample collected at three sites (site 1=0.02mg/L, site 2=0.23mg/L, site 3=0.01mg/L) was found to be lowest indicated that zinc was not causing pollution at these sites. Remaining metals showed variations in their concentrations. It was concluded that the effluent samples of textile industries discharge causes pollution to the Panchaganga river water and become problematic for a biological environment and human being. Therefore, the effluent water to be discharged by these industries must be sufficiently treated before release.
54 ISOLATION OF FRIEDELIN FROM THE FRUITS OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT HARUNGANA MADAGASCARIENSIS LAM. EX POIRET (HYPERICACEAE) , Afieroho O. E.* and Ajuzie J. I.
In a continued drive to characterized the constituents of the fruits of Harungana madagascariensis a plant widely used in ethnomedicine, this study is aimed at a phytochemical screening–guided column chromatography fractionation and isolation of triterpenoids from the non-polar solvent extract/fraction of the fresh and air-dried fruits of Harungana madagascariensis Two extraction and isolation protocols: isolation from the dichloromethane fraction from the cold macerated crude absolute ethanol extract of the fresh fruits, and isolation from the n-hexane fraction of the cold percolation crude chloroform extract of the air-dried fruit were employed. The structure of the isolated triterpenoid was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and by comparing the obtained spectra data with that reported in literature. The known pentacyclic isoprenoid ketone friedelin was isolated and characterized from both the fresh and air-dried fruits of H. madagascariensis. The yield obtained with the air-dried fruits was ninety fold higher compared to that with the fresh fruits. This study is reporting for the first time the isolation of friedelin a known plant derived bioactive triterpenoid from the fruits of H. madagascariensis a plant widely used in ethno-medicine.
55 INVESTIGATING THE USE OF AQEUOUS EXTRACTS OF BLACK SEED (NIGELLA SATIVA) AND SCENT LEAF TEA (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM) TO AMELIORATE THE SYMPTOMS OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID -19) , *Dr. Okoye Ngozi Franca
Aim: The coronavirus disease COVID – 19 has turned into a global pandemic and efforts are out by scientists to help produce solutions to combat this disease especially in immune boosting. Plants and plant products provide a potential source of immune boosting medication. This study investigated the potential use of aqueous extracts of black seed Nigella sativa and scent leaf Ocimum gratissimum tea to ameliorate the symptoms of coronavirus COVID 19 using hyperlipidimic and hyperglycemic Wistar rats. COVID -19 disease has worse effects on people with underlying conditions like diabetes and heart condition. This informed the decision to check the effects of black seed and scent leaf on cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL), Low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) using induced hyperlipidemic and hyperglycemic Wistar rats. Materials and Method: Twenty-five (25) Wistar rats were used for this research, five groups were created with five rats in each group. The rats were fed their normal rate feed but they gavaged on sucrose and margarine to induce hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia on the rats with exception to the positive control. The rats in the negative control were induced using the sucrose and margarine but were not treated using the aqueous extracts. The rats in the scent leaf group were treated with 2ml of scent leaf aqueous extract, while the rats in the black seed group were treated with 2ml of black seed aqueous extract. The rats in the black seed and scent leaf group were treated with 2ml of the combined aqueous extract. Results: The results showed that the extracts decreased the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins in the rats in a time dependent manner with highest decrease obtained on the third week of treatment with the extracts. The cholesterol level decreased from 10.58±0.12mmol/l to 2.51±0.28mmol/l, while triglyceride level decreased from 5.69±0.03mmol/l to 1.19±0.04mmol/l. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that the aqueous extract of N. sativa and O. gratissimum might be effective immune booster in the fight against coronavirus (COVID 19).
56 ASSESSMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE, PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA , Prince Ezenwa Onyemachi, *Nneka Chioma Okoronkwo and Chukwuemeka Ngozi Onyearugha
Background: Every year, thousands of drug addicts die as a result of drug over dose. Forty seven percent of adolescents/youths between 15 and 26 years of age have already tried at least one kind of illicit drug. Aims: To determine the knowledge, practice, prevalence and pattern of drug abuse among adolescents in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. A questionnaire was used to retrieve information on drug abuse from adolescents and youths aged 15–26 years. Information retrieved were social/ demographic data, level of knowledge on drug abuse, practice of drug abuse and type of substance abused. Results: There were 180 respondents with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.3. The age range was 15-26 years with a mean age of 20.5 ± 23 years. Eighty (44.4%) of the respondents were teenagers. Less than 50% of the respondents understood the full meaning of drug abuse. Majority (77.8%) of the study population started abusing drugs as a result of peer pressure. A small but significant percentage (22.2%) of the respondents were introduced to drug abuse from watching either or both of their parents abuse drugs. The prevalence of drug abuse was 77.8%. All the drug abusers were males (p=0.001). Tramadol (80.6%) followed by alcohol (66.7%) were the most abused drugs respectively. Cocaine (16.7%) was the least abused of the substances. Conclusion: The knowledge of drug abuse among our cohort was low. Peer pressure was the most identified risk for drug abuse. The prevalence of drug abuse among the adolescents was very high. Tramadol was the most abused drug.
57 EVALUATION OF CLEANING AND DISINFECTION OF LEAN BROILER SLAUGHTERHOUSE USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN NORTH BAHRI LOCALITY, SUDAN , Hussam Aldeen Mustafa Abdelrazig Bilal*, Elniema A. Mustafa, Qusai Hussain Abdel Samad and Adil M. A. Salman
This descriptive and experimental study was conducted between January and Aril, 2020 in Lean slaughterhouse, Alkadro, Khartoum North, Sudan using a regular swab sampling on a weekly basis for a period of 3 weeks with the objective to evaluate cleaning and disinfection procedures against some microbial isolates in the slaughterhouse. Routine cleaning and disinfection procedures which included walls, floors and equipment using hydrogen peroxide solution in 0.01 concentration were investigated. Both environmental swab samples and standardized and structured checklist were applied to assess the status of some of the Prerequisites Programs (PRPs). The study revealed that the location and structure of the slaughterhouse and staff training were found satisfactory while water supply had failed adequacy rule. According to adequacy rule used in this study all the parameters of sanitation program operational procedures scored satisfactory (100%). While the average of averages of coliform count in the floor, wall, equipment and water was found 2733.3±540.6 cfu during the three weeks period with significant statistical differences in the count between the three weeks with p ≤0.05. The average of Total Bacterial Count for the sample sites during the three weeks period was 2250±680.6 cfu, with statistical differences in the count between the three weeks with p ≤0.05.The average of E. coli count was 341.6±85.6 cfu for the sample sites during the three weeks period with statistical differences in the count between the three weeks with p ≤0.05. The multiple comparison test of least significant differences showed no significant differences in the Salmonella count between floor, wall, and equipment with p ≤0.05. The mean TBC differences was found to be significant between wall and floor and wall and equipment with p ≤0.05; also the mean differences of E. Coli count was found to be significant between wall and equipment from one side and floor and equipment from the other side with p ≤0.05, and the mean Coliform count differences was found to be significant between the wall and equipment with p ≤0.05. The study concluded that the overall evaluation of the PRPs and sanitation program operational procedures were satisfactory.
58 A CONCISE REVIEW ON HOMEOSTASIS OF ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM AND ITS DERANGEMENT , Sheema Fatima Khan*
The aim of this review article is to show importance of ions and ph of various metabolism occurring inside the complex human body. It informs the role of ions in maintaining homeostasis and their concentration. The importance of water as a universal solvent and its role as a vital nutrient is also highlighted. There exists an osmotic equilibrium in the body which is necessary for life. This is achieved by desirable levels of water and solutes present inside the body. These ionic solutes also determine ph of the body. Depending on the cause, that is, whether metabolic or respiratory, major changes in ph can cause the body environment to become alkaline or acidic. To combat the change, the body activates compensatory mechanism to bring ph back to normal. These compensatory changes can be respiratory for metabolic disorders and renal for respiratory disorders. The recent coronavirus pandemic, according to new researches is said to has been causing kidney failure and hence causes metabolic acidosis. This calls for the need to combat such common disorders with proper diagnosis and further treatments.
59 THE ROLE OF RAKTADHATU IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF COVID 19 AND ROLE OF RAKTAMOKSHANA IN THE MANAGEMENT: A CRITICAL REVIEW , Pranav Bhagwat*
COVID 19 is a novel pandemic with a spectrum ranging from mild disease to death. Internationally, the medical fraternity is struggling to find a cure or vaccine for this disease resulting into losses of thousands of lives. Indian system of medicine, because of its strong fundamentals and superb guidelines to tackle any novel disease, can find an answer for this. Raktadhatu is found to be a major culprit in the contact point and progress of the disease. The article provides insights into the role of raktadhatu in this process of COVID 19 starting from the contact with the patient, through various typical and atypical symptomatology and complications and even death. The article, after establishing this, predicts, future possible presentations and complications, which hitherto might have been missed by the eyes of the healthcare providers and hence many such patients may not have received required immediate therapy. The probable role of raktamokshana (bloodletting by controlled therapeutic phlebotomy) – a procedure described to be the important therapy- is also established with the help of evidences.
60 FOODS PRODUCED AND UTILIZED BY LACTATING MOTHERS’ HOUSEHOLDS IN MWIKI, PERI_URBAN OF NAIROBI , Dr. Nkirigacha-Miriti Evayline Muthoni*
Food production and utilization using urban agriculture goes a long way in fulfilling the human right to food and freedom from hunger. The aim of this study was to assess the foods produced and proportion consumed by lactating mothers of Nairobi. This cross sectional study was had 260 randomly selected lactating women living in Mwiki, Nairobi Kenya. A structured, validated and pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socioeconomic characteristics, food production and consumption. Data was entered into SPSS version 20 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine associations. Majority (61.6%) participated in urban agriculture. In crop production, maize (26.5%) home consumption, beans produced (28.4%) and home consumption was 18.4% and 10% was sold. Amaranth was produced at 25.7%, 8% consumed at home and 17.7% was sold other crops were grown in small quantities. 57.3% of the respondents owned land to practice urban agriculture. Majority of them (15.3%) had 250m2 plots and 26.3% of these had inherited the land they had. Where the respondents did not own the land, they were renting (7.8%). More women (31.8%) than men (21.6%) decided on what crops to plant. More women (35.7%) provided labor for agriculture. More respondents consumed and also sold (34.1%) the produce compared to those who consumed only (27.8%). Vegetables were not a major food crop produced. Intervention programs should target on emphasizing the production and consumption of vegetable to increase availability and help meet the increased nutritional needs of the lactating.
61 FOOD SECURITY AND FOOD CONSUMPTION FREQUENCY OF LACTATING MOTHERS IN MWIKI-KASARANI, NAIROBI METROPOLIS , Dr. Nkirigacha-Miriti Evayline Muthoni*
Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life, health and development across the lifespan. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 260 of the lactating mothers living in Mwiki peri-urban Nairobi County. The population of mothers was enumerated, the sample was randomly selected. Using structured and pre-tested questionnaire information on socio-demographic, socio-economic characteristics, food security and food consumption frequency mothers. Data analyzed using SSP version 20. Results indicate majority had 36 – 40 years. Education, 44.6% primary, 16.8% secondary. Household size 6–12 average 6 persons. Meru and Luhya. Majority lower socio-economic category. Majority (42.3%) food insecure hunger, 20% food insecure moderate hunger 37.6% food secure. Majority (32.3%) reduced meals frequency, 30% manual jobs, 16.2% sold household assets, and 11.1% reduced meal size and 10.4% food aids. Significant correlation between number of meals and animal protein a co-efficient (0.002). The survey shows significant relationship between cereals, vegetables and fruits with number of meals per day correlation co-efficient (0.024 and 0.018). There was insignificant relationship between roots and tubers with a coefficient of 0.182. Positive and significant association between reduce frequency of meals and food sufficiency p=0.007; manual jobs, frequency of meals p=0.006; reduce meal size and frequency of food 0.004. Positive but insignificant relationship between food aid and sell assets p=0.442 and 0.496. Results from the focus group discussion showed lack of employment and lack of space to farm as major reasons for food insecurity in the area. Concluded that food security major concern and affected lactating mothers, infants.
62 INCIDENCE AND PREDICTORS OF NEPHROTOXICITY IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS RECEIVING TENOFOVIR BASED ART , Dr. V. Ramachandran, Dr. A. Kalanad, *Dr. S. Mathew
Tenofovir based ART regimen is currently used as the first line anti retroviral therapy by NACO in India. As a part of national strategy, ―Paving the way for an AIDS free India‖ NACO recommends initiation of ART irrespective of stage or CD4 count. The major side effects of TDF are renal toxicity and decrease in bone marrow density. A prospective Cohort Study was conducted in 202 patients, started on Tenofovir based ART to find out the incidence and predictors of nephrotoxicity. S.Creatinine 1.5 times the basal value, increase in serum creatinine more than or equal to 0.3mg/dl above the basal value, hypophosphatemia, hypouricemia, proteinuria, glycosuria, hypokalaemia & hypocalcaemia were the parameters checked. Gender, age, stage of HIV infection, CD4 count, body mass index, co morbidities (diabetes, hypertension, opportunistic infections), concomitant nephrotoxic medications, & serum creatinine level before starting treatment were the predictors of nephrotoxicity studied. Nephrotoxicity of Tenofovir was 13.9%.Average time to develop nephrotoxicity was 118 days. Average decline in creatinine clearance during renal dysfunction was 21.4 ml/min & almost all cases were asymptomatic. Nephrotoxicity was detected in the form of mild derangement of RFT and proteinuria on regular follow up. Advanced clinical stage and low CD4 count had significant association with nephrotoxicity. Single most important predictor of Tenofovir induced nephrotoxicity was CD4 count. Small sample size, short period of follow up and a smaller number of cases in the subgroups of co-morbidities were the major limitations.
63 PROGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NEUROPATHY ACCORDING TO AYURVEDA - A REVIEW ARTICLE , Inderjit Kaur*, Shaleen Singh, Satyakam Rahul
Although, there are lot of reasons for onset of neuropathic symptoms, mainly the metabolic disorders; if the reason is not accidental or any other, then diabetes is a main factor which leads the body towards neuropathy symptoms. While practicing in Ayurveda medicines and working on the neuropathic patients, we have seen the patterns of changes in the body and made the prognosis which we have been using in preventing neuropathy and guiding the people saving their extremities from amputations.
64 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOSORBENTS PREPARED FROM SEEDS OF POLYALTHIA LONGIFOLIA , Kavita S. Mundhe*, Anjali D. Ruikar, Nirmala R. Deshpande and Rajashree V. Kashalkar
In order to prepare low cost carbons with desired properties various industrial and agro waste materials have been used as precursors. The adsorption of pollutants from an aqueous solution is frequently used to test the adsorption capability of various adsorbents. By changing the preparation and activation conditions, surface structure and pore size distribution can be modified. Physical and chemical activation involves treatment of precursor to produce carbon of desired properties. Chemical treatment modifies the surface structure and increases the adsorption capacity. Adsorbents have been prepared from seeds of Polyalthia longifolia by various treatments. Adsorption on biosorbents is due to the various functional groups present on the surface. These generally consist of carbonyl, amine, hydroxyl groups which can be analyzed qualitatively using FTIR and SEM techniques and quantitatively by Bohems titration. The proximate analysis gives information regarding properties such as ash content, pH and bulk density. The effect of lignocellulosic structures on their carbons is also observed. Use of such newer materials will result in carbons having diverse structures and thereby adsorption capacities. The peaks in the FT-IR of adsorbents, strongly supports the presence of surface groups obtained by Boehm’s titration. It is observed that there are significant changes in the band intensities of these adsorbents. Association of peak at 1371 cm -1 and many weak peaks had disappeared in SATM, indicating that the weak bonds disappeared under chemical treatment.
65 SPECTROSCOPY (UV-VISIBLE & FTIR) AND CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPTLC & HPLC) CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA LINN: A PRECLINICAL STUDY FOR MALE SEXUAL DISORDERS , Dr. Mradu Gupta*, Dr A. K. Mondal, Dr. K. A. Ahmed
An Ayurvedic formulation prepared from dried root powder of Sida cordifolia Linn. is standardized through pharmacognostical and phytochemical pre-clinical studies for treatment of male sexual disorders. While total ash value was 8.0%, acid insoluble ash was 0.5% and water soluble ash was 5.41%. Among elements, Nitrogen was found present. Flavonoids and carbohydrates were found present in both alcoholic and aqueous extracts. The results also showed high concentration of flavonoidic compounds (15.03 μg Quercetin equivalent / mg of extract) in the alcoholic extract and high phenolic content (23.26 μg Gallic acid equivalent / mg of extract) in the aqueous extract. HPTLC analysis at 280 and 360 nm indicated the presence of Ellagic acid and Gallic acid in both these extracts. Similarly, HPLC analysis at 276 nm showed elution of 4 compounds whose analysis confirmed the presence of Tannic acid, Benzoic acid and Quercetin in aqueous extract. UV-Visible spectroscopy scanning showed peaks at 896, 862.5 and 195.5 nm in aqueous and at 896, 862.5, 419.5 and 209.5 nm in alcoholic extract. FTIR analysis indicated presence of N-CH3 out-phase bending, N-CH3 in-phase stretching, Aryl -CH3 in-phase stretching and C-O stretching functional groups in aqueous and -NH2 Stretching, -CH2 in-phase stretching, (N)-CH3 in-phase stretching, -CH3 in-phase bending, Aryl-N stretching and N-O stretching functional groups in alcoholic extract suggesting the presence of amides, aldehydes, alkaloids and phenolic groups of compounds in the extracts. The presence of phenolic and flavonidic compounds in research formulation extracts may be responsible for its antioxidant, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.
66 BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI) BY USING SULPHONATED BIOMASS OF STALKS OF PRUNUSCERASUS , Anandrao A. Kale*
The sulphonated biomass prepared from stalk of Prunuscerasus was used for investigation of biosorption of Cr (VI). It was found that the biosorption process is dependent on pH value of solution, adsorbent mass, contact time, temperature and initial Cr (VI) concentration. Data of biosorption of Cr (VI) on Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus were applied to three adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined from the Langmuir isotherm as 21.0 mg/g. Adsorption process of Cr (VI) ions onto Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus (S-III) was found to obey the second-order kinetic equation The n value obtained from the Freundlich isotherm indicates that the sorption of Cr (VI) ions onto Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus (S-III) is favourable. Thermodynamic parameters proved that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. Investigation Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of chromium (VI) by using activated carbon from Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus was conducted in batch conditions. The effect of different parameters such as contact time, sorbent dose, pH and temperature has been studied. Adsorption kinetic modelling data were found out. The kinetics of biosorption results shows that sorption process is well explained by pseudo–second order model with determination coefficients higher than 0.96 for sorbent under all experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameter via KD, ΔG has also been calculated to determine the spontaneity of the process. The value Kp is found to be 0.825 to 2.50 for initial and final concentrations. The low value of activation energy indicates that sorption is an activated and physical process. Thus Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of chromium (VI) by using activated carbon from Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus is a low cost and easily available efficiently used as an excellent sorbent for the removal of chromium (VI) from wastewater.
67 NOVEL INSULIN DELIVERY METHODS FOR DIABETES MELLITUS , Mohamed Jasim P. P.*, Thasneem C. K., Dr. Shiji Kumar P. S. and Dr. Sirajudheen M. K.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar level. Hyperglycaemia results when the pancreatic beta cells are unable to secrete enough insulin to maintain normal glucose level. Insulin therapy, which is the exogenous supply of insulin is highly effective in regulating blood glucose level in diabetes patients. Insulin is supplied conventionally through subcutaneous routes. In early days, impurities present in bovine insulin led to many immunological reactions. The disadvantage of subcutaneous insulin delivery has inspired the research for new delivery system and hence we have many different invasive and non-invasive delivery system available today. Oral, buccal, pulmonary, transdermal, rectal and ocular routes of insulin delivery, nanotechnology based and gene therapy-based insulin delivery system, implantable insulin pump, pen devices, insulin inhalers, etc are the recent advances in insulin therapy. An oral delivery system of insulin will have tremendous benefits in terms of a decrease number of injections for diabetic patients and a reduced incidence of side effects. The proposed review on novel insulin delivery for diabetes mellitus treatment revealed that traditional subcutaneous insulin causes pain and immunological reactions. Hence novel insulin delivery enables better compliance and pharmaceutical therapies.
68 EFFECTS OF APPLE CIDER VINEGAR “WITH MOTHER” ON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF WISTAR RATS , *Dr. Okoye Ngozi Franca and Uloho Elo Treasure
Aim: Apple cider vinegar is widely used all over the world and it has been consistently used for its healing properties. In this study, the in vivo effect of apple cider vinegar with the mother on kidney function and haematological parameters of Wistar rat were investigated. Materials and method: A total of 18 rats (average weight of 110g) were used for the study. The rats were fed for a period of three weeks with the same concentrations the apple cider vinegar. The rats were grouped into six groups of three rats in each group. Three groups served as the control for each week (day 7, 14 and 21) while the other three groups were administered orally with 1ml of apple cider vinegar “with mother” twice daily for each week. The urea and creatinine levels were determined using spectrophotometric methods, The haemoglobin count, packed cell volume, total white blood cell count, red blood cell count, platelet count, neutrophil and lymphocyte count were also assayed. Results: Test results showed that the apple cider vinegar had a slight increase (p≤0.05) on the urea and creatinine levels in a time dependent manner. The highest increase was observed at the last week of feeding. The results for urea showed that the highest value was obtained in day 21 (11.00 ± 3.82) as compared to control animals (10.99 ± 0.01). The creatinine values also showed slight increase (P≤0.05) in test animals when compared to control animals. The highest increase was obtained in day 21 (36.10±1.52) as compared to control (34.42±0.02). Test results also showed that the apple cider vinegar had a lowering effect on the haematological parameters studied in a concentration and time dependent manner with differences in concentration and time at 95 % confidence levels (P< 0.05). The highest decrease of 11.11 ± 0.18 vs control 12.34 ± 0.24 (g/dl) was obtained for Hb at 21 days duration. PCV, WBC, RBC, platelet, neutrophil and lymphocyte analysis also showed highest decrease at 21 days duration. Conclusion: The results showed that using apple cider vinegar in small amounts for a short period of time had little effect. However, it is imperative that anyone intending to take large amounts of bentonite for long periods of time to undergo blood tests from time to time.
69 GС-MS ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE SUBSTANCES EXTRACTED FROM THE SURFACE OF THE PLANT MEDICAGO SATIVA L. , *Тоjiboev B., Umaraliev J., Sulaymonov Sh. and Sarimsakov T.
Alfalfa is one of the most widely grown perennial legumes in irrigated lands of Uzbekistan and Central Asia. Medicago sativa L. growing in the village of Gova, Chust district was selected for research. Samples of dried alfalfa leaves and stems were extracted in petroleum ether and hexane in a soxlet apparatus. According to the results of the chromatomass spectrum, the amounts of substances obtained from the extract of the stem and leaf parts of alfalfa in hexane and petroleum ether were compared. The analysis of volatile substances found in alfalfa was first studied using the chromatomass spectrum.
70 THE EFFECT OF FUNCTIONAL CHEESE NUTRITION FORTIFIED WITH A MIXTURE OF PROBIOTICS AND BIOSTIMULATORES ON SOME CELLULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF EXPERIMENTAL MICE , Maryam Malallah Gazal*, Haider Ibrahim Ali and Nawfal Alhelfi
This study was designed to evaluate the health effects of functional cheese produced from powdered milk, Landus brand, by adding a mixture of Probiotics, biostimulatores inulin and modified starch. the study included a procedure for estimating the logarithmic numbers of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bacteria in functional cheese, the logarithmic numbers for the control cheese treatment reached (8.04, 6.55 logarithm/gm) for the period (1 day and 28 days from storage), respectively, while the logarithmic numbers for cheese treated the synergistic mixture for the same periods were (11.63, 8.77 logarithm / gm) for Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria, while the algorithmic numbers of Bifidobacteriumanimals for the period (1 day and 28 days from storage) for the control treatment (8.55 and 6.10 logarithm / gm), respectively, while the treatment cheese mixture recorded logarithmic numbers reached (12.15 and 9.49 logarithm / gm) for the period (day and 28 days from Storage), respectively. To achieve the therapeutic goal of synergistic functional cheese consumption, experimental mice that used cheese as an emulsion were used in treatments of five groups of experimental mice, as the group that was fed to cheese added to it combined the mixture of Probiotics and biostimulatores together (biological synergy) in most of the results of cellular and biochemical blood tests moral advantage.
71 SELF-MEDICATION AMONG PHARMACY STUDENTS- A THREATENING TREND , P. B. Birari, S. S. Jalihalkar*, A. Gaykhe, R. H. Mishal and H. B. Mishal
Background: This survey examined the paradigm of self-medication and the effects caused due to this practice among Pharmacy students in Nashik. Methods: The study was done using a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed considering different parameters that are directly or indirectly linked to human health and also those that encourage people to self-medicate. The questionnaire was distributed in various Pharmacy colleges through Google forms and around 200 students responded to it. The data collected was analysed and graphs processed and the results were obtained. Results: The survey revealed that in most cases due to existing information about various medicaments, students avoided visiting the physician and getting professional help. Instead they frequently self-medicated. The study further revealed that most of them who self-medicated promoted the practice to others. Conclusions: The overall result showed that being in the pharmacy field and having knowledge of medicines the students generally opt for self-medication more frequently. This practice of self-medication is not limited to Over the Counter drugs but also has extended to the use of antibiotics, anti-bacterials and also sometimes Oral Contraceptive Pills too. The online pharmacy system and cyber doctor consultation obviously may add to and promotes self-medication. Students who obtain these medications may suffer drug–drug interactions and adverse effects, about which they may have no/inadequate prior warning or counseling.
72 URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN NEWBORNS AND INFANTS THREE YEARS OF AGE AND YOUNGER , Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva*, Eleonora Aleksandrovna Yuryeva, Galina Mikhailovna Dementieva and Angelika Khasabievna Zagashtokova
An analysis of the literature (71 references) on urinary tract infections (UTI) in newborns and infants 3 years or less is presented. The etiology and pathogenesis of diseases, the sensitivity of pathogens to antibiotics, the use of antibiotics for the treatment and prevention of infection are considered. The characteristics of laboratory diagnostics and the clinical course of UTI are given.
73 A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PATHYADI GUGGULU AND RASNADI GUTIKA IN CASES OF GRADHRASI W.S.R. TO SCIATIC SYNDROME , Dr. Yadav Shalini M.D, Prof. Saxena Chandra Prakash M.D. PhD., Dr. Garg Richa*, M.D., Dr. Sachdev Kamal, M.D., Dr. Dharmendra, M.D, PhD., Dr. Gupta Deepika, M.D.
Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of Pathyadi guggulu and Rasnadi gutika in cases of Gradhrasi (sciatic syndrome). Introduction: Gridhrasi i.e Sciatic syndrome is caused by pinching of sciatic nerve (nerve root is ventral rami of 4,5 lumbar and 1,2,3 sacral spinal nerve) which causing sharp shooting pain in the back of the leg running from the buttocks down the back of thigh into calf and foot. Settings and Design: For the present clinical study 68 Patients having Ruk (Pain which radiate to sphik, kati, uru, janu, jangha & pada successively), Sakthi utkshepa nigrahyad (restricted upward lifting of the affected lower limb), Stambha (Stiffness), Toda (Pricking sensation), Spandan (Tingling sensation), Tandra (Drowsiness), Gaurav (Heaviness) and Arochak (Anorexia) with Positive SLR TEST were registered. Materials and method: All patients were divided in two groups 34 patients in each. In Group A Pathyadi Guggulu were given orally 2 vati (500 mg each) 3 times daily after meal with Luke warm water for 60 days and in Group B Rasnadi gutika were given orally 2 vati (500 mg each) 3 times daily after meal with Luke warm water for 60 days. Type of study: Phase 2 rational, Randomized (Sequential) parallel group study. Statistical analysis used: p value, paired„t‟ test, unpaired „t‟ test, etc. Results: The trial drugs shows a significant results in terms of relieved & improvement in clinical parameters, out of 42 patients 64.28% were relieved, 28.57% patients were improved, 7.14% had no response, and there was no case of worsened had been reported. Conclusion: Trial drugs were well accepted and tolerated with good positive response and no any side effect has been observed.
74 MOYAMOYA: AN OVERVIEW OF THE DISEASE WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT , Garima Singh, Era Sharma, Pallabi Banerjee and Imteyaz Qamar*
Moyamoya is a chronic and progressive cerebrovascular disease, which is characterized by formation of occlusive lesions and stenosis in bilateral internal carotid arteries of brain. In such special cases aberrant vascular network is formed in close proximity to arterial occlusion. The process of narrowing down of arteries is followed, leading to repeated transient ischemic attacks, headaches etc. The ischemic attacks occur occasionally for short span of time and that may resolve in few minutes. This also causes involuntary movements of body parts such as legs, hands and even tongue. Revascularization method for symptomatic MMD is considered the standard treatment for preventing further stroke.
75 EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PLANTS FROM SIMAROUBACEAE FAMILY AGAINST HUMAN ORAL CANCER CELL LINE SCC-40 , Dr. Aruna Rai* and Deepa Dahar
Cancer is one of the most deadly type of disease, encompasses a broad group of syndrome involving unregulated cell population expansion and sustained focus on development of novel anticancer agents from medicinal plants. A number of plant derived compounds play important roles in treatment of cancer. India has the highest number of cases of oral cancer in the world and this is increasing. Because the aetiology of oral cancer is predominantly tobacco related, the immense public health challenge can be meliorated through habit intervention. Plants from simaroubaceae family has been the subject of many studies regarding its chemical constitution and numerous compounds have been isolated for the treatment of many diseases. Quassinoids can be considered a taxonomic markers of the simaroubaceae family. The leaf, stem and stem bark extracts of Ailanthus excelsa, Quassia amara and Simarouba glauca were used for anticancer potential using sulforhodamine B (SRB) cytotoxicity assay against human oral cancer cell line (SCC-40). Adriamycin was used as the standard to compare the results. The median growth inhibition (GI 50) concentration for extracts of Ailanthus stem and Bark, Simarouba leaf and Bark was <10μg/ml against human oral cancer cell line SCC-40 which indicates potential anticancer activity. It could be concluded that in vitro anti-cancer activity could be attributed to the presence of anti-cancerous phytochemicals like Quassinoids.
76 HISTORICAL OUTBREAK OF COVID-19 IN INDIA: A MECHANISM BASED OVERVIEW , Suresh Kumar Ghritlahare*, Pushpendra Kurre, Govind Panagar, Sarita Sahu
Corona virus is enveloped positive sense RNA virus belong to the Coronaviridae family and cause respiratory infection sneezing, coughing and cold including pneumonia. In Dec-2019, Wuhan, China, is a centre of a 2019-nCoV outbreak of unknown cause, in India first confirm case of novel corona virus reported 30Jan-2020. COVID-19 transmitted human to human or human to animal via close contact and airborne droplet infection. Prevention & managements of COVID-19, WHO give guidelines to avoid public place, maintain social distancing and close contacts to infected persons & pet animals. The International Federation Pharmaceutical emphasizing the crucial responsibility of community pharmacists can play major role in preventing the spreading of COVID-19.
77 PATHYA APATHYA IN VRANA , *Dr. Prajwala Amadihal, Dr. Syeda Ather Fathima, Dr. Shivalingappa J. Arakeri, Dr. Mohasin Kadegaon, Dr. Geethanjali Hiremath
Wound management is the one of the most burning problem during surgical practice. Improper nutritional intake is one of the main causes for delayed wound healing. Improper dietary habit will cause many metabolic changes in the body which delays wound healing. Proper nutritional support is considered as the fundamental part of the wound management. The treatments which are mentioned in the Samhitha are valid and successfully practiced till today. Still Acharya Sushruta gave prime importance to the wound care, Which should be managed by following strict dietary regimen (Pathya Apathya) explained in Susrutha Samhita so that the wound healing will be accelerated. Nutritional diet plays an essential role in wound healing; hence forth following Pathya not only promotes healing but also improves or stabilize the life qualities of the patient. Hence diet plays an important role in the wound healing process and also the person obtains long life.
78 DIODE LASER VS SURGICAL BLADE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ANKYLOGLOSSIA , *Dr. Md. Zeeshan Arif and Dr. Saket Kashyap
Ankyloglossia or tongue tie is a condition when the inferior lingual frenulum is attached to the tip of the tongue. Different surgical approaches has been used for the treatment of the same. This article focuses on the two techniques commonly used – surgery and lasers; and discusses both the techniques in brief.
79 MANAGEMENT OF LIP MUCOCELE – USING MICROSURGERY AND LASER , *Dr. Saket Kashyap and Dr. Md. Zeeshan Arif
Mucocele of the lip is one of the most common salivary gland pathology, presenting itself with soft tissue mass, often on the lower lip. The lesion is caused by extravasation or retention of mucous from the minor salivary gland, which may occur due to trauma or obstruction of the ducts of the salivary gland. Irrespective of the pathology, the management of the benign lesion mostly involves surgical removal of the mass. Due to the high recurrence rate, the involved salivary gland is also removed to prevent recurrence of the lesion. This case report presents the management of a mucocele lesion of the lower lip managed with a minimally invasive approach using microsurgery instruments and laser.
80 EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SANTALUM ALBUM ON ALBINO RATS , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam* and Aparna S.
Back round: Ulcer is the most common prevalent gastro intestinal disorder, which affects approximately 10 -15% of people in the world. It makes major global health problem today. Ulcer is an open sore, it can be developed inside the inner lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). Both the ulcers are also commonly referred to as peptic ulcers. Objectives: The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-ulcer activity of Aqueous and ethanolic extract of Santalum album on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out by NSAID induced ulcer models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Santalum album 250 mg and 505 mg/kg p.o. 5 days) was compared with standard drug (Lansoprazole). In NSAID induced ulcer model, the studied parameters were ulcer index and percentage protection. Results: In NSAID induces ulcer model, the ulcer index was significantly reduced at p<0.01 in 500mg/kg of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Santalum Album treated groups as compared with control. All the doses of AESA and EESA showed the dose-dependent antiulcer effect as well as significant (p<0.01) increase in percentage protection of ulcer as compared to control group in all the experimental models. The aqueous extract of AESA at 500 mg/kg has more potent antiulcer activity than 250 mg/kg of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Santalum album and 500mg/kg of EESA. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that the AESA has better potential against ulcer which supports the traditional claims in folklore medicine. Phytochemical investigation suggests the presence of, tannins which may be responsible for the anti-ulcer activity.
81 BOOSTING THE BRAIN’S INTRINSIC NEUROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY IN TREATMENT OF DEMENTIA , Gargi Velhal, Kedar S. Prabhavalkar* and Lokeshkumar Bhatt
Dementia is considered as a progressive disease, which is accompanied with irretrievable memory impairment, loss of cognitive abilities and reduction in the capacity for independent living. Population aging has a noteworthy impact on the occurrence of the dementia rampant. Individuals with dementia are known to suffer from problems affecting them throughout their life. Therefore, treating dementia in the initial stages has proved to be the current focus of the worldwide research work. By reviewing the current understanding of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches, this review intends to deliver new perceptions in treating dementia at the early stages by targeting the brain‘s intrinsic neuroprotective activity resulting in an increased resistance of the cells, increased cognitive function, and improved process of memory formation and lifestyle of an individual.
82 PROGNOSIS OF CORONA IN MODERN MEDICINE AND IN AYURVEDA CONTEXT AS THE SYMPTOMS IT POSSESS ARE OF TAMAK SHWASA - A REVIEW ARTICLE , Inderjit Kaur*, Shaleen Singh and Satyakam Rahul
CORONA needs no introduction now, everyone is well aware of it. CORONA has emerged from CHINA and affected globally. It is a strong virus which is affecting a large number of people as it spreads at a very fast speed. We had forgotten the term of communicable diseases; it is reminding us the term, described in our Scriptures. As the spread is fast and it is a new type of viral infection, no medicine has been discovered yet. Main purpose of writing this article is sharing the Prognosis of CORONA with respect to Ayurveda Prognosis (Samprapti) on the basis of the symptoms appearing in patients infected with it, so that we can help in developing some medicine for it. I am taking the pathophysiology of CORONA and relating it to the terms used in ayurveda. My study reveals that all the sites affected by the Corona are the KAPHA SITES in our body, starting from the Nose, Bucal cavity, Lungs, alveoli, brain, synovial fluid and plasma. Every symptom being possessed by the CORONA patient is described in the IN CHARAK SAMHITA CHIKITSA STHAAN CHAPTER 17, PAGE NO. 516 HIKKA SHWASA CHIKITSA ADHYAA). Here I am explaining the symptoms written in CHARAK SAMHITA in relation with various symptoms being possessed by the patient infected with the corona Virus. Various stages and types of swash roga can be associated with the symptoms of CORONA from simple infection to fatal, same as symptoms of SHAWASA from simple, then yapya and then fatal. See, how the parameters described in CHARAK SAMHITA ARE SO RELEVANT EVEN TODAY that is the importance and glory of Ayurveda. We categorize CORONA Infection in the Aagantuj Vyadhi (Accidental), As it has affected everyone, all of a sudden, but there are lot of aggravating factors existing in the people which have helped in spreading of CORONA. The compromised immunity of people due to various factors which has lead to higher mortality rate. I have come to this conclusion after reading various researches on the corona and the Autopsy reports of the patients who died due to CORONA.
83 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM (L.) BARK AND PEEL EXTRACTS , Yasmin Hassan Elshiekh* and Mahdi Abdelmageed Mohammed Ali
Punica granatum is the predominant member of Punicaceae family. The phytochemical screening was carried out using, Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and 70% ehanol, The results showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, Tannins, Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Coumarins and Anthraquinone glycoside. The different extracts of Punica granatum L. (bark and Peel) have been tested for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by cup diffusion method. The antibacterial activity shows that all of the extracts were found to be active against all bacterial strains tested.
84 AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF OCIMUMGRATISSIMUM AND ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE SYNERGISES INANTI-DIARRHOEAL PROPERTY , Ihekwereme C. P., *Bruce S. O., Orji C. E., Ibe C. I. and Iloh E. S.
Introduction: The present study was performed to substantiate the traditional claim of the anti-diarrhoeal activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale, in albino mice. Method: Acute toxicity study was determined. The dose levels 100, 200 and 400mg/kg of aqueous extract was tested in albino miceagainst castor-oil induced diarrhoea model and charcoal meal test/intestinal motility test. The symptoms observed were the consistency of faeces, onset of defecation and cumulative faecal weight in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea model, and the distance travelled by charcoal in the intestinal motility test. Results: The toxicological studies confirm that the aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale, in combined form, when administered, showed no mortality or any sign of toxicity at the dose level up to 5000mg/kg. A significant delay in the onset of defecation (p<0.05), reduction in the cumulative faecal weight (p<0.001), along with a change in the faecal consistency from watery to solid form was observed at the dose of 800mg/kg in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea model. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of leaves of Occimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale showed anti-diarrhoeal activity, which may be due to its anti-motility and anti-secretory effects, which thus proved the traditional claims.
85 SPIRITUAL SELF HEALING ON POST OPERATING SYNDROME OF PAIN IN LAPARATOMY PATIENTS , Jahidin Kuswanto*, Rr Sri Endang Puji Astuti and Bedjo Santoso
Surgical action is a treatment that uses an invasive method by opening the part of the body to be treated, after surgery the pain is physiologically felt, but this is the one complaint that is most feared by the patient after surgery. One of the complementariness used to reduce complications of postoperative syndrome of pain in Laparatomi patients is spiritual self-healing. Analyzing the effectiveness of spiritual self-healing against postoperative syndrome of pain in Laparatomi patients. This true experimental study used a pre-test and post-test control group design approach involving 60 post-operative laparotomy patients at the BLUD hospital RSD dr.H.Soemarno Sosroatmodjo Regency of Bulungan taken randomly with stratified random sampling. 30 respondents became the intervention group and 30 respondents became the control group. The intervention group received complementary spiritual self-healing therapy 7 times for 7 days with a duration of 15 minutes and the therapy was in accordance with the standard of postoperative patients in the hospital while the control group only received therapy according to the standard postoperative in the hospital. Data analyzed with repeated measure test. The results showed that there were differences in the mean pain scale in the intervention group and the control group after receiving therapy spiritual self-healing with a value of p = 0,000 which means that spiritual intervention is self-healing effective to reduce the scale of pain in Laparatomi patients. Spiritual self-healing is effective against postoperative syndrome of pain in Laparatomi patients.
86 AN OVERVIEW OF ENSETE SUPERBUM: CHEMISTRY & PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE , H. B. Mishal* and Dr. M. K. Shirsat
Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman is a wild banana species has been used widely by the tribals of Khandesh region of North Maharashtra for the medicinal and edible purpose. It is also endemic to Satpura range forests of northern Maharashtra, Western Ghats, Matheran and some other places in Southern India. The chemical ingredients reported from this plant belong to the different classes such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols, glycosides and flavonoids. It is commonly known as “Jungalee kela” or “rankeli” in this region and has a number of medicinal uses. Many of which have been verified and elaborated by different workers with scientific methods, in classical literature. This review article summarizes the chemistry and pharmacological profile of the plant.
87 HERBAL AND AYURVEDIC LEADS FROM PRECLINICAL STUDIES HAVING HEPATOPROTECTIVE POTENTIONAL - A REVIEW , Ruchi Sharma* and Mangala Jadhav
Liver disease is a major health problem worldwide, and it makes it necessary to develop new drug or formulation that help counteract or prevent these liver diseases. Liver plays a main role in the metabolism and excretion. Due to this reason, liver is exposed more to toxicity. In addition to it, there is still lack of some reliable hepatoprotective drug, which arose the scope for finding new drugs. There has been tremendous work done on herbal and ayurvedic formulation in invitro and invivo models to evaluate their hepatoprotective activity. In this study all the work done on 287 preclinical studies on hepatoprotective activity are review and were compiled. The drugs or formulation that show hepatoprotective potentional in preclinical studies are the source of lead for researchers/medicals in treating the patients with liver disease and also for evaluating their safety and efficacy in the human trials.
88 A CRITICAL STUDY ON AETIOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SVITRA , Dr. Samima Azmi and Dr. S. K. Chakraborty
ŝvitra is enumerated as raktaja vikāra and rakta and pitta are correlated with asraya asrayi bhāva. So, mainly pitta (bhrajaka) gets vitiated, which is responsible for normal skin color, leads to white colored skin patches, named as Švitra Vyādhi. though not included under kuá¹£tḥa by brihatrayi. separate ãhãraja vihãraja nidãna, purvarupa and samprãpti of ŝvitra has not been mentioned vividly in classics except Caraka who specified pãpa karma as nidãna for ŝvitra.It is basically of 3 types; Vãta-Pitta-Kapha. The nidāna for ŝvitrā is Astyã, Ká¹›itaghna, Nindāsurãnãma, Pãpakriyãpữrvaká¹›ta, Virodhá¿–annā as mentioned by Caraka. Sādhyā Asādhya Laká¹£ana are vividly mentioned in all classics for Švitra Vyādhi.
89 A REVIEW ON TRADITIONALLY USED MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY IN NORTH- EAST (INDIA) , Moksood Ahmed Laskar*, Priyanka Goswami and Mrinmoy Basak
The investigation of this study reports on some medicinally important plants which are found to be used traditionally by villager and tribal peoples of North east (India) for the beneficial treatment purposes of various male and female reproductive procurements related disease conditions such as leucorrhoea, erectly dysfunction, infertility, dysmenorrhoea, menstruation disorders and pregnancy related problems. Over a survey of it has been found that there are more than 100 medicinal plants which has been used to treat the reproductive disorders out of which very few of them has confirmed with such potential. The plants belonging from the family like Musaceae, Sterculiaceae, Liliaceae, Rubiaceae, Apiaceae, Punicaceae etc. has found highest uses followed by members of etc. which were used by total 14 tribes and 3 communities distributed in various part of Assam. The observation obtained in this study gives a better knowledge focusing the medicinal plants available in area of North east (India), which may often be helpful for a pathway for further experimental studies, which will be beneficial for the mankind with better reproducibility, safe and economical purposes of such treatment.
90 MANAGEMENT OF AMALPITTA WITH SHATAVARI, AMALAKI AND YASHTIMADHU - A REVIEW , Monica Salaria* and Aditya
The Amalpitta is one among the several GIT upsets. It is the root cause of many other ailments, as shuktatva is told to be the reason of indigestion, grahani, atisar etc. Today’s human is following almost all nidanas of the Amalpitta like improper food intake, untimely food intake, junk foods, divaswapan, ratrijagran etc. This all leads to disturbance in digestion and improperly digested matter becomes shukta or amal. Most of the patients visiting the health centres complain of hyperacidity, GORD and resultant conditions such as peptic ulcers. The increased use on NSAIDS is a strong cause besides the dietary habits and nature of diet. Thus, restriction or decrease in use of such drugs and diet, change in dietary habits and intake of Ayurvedic treatment can be the game changer. Some yogic procedures as Dhouti can also be very useful. The line of treatment explained in Ayurveda is vamana, virechana procedures which take some time for completion and bed rest also. This is difficult for present society to do such procedures so the frequently useful drugs should be studied for the purpose. Shatavari, Amalaki and Yashtimadhu are among the drugs that will be evaluated on the basis of Pharmacological properties and already done research studies.
91 ENHANCEMENT OF CEFPODOXIME PROXETIL DRUG BY USING SOLID DISPERSION METHOD AND POLYMER USING CYCLODEXTRINS , Shruti Jaswal and Rajeev Garg*
The primary aim of this research was to improve the solubility and Bioavailability of BCS Class-IV drugs because of their low solubility and Low permeability and dissolution rate. Solubility is one of the important parameter to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for therapeutic response to be shown. The aim of research work is to prepare oral dispersible tablets using solid dispersion as a core material. Solid dispersions were prepared by kneading method, physical mixture and solvent evaporation method using varied concentrations of hydrophilic polymer (Cyclodextrins). Dissolution profile predicted that solid dispersion prepared with 1:2 % w/w CP and Cyclodextrins by solvent evaporation has shown highest drug release. Powder blend of all formulations was evaluated for pre-compression parameters (FTIR, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index and angle of repose) and it was observed that all excipients were compatible with CP and has excellent flow properties. Dispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression method using different concentration (0, 2.5 and 5 % w/w) of croscarmellose sodium and were evaluated for drug content, weight variation, friability, dispersion time and in vitro drug release studies. Drug content was found to be more than 94 % for all prepared tablets whereas friability and weight variation were below 1 % and 5 % w/w respectively. Tablet formulations containing 5% w/w of croscarmellose sodium showed least dispersion time (2.51 minutes) and highest drug release 96 % in just 30 minutes which was better than marketed formulation (CEFOPROX) as well as pure drug.
92 FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM OF LICORICE FOR THE TREATMENT OF MOUTH ULCER , Sheetal Parse* and Milind Umekar
Herbal medicine are important and good for action. Oral mouth dissolving drug delivery system is considered to be an important alternative to the peroral route for the systemic administration of drugs, as it considered the most convenient, easy, safest route of administration. Mouth dissolving film may be preferred over the mouth dissolving tablets in terms of flexibility and comfort. The aim of this study is to formulate and characterize oral mouth dissolving film of licorice. Oral films were prepared by Solvent casting method using HPMC-E 15, Propylene glycol, and other recipients. Films were evaluated for mechanical properties, disintegration time, and in- vitro drug release.
93 DESIGN, FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ACECLOFENAC FAST DISINTEGRATING TABLETS USING NATURAL POLYMERS , P.S.S. Prasanna Kumar*, A. Ravi Kumar, Srinivas Nandyala, B Devaki Devi, T. Anjali, Ch. Srividya, Ch. Divya, T. Pujitha, A. Evanjelin, N. Ramya Krishnaveni and Y. Sireesha
Aceclofenac is a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with marked anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of the present work is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action. The present study was to formulate and in-vitro evaluation of fast disintegrating tablets of Aceclofenac by using Natural polymer such as Pithecellobium dulce seed gum and Guar gum by direct compression technique using 3 different concentrations of 2%W/W, 4%W/W & 6%W/W. Each formulation was evaluate for various pre and post compression parameters such as Flow property, Bulk density, Tapped density, Weight variation, Hardness, Friability, Wetting time, Disintegration time, Assay, in-vitro dissolution. Among the 06 formulations, “F3” formulation Aceclofenac with 6%w/w of Pithecellobium dulce seed gum showed excellent disintegration time and best dissolution rate studies. In-Vitro dissolution studies showed (99.96%) release of drug within 20 minutes It was concluded that the fast disintegrating tablets are prepared by Natural polymer Pithecellobium dulce seed gum and Guar gum acts as a Fast disintegrant and the Pithecellobium dulce seed gum showed excellent disintegration time and enhance the dissolution rate compared to Guar gum.
94 IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BUCHANANIA LANZAN SPRENG. BARK , C. Pramod*, Dr. Ratheesh M., Svenia P. Jose and Feena Paul
Methods: The bark was shade dried and coarsely powdered and then subjected to hot continuous percolation by Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as solvent. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was carried out on extract. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic potential was evaluated by in vitro. In vitro methods include Nitric oxide scavenging assay, DPPH assay, Protein denaturation and proteinase inhibition methods. In vivo antiinflammatory activity was established by using carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton wool granuloma methods. In vivo antiarthritic potential was evaluated by collagen induced arthritis model. After 20 days of collagen administration, EEBL 200mg/Kg was administered to experimental Sprague dawley rats for next 20 days. Changes in body weight, paw volume, arthritic score were assessed weekly. In addition, on 41st day, radiological analysis, histopathological evaluation, TNF-α expression by RT PCR analysis were performed. Results and Discussion: In vitro studies showed that EEBL had got good nitric oxide and DPPH scavenging activity and also possess significant antiinflammatory activity. In in vivo studies, extract treatment in experimental rats at the dose of 200mg/Kg showed a decrease in the paw volume and granuloma weight indicating the possibility of EEBL be a promising antiinflammatory agent. Studies on EEBL treated collagen induced arthritic animals, showed an increase in body weight, significant reduction in paw volume, arthritic score and TNF-α expression. Radiological and histopathological analysis also strengthens the evidence of resolution of arthritis. Conclusion: The study confirmed the antiinflammatory and antiarthritic potential of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. bark belongs to the family Anacardaceae.
95 A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIABETES SELF MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES OF DIABETICS IN A SELECTED SETTING , Dr. Jeyadeepa R.*
Ancient Medical History had explained diabetes and how it affected people. Diabetes is a lifestyle disorder. To manage diabetes in an effective manner, the individuals have to take many decisions then and there regarding diet, exercise, medications, monitoring etc. Hence it is essential that knowledge on self-care plays an important role in diabetes management. The present study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of diabetes self-management training program on the physiological variables of the diabetics. Quantitative approach was adopted in this study. It was conducted by using true experimental research design. The study was conducted in two centres. 200 diabetics from each centre were selected. Randomization was done to allot the samples to either control or experimental group. The data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and lab reportsfor the physiological variables were assessment. The selected participants were given self-management training programme. The physiological parameters assessed were fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, HbA1c, body mass index, blood pressure and cholesterol. The data were analysed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that the intervention is effective in reducing BMI, PPBS, FBS, HbA1c and cholesterol. Even though the changes in the physiological variables noticed in the control group the rate of reduction is more in the experimental group which was statistically proved. Hence it can be concluded the treatment is effective when it is combined with self-management training.
96 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ACECLOFENAC FAST DISINTEGRATING TABLETS USING NATURAL POLYMER EXTRACTED FROM “PHYLLOPHORA RIBIS” , T. Anjali*, N. Srinivas, P. SS. Prasanna Kumar, P. Brahma Teja, D. Praneetha, P. DS Anjali, K. Vijaya, G. Swarajya Rao and S. Siva Saradhi
Aceclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of the present work is to design and formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly, give its rapid onset of action. The present study was to Formulate and evaluation of fast disintegrating tablet of Aceclofenac by using Natural polymer extracted from “Phyllophora Ribis” mushroom by direct compression technique in 05 different concentrations of 2%W/W, 4%W/W, 6%W/W, 8%W/W & 12%W/W. Each formulation was evaluate for various pre and post compression parameters such as Flow property, Bulk density, Tapped density, Weight variation, Hardness, Friability, Wetting time, Disintegration time, Assay, in- vitro dissolution. Among the 05 formulations, F5 formulation Aceclofenac with 12%w/w of mushroom extract powder showed the best dissolution rate studies. In-Vitro dissolution studies showed (99.98%) release of drug within 25 minutes and the mechanism of drug release from the tablets was followed to be first order kinetics. It was concluded that the fast disintegrating tablets are prepared by Natural polymer extracted from P.Ribis mushroom acts as a Fast disintegrant and the mushroom polymer powder showed excellent disintegration time.
97 A REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS VALIDATION AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE , Sirisha Pasupuleti*, G. Sushma Reddy and S. Supriya
Quality assurance functions primarily to monitor the fact that the quality function is being performed. Its role in process validation is readily associated with its main functions. Validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industries most recognized subjects. Validation is the art of designing and practicing the designed steps alongside with the documentation. Validation and quality assurance will go hand in hand, ensuring the thorough quality for the products. It analyzes the product complaints to learn how effective its test program has been in preventing rejectable product from reaching the market place. According to GMP validation studies are essential part of GMP these are required to be done as per predefined protocols, the minimum that should be validated include process, testing and cleaning as a result such control procedure stablish to monitor the output and validation of manufacturing processes that may be responsible for variability of drug product. The validation study provide the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the test methods employed by the firms, shall be established and documented. Thus validation is an essential part of quality assurance.
98 PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF PECTINASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS AWAMORI IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION , Praveen Kumar Dasari*
The present study deals with the process optimization and production of protease enzyme using Artocarpus heterophyllus as a substrate by Aspergillus awamori in a solid state fermentation process. Solid-state fermentation is defined as a process that occurs on a non-soluble material that acts both as support and a source of nutrients, with a reduced among of water, under the action of fermenting agent. In the process, the microorganism is cultivated on a solid substrate enriched with a high concentration of nutrients, micronutrients and materials and having large surface area. Process variables such as time, temperature, size of inoculum, pH and moisture content were optimized to get the maximum production of pectinase. The increased level of pectinase production was recorded at time 72hrs, temperature 30°C in solid-state conditions. The optimum inoculum level was 40%v/w, pH 5.0 and 70% v/w moisture content of the substrate were optimum for the maximum production of pectinase in solid-state condition. Increased yield of pectinase were observed when medium was supplemented with carbon (3% glucose) and nitrogen (ammonium sulphate, 0.4%) sources. A significant improvement in the enzyme yield was recorded when the basal medium was supplemented with different carbon and nitrogen sources.
99 A REVIEW ON CNS ACTIVITY OF METFORMIN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE , Nabeela C. H.*, Sherin A., Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K.
The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are major concern in medical field. Nowadays symptomatic treatment are preferred. Metformin has long since been used to treat type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. In vitro and in vivo studies shows beneficial effect in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses CNS Activities of Metformin in Alzheimer disease.
100 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF SALVADORA OLEOIDES: A REVIEW , *Rajshree Dahiya and Dr. Jai Singh Vaghela
Salvadora oleoides belong to the family Salvdoraceae is a small, multipurpose tree commonly grown in western Rajasthan and Gujarat states of India.It is known in India as “Mithi Jal” or :Peelu”. Many chemical constituents such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, mucilage, fats and oils have been reported from its leaves and stems extracts. Because of the presence of these active chemical constituents it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, analgesic, anti-ulcer, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal and diuretics.
101 HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE KIDNEY AND LIVER OF WISTAR RATS TREATED WITH CRUDE DECOCTION OF NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA, ENANTIA CHLORANTHA AND MANGIFERA INDICA (AGBOIBA PONTO) , Ogenyi Samuel Ifedioranma*, Onu June Amara, Okeke Monique Ugochinyere, Madukwe David Uche Promise, Ekenebe Dennis Chimaobi and Obikwue Chukwuemeka
The histomorphological and biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of wistar rats treated with Agboiba ponto was evaluated. Twenty-four male and female wistar rats weighing between 150 and 170g were divided into four groups (A-D) six rats each. Different doses of (500mg/kg, 600mg/kg, and 700mg/kg) of aqueous crude extract of Agboiba ponto were administered orally to the rats in groups B to D respectively, for a period of 28 days. Group A (control) received top feed and water only. Blood samples were collected from the rats for serum urea, creatinine, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) estimation, while kidney and liver tissue samples were excised for histological examination. The result, showed dose dependent progressive increase in serum urea and creatinine levels of test animals compared with the control, though not statistically significant. Serum ALT and AST levels progressively decreased from groups A to C but suddenly increased in group D. The histological findings revealed similar trend, the control showed normal histo-morphological architecture while test groups had progressive morphological degeneration ranging from mild histo-architectural distortion of the cortical structures to marked tubular necrosis, moderate-severe chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates and glomerulonephritis and hepatic periportal lymphocytic infiltration. Prolonged administration of higher doses of Agboiba ponto may cause adverse changes in the kidney and liver of wistar rats. Therefore, caution should be observed while usage.
102 VISITORS’ KNOWLEDGE REGARDING BLOOD DONATION AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL, CHITWAN, NEPAL , Jayalaxmi Shakya*, Bedantakala Thulung, Tripti Shrestha and Preeti Shakya
Human blood is an essential element of human life and there are no substitutes to blood as yet. The need for blood is growing day by day as a result of advancement in the clinical medicine but its supply remains short. Hence, it is essential to identify significant factors affecting blood donation. For this reason, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge regarding blood donation among patients’ visitors at Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. A descriptive cross sectional study design was used. Data were collected by using non-probability purposive sampling technique with face to face structured interview schedule among 100 respondents. Data were analysed in descriptive and inferential statistics. Results of this study revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 31.55 SD=11.72. The study revealed that the proportion of individuals with knowledge on blood donation is quite high. Majority of the respondents (88%) of them mentioned that the main goal of blood donation was to save someone’s life. Sixty percent of them answered that the major benefit of blood donation was a sense of psychological wellbeing. Only one-fourth of the respondents had ever donated blood. The major reason for not donating blood was the lack of opportunity to do so. It is important to increase the number of donors in order to meet the requirement of blood. Targeted strategies should be designed to increase more awareness among people about blood donation and to utilize potential donors who lack opportunities to donate blood.
103 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING FILM OF PANTAPRAZOLE SODIUM , Shalaka Vijay Borse* and Dr. Vaibhav Kumar A. Jagtap
New drug delivery system for the oral delivery of drug, was developed based on the technology of the transdermal patch. It consists of a very thin oral strip which releases the active ingredient immediately after uptake into the oral cavity. The technique involved in the preparation of mouth dissolving film was solvent casting method in which aqueous solution I (Pantaprazole Sodium, Sodium Starch Glycolate, Ascorbic acid, Vanilla flavour and Saccharin) and aqueous solution II (HPMC E15 and Glycerine) was prepared in specific proportion in distilled water. Both solution I & II were mixed & stir for 1 hour & kept for 1 hour to remove all air bubbles. Then the mixture solution was poured into petridish & it was dried in oven at 40-50 0C for 7- 8 hours then film was removed from petridish and cut according to Size (square film: 2cm length, 2cm width). Pantaprazole is a highly potent proton pump inhibitor, chemically a weak base, it concentrates under the acidic conditions of parietal cell secretory canaliculi where it is converted to a cationic cyclic sulfonamide by rearrangement. This activated molecule binds to two site of hydrogen/potassium ATPase (proton pump) in the gastric parietal cells, inactivating the system, which in turn blocks the final step of secretion of hydrochloric acid by these cells, producing a long lasting effect.
104 THE PREDICTIVE ROLE OF GALANIN IN GASTRIC CANCER , Hamit Karayagiz*, Umit Sekmen, Serra Bayrakçeken
Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the world.[1] In search of new approaches to diagnose or exclude gastric cancers, a number of tumor antigens have been identified, and many of these have been defined as immunotherapeutic agents.[2] However, therapeutic impacts of these agents have not been as satisfactory as expected. Galanin is a 29-amino acid COOH-terminally, highly conserved and only neuroendocrine peptide originally isolated from intestine.[3] The first 14 amino acids are fully conserved in near all species.[4] It modulates a diversity of physiologic processes, within perception, memory, sensory, pain processing, neurotransmitter, hormone secretion, and feeding behavior.[5] Various biologically active forms of galanin which have elongated or truncated NH2 terminal have been identified.[6]
105 PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY OF VAJRA DANTA MANJANA AND VIDANGADI GUGGULU- A POLY HERBAL MEDICINE , Dr. Priya Sharma*, Dr. Satish Sharma, Dr. Vijayant Bhardwaj and Dr. Priyanka Thakur
Dantveshta is a chronic disease of gums in which there is pus mixed blood discharge from gums with loosening of teeth, due to vitiation of Kapha Dosha and Rakta Dushti in Uttamanga. The clinical features of Dantaveshta as explained in Ayurvedic literature have the relevance with Pyorrhoea Alveolaris. Pyorrhea Alveolaris can be known as periodontitis which is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth. So the present study was carried out to standardize the finished product Vajradanta Manjana and Vidangadi Guggulu to confirm its identity, purity and quality. Physicochemical analysis of Vajradanta Manjan shows loss on drying 06.80%, total solid content is 93.20%, total ash 26.95%, Acid insoluble ash 03.36%, Water soluble Extractive 51.89%, pH 3.04, Thin Layer Chromatography showed 7and 7 Spots. Physicochemical analysis of Vidangadi Guggulu shows loss on drying is 04.83%, total solid content is 95.17%, total ash 06.33%, Acid insoluble ash 02.11%, Water soluble Extractive 34.07%, pH 3.90, average weight 532mg, Thin Layer Chromatography showed 7 and 8 Spots. This shows the presence of certain definite constituents in the Vajradanta Manjana and Vidangadi Guggulu and is helpful for the easy separation of these constituents.
106 PRACTICE ON PREVENTION OF NEEDLE STICK INJURY AMONG NURSES IN SELECTED TEACHING HOSPITAL, BHARATPUR, CHITWAN , Pratima Koirala* and Sushma Shrestha
A needle stick injury (NSI) is a common health hazards among health care workers which is known as percutaneous piercing wound typically set by a needle point, but possibly also by other sharp instruments or objects which may lead to serious blood-borne diseases like Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This study aimed to find out the nurses’ practice on prevention of needle stick injury. A descriptive cross-sectional observational research design was used for this study. A total 50 nurses who were working in Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMCTH), Bharatpur-10, Chitwan, having working experience of more than 3 months were selected by non-probability enumerative sampling technique. Observational check-list was used to collect data and the obtained data were analyzed into IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 program using descriptive and inferential statistics. Out of 50 nurses, 22.0% of nurses have satisfactory practice and 78.0% of nurses have unsatisfactory practice on prevention of needle stick injury. This issues need to be adressesed, through appropriate in-service education, training programs and interventional strategies.
107 HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIORS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A GOVERNMENT SCHOOL OF CHITWAN, NEPAL , Dipti Koirala*, Prof. Milan Lopchan and Assoicate Prof. Subina Bajracharya
Adolescent period is a foundation of the future life. Modifiable unhealthy behaviors during adolescence can lead to emergence of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in later stages of life. This study aimed to find out the health promoting behaviors among adolescents in a government school of Chitwan, Nepal. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 201 students of grade nine at a government school of Bharatpur, Chitwan. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire (a standard tool: AHP scale) and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean age of the respondents was 14.84±0.75 and majority of the respondents were male (51.7%). The total mean score of AHP scale was 78.95±12.20, and the percent of mean score was 75.19%. The highest score was obtained in the area of life appreciation (17.47±3.39), and least score in exercise (9.61±3.39). Statistically significant association was found between health promoting behaviors among adolescents and sources of health information {school teachers (p=0.008), family members (p=0.032), newspapers (p=0.003), internet (p=0.043), radio (p=0.025) and health workers (p=0.023)}. Statistically significant association was found between subscales (nutrition behavior) and father’s employment status (p=0.016), and between subscale (health responsibility) and mother’s educational status (p=0.021). Health promoting behaviors among adolescents was found inadequate, mainly in the area of nutrition and exercise. Thus, the school management and the parents, both needs to pay more attention to the adolescents; consultation and educational services to the adolescents need to be emphasized; internet, radio and newspaper need to be utilized to enhance health promoting behaviors among adolescents.
108 PATIENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS MEDICAL STUDENTS AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL, BHARATUR, NEPAL , Kalpana Basyal and Dipa Sigdel*
Patients are essential for the acquisition and development of medical students’ clinical skills thus, cooperation and positive attitude of patient towards medical students is very crucial. Therefore, this study was aimed to identify patients’ attitude towards medical students at a Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 119 patients admitted in the Tropical, Surgical, Gynecology/ Obstetrics and Orthopedic wards of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was adopted to select patient. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule from 27/08/2017 to 09/09/2017 and then collected data was analyzed and interpreted by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result of this study showed that majority of the respondents belongs to age group 19-39 years (54.6%) with mean age of the respondents 40.7 ± 17.79 and female (54.6%). The total mean score of attitude towards medical students of respondents is 3.38 ± 0.34. More than half of respondents (52.1%) had positive attitude however negative attitude had found in the area of communication skills of medical students with mean score of 3.04 ± 0.21. The significant variable for the respondents’ attitude towards medical students was admitted wards (p= 0.03). It is concluded that even though more than half of the patients’ attitude towards medical students is positive, the hospital needs to plan and implement various programs to maximize positive patient- medical student relationship emphasizing on the area of communication skills.
109 PUREESHA JANAKA DRAVYAS: THE PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE , Dr. Prayagaprasad U. R.*, Vasudha V. G. and A. S. Prashanth
Lifestyle of humans has improved substantially in this modernized world. Technology has set easy access to almost everything under our fingers, but has led to reduced physical activity leading to increased incidence of lifestyle related disorders. Recent trends have shown people taking high extent of calories, Junk food and Consumption of fibers in the diet has reduced. Further level of stress has increased both at personal and professional life. All these factors are having ill effects on every organ system of body. Due to these lifestyle changes gastrointestinal symptoms like constipation, heartburn, abdominal discomfort & diarrhea are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Constipation is a common prevalent problem in general population with prevalence 2-28% which is associated with significantly impaired quality of life and psychological distress, as well as increased health care costs and impaired work productivity. Different classes of laxatives have various limitations in one or another form. These dravya add soluble fiber to the stool causing the stools to absorb more water thereby creating larger, softer stools. So here an effort is made in understanding the dravya which help in increase the bulk of stool and easy evacuation of bowel as mentioned in Ayurveda (Pureesha Janaka Dravyas).
110 ROLE OF PORT SITE INFILTRATION OF LONG ACTING LOCAL ANAESTHETIC AGENTS IN POST-OPERATIVE PAIN REDUCTION, EARLY RECOVERY AND OVERALL PATIENT SATISFACTION AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY , *Dr. Goel Apoorv, Bansal Roli, Garg Prakhar and Kothari Shyam
Background: In today’s era of minimally invasive surgery early post-operative pain reduction, early recovery and return to normal activities is also an important aspect. This study has been designed to analyze the effect of a long acting local anaesthetic agent (0.25 % Bupivacaine) infiltration over port sites in cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: This is a comparative study carried out at St Joseph Hospital, Ghaziabad from September 2019 to March 2020 on 124 patients who underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Group I was control group in which no local anaesthesia was offered and Group II received 20ml of 0.25 % Bupivacaine infiltrated over port sites. Various parameters were assessed during intra-operative and post-operative period. Pain was analysed using Visual Analogue Scoring (VAS) for first 24 hours and overall patient satisfaction scoring was done using questionnaire and scorecard. Results: Cholelithiasis is a disease of middle aged females. Post-operative pain was significantly reduced in group II receiving port site infiltration with 0.25% Bupivacaine. Early recovery, return to normal activities and overall patient satisfaction was significantly better in group II. Conclusion: Port site infiltration with 0.25% Bupivacaine significantly reduces early post-operative pain, enhance early recovery and improves overall patient satisfaction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
111 GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS IN FICUS MOLLIS VAHL LEAVES , Narendra Shahare* and Shroni Bodele
Ficus mollis Vahl is an important medicinal plant belongs to family Moraceae. The leaf extract of this plant in different solvents were analyzed for different phytochemicals. It shows presence of different phytochemicals like carbohydrates, phenol, tannins, proteins, amino acids, anthocyanin, saponin, flavonoid anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. The analysis of the volatile compounds in the methanolic leaf extract was performed using GC-MS. About 100 compounds were reported out of which ten compounds are major while others are minors. The major compounds include Deoxyspergualin (7.79%), ç-Sitosterol (7.05%), Cyclopentasiloxane, decamethyl- (5.07%), dl-à-Tocophero (4.25%), 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-(3,8,12,16-tetramethyl-heptadeca-3,7,11,15 tetraenyl)-cyclohexanol (2.75%), à-Amyrin (2.43%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, 2,3-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]propyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.41%), Phytol (2.39%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, 2,3-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]propyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.31%) and Cyclohexasiloxane, dodecamethyl- (2.12%).
112 THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC UNIFLORAL ATAMISQUI HONEY (ATAMISQUEA EMARGINATA): IN VITRO AND IN VIVO BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION , Marcos A. Reynoso, Franco A. Medina and Nancy R. Vera*
The present study was carried out to investigate the medicinal properties and safety of organic unifloral atamisqui honey (Atamisquea emarginata). We evaluated the antioxidant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of honeys with a previous quantitative analysis of some phytoconstituents such as total phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Safety was evaluated with the acute toxicity test. The unifloral atamisqui honey (UAH) presented an important antioxidant activity with values higher than 90% (from 400 μg / ml) in both methods (DPPH and β-carotene bleaching) and similar to the positive patterns (BHT and quercetin). In addition, UAH exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the acute and chronic inflammation models. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in animals treated with both doses 14 days prior to the trial (84.13% reduction in edema and 42.63 % reduction the weight of exudate). UAH has antinociceptive activity at both central and peripheral levels. Acute toxicity results suggest that single oral doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg b.w. are safe to use in rats. Our data indicate that UAH is a natural source of bioactive substances with promising beneficial properties for human health.
113 MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS IN A PATIENT WITH BELL’S PALSY: A CASE REPORT , Maryam Jalali, Navid Kalani, Farshid Javdani and Naser Hatami*
Bell's palsy is a facial paralysis due to the demyelination of peripheral nerves of the face and it affects the person's face. In some cases, Bell's palsy is associated with multiple sclerosis, which despite the Bell’s palsy is a central nervous demyelination disease. This suggests the need to consider demyelinating autoimmune diseases, including MS, in identifying the cause of Bell’s palsy.
114 ASYMPTOMATIC CENTRAL PONTINE MYELINOLYSIS IN HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDIUM , Maryam Jalali, Dr. Navid Kalani, Farshid Javdani and Naser Hatami*
Central pontine myelinolysis occurs due to demyelination of the myelin sheath of the neurons of the Pons region of the brain stem, which may have different neurological symptoms. The case presented in our study was a 29-year-old pregnant woman who had no signs of neurological findings and was asymptomatic. The cause of the occurrence of Central pontine myelinolysis is mainly due to the incorrect correction of blood electrolytes. However, she did not show any clear electrolyte disturbances, which rejects that as an etiologic cause of this case. The similarity of this patient with other cases was malnutrition due to hyperemesis gravidium. However, Regarding to four weeks postpartum MRI, CPM complication was eliminated and normal MRI results were reported.
115 EVALUATION OF MEDICINES PRESCRIBING PATTERN AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN AT THE PRINCESS CHRISTIAN MATERNITY HOSPITAL IN FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE , Oluwatoba Atolagbe*, Joseph Sam Kanu, Mohamed Bella Jalloh, James B. W. Russell, Joseph B. A. Beckley, Onome Thomas Abiri
Background: Appropriate use of medications during pregnancy is an essential part of prenatal care, since it can affect not only the health of the pregnant woman but also that of the developing foetus. This study evaluated prescribing patterns, rational prescribing and occurrence of contraindicated medicines among pregnant women at the Princess Christian Maternity Hospital in Freetown. Materials and Methods: 314 antenatal prescriptions were obtained from the pharmacy of the Princess Christian Maternity Hospital and evaluated retrospectively. Prescription patterns, rational prescribing and risk to the foetus were evaluated using the WHO core prescribing indicators, index of rational drug prescribing (IRDP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy risk classification of medicines. Results: Excluding minerals and vitamins, 25 (8.0%) of pregnant women received at least one drug. The average number of drugs per encounter, percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name, percentage encounters with an antibiotic and an injection and the percentage of drugs prescribed from the NEML were 3.9, 49.5%, 53.5%, 2.2% and 99.9% respectively. The congruent indices of rational drug prescribing were 0.09. 0.50, 0.56, 4.55 and 0.99 correspondingly. Minerals and vitamins 394 (32.6%), were the most frequently prescribed medicines. Of all the medicines prescribed, 221 (43.1%) were FDA category C medicines followed by category A 125 (32.3%). Conclusion: The prescribing pattern was not rational as three of the prescribing indicators fell short of the WHO standard. The existence of contraindicated medicines was suitably low. Therefore, there is need to improve rational prescribing.
116 VAGINAL IMMUNITY – REVIEW ARTICLE , Bharti Mittu* and Neha
The innate immune system is the most primitive and evolutionary conserved arm of the immune system. It triggers a sequence of events leading to release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of the acquired immune system (T and B lymphocytes). Once T and B lymphocytes activated, these lymphocytes generate microbial antigen-specific cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity. A delicate balance is maintained by a complex interplay of local humoral, cell mediated and innate immunity in female reproductive system (Summers et al., 2010). Innate immune system can recognize multiple microbes and components of their cell walls. The potential pathogens can be eliminated by multiple mechanisms, which include antimicrobial factors secreted by local epithelial cells, ingestion by resident phagocytes and activation of an inflammatory response (Janeway et al., 2005).
117 DANTA SHAREERA AVALOKANA & DANTA ROGAS- A CONCEPTUAL STUDY , *Dr. Snehapriya P. R. and Dr. Venkatesh B. A.
Mouth is considered as a window into health of the body by being a gateway of the alimentary canal and by this fact it is to be understood as one of the most important part of the body. Importance has been put on to Dental hygiene to maintain health and beauty. The glorious and beautiful smiles flash only with glossy white and well arranged teeth. These are the most important organ of mechanical digestion in body. Main function of teeth is to pulverize the food, the enzymes cannot chemically digest it. Therein, painful teeth, absence of teeth or diseased teeth and gums often lead to indigestion and insufficient utilization of the undigested food, results in malnutrition. The Healthy Status of the Tooth can effectively managed with Nidana parivarjana and regular practice of Dinacharya. Maintaining proper oral hygiene helps in preventing dental health and other diseases of oral cavity. Early management of dental pathology helps in saving the teeth and its associated structures.
118 A VIEW ON HERBAL MEDICINES AND FOOD HABITS OF INDIANS AND IT’S EFFECTS ON COVID-19 AND MORTALITY RATE , Divya R., Dr. Gururaj S. Kulkarni*, Dr. Padma M. Paarakh
Since last decade the most of new infections which are causing panic effects in humans are viral infections. Many viral infections have attacked on humans and cause numerous losses of human lives. Despite of this scientists and health professional are struggling to find a right therapy to treat or eradicate completely these viral infections. There are various reasons for this delaying getting right medicines or vaccines. In such difficult situation the Indian herbal medicines and spices used in the regular food preparations proved savior to treat or control these viral infections particularly in this pandemic COVID-19. Indian herbs and spices have enormous medicinal and antioxidant properties, this prevents the effects of viral infections either by killing theme by its anti-viral properties or boost the immunity to minimize the effects of viruses. The best example for herbal medicines is turmeric curcumin, which has both anti-viral, antioxidant and prophylactic properties. Such herbs or spices helping in combating the pandemic COVID-19.
119 DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FACE PACK FOR COSMETIC PURPOSE , Kolhe Rohini C.*, Chatur Vibhavari M., Patil Sheetal V. and Dr. Ghode Shweta P.
Objective: The main objective of the work is to formulate and evaluate a face mask for cosmetic purposes. Materials and method: Sandalwood, Turmeric, Aloe vera extract, Neem, Amla, Tulsi and fullers earth were purchased at the local market and dried, pulverized and then passed through sieve no. 100, mixed geometrically and packaged in an airtight container for further evaluation. Results and Discussion: the distinctive microscopic characters of the individual powders were observed and quantitative measurements were taken. The particle size of the powder was found between 20 and 30 μm. Conclusion: Herbal compresses or masks are used to stimulate blood circulation, rejuvenate the skin and help maintain skin elasticity and remove dirt from skin pores. The advantage of herbal cosmetics is their non-toxic nature, reduces allergic reactions and the usefulness of many proven ingredients over time. Therefore, in the present work, we have found good properties for masks and more optimization studies are needed in this study to find the useful benefits of masks in human use as a cosmetic product.
120 EFFECT OF VYAGHRI TAILA NASYA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VATAJA PRATISHYAYA W.S.R. TO ALLERGIC RHINITIS , Dr. Priyanka Thakur*, Dr. Vijayant Bhardwaj, Dr. Satish Sharma, Dr. Rajika Gupta and Dr. Priya Sharma
Pratishyaya is A condition of continuous Nasal discharge, Vata Pradhana disease occur due to accumulation of Doshas in Uttamanga. Vataja Pratishyaya is explained in Ayurvedic system of medicine as Sneezing, Watery discharge from nose, Stuffy nose, Itching in nose etc. which have relevance with Allergic Rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is an IgE mediated immunologic response of nasal mucosa to airborne allergen and is characterized by watery nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, sneezing and itching in the nose. In the present study 10 patients were selected randomly and treated with Vyaghri Taila as Nasya which is mentioned as best treatment modality for uttmanga shudhi by Acharyas. The signs and symptoms were studied before and after treatment. Results of study showed moderate(50%) and marked (50%) improvement in patients.
121 CHENGE IN PROPERTIES SOIL DUE TO APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SILICO IN GARLIC FIELD , *Prof. B. J. Shete and P. U. Bhosale
The present investigation was under taken on garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Phule Nilima to study the effect of silicon at All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Department of Horticulture, MPKV, Rahuri, Dist. Ahmednagar in rabi season of 2017-18, by using different sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil and silicon availability in the soil related to growth, yield and quality characters in garlic. Fifteen treatment combinations formed by three sources of fertilizer silicon (viz., diatomaceous earth, calcium silicate and bagasse ash) with five levels of silicon (viz., 0,100,150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1) and one absolute control, were tried and each replicated three times. The basal dose of fertilizer 100 N, 50 P2O5 and 50 K2O kg ha-1was applied before planting. In case of effect of sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil, source A1 (DE) recorded significantly highest OC, while source A2 (CS) recorded significantly highest pH and EC (dsm-1) while in case of levels (B5) application of Si @ 250 kg ha-1 recorded significantly highest pH, EC, and OC. The interaction effect of sources and levels of silicon was not significant for all three soil properties under study. The pH, EC and Organic Carbon were significantly increased with treated over control.
122 CHANGE IN PROPERTIES OF SOIL DUE TO APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SILICON IN GARLIC FIELD , *Dr. B. J. Shete and P. U. Bhosale
The present investigation was under taken on garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Phule Nilima to study the effect of silicon at All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Department of Horticulture, MPKV, Rahuri, Dist. Ahmednagar in rabi season of 2017-18, by using different sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil and silicon availability in the soil related to growth, yield and quality characters in garlic. Fifteen treatment combinations formed by three sources of fertilizer silicon (viz., diatomaceous earth, calcium silicate and bagasse ash) with five levels of silicon (viz., 0,100,150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1) and one absolute control, were tried and each replicated three times. The basal dose of fertilizer 100 N, 50 P2O5 and 50 K2O kg ha-1was applied before planting. In case of effect of sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil, source A1 (DE) recorded significantly highest OC, while source A2 (CS) recorded significantly highest pH and EC (dsm-1) while in case of levels (B5) application of Si @ 250 kg ha-1 recorded significantly highest pH, EC, and OC. The interaction effect of sources and levels of silicon was not significant for all three soil properties under study. The pH, EC and Organic Carbon were significantly increased with treated over control.
123 EFFECT OF TRUNCAL VAGOTOMY ON MOTOR FUNCTION OF GALLBLADDER-A PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS , Dr. Abhijit Sarma and *Dr. Purujit Choudhury
A prospective clinical study on choleakinesia following total vagectomy (Bilateral truncal vagotomy) was carried out during the period from April 2010 to December 2016.Total 55 cases were studied who was suffering from chronic duodenal ulcer. Out of these total 55 cases fifteen cases had gastric outlet obstruction with hugely dilated stomach which was considered as control group in this study. Other 40 cases were considered as study group.Truncal vagotomy with retrocolic isoperistaltic GJA done in study group and only retrocolic isoperistaltic GJA operation done in control group. Two patients had incomplete vagotomy.All the patients were male and average age was 38.1 years.32.7% cases were belonging to the age group between 26-35 years which was the highest. Though the cases were operated till September 2016, they were followed up till December2016.Gastric acidity, oral cholecystography and ultrasonography of upper abdomen was done in both pre and post operative period. All cases were meticulously examined to exclude other associated pathology. Cases were diagnosed by Barium meal and clinical analysis.14 days post-operatively gastric acid analysis and three months post-operatively oral cholecystography was done. In the post-operative follow up period ultrasonography upper abdomen was done.39 (71%) patients were turned up for check up in post-operative period out of which 29 patients belong to complete vagotomy group. In conclusion it was seen that following total vagotomy the contraction of gall bladder was definitely reduced with decrease % loss of bile results stasis of bile. There was more than double dilatation of the gall bladder.[1,4] as detected three months post-operatively after complete section of vagus. 7.5% of patients of complete vagotomy group developed gall stones till three to four years post-operatively.[1] and 20% patients developed minimal gall bladder sludge and 5% patients developed dense peripheral sludge with wall thickening till that period. Incomplete vagotomy and control group didn’t show such significant changes. More than 50% acidity was reduced following truncal vagotomy in fasting, basal and maximum acid output in both free and total state.
124 MANAGEMENT OF PREMATURE CONTRACTIONS WITH SHATHAVARI KSHEERAPAKA BASTHI – A CASE REPORT , *Dr. Amrutha B. S. and Dr. Padmasaritha K.
Preterm labour is defined as one where the labour starts before the 37th completed week (<259 days), counting from the first day of last menstrual period. Premature contraction of the uterus is the very first sign of premature labour and Preterm birth is the significant cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In about 50% cases, the cause is not known. As per Ayurveda, akala prasava , ie preterm labour, results due to apana vatha vaigunya, the type of vatha which helps in Garbha nishkramana kriya. Basthi is considered as the best treatment for management of vitiated vatha dosha. In Garbhini, basthi is indicated after completion of 7 months of pregnancy. Here, in this study, a 20 year old, primi gravida of 36 weeks of gestation with premature contraction and reduced fetal movements is administered with shathavari ksheerapaka basthi. Per rectal basthi with 300ml shathavari ksheerapaka administerd for 3 consecutive days. This was found effective in preventing uterine contractions and further advancement of preterm labour.
125 IDENTIFICATION OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF ALBAHA PLUECHEA OVALIS AND THEIR POTENT MANIFOLD BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES , Saleh B. Alghamdi*
Cancer and microbial infections are main causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Pluchea is a genus of flowering plants belongs to Asteraceae (compositeae) family, Pluchea ovalis (PO) is one of its species growing in Albaha region. The volatile constituents were extracted with pet. ether and were identified using GC/MS analysis. It was found that, the volatile constituents consist of a mixture of 15 - selinene, humulene oxide and β- eudesmol constitutes about 61%. The aerial parts of PO were extracted with pet ether. The pet ether extract was fractionated into unsaponifiable fraction and fatty acids and their constituents were identified by GC/MS analysis. In the present study Gram (+) bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Gram (-) bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa have been used. In addition; fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were also studied. The results of antimicrobial activity of different extracts demonstrated that, pet. ether extract exhibited highest activity against B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aureus with MIC=6.4, 10.0 and 7.2 mg/ml respectively. The results of antitumor activity against colon carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) showed that alcoholic extract is most active extract with IC50 = 21.4 ± 1.3 μg/ml.
126 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON LIPOSOMES , Zaquiyya Naaz*, Dr. Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
This article is intended to provide an overview of liposomal drug delievery system. In this, we focussed on the factors affecting the behaviour of the liposomes, these are one amongst the various drug delievery system is used to target the drug to particular tissue. Because of structure similarity between the lipid bilayer and cell membrane, lip[osomes can easily penetrate and show their effect and a free drug would not penetrate. Liposome were first made by A.D Bangham in early 1960. Their size range from 25 to 500nm.
127 PHARMACOSOMES: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Kirti Negi*, Dr. Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
Pharmacosomes are colloidal dispersion of drugs covalently bound to lipids and may exist as ultrafine vascular, micellar or hexagonal aggregates, depending on the chemical structure of drug-lipid complex. Pharmacosomes are the amphiphilic phospholipid complexes of drug bearing active hydrogen that bind to phospholipid. It is based on the principle that the drug binds covalently to a lipid where the resulting compound is the carrier and the active compound at the same time. The physicochemical properties depend on drug as well as the lipid. They are mainly prepared by hand-shaking and ether injection method. The Pharmacosomes were evaluated for different parameters such as size, NMR, surface morphology and invitro release rate. This review describes all aspect of Pharmacosomes including composition, method of preparation, method of characterization and their therapeutic application. Pharmacosomes have been prepared for various non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins, cardiovascular and anti-neoplastic drugs.
128 RARE COLLISION TUMORS IN THE PROSTATE , Dr. Spasimir T. Shopov*
Collision tumors are rare, consisting of two or more distinct neoplasms that develop adjacent to one another and coexist with no or minimal intermingling between them. Their diagnosis is often incidental and their behavior remains widely unknown. Several theories have been proposed regarding their pathogenesis. I report a 75-year-old man with a mictional disturbances for several years. Ultrasound examination of organs in a small pelvis: enlarged prostate, and stagnant urine in the bladder. Paraclinical: PSA 19,7 ng/ml. Histologically: a collision between two tumors in the prostate.
129 STUDIES ON ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MUD WASP NEST ACTINOMYCETES AGAINST MTCC BACTERIAL STRAINS BY SCREENING METHODS , Nithiya G., Umadevi D., *B. K. Nayak and Anima Nanda
During the study period, actinomycetes were isolated from mud wasp nest by serial dilution pour plate method. All the actinomycetes were curtained for their antagonistic proeprties against pathogenic bacterial strains procured from IMTECH, Chandigarh, India. Initially the actinomycetes were primarily screened by cross streak method and only two potential actinomycetes were tested subjected to secondary screening which was done by Agar well diffusion method. Most of the isolates were found active against E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Vibrio cholerae. Most of the actinomycetes (around (80%) showed good antagonistic effect against most of the tested pathogens and 20% of the total actinomycetes were found non-effective against the test pathogens.
130 STUDIES ON THE FUNGAL DIVERSITY AND THEIR PREVALENCE ON THE ANTHILL SOIL COLLECTED FROM PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY CAMPUS , Ramkumar R., Surendra S., *B. K. Nayak and A. Nanda
Studies on fungal diversity of diverse soils mostly trust on its fruitful implication to find bio-compounds for the purpose of bioprospecting. Fungi not only provide pharmaceutical products, such as antibiotics and other valuable substances, but also organic acids, enzymes, pigments and secondary metabolites which are employed in the food and fermentation industry. Many soil fungi are used as biological control agents for plant pathogens and insect pests. In our recent work, anthill soil samples of Pondicherry University campus were studied to record the incidence of fungal composition and their diversity. Aspergillus niger was found as the dominant one and it was followed by Penicillium chrysogenum and Sterile mycelia. One-gram anthill soil was found to harbor 5000 to 6000 fungal spores in our study. The results obtained clearly indicated that Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus awamori and Penicillium digitatum, Trichoderma were of high occurrence in anthill soil and other fungi like Fusarium, Cladosporium sp., Curvularia and Rhizopus were isolated with least numbers. Among the isolates, aspergilli, penicilli and white sterile mycelia were dominant in anthill soils due to their high sporulation capacity and high adaptability nature. The frequency of mycoflora in anthill soil were found to be regulated by many factors like humidity, vegetation, temperature, inorganic and organic materials, soil type and its texture.
131 EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS SEED EXTRACTS AGAINST PECTOBACTERIUM CAROTOVORUM CAUSING BLACK LEG AND SOFT ROT OF POTATO   , G. Biswal* and N. K. Dhal
Studies were conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar following inhibition zone technique to test the bio-efficacy of seed extracts in vitro against Pectobacterium carotovorum causing pre-emergence and post–emergence rotting, black leg in field soft rot in storage in potato. The seeds used in the tests were Terminalia chhebula (Chhebulic myrobalan),T. belerica (Beleric myrobalan), Emblica officinalis (Indian goose berry), (Azadirachata indica (Neem), (Greater cardamom), Rauvolfia serpentina (Snake root), Coriandrum sativum (Dhania), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Nigella sativa (Black cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Cassia fistula (Indian laburn), Cassia tora (Senna tora). The results revealed that R.serpentina exhibited maximum size of inhibition zone 13.53 followed by A.subulatum(11.33) against the test bacterial species .The inhibition zone was found to be10.0mm in seed extracts of T.chebula while 9.30mm in F.vulgare 8.68 in C.cyminum and 8.03mm in N.sativa. There was no significant difference in antibacterial activity between A aromaticum (7.97) and A.indica(7.92). The antibacterial activity was same(7.01mm) in T.bellirica and C.viscosa. In P.nigrum, C.fistula and C.tora expressed same inhibiting activity (6.95mm). Minimum inhibition zone was observed in E.officinallis (6.68mm).  
132 ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE PROFILE OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM DAIRY FARMS MANURE IN BAHRI LOCALITY, SUDAN , Sarah Azhary Mohamed, Yassir A. Almofti*, Elniema A. Mustafa and Sheimaa S. A. O. Fagirii
This study was conducted between November 2016 and February 2018 and aimed to isolate some bacteria, mainly E. coli, Staphylococci and Salmonella from dairy farms manure and to assess their antibiotics resistance profile to different antimicrobial agents. This study included 19 dairy farms distributed in Bahri locality, Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 95 manure samples were collected from these farms and a questionnaire was introduced to each dairy farm owner before samples collection. The questionnaire showed that the density of the cows within the farms was appropriate. Mastitis was common in visited farms and the control of mastitis was made by the owners. The majority of the farms had no hoof care and the incidence of lameness was frequent. Also multiple diseases such as abortion, metritis, retention of placenta, pneumonia, eye infection and calf diarrhea that requires antibiotic treatment were prevalent in the visited farms. The majority of the cows received at least two courses of antibiotics treatment per year. In addition to that the most commonly used antibiotics were tetracycline and tylosin, penicillin and the least used antibiotic was ciprofloxacin. These antibiotics were mostly administered by the owners rather than veterinarians. A total of 68 bacterial isolates were identified using the conventional bacteriological isolation method. These include 28 isolates as E. coli (41.18%), 26 isolates as Staphylococci (38.23%) and 14 isolates as Salmonella (20.58%). The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using broth microdilution method. The three isolates showed resistance to Erythromycin, Azithromycin and Tetracycline but demonstrated susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin. Therefore, it could be concluded that untreated manure could impose a great risk if it is used as a fertilizer in vegetables farms as the resistant bacteria in manure may transferred to humans through contaminated vegetables.
133 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF TUBER EXTRACTS OF CHLOROPHYTUM BORIVILIANUM , *Sunil Kumar and Vinai Kumar
Chlorophytum borivilianum is an important medicinal plant knows as 'Safed musli' and is used in herbal drug industries. In the present investigation the extracts obtained from tubers of C. borivilianum were used to evaluate in-vitro antibacterial activities against three bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus and Paenibacillus. Glacial acetic acid, petroleum ether, methanol and water were used as solvent to prepare tuber extract. The antibacterial activity of tuber extract for the micrococcus sensitivity was observed as 6, 15, 18 and 12mm zone of inhibition at 50 mg/ml conc. of water, methanol, glacial acetic acid and petroleum ether respectively. The most effective conc. for the antibacterial activity of tuber extract was 50 mg/ml conc. of glacial acetic acid.
134 CONTRIBUTION OF HOSPITAL SERVICES TO THE OCCURRENCE OF ADVERSE EVENTS AFTER DISCHARGE FROM A SECONDARY HOSPITAL IN NORTHERN GHANA , Inusah Deunaa Iddrisu*, Akwasi Anyanful and Samuel Victor Nuvor
Background: Being discharged from the hospital is sometimes associated with complications which may be dangerous to the patient. Adverse events are unintended injuries or complications which may result in death, disability and prolonged hospital stay after discharge or related to the hospital visit. 6th to 19th of January 2018 and the incidence, types and severity of adverse events after hospitalization in a secondary hospital in Northern Ghana. Method: A prospective cohort study was used to establish the relationship between adverse events and hospital services. This was carried out with patients admitted and discharged from Wa Hospital. A total of 206 patients were recruited from the medical, surgical and emergency wards of the hospital. Finding: the result shows that there was a significant influence of the type of hospital ward a patient was admitted to on types of adverse events reported (r=-0.251, p=0.005) 6th to 19th of January 2018. However there were no other significant influences of service delivery factors on the severity of adverse events reported. There were also no significant influences of specific service delivery factors on the general incidence of reported adverse events. Conclusion: Understanding of how health services delivered leads to adverse events will help in improvement in patient outcomes and reduce the occurrence of adverse events after patients had been discharged from the hospital.
135 COSMETOVIGILANCE: COSMETICUTILISATION PATTERN, ADVERSE EVENTS AND AWARENESS ABOUT COSMETOVIGILANCE AMONG PARAMEDICS IN SOUTH KERALA , Dhanya Dharman*, Shammy Rajan, Prof. Shaiju S. Dharan
Cosmetovigilance is an ongoing process and systematic monitoring of the safety of cosmetic in terms of human health. The aim of Cosmetovigilance is to detect the best effect of cosmetic product and to prevent adverse effects by taking appropriate measure. The study was conducted among pharmacy students and pharmacy graduate in Kerala by KAP questionnaire for a period of 6 month. Approximate 67 pharmacy students and pharmacy graduates were responded to this study. Among this 67 peoples, they use cosmetics to boost their confidence, for leisure purpose and without any indications, and they experiences the type of reactions were itching,burning sensation, hyper pigmentation, hair loss and running eyes. The process of Cosmetovigilance is evolving and coming up as a strong regulatory science to protect public health and beauty. In European Union, directive 76/768/EEC regulates the monitoring of cosmetics. The unwanted or adverse reactions due to cosmetic products are very low go unnoticed,or unde reported due to lack of proper organized reporting system. India can initiate to have formal Cosmetovigilance system. In future it could contribute to increased safety of cosmetics use which is important for the safeguard of public health.
136 RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CANDESARTAN AND AMLODIPINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS , M. K. Ranganath, Kalyani Arikatla*, Prasanta Deka
The main objective of this study is to develop a reverse phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of candesartan and amlodipine bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form with a simple, rapid, specific, validated and sensitive method. An isocratic separation is achieved using C18(150 x 4.6mm, 5μ) with mobile phase comprises of water and methanol in the ratio of 10:90 v/v. candesartan shows a retention time 3.5min and amlodipine shows 1.17min at 1ml/min flow rate and the wavelength was detected at 355nm. Robustness, specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, LOD and LOQ was validated using this method. The LOD and LOQ are 0.48 and 1.5 for amlodipine and 0.75 and 2.3 for candesartan respectively. The calibration curve in the concentration range of 4-24 mcg/ml for both AMLO and CANDE are linear with the coefficient of correlation 0.997 and 0.998 respectively. The % of recovery of candesartan is 99.5% and amlodipine is 100.3% and the % od RSD is <2%. This method is successfully applied for quantitative determination of candesartan and amlodipine bulk as well as the formulation.
137 ROLE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS BY TRADITIONAL PRACTITIONERS OF KADAPA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA , *S. Rajagopal Reddy and A. Madhusudhana Reddy
Plants occupy an important place in Indian medical systems. Every nation has its own set of medicinal plants. Plants are integral parts of Indian life and culture. The present article attempts to highlight the importance of some medicinal plants which are traditionally used in the treatment of psychological disorders by the people of Kadapa District. About 33 plant species belonging to 31 genera and 23 families were documented. All these plant species are used to treat 20 psychological disorders. Significance of these plants in different psychological disorders has been discussed. People of this study area are highly conscious about medicinal plants which have their defined roles and importance. These plants are found in wild as well as grown in close vicinity of people in various places of this study area. These medicinal properties are not only showing the human relation with plant diversity, but also help in the conservation of species.
138 EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ACACIA MODESTA , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam*
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate in-vitro efficacy of antibacterial activity of crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Acacia modestaagainstsome human pathogenic bacterial strains.Acacia modesta, commonly known as Phulai, is a member of the family Leguminosae) and sub-family Mimosaceae. It is a deciduous, slow-growing small tree with thorny young shoots and dark brown and black wood. The plant is also popular in herbal medicines, including those for the treatment of muscular conditions, back pain, and stomach problems. Methodology: Crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Acacia modestawere used for antibacterial screening. Antibacterial activity was tested against pathogenic bacterial strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus Pumilus, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Enterobacteraerogenesand Streptococcus pneumonia.Antibacterial activity of Acacia modesta extract was carried out by using disc diffusion method. Results: The crude methanolic extract showed moderate activity against E. coli (40.74%), P. aeruginosa (40.74%) and B. pumalis (40%), low against S. epidermidis (34.61%), S. typhi (22.22%), S. pneumoniae(27.58%) and E. aerogens (31.03%) and no activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. The n-hexane fraction was significantly active against K. pneumoniae (66.66%) and moderately active against E. coli (48.14%), S. typhi (51.85%), P. aeruginosa (51.85%) and B. pumalis (40%). It showed low activity against S. epidermidis (34.61%), S. pneumoniae (20.68%), S. aureus (38.46%) and E. aerogens (34.48%). Chloroform fraction was moderately active against K. pneumoniae (57.14%), S. typhi (48.14%), E .aerogens (41.37%) and B. pumalis (40%) and low active against S. aureus (38.46%), P. aerugenosa (37.03%), S. epidermidis (34.61%), E. coli (33.33%) and S. pneumoniae (24.13%). Significant activity was shown by theEtOAcfraction against K. pneumoniae (61.90%), moderate against S. typhi (48.14%), E. coli (44.44%), P. aeruginosa (44.44%) and B. pumalis (40%) while low activity against E. aerogens (37.93%), S. aureus (34.61%), S. epidermidis (34.61%) and S. pneumoniae (24.13%). The aqueous fraction showed moderate activity against S. epidermidis (53.84%), B. pumalis (44%), E. coli (48.14%) and S. typhi (40.74%), low activity against K. pneumoniae (38.09%), P. aeruginosa (37.03%), E. aerogens (37.93%), S. aureus (34.61%) and no activity against S. pneumoniae.The n-hexane and EtOAc fractions exhibited significant while CHCl3fraction showed moderate activity against K. pneumoniae. The aqueous fraction showed low activity against the majority of test pathogens.The crude methanolic extract have low activity against most of the test pathogens. Conclusions: The results concludes that n-hexane, ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia modesta possess antibacterial activity.
139 INCIDENTAL RISK OF PRE-DIABTES AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAKKARDARA REGION AT NAGPUR : AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , *Dr. Anjali Turale, Dr. Vrushali Khandekar, Dr. Shubhangi Kshirsagar, Dr. Madhavi Charmode and Dr. Vijay S. Jadhav
Introduction-Pre-diabetes is a precursor condition for type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Although in many cases it is reversible, Pre-diabetes frequently remains undiagnosed and therefore risk of developing type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increased. The risk factors for pre-diabetes are same as those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. An individual’s risk factors for pre-diabetes include obesity, high waist circumference, family history of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. Pre-diabetes itself is a risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.(4) Material and Methods-In this study 66 individuals were selected from our institutions on the basis of Indian diabetes risk score and blood sugar level. After diagnosed pre-diabetic individuals all were observed for demographic characteristics andthe statistical analysis done. conclusion-In this observational study we can conclude that Age, occupation, dietary habits, frequency of micturition at night, physical Inactivity, diwaswap( day time sleep), overweight or abnormal BMI, Kapha predominant prakriti all these factors might be the risk factors for Pre-diabetes and Diabetes.
140 HOW FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM HELPS YOU TO MAKE YOUR DOSAGE FORM MORE RELEVANT: A REVIEW , Modi Yagneshkumar Dipakbhai*, Dr. Chainesh Shah and Dr. Umesh Upadhyay
The foremost goal behind the composition of this article on the floating drug delivery system (FDDS) was to systematize the ongoing writing with the center cycle of floatation in gaining gastric maintenance. The various procedures utilized in the improvement of FDDS by developing the bubbly and non bubbly kind of floating tablets premise of which is lightness system. FDDS is a strategy to convey the drugs that are dynamic locally with a thin retention window in the upper gastrointestinal plot, unsteady in the lower intestinal climate, and have low solvency with higher pH esteems. The tale techniques in FDDS incorporate ways to deal with plan a solitary unit and different unit floating systems, the physiological and definition changeability influencing gastric maintenance alongside the utilization of as of late concocted and created polymers. This audit likewise centers around different in vitro methods and in vivo examinations taking into account execution and use of floating systems. Floating dose structures can be conveyed in customary structures like tablets, containers with the expansion of reasonable fixings alongside the gas producing operator. This survey additionally illuminates various strategies utilized in creating floating dose shapes alongside current and novel progressions.
141 IMMINENT ATTRIBUTES OF SPLENDID STAR FRUIT (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L.) , Lakha Ram, Sukhraj Punar, Sulochana Sharma, Ashok K. Kakodia, Raaz K. Maheshwari
Indisputably, fruits are very important in our daily diet for various health benefits. However, some fruits may contain high amounts of unique secondary metabolites, which are hazardous to our health. Star-fruit plants are cultivated commercially in tropical countries for their fruits. This fruit have several medicinal properties; hence, it is used medicinally for many years in Ayurvedic treatments. Star-fruits contain various antioxidants which are considered medicinally important and beneficial for the health. The Starfruit is sweet tasting fruit that possesses high nutritional value. From the time immemorial, the whole starfruit tree is used as a traditional medicine. The medicinal properties of Starfruit include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, anti-ulcer, hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, anti-tumor activities. It is effectively used in diabetes and help to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. The endeavour of this review is to highlight the nutritional aspects, medicinal value, toxicological traits, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities along with the current trends in research on starfruit.
142 DETECTION OF LEISHMANIA TROPICA USING NESTED PCR AND MEASURE SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN THI-QAR PROVINCE, IRAQ: EARLY DERMAL LESIONS , Mohammed Hassan Flaih*, Fadhil Abbas Al-Abady and Khwam Reissan Hussein
The study includes three local locations, Al-Hussein Teaching, Suq Al-Shyokh General and Al-Shatrah General Hospitals in province for the period from December 2018 to September 2019. The samples were collected from 80 patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Nested-PCR was used to amplify kinetoplast minicircle fragments DNA (kDNA). Also, 3ml of the venous blood was collected before they take a drug, then putted in EDTA tube for order complete blood count (CBC) test. Electrophoresis results for 80 samples of kinetoplast minicircle fragments DNA gene were amplified by Nested PCR, discovered 65 positives for cutaneous leishmaniasis and Furthermore, the results were recorded 46 (57.5%) positive samples of L. tropica at 750bp. In present study, there are not significant differences of erythrocytes count and hemoglobin concentration by compared between patients and control, whereas platelet blood count showed a significant increase. On the other hand, the statistical analysis findings were showed significant differences by compared between leukocytes count and WBC differential (neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils) of patients group and control specimen, except of monocytes which showed an insignificant difference at compared between patients group and control.
143 A CLINICAL STUDY OF CBD STONE WITH DIFFERENT SURGICAL MODALITIES OF MANAGEMENT , Dr. Abhijit Sarma and Dr. Purujit Choudhury*
Gallstone diseases are one of the most common biliary pathology. Prevalence of gallstone is 10-14% in adult population of eastern world. About 3-14.7% of cholelithiasis may be associated with common bile duct stones. The aim of this study is to study the clinical spectrum of choledocholithiasis and to study the various surgical methods available of the disease. This study also aims primarily to compare t tube closure of CBD with primary closure of CBD in terms of complication and hospital stay. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study carried out in the department of surgery of Guwahati Medical college since June, 2017 till July,2018. This study includes 110 patients who underwent various types of surgeries for choledochotomy. Stones in the CBD were detected on the basis of preoperative USG and MRCP. Results: The mean age of patients was 46.37±10.7 years and pain was the most common presenting symptom. Pain abdomen was present in 72 patients at the time of diagnosis. Jaundice was present in 42 patients where as fever was present in 30 patients. Open choledochotomy with t tube closure was done in majority of patients. Out of 110 patients 17 patients had developed various complications. Mean hospital stay of patients underwent surgery for choledochotomy is found to be 8.69 days. Mean hospital stay in primary closure is 5.86 days as compare to 10.16 days in t tube closure Conclusions: MRCP is more sensitive than USG and there is no significant difference between primary closure and T tube closure in terms of complication but primary closure is way better than t tube closure in terms of hospital stay.
144 MECHANISTIC EVALUATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULANT PROPERTIES OF TEA ON MURINE MACROPHAGE (RAW264.7) CELL LINE , Vishal Sharma, Piyali Das, Shila Elizabeth Besra*
NO plays many more roles in the immune system as well as in other organ systems. Macrophages are key modulator and effectors cells in the immune response, their activation influences and respond to other arms of the immune system. Generation of NO is a feature of genuine immune-system cells (dendritic cells, NK cells, mast cells and phagocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages, microglia, Kupffer cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils). The present study elaborated the immunomodulatory effects of Tea on RAW264.7 cell line. Tea treated cells showed enhancement in NO production whereas it showed marked enhancement when cells were stimulated with rIFN-ϒ. Pretreatment with PDTC and NGMMA to the rIFNϒ plus Tea treated RAW264.7 cells ameliorated NO production as compared to the primed cells. It was found that Tea acted as an accelerator of activation of RAW264.7 cells by rIFNϒ via a process involving L-arginine-dependent NO production and that Tea elevated NO production via activation of NF-Kb signaling pathway. These findings suggest that Tea can be a potential immunostimulant beverage.
145 FREE-RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF FLOWER AND FRUIT EXTRACTS CADABA FRUTICOSA (L.) DRUCE , A. Valankanni*, T. Sekar, P. Gurusaravanan and S. Sujatha
Objective: In the present study, antioxidant activities flower and fruit of the pet-ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts from Cadaba fruticosa (L.). Flower and fruit were investigated by employing established in-vitro studies. C. fruticosa is one of the folk herbal used in various traditional medicaments. Many people of rural and urban areas depend upon treatment, which has been developed through prolonged traditional experience. Method: The ability of the plant extract to act as hydrogen/electrons donor or scavenger of radicals were determined by in-vitro antioxidant assays using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH.) scavenging, reducing power assay, superoxide radical (O2*-) scavenging activity, phosphomolybdenum assay, FRAP and metal chelating activity ,were performed to know the antioxidant potency of the plant extract of flower and fruit of C. fruticosa. Result: Results are evaluate higher in flower and fruit of C. fruticosa recorded antioxidant as well as to phytochemical quantitative of total phenol and flavonoid present in the plant extracts of C. fruticosa. The plant C. fruticosa methanolic extract of flower showed greater IC50 for DPPH assay (11.23μg/ml) and compare to other extract, higher Reducing power activity flower in methanol (1.296 ascorbic acid /100g extract), better fruit in phosphomolybdenum reduction (104.6mg/g extract) and higher superoxide radical scavenging activity in fruit extract (92.06%). However, the better metal chelating ability was shown by the water extracts of flower (9.11 Ascorbic acid /100g) compared to other solvent extracts. Conclusion: The result indicates the antioxidant and total phenol activity potential of C. fruticosa.
146 A LACONIC APPRAISE OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF INDIAN DEVIL TREE - ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS (L.) R.BR. , Lakha Ram, Sukhraj Punar, Ashok K. Kakodia, Bina Rani, Upma Singh and Raaz K. Maheshwari*
The decoction, mostly prepared from the bark, is used to treat a variety of diseases, of which the most important is malaria. In Ayurveda, it is used as a bitter and as an astringent herb for treating skin disorders, malarial fever, urticaria, chronic dysentery, diarrhea, and in snake bite. Alkaloids such as chlorogenic acid and several other hallucinogenic indole alkaloids which have been reported in the seeds of A. scolaris are chlorogenine, alstovenine, reserpine, echitamine, ditamine, and venenatine. 7-megastigmene-3, 6, 9-triol and megastigmane-3β, 4α, 9-triol are the two important structures which have been identified and were extracted from the leaves of A. scholaris and are known to be C13-norisoprenoids. Alstonic acids such as 2, 3-secofernane triterpenoids were also found to be isolated from leaves of A. scholaris. The plant Alstonia scholaris has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. It is reported to contain various types of alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids. A. scholaris is also observed to possess antioxidant, immunomodulatory effects, and free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, analgesic, hepatoprotective, wound healing, antidiarrheal, and antiplasmodial activities. The current review summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological delineation on A. scholaris.
147 MICROSPHERES AS CONTROLLED & SUSTAINED ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Patel Parita N.*, Dr. Chainesh Shah and Dr. Umesh Upadhyay
Microspheres are naturally free flowing powders having molecule size going from 1-1000 μm comprising of proteins or polymers. Commercially available in wide variety of materials, including ceramics, glass, polymer & metals. Microspheres are spherical microparticles. In general microspheres are solid or hollow & do not have fluid inside, as opposed to microcapsules. There are different methodologies in conveying remedial substance to objective site in sustained controlled delivery style. Very much planned controlled medication conveyance framework can conquer issues of show drug treatment and gives better restorative adequacy of medication. It is dependable way to convey medication to objective site with explicitness, whenever altered, and to keep up ideal fixation at site of intrigue. Besides microspheres are of micron size so they can undoubtedly find way into different hair like beds which are likewise having micron size. Microspheres got lot of consideration for delayed delivery, yet in addition for focusing of anticancer medications. There are different branches of medication like malignancy, pneumonic, cardiology, radiology, gynaecology, and oncology and so on, various medications are utilized and they are conveyed by different sorts of medication conveyance framework. Among them microspheric drug conveyance framework has increased tremendous consideration. Motivation behind audit is to gather different kinds of microspheres, various techniques to readiness, its applications and furthermore different boundaries to assess their proficiency.
148 INTERVENTION OF ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY AND RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISE TO INCREASING MUSCLE STRENGTH IN NON-HEMORRHAGIC POST STROKE PATIENTS , Ismunandar Wahyu Kindang*, Rr. Sri Endang Pujiastitu and Arwani
Background: The function of the brain is as the control center of every member of human movement, so the damage to the brain causes loss of brain function. Disturbances that occur in sensory and motor functions in stroke patients cause imbalance and difficulty walking due to disturbances in muscle strength, balance and coordination of movements. Motor neuron disorders with symptoms such as limb movement disorders, loss of voluntary movement control (conscious movement), limited muscle tone, and limited reflexes that can result in weakness and contractures for a long time which can result in paralysis of the upper extremities and lower extremities. Objective: Analyzing the effect of the combination of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention and Range of Motion on the improvement of motor function in non-hemorrhagic post stroke patients. Method: This study used a Quasy Experiment research method and used a pretest - posttest design with a control group design. 60 respondents were divided into 2 groups, the intervention group (n = 30) was given a combination of ACT and ROM while the control group (n = 30). Data analysis using Friedman. Result: shows that there is a significant difference in upper limb muscle strength with p value = 0,001 and lower limb muscle strength p value = 0,001 while the range of motion of the upper limb p value = 0,001 and the range of motion of the lower limb p value = 0,001. Conclusion: The combination of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Range of Motion affects the improvement of motoric function in non-hemorrhagic post stroke patients.
149 MOTOR RELAXATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS , Rizkaningsih*, Rr. Sri Endang Pujiastuti and Supriyana
Background: Hemodialysis is one of the management measures for patients with chronic renal failure, apart from having benefits, on the other hand, it can generally cause physical, psychological stress to patients during and after hemodialysis, one of which is blood pressure instability. Motor relaxation is a physical exercise on the patient's upper and lower extremities during hemodialysis which can cause the patient's relaxation response during hemodialysis. Objective: To analyze the effect of motor relaxation on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Methods: Used a True Experimental approaches pre-post test design with control group, research was conducted in RSU Anutapura Palu with the number of 40 respondents who met the inclusion criteria using the technique of simple random sampling. Respondents were divided into intervention groups (n = 20) and control groups (n = 20). Data analysis used Repeated Measures ANOVA test. Results: It shows that there is a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in the intervention group before and after the intervention with a p value of 0.000 <0.05 and there is a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure in the intervention group before and after the intervention with p value 0.000 <0, 05 Conclusion: Relaxation motor effect on the blood pressure fitting ie n undergoing hemodialysis. It is suggested that this intervention could be used as an independent nursing measure in reducing complications of hemodialysis.
150 FLAVONOIDS, PHENOLICS, AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF THE SEAGRASSES ENHALUS ACOROIDES AND THALASSIA HEMPRICHII OF GO-SOON CARMEN, AGUSAN DEL NORTE, PHILIPPINES , Efren Tangon*, Elvinia R Alivio, Jocelyn A. Pajiji and Kingpu O. Ajik
The total flavonoids and total phenolics contents are important parameters of the antioxidant that inhibit oxidation or reactions promoted by oxygen, peroxides, or free radicals. The total flavonoids and total phenolics contents and antioxidant activities of the seagrasses Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii collected from Go-soon, Carmen, Agusan Del Norte, Philipines were determined using Aluminum Chloride complex forming assay for the total flavonoid content, Folin-Ciocalteu reagents with analytic grade gallic acid as the standard for the total phenolic contents and the antioxidant activities were determined using DPPH and ABTS. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Thalassia hemprichii had the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents which values were 0.078 mgGA/g and 0.454 mg Q/g, followed by Enhalus acoroides which values were 0.037 mgGA/g and 0.096 mg Q/g. The strongest free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) of the extracts were recorded by Thalassia hemprichii followed by Enhalus acoroides which values were 0.006 and 0.005 mg trolox/g respectively. The results of the radical cation decolorization power (ABTS) showed Thalassia hemprichii 0.252 mg trolox/g and Enhalus acoroides 0.005 mg trolox/g. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS demonstrated a strong linear relationship with the phenolics and flavonoids. The results suggested that the seagrasses have strong antioxidant potential and could be a source of natural antioxidant compounds.
151 CARBAMAZEPINE IN BIPOLAR DISORDER: AN OVERVIEW , Vijay D. Havaldar*, Snehal S. Shinde, Nilam Y. Jadhav and Savita S. Mali
The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the bipolar disorder and potential use of carbamazepine (CBZ) in such bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is characterized by affective episodes such as manic, hypomanic or major depressive. This paper covers the information about the bipolar disorder, its consequences and pathophysiology in brief. Also, it focuses on the potential use of anticonvulsant drug, carbamazepine in such disorder and its superiority over other drugs such as chlorpromazine and lithium. Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder and carbamazepine is effective in combination therapy with other drugs as compared to monotherapy. More emphasis should be given on the treatment adherence by the patient while treating bipolar disorder.
152 INCREDIBLY VIVACIOUS AEGLE MARMELOS L. CORR. (GOLDEN APPLE) AND ITS COMPREHENSIVE THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS: AN EYE-CATCHING REVIEW , Ravi Sharma, Abhilasha Chaudhary, Lakha Ram, Ashok K. Kakodia, Sukhraj Punar, Sulochana Sharma and Raaz K. Maheshwari*
Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. Several parts of A. marmelos have been reported as various traditional healers for treating various ailments of mankind. These contains Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antidiarrheal, Antidiabetic, Antiproliferative, Cytoprotective, Hepatoprotective, Antifertility, Analgesic, Antiarthritis, Contractile, Antihyperlipidemic, Cardioprotective, Radioprotective, Anticancer, Antiviral, Anti-ulcer, Immunomodulatory and Wound Healing properties. A number of biologically active compounds isolated from various parts of A. marmelos which Baelongs to various chemical groups. The isolated components Baelong to Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Vitamins, Coumarins, Tannins, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids, Fatty Acids, Essential Oils and some other miscellaneous compounds. This review mainly focused on several phytochemical and pharmacological studies which have explained phytoconstituents and therapeutic potential of A. marmelos.
153 INCIDENTAL RISK OF PRE-DIABETES AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAKKARDARA REGION AT NAGPUR: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , *Dr. Anjali Turale, Dr. Vrushali Khandekar, Dr. Shubhangi Kshirsagar, Dr. Madhavi Charmode and Dr. Vijay S. Jadhav
Introduction-Pre-diabetes is a precursor condition for type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Although in many cases it is reversible, Pre-diabetes frequently remains undiagnosed and therefore risk of developing type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increased. The risk factors for pre-diabetes are same as those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. An individual’s risk factors for pre-diabetes include obesity, high waist circumference, family history of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. Pre-diabetes itself is a risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.[4] Material and Methods-In this study 66 individuals were selected from our institutions on the basis of Indian diabetes risk score and blood sugar level. After diagnosed pre-diabetic individuals all were observed for demographic characteristics andthe statistical analysis done. conclusion-In this observational study we can conclude that Age, occupation, dietary habits, frequency of micturition at night, physical Inactivity, diwaswap (day time sleep), overweight or abnormal BMI, Kapha predominant prakriti all these factors might be the risk factors for Pre- diabetes and Diabetes.
154 INVESTIGATION OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CHRYSANTHEMUM BALSAMITA AND APONYCEPUM VENETUM FOR ANTI DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY , Dr. Mehnoor Farheeen*, Neha Jabeen, Syeda Qadar Unnisa and Zehra Fatima
The testimony presented hereby fortify the entrenched use of Apocynum venetum and Chrysanthemum balsamita to alleviate depression. Regardless of extensive use of Apocynum venetum and Chrysanthemum balsamita for treating assorted affictions there is no report/ knowledge of scientific appraisal in combination of Apocynum venetum and Chrysanthemum balsamita of its anti-depressant activity. Investigation performed shows that, when the extracts of Chrysanthemum balsamita and Apocynum venetum administered to an animal model (mice), had conspicuous effects on depression pertinent related behavioral parameter’s on vulnerability to TAIL SUSPENSION TEST &FST in mice. Extracts of A. venetum and C. balsamita in combination causes anti-depressant behavior comparable with the effects of imipramine. Further investigations should be focused on neurobiological MOA and potential synergy of Chrysanthemum balsamita and Apocynum venetum extracts in combination with phytoconstituent (s) and neurotransmitters responsible for observed central actions has to be confined and recognized.
155 DETERMINATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY USING PLANT EXTRACT IN ISONIAZID –RIFAMPICIN INDUCED HEPOTOTOXIC RAT MODELS , Dr. Mehnoor Farheen*, Syeda Khairunnisa Amreen, Zehra Fatima and Syeda Qadar Unnisa
The study was conducted which involves the investigation of protective action of liver by using tubers of juncus sabulatus and the leaves of cordia macleodii against isoniazid and rifamocin induced toxic rats models.the action was assayed using ethanolic extracts by using maceration technique. The extract were screened for standard phytochemical screening. The study was analysed by invitro and invivo methods by i.p administration and the mortality and toxic signs was observed for 24hrs.The study was carried out for 21days, and were administered with dose of 200mg/kg body weight and 400mg/kg bof dy weight both individually and in combination respectively against isoniazid and rifampicin toxicated rats. Silymarin was used as a refrence standard.The biochemical parameters ,ic50 value and histological resukts wre carried out. The reults shows the effects by decrement in the levels of GOT,ALP,MDA,alkaline phosphate and total bilirubin and increasing the levels of total protein,albumin,SOD and CAT. By this study it as found that the plants contain moderate effect of protective action which was supported by the histopathological reports.
156 A BASIC REVIEW ON FLOATING TABLETS , *Kamal Kant Ravi, Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
This article is intended to provide an overview of floating drug delivery systems [FDDS]. Floating tablets prolong the gastric residence times of drugs, improve bioavailability and facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach. Floating drug delivery systems or hydro dynamically balance systems have a bulk density lower than gastric fluid and thus remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time. This results in an increased gastric retention time and a better control of the fluctuations in plasma drug concentration.
157 OVERVIEW OF TRADITIONAL USE, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE) , Riska Sri Rahayu Ningsih, Ridho Asraˡ and Harrizul Rivai*
Foeniculum vulgare is commonly known as fennel. Foeniculum vulgare is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to find information about this plant's traditional uses, phytochemicals, and pharmacological activities. Information searches were performed using Google Scholar using the keywords "Foeniculum vulgare," “fennel,” "traditional uses," "phytochemical," and "pharmacological activity." The results show that, in traditional medicine, fennel has been many traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, fever, abdominal pains, flatulence, gastralgia, gastritis, insomnia, liver pain, mouth ulcer, stomachache, and others. Fennel seeds have been shown a potential drug for the treatment of hypertension. The main components of F. vulgare seed essential oil, such as anethole, estragole, and fenchone. The researchers showed several pharmacological activities in these plants, such as antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antihepatotoxic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, antifungal, cardiovascular, and anticancer. The conclusion is that fennel is proven to have a phytochemical component, which can be used as a medicinal ingredient as a phytopharmaca.
158 HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS OF SEAGRASSES ENHALUS ACOROIDES AND THALASSIA HEMPRICHII IN BUTUAN BAY, PHILIPPINES , Jocelyn A. Pajiji*, Elvinia R. Alivio, Kingpu O. Ajik and Efren Tangon
Environmental pollution of heavy metals is increasingly becoming a problem and nowadays become a great concern due to its adverse effects. Thus, it is essential to determine the heavy metal concentrations when considering seagrasses as resource of food stuffs and medicinal purposes. The heavy metal concentrations of the seagrasses in this study were determined using a Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 200 atomic absorption spectrophotometer with acetylene as gas fuel. The results of heavy metal concentrations of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii were Zn > Cr > Pb > Cd (mg/kg), while Enhalus acoroides were Cr > Zn > Pb > Cd (mg/kg). The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations of the seagrasses were all classified as non-polluted except for the chromium concentrations of the seagrass Enhalus acoroides, which was slightly polluted. The results could be utilized also in policy decisions to strengthen the Butuan Bay integrated coastal resource management in addressing other environmental issues considering seagrasses, an important food stuffs’ resource in the area.
159 CONTRACEPTIVES IN AYURVEDA , Dr. Vidyavati R. Chavan*, Dr. Papiya Jana and Dr. Shridevi M. Reddi
Family planning is important for health of a mother and her children, as well as the family‟s economic status as parents are responsible for providing education, shelter, clothing, and food for their children. Family planning also known as contraception which includes all measures temporary and permanent, designed to prevent pregnancy due to coital act. According to WHO it is defined as “A way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily upon the basis of knowledge, attitude and responsible decisions by individuals and couples, in order to promote health and welfare of the family group and thus contribute effectively to the social development of a country. In Ayurveda it is termed as Garbha Nirodha which means control of conception. Various side effects have been observed with modern contraceptives. An incantation in the Rigveda says “A man with many children succumbs to miseries”. This is perhaps the oldest statement with a suggestion against a large family. Some local and oral contraceptives described in the ancient classics and treatises like Yogaratnakara, Brihat Yoga Tarangini, Tantra Sara Sangraha, Brihat Nighantu Ratnakara, Rasa Ratna Samucchya etc are listed. Some claims have been tested scientifically and some yet to be tested. This has been based on the wise knowledge of physiology of conception, healthy methods of fertilization, stressing on the quality of progeny and family welfare.
160 A REVIEW ON VIRAL INFECTIONS INCLUDING SPECIAL MAGNITUDE ON SYNTHETIC AND HERBAL REMEDIES , Mohini Upadhye*, Shailja Kadam and Priyanka Mule
This review describes the viral infection of the interactions between stress proteins and viral components have been described in a large variety of experimental models at different stages of the viral life cycle depending on the type of virus and host cell. viruses get more important perform and functions for humans, plants, animals, and the environment. viral infections cause of death worldwide. in addition to the viruses such as influenza, Ebola, HIV/Aids, Smallpox and Pneumonia, Herpes, Rotavirus and Chicken Pox are responsible for emergent epidemics that threaten global health. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects, also gives a special emphasis on important herbs used for treating these infections.
161 SUTIKA PARICHARYA AND ITS IMPORTANCE , *Dr. Jyoti Sharma and Dr. Papiya Jana
Post Natal Care refers to as Sutika Paricharya in Ayurvedic classics and Sutika is the phase of the woman which starts immediately after the delivery of a baby followed by expulsion of placenta. Sutika Paricharya as mentioned in classics emphasises on appropriate diet and regimen that should be followed by women in puerperium which helps restore her health and revert to normal pre pregnant state. A proper Sutika Paricharya leads to faster recovery of women in terms of her strength and health.
162 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF FAGONIA INDICA: A REVIEW , Rajshree Dahiya* and Dr. Jai Singh Vaghela
Fagonia indica belong to zygophyllaceae family commonly known as dhamasa. It is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. Many chemical constituents such as alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, flavonol, ursolic, saponins and oleanolic acids have been reported. Because of the presence of these active chemical constituents it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, astringent and analgesic.
163 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS SELF MEDICATION IN GENERAL POPULATION: A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY , Kartikey Pathak*, Irfanul Haque, Sarita Jangra Bhyan, Anjali and Purna Atray
Self-medication can be defined as taking and consuming drugs without physician’s advice for prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. Self-medication is widely practiced in urban as well as in rural population including developing countries like India because OTC medications are dispensed without prescription as it provides low-cost alternative for people. A cross-sectional, observational study was designed based on a self administered questionnaire which was designed by Google forms. From 216 respondents, 142 (65.74%) practiced self-medication in last 6 months out of which 35 were females and 107 were males. About 108 (50%) respondents have self-medicated themselves with an antibiotic. About 166 (76.85%) respondents agree that self medication is harmful where as 50 (23.15%) disagree from this fact. 175(81.02%) people think that OTC medications are effective and 130(60.19%) think that they are safe. People are well known about the consequences of self medication but still they self-medicate themselves for their convenience. Self-medication is a boon as well as a curse to the society.
164 EFFLUX PUMPS IN THE INSURGENCE OF MDR CONCEIVABLY CURATIVE WITH EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS OF THERAPEUTICALLY ORIGIN FROM PLANT SOURCES , Navroop Kaur*, Premnidhi Yadav, Hemant Kardam, Ram Pramod tiwari, Mohit Chaudhary, Deepali Vashisth, Jaya Malik, Shivani Singh, MS Laxmi, Rupal Chauhan, Poonam, Satakshi Singh, Neha Sharma
With the appearance of antibiotics, bacterial infections have been speculated to be a factor of past. However, this rather brought about the selection and evolution of microorganism with mechanisms to counter the movement of antibiotics. Antibiotic efflux is one many of the principal mechanisms, wherein microorganism pump out the antibiotics from their cell indoors to the outside surroundings the use of unique transporter proteins referred to as efflux pumps. Inhibiting those pumps appears to be a stunning approach at a time whilst novel antibiotic materials are dwindling. Molecules able to be inhibiting those pumps, referred to as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), had been considered as capability healing marketers that may rejuvenate the interest of antibiotics which are not powerful towards bacterial EPIs comply with a few well-known mechanisms of efflux inhibition and are derived from numerous herbals additionally as artificial sources. This assessment makes a specialty of EPIs and identifies the demanding situations which have stored those futuristic therapeutics far far from the industrial realm so.
165 A REVIEW ON GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME , Aparna P.*, Subash Chandran M. P., Prasobh G. R., Remya S. B., Blessy M. R., Anu A. L.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a very rare immune mediated disorder which is associated with demyelination of peripheral nervous system and progressive muscle weakness that occurs mostly in previously healthy individuals. It usually presents with ascending paralysis and is severe enough to warrant hospital admission for its management. The incidence of GBS is 1.1-1.8 cases in 100,000 per year and the incidences increases with age. GBS clinical spectrum is heterogeneous and encompasses Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (AIDP), Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy (AMAN), Acute Motor and Sensory Axonal Neuropathy (AMSAN) and Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS). The disease is typically characterized by a rapid onset of symmetrical limb weakness, which progresses over days to 4 weeks, and occurs in patients of all ages. Most patients also have sensory disturbances such as tingling or dull feelings. In developed countries GBS has become the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis. Despite improved recognition and treatment, GBS continues to be a severe disease. Efficacious treatments include intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange but supportive care during and following the hospitalization is also very much crucial.
166 DRUG SCREENING METHODS FOR PSORIASIS PLAQUES - A REVIEW , Sagar N. Ande*, Ravindra L. Bakal, Mahendra D. Kshirsagar, Anil V. Chandewar, Nitin I. Kochar, Deepak S. Mohale and Harigopal S. Sawarkar
Psoriasis is an autoimmune inflammatory skin disease characterised by red plaques with silver or white multi-layered scales and a thickened acanthotic epidermis that is markedly demarcated from the adjacent non-lesion skin in affected individuals. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial; genetic, immunological and environmental factors influencing the disease. The major lacuna in designing a dermatological disease model is recapitulating the pathophysiology of the disease from its origin until its manifestation and progression. Each model is based on a slightly different pathogenic mechanism, and each has its strong points/similarities to psoriasis, as well as its limitations, not the least of which are the fundamental morphologic differences between human psoriatic skin and murine psoriasis models. As on today, a relatively large number of models have been developed to study the disease, each trying to mirror the complexity of the mechanisms. The objective of the current review article is to consolidate all the relevant literature pertaining to the various screening methods that have been employed to study psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. This review has shortlisted the ex-vivo, in-vivo and in-vitro animal models for psoriasis which have been developed till date. Murine models in use employ xenotransplantation, direct induction method or knock-in and knock-out studies whereas models currently in use, in-vitro are 2-D and 3-D cell cultures. Also, the various therapies in existence to combat the disease have been highlighted. Although findings have been impressive, there still remains scope for identifying the ideal model of psoriasis which can mimic all the features of the disease.
167 SUSTAINED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF NOVEL APPROACH. , Prof. Remya S. B.*, Subash Chandran M. P., Prasobh G. R., Aparna P., Blessy M. R., Anu A. L.
Drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is a highly variable process and prolonging gastric retention of the dosage form extends the time for drug absorption. Novel drug delivery system overcomes the physiological problems of short gastric retention through various approaches including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), these systems float due to bulk density less than gastric fluids and so, remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time, releases the drug slowly at the desired rate from the system and increase the bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs. This review entitles the applications of sustained release floating tablets, suitable for sustained release of those drugs incompatible with floating constituents over an extended period of time for better patient compliance and acceptability. The purpose of this paper is to review the principle of sustained release drug delivery system, current technology used in the development of same as well as summarizes the applications, advantages, methodology, evaluation methods and future potential for sustained release drug delivery systems.
168 GARBHOPAGHATAKARA BHAVA – A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW , *Dr. Hamsashree and Dr. Anupama V.
Ayurveda – An ancient system of medicine, along with preventive and curative aspects of health, also explains about obtaining healthy progeny. Pregnancy which is a delicate condition gets affected by enormous factors such as food habits, lifestyle and psychological factors. The foetus, in the intra–uterine life, is in constant relation with the mother for both growth and nourishment. While explaining Garbhini Paricharya, the Ayurvedic classics have explained about the things to avoid in pregnancy called Garbhopaghatakara Bhavas. They are certain factors which when followed by a pregnant lady can harm or destroy the foetus. Data reveals that 10-20% of all pregnancies result in miscarriage, out of which 75% occur before 16th week, and 5-10% of the pregnancies lead to Preterm Labor. In today’s fast moving life, all women unknowingly follow certain things which are told as contraindications during pregnancy, due to negligence or unawareness, leading to abortions, preterm labor and other obstetrical complications. Hence, attempt is made to critically study the impact of Garbhopaghatakara Bhavas on the mother and progeny.
169 EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZERS ON SEEDLING GROWTH OF PADDY (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CV. PANVEL 3. , N. B. Pawar and N. S. Suryaawanshi2*
The present investigation was carried out in kharif season, during 2015 and 2016 at research farm, ‘Rayat Shikshan Sanstha’s, M.P.A.S.C. College Panvel, District- Raigad (Maharashtra), India. To observed the effect of different biofertilizers on growth and yield parameters on Paddy (Oryza sativa L. cv. Jaya). The experimental farm was geographically situated at 18°, 59” 40' N latitude and 73°, 06' 50” E longitude at an altitude of 28 meters above mean sea level.The experiment was laid out in RBD replicated thrice with twelve treatmentsi.e.(T0) Control (without fertilizer), (T1) Chemical fertilizer(19:19:19,) (T2) Blue green algae,(T3) Azospirillum brasilense, (T4) Bacillus megaterium, (T5)Trichoderma viride,(T6) Mycorrhizae, (T7) Pseudomonas aeruginosa,(T8)T2+T7,(T9)T2+ T6, (T10) T3+T4, and (T11) T3+T4+T7. RDC fertilizer was applied in three splitted doses. The first dose, consisting of 1/3 the normal dose, was applied before transplantation; the second 1/3 at the time of tillering; arid the last 1/3 at the panicle initiation phase. The study revealed the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, and dry matter production at various stages of growth in Paddy (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Jaya were favorably influenced by biofertilizers treatment. Overall results suggest that combine effect of Biofertilizers improves vegetative and reproductive growth of Paddy (Oryza sativa L. cv. Jaya)”.
170 ANTIMICROBIAL ASSAY OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM RHIZOSPHERE AND NON-RHIZOSPHERE AREA OF PLECTRANTHUS ROTUNDIFOLIUS POIR. , Pavithra G., Surendra S., Ramkumar R, *B. K. Nayak and A. Nanda#
Soil fungi are generally very reachable to different sources and their involvement in providing the basic needs for bioprospecting. Rhizosphere micro fungi are considered as significant decomposers in the root ecosystems, ensuring the assimilation of dead plants and animals into smaller molecules that can be used by other organisms of the soil ecosystem. During the present study, rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of the plant, Plectranthus rotundifolius Poir. were studied to record the prevalence of fungal communities. Rhizosphere soil was dominated (81%) with the fungal flora than Non-rhizosphere (19%) in our study. Aspergillus niger was found as the dominant one in Rhizosphere soil but Penicillium chrysogenum was the dominant one in Non-rhizosphere soil. The results obtained clearly indicated that Aspergillus awamori, A. flavus, A. terreus, Aspergillus niger, White sterile mycelia, Gray sterile mycelia and Penicillium citrinum were recorded at different concentration in both the soils. Among the isolates Aspergillus and white sterile mycelia were dominant in all the soil conditions due to high sporulation capacity. Quantitatively, the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils contributed 3000 and 1000 fungal spores respectively in their environments. Antimicrobial properties of the active grown agar plug of the isolated dominant fungi were found very good against all the pathogens but Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were found as more susceptible towards the fungal extracts in comparison to other bacteria and Candida albicans, the later one was the third susceptible microbe among all.
171 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES ABOUT GENERIC MEDICINES AMONG DOCTORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF NORTH INDIA- A CROSSSECTIONAL STUDY , *Roshi, Sapna Gupta, Brij Mohan Gupta, Vishal R. Tandon
Background: The assessment of doctors’ perceptions and understanding about generic medicines may help in recognizing possible barriers to greater generic medicine usage. The primary objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of doctors toward generic medicines. Methods: A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary-care teaching hospital of Jammu. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP about generic medicines. The doctors working in this institute during the study period were included. Results: All the participants had fair idea about generic medicines and Jan Aaushadi scheme, maximum (92.7%) of them knew about the Jan Aaushadi store near the hospital. 90.9% of the participants had knowledge about the cost of generic medicine. Only 72.7% knew about the bioequivalence studies being conducted. Only 36.36% of the doctors had an attitude that generic medicine should be prescribed over branded medicine. No one among the participants had an attitude that generic medicines are for poor. 97.2% of the participants were of the attitude that continuous monitoring should be done to see the efficacy and safety of generic medicines. 99% of the doctors said that they prescribe generic medicines, 18.18% of them used to read articles comparing efficacy and safety of generic and branded medicines. Conclusion: The study showed that the doctors were well aware of generic medicines and Jan Aushadhi scheme of Govt. of India. It was also observed that efficacy, safety and quality profile of the medicine were the most important factors considered by doctors when they prescribe drugs.
172 REGULAR CLEANING OF EAR CANAL WITH BETADINE SWAB AND COTTON PLUG APPLICATION IN THE CANAL IN PATIENTS OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA (CSOM) – DO THESE REALLY HELP? , Dr. Pankaj Srivastava*, Dr. Rohit Mehrotra, Mansi Pankaj, Manvi Pankaj
Introduction- Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases worldwide especially affecting children. Hearing impairment is one of the most common sequelae of CSOM if not treated early. In this prospective study patients mostly had ear discharge as chief complaint. Itching being the second complaint. Third was hearing impairment. Although in all available literature betadine cleaning is advisable and has shown beneficial effect and seems to be logical. But in this study the effect of betadine ear cleaning and cotton application in the ear of CSOM patients has not shown any beneficial effect, rather it has shown a worse result. Method- Patients having Tubotympanic type CSOM, who had unilateral or bilateral ear discharge were divided into two groups. One group was advised to do Betadine dipped cotton swab cleaning of ear canal twice a day and keep a clean cotton in the ear all the time, it was called Group A. Second group was asked not to clean their ear and apply cotton in their ears. This was called Group B. Both group of patients were prescribed Ciprofloxacin ear drops for two weeks and if after two weeks discharge persisted, oral Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid was given for 5 days. Patients were followed every two week and the amount of discharge and other complaints were noted. Data was collected and filled in Performa. Conclusions- Antibiotics in the form of ear drops or sometimes oral are mainstay antibiotic treatment in CSOM. In addition patients are advised to clean the ear with betadine and to apply cotton to keep ear dry and clean. In our study these two precautions were not found to help the patients.
173 AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY TO EVALUATE KNOWLEDGE AGAINST ADVERSE EFFECTS OF MEDICATIONS USED IN COVID-19 PATIENTS IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Dr. Namrata Pawar, *Dr. Vasundhara Bhople, Dr. Suhaas Wighne and Dr. Uma Bhosale
Purpose: With the currently growing spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, its affective treatment is also a major concern for the medical fraternity. At present there are no proven effective therapies for COVID–19 and the vaccine is also not available yet. The current treatments mainly focus on symptomatic relief and respiratory support. Various pharmacological treatments are currently being tested for patients with COVID–19. The elderly population and patients with underlying disease are at high risk of severe illness from COVID–19.These patients were more prone to experience adverse events (AEs) due to the use of concomitant medications and limited knowledge and inappropriate promotion of unproven therapies by the media and certain public figures leading to some severe ADRs. Thus, quality pharmacovigilance has become more important than ever. Methods: An Observational, non-interventional, questionnaire-based study was conducted by the Department of Pharmacology in the COVID ward of SKNMC & GH, Pune. This was a questionnaire-based study including 12 questions on adverse effects experienced due to medication in Covid-19 positive patients. Results: Out of the total, about 14% of patients suffered from ADR due to COVID medications while 76% experienced no ADR and 10% didn’t know about any ADR. When asked about the severity of ADR; out of 14% of patients,6% wrote as they were having mild symptoms, 6% were moderate and 2% were severe. Conclusions: The study indicates that there are few ADRs related to the COVID 19 treatment. Those ADRs were not life-threatening ones.
174 ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SEA BEACH AND DRY FISH AREA OF PUDUCHERRY COAST , Nithiya E., Nayak B. K.*, Ramkumar R., Surendra S., Pavithra G. and Nanda A.
Fungi from different sources regularly soil provide pharmaceutical products and other valuable substances, including organic acids, enzymes that are used in varied ways for the mankind. In the present study, Beach soil and Dry Fish area soil of Muthialpet coast, Puducherry were studied for the isolation and enumeration of fungi based on their availability. Dry Fish area soil (73%) was dominated with the fungal flora than Beach soil (27%) in our study. Aspergillus niger was found as the dominant one in Dry Fish area soil but Penicillium chrysogenum was the dominant one in Beach soil. The results obtained clearly indicated that Aspergillus flavus, A. terreus, Aspergillus niger, A. terreus and Penicillium verruculosum were recorded at different concentration in both the soils. Among the isolates, aspergillus and penicilli were dominant in all the soil conditions due to high sporulation capacity. Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus flavus were found to be more effective fungi in order to prevent the growth of the pathogenic bacteria and Candida albicans than other isolated fungi in our present study. The frequency of mycoflora in soil samples in beach area were found to be regulated by many factors like temperature, humidity, vegetation, organic and inorganic materials, soil type and texture. Pseudomonas sp. and Candida albicans were found as more susceptible pathogens towards the fungal active plugs in our study. The present would be helpful to the enthusiastic people who have great interest to find out stressful microbe in particular with fungi from these types of environments to find any bioprospecting fungi.
175 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-UPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF AMLODIPINE AND OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL IN TABLET FORMULATION , Shweta Rajendra Yadav* and Dr. Shailesh B. Patil
A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible gradient phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and fully validated for the estimation of Amlodipine Besylate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form gradientlly using acetonitrile: triethylamine buffer(pH4.0+0.5) as mobile phase and Acquity BEH C8 column (4.6x 150 mm,2.6μg) as stationary phase and chromatogram was recorded at 237nm at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The retention time of AML were 1.5to 2.8 and OLM 3.2 to 5.5 min respectively and showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 5-25μg/ml with a concentration coefficient (R) of 0.99956 and 0.99985 respectively. The developed UPLC method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, ruggedness (reproducibility), robustness and stability. The recovery data was in the range of 98.0%to 102.0%. the proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to the development and validation of AML and OLM in tablet formulation.
176 EFFECT OF NUTRIENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON NITROGEN FIXING ABILITY OF AZOTOBACTER ISOLATED FROM DROUGHT AREA. , Pawar Jyotirmayee S.* and Khambe S. D.
Azotobacter is free living, diazotrophic bacteria found in soil, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen non-symbiotically. Isolation, characterization of Azotobacter from drought area and testing its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen can be helpful to use it as a biofertilizer in such area. Thus we can enhance the crop yield in these area. Nitrogen fixing ability of isolates is studied using different nutrients like, carbon source, molybdenum, ferrous and at various temperature, pH. NFA of the isolate can be enhanced by adding the nutrients at specific conc.
177 A CASE STUDY ON MANAGEMENT OF BHAGANDARA (FISTULA-IN-ANO) WITH CHEDANA KARMA FOLLOWED BY PRATISARNIYA KSHARA KARMA , *Dr. Prashant Saini and Dr. Anukriti Guar
Bhagandara (Fistula-in-ano) considered difficult to treat due to its high recurrence rate thus it is mentioned as Mahagada in Sushruta Samhita. A very much similar condition is described in modern medical science as Fistula-in-ano. We present a case of Kaphaja Bhagandara (Low anal Fistula-in-ano) in a 32 years old man. The case was evaluated with physical examination. Chedana Karma (Fistulectomy) followed by application of Mridu Pratisarniya Palasha Kshara under local infiltration anaesthesia was performed. There were no complications during and after procedure. No recurrence was noticed during follow-up and each complaints were also resolved.
178 PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AMONG HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS RECEIVING ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AT A TERTIARY TEACHING HOSPITAL IN FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE , Onome T. Abiri,* Diane A. Kawa, James P. Komeh, Sulaiman Lakoh, Alren O. Vandy, Abdul J. Njai, Gibrilla F. Deen, Zikan Koroma, James B.W. Russell, Samuel Massacquoi, Abdulai J. Bah, Richard M. Conteh, Thomas A. Conteh, Fawzi Thomas, Joseph S. K.
Background: Despite the benefits of Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing morbidity and mortality related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, it is associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study was therefore conducted to assess the nature, prevalence, and severity of ADRs in HIV positive patients receiving ART since no such data is available in Sierra Leone. Methods: A crosssectional descriptive study was conducted by interviewing and reviewing medical charts of 384 HIV-positive patients receiving ART at Connaught hospital in Freetown Sierra Leone. Information on socio-demographic characteristics of patients, details of medicines used, and adverse effects were collected and assessed. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the associations of the dependent variable with a 95% confidence interval and P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Of the 384 patients sampled in this study, 157(40.8%) reported at least one ADR. Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz accounted for 87(38.0%) of the ADRs, while symptoms associated with the nervous system like dizziness and sedation were the most frequently occurring ADRs 97(42.4%). Causality assessment conducted revealed that most of the ADRs were of „possible‟ causal association with the ART 129(82.2%) while severity assessment showed that 108(68.8%) were mild. In the simple logistics regression analysis, only employment status (OR=0.558, 95%CI=0.367-0.846, P=0.006) and CD4 counts (OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.093-3.005, P=0.021) were significantly associated with severity of ADR. Conclusion: Adverse drug reactions were prevalent and some caused moderate and severe ADRs that necessitated a change in therapy and medical intervention.
179 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED CAMEL MILK AND ITS EFFICACY AS PROBIOTIC , Amel Alkinany*, Adil M. A. Salman, Iman M. Elnasri and Hind A. Elnasri
Lactic acid bacteria (LABs) are important microorganisms that are becoming widely used as probiotics. They have a positive effect on human health and are commonly used in food industry. Camel milk is believed to have the ability to treat many diseases, and is considered an important source for LABs. This study aimed to identify LABs isolated from fermented camel milk and investigate its antagonist effect towards other bacteria. Twenty four samples of camel milk were obtained from different camel farms. Milk samples were allowed to ferment naturally and then isolation of LAB was carried out using MRS medium. The isolates were then subjected to different biochemical tests for identification. The tolerance of the isolates towards different temperature, pH, NaCl and bile salt concentration was also tested. The antagonist effect of the different isolates was tested against Salmonella spp, E. Coli, and Staphylococcus aureus The identified isolates were: Lactobacillus spp. (29.4%), Lactococcus spp (35.3%) and Enterococcus (17.6%) Leuconostoc mesenteroides (5.9%) and Pediococcus spp (11.8). Two isolates namely: Lactobacillus brevis and Enterococcus. faecalis were found to have the best antagonist effect against the tested bacteria. This study revealed that LAB bacteria isolated from camel milk has the potential to be used as probiotics.
180 MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF YOGHURT PURCHASED IN KHARTOUM STATE, SUDAN , Mishkat, O. Karar Altayeb, Fatima A. Douda, Elniema A. Mustafa and Prof. Adil M. A. Salman*
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of yoghurt purchased in Khartoum State during its shelf life and to compare the yoghurt produced in different factories. A total of 36 yoghurt samples were collected from December to February/2019-2020. Samples were collected from 9 groceries and 9 supermarkets with 18 samples for factory A and B in the three localities of Khartoum State. The samples were subjected to the total coliform count (TCC), tentative isolation of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella and the detection of pH and temperature values of yoghurt. By using the Most Probable Number Method (MPN) the TCC in day one of factory A was found 4.6±1.8cfu/ml and 315.2±105.2cfu/ml for factory B, whereas it was found 6.9±4cfu/ml for factory A and 1100 cfu/ml for factory B in day ten. There were significant differences in the TCC of day one and day ten between the two factories with p≤0.05. The TCC in day one for the groceries and supermarkets in the State was 129.8cfu/ml and 190cfu/ml and increased in day ten to 551cfu/ml and 555cfu/ml, respectively. Statistically there were no significant differences between groceries and supermarkets in day one and day ten with p≤0.05. The mean pH observed in these samples in day one for factory A was 5.6 and 5.2 for factory B, and decreased in day ten to 4.6, 4.4 for factory A and B, respectively. These values were above the yoghurt acceptable pH of Sudanese standard and metrology organization (SSMO) (4.5) in day one, but it decreased in day ten matching the SSMO with about 17 (48.6%) of samples. E. coli was detected in 12 (33.3%) of the samples. One sample was positive for both Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The refrigerator temperature of the groceries and supermarkets in the three localities was above the optimum storage temperature (5℃). The highest ambient temperature in the groceries and supermarkets was detected in Bahri 39.5℃ and 38℃ in groceries and supermarkets, respectively. In conclusion the overall hygienic quality of yoghurt samples was lower than the limits recommended by the SSMO. It was recommended that all producers should maintain adequate hygienic practices to produce good quality and healthy yoghurt.
181 BANDHA VIDHI - THE CONCEPT OF BANDAGING IN AYURVEDA , Dr. Suchitra N. Adiga*, Dr. Shankar S. and Dr. Shailaja S. V.
One of the common problems and challenges to the modern world is trauma and its management. The observance of immobilisation is the key to treat fracture or a wound. A bandage plays a more important part as regards its healing and curative efficacy, inasmuch as it materially contributes to the purification and healing of an ulcer and also keeps the joints steady. Bandhana is the technique of bandaging mentioned in Susrutha Samhita written around 1st BC. Acharya Susrutha mentioned about this in Susrutha Samhita in vrana alepana bandhana vidhi. The chapter includes basic principles to be followed during a bandaging, location where it is applicable, Dos and don’ts, when to change a bandage, pressure of bandages on various situations, materials for preparation of bandage etc.
182 ROLE OF GARBHINI PARICHARYA IN THE PREVENTION ASPECT OF GDM , *Dr. Vidyavati R. Chavan, Dr. Papiya Jana and Dr. Chaitra N.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is an important important public health problem, given its high prevalence and its high prevalence and its association with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Recent evidence has confirmed that risk of adverse outcomes is a continuum, women with GDM are a high risk group for the future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. GDM affects roughly 7% of pregnancies with an incidence of more than 20,000 case per year. The prevalence, however varies from 1-14%, depending on population the diagnostic criteria that have been used. Women with GDM have a 40-60% chance of developing diabetes mellitus over the 5-10 years after pregnancy. Through Ayurveda GDM can be efficiently managed with our medications without interfering in the gestational health of the woman in the present case the diagnosed GDM patient has been managed with the Tab Nishaamalaki and modification in her Ahara sevana the outcome of the patient has been recorded accordingly.
183 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TOWARDS PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES IN SIERRA LEONE (FREETOWN, WESTERN AREA URBAN) , Fawzi Thomas*, Joseph Sam Kanu, Onome T. Abiri, Thomas A. Conteh, James P.Komeh, Mohamed Sesay, Jennet Buck and Joy B. Johnson
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of infirmity. Donald Acheson in 1988 defined public health as: “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting, protecting and improving health through the organized efforts of society”. Community pharmacists are the health professionals most accessible to the public (WHO 2019). They supply medicines in accordance with a prescription or, when legally permitted, sell them without a prescription. In addition to ensuring an accurate supply of appropriate products, their professional activities also cover counselling of patients at the time of dispensing of prescription and non-prescription drugs, providing drug information to health professionals, patients and the public, and participation in health-promotion programs. They maintain links with other health professionals in primary health care WHO (2010). This study was conducted to assess the role of community pharmacists in public health to determine the level of community satisfaction on the services provided by community pharmacists, to determine community perception on the services provided by community pharmacists. Method: This study was a Descriptive Cross-Sectional study with a convenience sampling method of Pharmacist working in community pharmacies using a self-administered questionnaire giving a total of 125 community pharmacists working in this study setting. The study also included community people using a P value of 0.85 from a previous study by Al-Arifi MN, (2012) giving a sample size of 196. The outcome measured were demographics, role in public health services, perception and satisfaction. The data was analysed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel to produce Figures and Tables. Result: The results of the study points towards the fact that community pharmacists are contributing towards public health in the areas of screening and health promotion as 76(60.8%) are involved in promotion of smoking cessation, 61.2% are very involved promotion of weight management. 72.0% very involved in screening for hypertension whilst 64.8% are very involved in screening for diabetes. 64.8% of community people strongly agree that pharmacists are integral part of the health system.59.2% and 64.3% of community people strongly agree that community pharmacists should provide blood pressure and blood sugar monitoring services respectively. 71.2% are very involved in counselling on treatment for STDs whilst 47.2% are very involved in counselling on emergency and other contraception
184 PALANDAANJANA – AN OPHTHALMIC PREPARATION , Tejaswini L. N.*, Dr. B. A. Venkatesh and Dr. Sunitha G. S.
Eye, one of the most important sense organs, is given utmost priority in the field of the Ayurvedic medical science, which considers it as the pradhana anga, taking ashraya in the uttamanga.[1] Adhering to the fundamental principle of Ayurveda, ―Swasthasya Swasthya rakshanam‖, the present preparation is carried out with the intension of protecting the eyes and preventing it from possible diseases. In the present world, a wide range of population is involved in the use of mobiles or laptops, whose light rays have been proved to cause lenticular changes. Also, owing to the increase in the cases of senile and pre-senile cataract, the population would be benefitted by an ophthalmic formulation, that, in the current study, is analyzed to have a prophylactic effect in the above conditions of lenticular changes such as presbyopia and cataract. The palandanjana is a unique preparation, whose drug action is assessed to have a potential role in the prevention of the ophthalmic diseases involving the lenticular changes, such as cataract, presbyopia etc., which are considered under one big umbrella called Timira, according to Ayurveda. This unique preparation serves the dual purpose of medicinal usage as well as cosmetic use.
185 PHYTOCHEMICAL & PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM SPRENGE , Vipin Tiwari*, Tailor Chandra Shekhar and Bahuguna Yogendr
Eupatorium adenophorum Sprenge is a weed found at the hills of northern India, southern Nepal and Bhutan. It has many common names, including eupatory, Mexican devil, Sticky snakeroot and crofton weed. Ageratina adenophora is a synonym.Various species of Eupatorium adenophorum sprenge have been used in the traditional system of medicine across the world. Eupatorium adenophorum is accredited for diverse medicinal properties and finds therapeutic applications in traditional medicines asantiseptic, antimicrobial, blood coagulant, antipyretic, and analgesic. The total ash value is an indicative of total amount of inorganic material after complete incineration and the acid insoluble ash value is an indicative of silicate impurities, which might have arisen due to improper washing of drug. The results of phytochemical tests indicate the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and sugars. The result of present study will also serve as reference mono graph in the preparation of drugformulation.
186 PECTINASE PRODUCTION FROM THUJA OCCIDENTALIS IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION , Praveen Kumar Dasari*, Ashok Babu Chokka, Bhavya Sai Kumari Mallelli and Satyanarayana Tanuku
The present research work is about the production and process optimization of pectinase enzyme using substrate Thuja occidentalis leaves by Aspergillus awamori in solid state fermentation. Pectinase having varied applications in food industry such as fruit juice extraction, coffee and tea fermentation, textile, paper and pulp industries and in waste-water treatment. Solid-state fermentation is expressed as a process that take place on a non-soluble material that performs both as support and a source of nutrients, with a reduced among of water, under the action of fermenting agent. Optimizing process evaluations like time, temperature, size of inoculum, pH and moisture content were optimized to induce the high yield of pectinase. The increased level of pectinase enzyme production was detected at time 72hrs, temperature 30°C, optimum inoculum level was 50%v/w, pH 5 and 60% v/w moisture content of the substrate were foremost for the maximum production of pectinase in solid-state condition. A remarkable enzyme production was enhanced and recorded when the basal medium was supplemented with carbon (4% glucose) and nitrogen (ammonium sulphate, 0.4%) sources.
187 TOXICITY STUDY OF LANTANA CAMARA LEAVES , Dr. Shirish S. Pingale*
The aim of the present work is to study the toxicity of slurry of dry powder aimed from leaves of Lantana camara. The leaves of this plant were collected from Rajgurunagar, Pune, Maharashtra. The fresh leaves were dried in shade and grinded with high power electric mixer. The dry sample was kept in airtight plastic container and was used for toxicity study as per OECD guidelines by using white albino Wister Rats. The plant material was administered orally at dose of 2 to 10gm/Kg body weight of Swiss mice. The animals were observed continuously for the period of first 4 hours continuously for behavioral changes and then they were kept under observation for 14 days after administration of powder in the form of slurry with the help of gavage. The mortality observations were reported to find out the toxic effect of leaves of Lantana camara. From these results it is observed that Lantana camara leaves powder at doses of 10gm/kg body weight is found to be nontoxic as no any type of abnormal changes were reported in behavior, food and water intake of the administered animals. The Lantana camara plant material was found to be relatively safe when administered orally in Swiss mice. Lethality or adverse toxic signs were not at all observed during the experimental period for our sample.
188 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF COLEBROOKEA OPPOSITIFOLIA SMITH. , Darshan Kathait*, Bahuguna Yogendr, Tailor Chandra Shekhar
The species Colebrookea oppositifolia smith is one of the largest family member of dicotyledons, in plantae kingdoms and highly aromatic, due to the external glandular structures which produce volatile oil.[1] The volatile oil of the plants is importants in pharmaceutical, pesticide, and others usese. The investigation present deals with importantsphyto-constituents which is usese as various disorder such as eplipepsy,[3,4] ulcer, hepatitis, antibacterials, antifungals, wound healing, bleeding[6] (heamostatic) anti-inflammatory[7] etc.C.oppositifolia Sm indicated the presence of various phyto-constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and saponins terpenoids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides are showed only in different medium.
189 INFLUENZA SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE BASED ON SENTINEL PHARMACIES IN CATALONIA (SPAIN) IN 2017−2020 , Pedro Plans-Rubió*, Anna M. Jambrina, Glòria Carmona, Manel Rabanal, Mireia Jané and Pilar Rius
Objective: To analyse influenza surveillance data obtained from sentinel pharmacies of Catalonia, Spain, in 2017−18, 2018−19 and 2019-20 influenza seasons. Methods: Influenza surveillance information was collected from a representative sample of community pharmacies of Catalonia. Influenza-like cases were identified based on the ECDC criteria.The Chi-square test and Odds ratios were used to compare percentages between different population groups, with a p <0.05 considered as statistically significant. The screening method was used to assess influenza vaccination effectiveness. The moving epidemic method (MEM) was used to assess influenza epidemics in the three influenza seasons. Results: A total of 836, 1,000 and 587 influenza-like cases were reported in 2017−18, 2018−19 and 2019−20. Sentinel pharmacies dispended medications to 94-98% of patients. Paracetamol, cough medication, ibuprofen and antihistamines were dispended to more than 25% of patients. Dispensation of antibiotics decreased by 57% from 2017-18 to 2019-20 (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.28-0.74, p < 0.001). Physicians prescribed medications to 30-38% of influenza-like patients. The influenza vaccination effectiveness in individuals aged 65 or more years was 51.4% (95% CI: 41.9−60.7) in 2018-19 and 67% (95% CI: 53.4−79.8) in 2019-20 influenza seasons. Influenza epidemics occurred from week 50 of 2017 to week 7 of 2018; from week 51 of 2017 to week 8 of 2019; and from week 2 to week 7 of 2020. Conclusion: The influenza surveillance system based on sentinel pharmacies provided consistent information on the influenza epidemic, influenza morbidity not assisted in health centres and medications used to treat influenza-like cases during 2017−2019.
190 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF PARKIA BIGLOBOSA , Oyero A. B.*, Ekeleme I. K. and Obiekezie S. O.
Phytochemical and Antibacterial activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Parkia Biglobosa. The antibacterial potential of Parkia Biglobosa, Bark, root and leaf extracts against bacteria isolated from food items. The test bacteria were isolated from food items and identified using standard microbiological methods; ethanol and ethyl acetate were used as solvents in the extraction of the extract from the Bark, root and leaf of Parkia Biglobosa. The phytochemical screening showed that the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts contained tannins, Phenols, Steroids and saponins in varying proportions. The Antibacterial activity of the extract against the test bacteria was determined using cup agar plate method and diameter inhibition zones formed around wells on the agar plates were measured. The mean antibacterial activity of the extracts in vitro showed that the Ethyl acetate extract of leaves was most efficacious at 50mg amount of the concentration inhibiting Salmonella sp (11.02mm), E. coli (14.10mm), Klebsiella sp (18.0mm), Bacillus sp (15.0mm) and S. aureus (13.0mm). The ethanol extract at 12.5mg amount of the concentration inhibited Salmonella sp (7.0mm), E. coli (8.0mm) and Klebsiella sp (10.0mm). The ethyl acetate extract of the Root of P. biglobosa inhibition zone varied from 7.0mm - 21.0 mm against the tested bacteria such as Salmonella sp, E. coli, Klebsiella sp, Bacillus sp and S. aureus. The ethyl acetate Bark extract of P. biglobosa extracts were found to be less efficient than ethanol extracts. This study has revealed that the extract of P. biglobosa contains antibacterial and phytochemical substances which can be harnessed.
191 INTERVENTION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND SELF EFFICACY TRAINING ON SELF MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW , Nadhifah Rahmawati*, Tri Johan Agus Yuswanto and Diyah Fatmasari
Chronic kidney failure (CRF) is one of the leading causes of death in Indonesia. This is a concern for health workersto keep the disease under control, prevent physical, psychological and social damage and complications. KActive involvement in patient self-management is one of the keys to prevent further damage to kidney function and slowing the progression of the CRF stage. Improved self-management of CKD patients can be provided through education and training programs such as self-efficacy training and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Both methods focused on reducing anxiety and depression as well as increasing self-efficacy have been shown to improve patient self-management behavior. In this systematic review study, several research literature on CBT interventions and self-efficacy were reviewed in patients with end-stage renal failure. This study reviews CBT interventions and self-efficacy training on self-management in chronic renal failure patients. Systematic review by looking for research studies from electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Science direct and ProQuest) with randomized control trial and quasi-experimental designs published in 2015-2020 and have been published internationally indexed Scopus Q1, Q2 and Q3 and indexed SINTA-2. The research studies analyzed were related to CBT, self-efficacy training and self-management with chronic kidney failure patient respondents. Based on the literatures, therapies that have a high level of recommendation in improving self-care in patients with CRF are CBT and training to increase self-efficacy. This is evidenced by the strong effect size value. However, some journals use a sample size that is not representative, the instrument used is the previous instrument and the intervention method used is quite complex. Twenty five reports have been reviewed shows that CBT and self-efficacy can be an effective intervention that can be applied to improve self-management in CRF patients.
192 AN EVALUATION OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND ROLE OF COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION (A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY) IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT OF FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE , Fawzi Thomas*, Stella F. Usifoh, Joseph Sam Kanu and William Jimmy
Background: The prevalence of hypertension in Sierra Leone is well established and at an average of 46.2% for females and 43.2% of males based on several studies. The management of hypertension requires a multi-disciplinary effort from healthcare professionals (Doctor, Pharmacist, Nurses) as well as the patient. The first point of contact for most patients is the pharmacist working in a community pharmacy. The role of the Pharmacists in hypertension encompasses medication management, disease state education and patient counseling and is most successful when integrated into the patient's care team. Further validation through larger, prospective trials and evaluation of long-term outcomes, such as mortality, remain viable research opportunities. This study was conducted to assess community Pharmacists knowledge in hypertension, to determine whether community pharmacists are well-acquainted with their roles in managing hypertension as well as to assess how community pharmacists manage or treat hypertensive patients. Method: The study was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted at community pharmacies in the central part of Freetown. All Pharmacists working in community pharmacies in central Freetown were included in this study. According to the Pharmacy Board’s Gazette of 2018, there is a total of 58 community pharmacists working in this study setting giving a sample size of 58. The outcome measures were demographics, years of experience, knowledge in hypertension, role in management of hypertension, Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire .The data was analysed using SPSS and Microsoft excel to produce Graphs and Tables. Result: The results showed more male pharmacists 42(72.4%) than female community Pharmacists 16 (27.6%). 39.7% has between 2-5 years of experience working in community pharmacies. Most pharmacists showed they were knowledgeable or having a high knowledge on hypertension as 86.2% were able to correctly define hypertension,82.8% and 63.8% can identify obesity and age as a risk factor for hypertension, however most don’t know their roles in the management of hypertension as 13.8% don’t take blood pressure measurements of their patients even when they suspect hypertension, 69.0% and 53.4% of community pharmacists never ask patients about laboratory tests such GFR and ECG respectively. Gaps where also identified with respect to how to manage hypertension especially with the right forms of medications with only 20.7% that sometimes asking whether patients are on hypertensive medications and with only 44.8% of Community pharmacists that ask for prescription for new patients. The lack of a pharmaceutical care model or a Pharmacist/Doctor /Physician collaboration in the management of hypertension was also clearly visible
193 ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF FLUOROQUINOLONES RESISTANCE GENES FROM SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM ISOLATED FROM POULTRY FARMS IN KEFFI, NIGERIA , Anzaku S.* and Ishaleku D.
Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular detection of fluoroquinolones resistance genes from Salmonella typhimurium isolated from Poultry farms in Keffi, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and sixty (160) samples of feacal droppings were collected from different poultry farms and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated and identified using standard microbiological methods. Fluoroquinolone resistant genes (parE, gyrB and gyrA) were carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The occurrence of Salmonella typhimurium was 24.4%. The occurrence of Salmonella typhimurium in respect to different poultry farm was higher in farm C (32.5%) and lower in farm D with (15%). In this study Antibiotics Resistance shows that Salmonella isolates were resistant to Ciprofloxacin, Cefotaxime and Ofloxacin. Antibiotics resistant phenotype against Salmonella isolate were distributed into different antibiotic resistance pattern and the most common pattern were STX-CTX-NOR-AMC-CXM-CIP-C with 12.8% Resistance and CTX-NOR-AMC-CXM-TET-CIP-C with 1.03% Resistance. The multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index of Salmonella species isolated was common at ≥0.7 with 38.5%. fluoroquinolone resistant genes gyrA, gyrB, and parE were detection from isolates that were highly resistant to quinolone drugs. Poultry farmers and handlers should ensure proper hygiene to avoid contamination in poultry farms and poultry products.
194 VALIDATION OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) KIT FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF GLIADINS IN MEDICINES AND COSMETICS , Arlene Loría Gutiérrez*, Jeimy Blanco Barrantes and Giovanni Ramirez Elizondo
Celiac disease is caused by intolerance to gluten and the only current treatment is a gluten-free diet. Gliadins are the alcohol-soluble proteins that make up the majority of gluten and are the ones that have the most harmful effect on patients with celiac disease. In recent years the issue of the presence of gluten in medicines and cosmetics, has become relevant since it is present in many excipients that are used as lubricants or absorbents, to provide mass or volume, give shape, color and consistency. The quantification of gliadins was carried out using the ELISA technique based on the R5 antibody, with a RIDASCREEN® Gliadin kit from R-Biopharm and a microplate ELISA spectrophotometer. To validate the immunological analytical method, the specificity, intermediate precision, relative accuracy and range were measured according to the USP 41 specifications for biologic assays. Recovery percentages of gliadins in positive control samples higher than 65 % were obtained. The relative standard deviation resulting from the amount of gliadins recovered to determine the intermediate precision of the kit was 7,6 %. Then, when determining the relative accuracy, an average absolute error value of 9,5 % was obtained. The range established to accurately and precisely analyze a sample was from 5 mg/kg to 80 mg/kg. The analytical method validated in this project meets performance characteristics such as specificity, intermediate precision, relative accuracy and range, suitable for the determination of gliadin content in drugs and cosmetics.
195 AFLATOXINS- AN OVERVIEW , H. B. Mishal and R. H. Mishal*
The aflatoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus spp., are widespread in nature and have severely contaminated food supplies of humans and animals, resulting in health hazards and even death. Hence, to ensure the safety of human health, there is great demand for aflatoxins research to develop suitable methods for their quantification, precise detection and control. This review throws light on the resources, production, detection and control measures of aflatoxins to ensure food and feed safety. The review is informative for health-conscious consumers as well as research experts in the fields. Furthermore, providing knowledge on aflatoxins toxicity will help in ensuring food safety and meet the future demands of the increasing population by decreasing the incidence of outbreaks due to aflatoxins.
196 SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF ANTIBIOTICS AND BIOACTIVE PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA , Navroop Kaur*, Deepali Vashisth, Jaya Malik, Mohit Chaudhary, MS Laxmi, Rupal Chauhan, Abhishek Tomer, Premnidhi Yadav, Gayatri Sharma, Saumyata Sahay, Lajmi Porwal, Tisha Gupta, Anjali Chaturvedi, Aaditya Satsangi, Anjali Sharma, Mohammed Tafseel Anzar
Antibiotics provide the main basis for the therapy of microbial (bacterial and fungal) infections. Since the discovery of these antibiotics and their uses as chemotherapeutic agents there was a belief in the medical fraternity that this would lead to the eventual eradication of infectious diseases. There is a continuous and urgent need to discover new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanisms of action because there has been an alarming increase in the incidence of new and re-emerging infectious diseases. Another big concern is the development of resistance to the antibiotics in current clinical use. In recent years, drug resistance to human pathogenic bacteria has been commonly reported from all over the world. In the present scenario of emergence of multiple drug resistance to human pathogenic organisms, this has necessitated a search for new antimicrobial substances from other sources including plants. Higher plants produce hundreds to thousands of diverse chemical compounds with different biological activities. The antimicrobial compounds produced by plants are active against plant and human pathogenic microorganisms. It is expected that plant extracts showing target sites other than those used by antibiotics will be active against drug-resistant microbial pathogens.
197 PHYTOSOMES: NOVEL CARRIERS FOR DELIVERY OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS , Dr. C. Sadak Vali*, Abdullah Khan, Mare Pratibha Bharathi, S. Siva Prasad, S. Mohammed Yusuf, Asma Khanam and B. Nageswara Naik
Phytosome technology as a novel delivery system utilizes water soluble phytoconstituents and phospholipids for drug delivery. “Phyto” means plants and “some” resembles a covering around/or a structure over the substance. Phytosomes are prepared by reacting one or two polyphenolic phytoconstituents and phospholipids in 1:1 or 1:2 ratio. Phytosomes acts as a bridge between novel and traditional drug delivery systems. Poor solubility of phytoconstituents and polyphenolic compound is barrier for their absorption and bioavailability of several phytoconstituents. Phytosomal technology can overcome the solubility problems of phytoconstituents and increases the bioavailability and absorption of water soluble phytoconstituents. Phospholipid improves both hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of phytoconstituents and hence acts as emulsifiers. Hydrophilicity (helps in dissolution of phytoconstituents in gastro-intestinal fluids) and hydrophobicity (helps phytoconstituents to cross lipid rich cell membranes) are required for better absorption and bioavailability of natural phytoconstituents. For passage of drugs through acidic and basic environment before being get absorbed into systemic circulation the DDS must have optimum water and lipid solubility. Phytosomal preparations of Olive oil, Ginkgo biloba, Grape seed and Silybum are available in the market. The current review highlights the potential scope and emerging technologies in the field of NDDS for the benefit of herbal and traditional medicines prepared from plant origins. This review covers the preparation techniques employed for phytosome preparation, advantages, applications and characterization techniques employed for phytosomal evaluation.
198 TOXICITY STUDY OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM LINN , Shirish S. Pingale*, Popat S. Virkar, Rajendrashing G. Mahale and Verla Andrew Wirnkor
The aim of the present work is to evaluate the acute toxicity study of dry powder Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves. The leaves of this plant were collected from Rajgurunagar area of Pune district, Maharashtra, INDIA. The fresh leaves were dried in shade till constant weight for few days and grinded with high power electric mixer. The dry sample was kept in airtight plastic container and was used for toxicity study as per OECD guidelines by using white albino Wister Rats. The plant material was administered orally at dose of 2 to 10gm/Kg body weight of Swiss mice. The animals were observed continuously for the period of first 4 hours continuously for behavioral changes and then they were kept under observation for 14 days after single administration of powder in the form of aqueous slurry with the help of gavage. The mortality observations were recorded to find out the toxic effect of leaves of Coriandrum sativum Linn. From these results it is observed that Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves powder at higher doses of 10gm/kg body weight is found to be nontoxic in male as well as in female, as no any type of abnormal changes were reported in behavior, food and water intake of the administered animals. The Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves powder was found to be relatively safe when administered orally in Swiss mice. Lethality or adverse toxic signs were not at all observed during the experimental period for our sample.
199 TOXICITY STUDY OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM LINN , Shirish S. Pingale*, Popat S. Virkar, Rajendrashing G. Mahale and Verla Andrew Wirnkor
The aim of the present work is to evaluate the acute toxicity study of dry powder Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves. The leaves of this plant were collected from Rajgurunagar area of Pune district, Maharashtra, INDIA. The fresh leaves were dried in shade till constant weight for few days and grinded with high power electric mixer. The dry sample was kept in airtight plastic container and was used for toxicity study as per OECD guidelines by using white albino Wister Rats. The plant material was administered orally at dose of 2 to 10gm/Kg body weight of Swiss mice. The animals were observed continuously for the period of first 4 hours continuously for behavioral changes and then they were kept under observation for 14 days after single administration of powder in the form of aqueous slurry with the help of gavage. The mortality observations were recorded to find out the toxic effect of leaves of Coriandrum sativum Linn. From these results it is observed that Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves powder at higher doses of 10gm/kg body weight is found to be nontoxic in male as well as in female, as no any type of abnormal changes were reported in behavior, food and water intake of the administered animals. The Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves powder was found to be relatively safe when administered orally in Swiss mice. Lethality or adverse toxic signs were not at all observed during the experimental period for our sample.
200 ANALYSIS OF CAESAREAN SECTION RATE ACCORDING TO ROBSON`S 10 GROUPS CLASSIFICATION: A RETROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN INDIA , Dr. Moushmi Parpillewar Tadas DGO, DNB*, Dr. Prashanthi S. M. S. and Dr. SnehalLede
Background: The cesarean section rate is increasing worldwide. Classifying cesarean section according to Robson’s Ten group classification system helps to bring down cesarean section rate. Aim was to classify the cesarean section according to their causes and standardize indication of caesarian section. Method: This study was conducted at Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Data of all pregnant women delivered during 6 months period by cesarean section during January 2020 to June 2020 collected and percentage of various groups as per Robson’s Ten Group Classification System were calculated. Results: Out of 4858 deliveries, 2134 delivered by lower segment cesarean section. The cesarean section rate was 43.9%. Group 5 contributes to maximum (32.75%).Cesarean section rate was maximum among primigravida (58.8%). Conclusion: In present study, previous cesarean section group was highest contributors to all cesarean section deliveries. Robsons classification provides the contributors to cesarean section and help to identify the large contributors so easy to work on it. It also allows evaluation and comparison of contributors to cesarean section.
201 DEVLOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF ‘SINGHARA (INDIAN WATER CHESTNUT) VADI’: RESEARCH ARTICLE , Supriya Joshi* and Priya Darshane
The study was undertaken to develop and standardise an innovative, wholesome and functional traditional Indian sweet which was prepared with Singhara (Trapa bispinosa Roxb) with an intention to develop an innovative and nutritive food product that can be used as an acidity pacifier. Vadi was standardized as per the reference found in the Ancient Ayurvedic literature ( Kshemkutuhala) with slight changes as per practical application. Various trials were conducted and Vadi was prepared from the most acceptable trial (T2: Water chestnut flour 45%, Sugar 32%, Cow’s ghee 22%). In the present investigation, Vadis made from Indian water chestnut were subjected to proximate analysis and sensory analysis which exhibited better results in terms of nutritional quality when compared with the control sample.
202 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF IMATINIB MESYLATE , Jahnavi Bandla* and Ashok Gorja
The aim of this paper was to develop and validate the stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of Imatinib mesylate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive and stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Imatinib mesylate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form, in which separations are done using develosil C18, 5μm, 150 × 4.6mm i.d. column at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min with an injection volume of 20μL. The beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range of 5 - 35μg/mL. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.996 and it showed good linearity, reproducibility, precision in this concentration range. The % recovery values were found to be within the limits, which showed that the method was accurate. The LOD and LOQ were calculated using statistical methods. The % RSD values were less than 2. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of Imatinib mesylate in pharmaceutical dosage form. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by using the standard method.
203 RECENT ADVANCES IN THE APPLICATION OF RESVERATROL TO IMPROVE HEALTH IN DIFFERENT THALASSAEMIC PATIENTS , Anirban Roy Chowdhury*, Sudipa Chakravarty and Amit Chakravarty
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) belongs to a class of polyphenolic compounds called stilbenes. It may have numerous protective effects against age-related disorders, including renal diseases, through the activation of SIRT1. SIRT1 and NAD+-dependent deacetylase was identified as one of the molecules through which calorie restriction extends the lifespan or delays age-related diseases, and this protein may regulate multiple cellular functions, including apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis, inflammation, glucose/lipid metabolism, autophagy, and adaptations to cellular stress, through the deacetylation of target proteins. In our present study we observed the administration of trans-resveratrol might effect the blood parameters, LFT, RFT and the Body weight and height evaluation according to their age of different male and female thalassaemic patients. This study we conclude that trans-resveratrol play an important role to increase the blood parameters of both Beta and Hb E- Beta thalassaemic patients. It also very effective for the liver and kidney and it play very important role in body growth.
204 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF THE SEAGRASS HALODULE PINIFOLIA OF THE COASTAL WATERS OF CARMEN, AGUSAN DEL NORTE, PHILIPPINES , Efren Tangon*, Elvinia R. Alivio, Jocelyn A. Pajiji and Kingpu O. Ajik
Phytochemical screening provides basic information about the medicinal importance of the plant extract and are lead compound for drug discoveries and knowledge of the chemical composition of seagrass is important both for the assessment of the nutritional value of marine invertebrate or vertebrate herbivores and for the evaluation of potential sources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids for commercial use or for possible human consumption. Phytochemical and proximate analyses were determined on the seagrass Halodule pinifolia using standard methods on a dry basis. The phytochemicals detected in the methanolic extracts of Halodule pinifolia were alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, triterpenoids, and steroids. The results of the proximate composition showed that Halodule pinifolia contained 10.06% crude protein, 0.33% crude lipid, 58.30% total carbohydrate contents and 31.31% ash content. The results indicated that the seagrass Halodule pinifolia contained different active secondary metabolites along with significant bioactive potential that might be helpful for the future pharmaceutical applications and are good potential sources of highly nutritious feed stuff.
205 ROLE OF NANOPARTICLES IN TREATMENT OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA , Abdulhakim Umar Toro and Maya Datt Joshi*
Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of body cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. There are many treatment strategies available for hepatocellular carcinoma but there are several limitations of traditional surgery and radiation therapy and chemotherapy that results into failure and poor prognosis. In recent years, the development and advances of nanotechnology has brought new hope for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC. This article reviews the development of nanoparticles used for detection, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma due to their large specific surface area and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Moreover, research have shown that after Nanoparticle based therapy including nano-carriers can achieve active targeting effect, which improves the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs and decreases their side effects.
206 ASSESS KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS AS GENERAL ANTACIDS BY REGISTERED PHARMACISTS AT COMMUNITY PHARMACY IN URBAN AREA , Atharva Pushkar Nanday, Dr. Narendra Bheemraj Parihar* and Seeta Narendra Parihar
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most efficacious agents used for minimizing gastric acid secretions. The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and preferences of proton pump inhibitors amongst pharmacists. PPIs are mainly used to treat Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD), Gastroesophaygeal Reflux Disease (GERD), Erosive Esophagitis, Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES), Barrett’s Esophagus, and an Upper Gastro-Intestinal bleeding. They are also a primitive measure to reduce acidity. A cross-sectional survey-based study was carried out to assess the knowledge and preferences of pharmacists regarding proton pump inhibitors for various ailments. Google form link for filling out the survey questionnaire was sent to pharmacists and were asked to fill it out accordingly. All the pharmacists included in this survey were given a copy of the information chart and were properly counseled for rationalizing PPIs as an essential OTC medication. Pharmacists primarily preferred pantoprazole as the treatment of choice for acidity and heartburn 50% followed by omeprazole 20% to 30%, lansoprazole 5% to 10%, and rabeprazole 5% to 15%. The majority 89% of pharmacists enquired about the patient details before dispensing the medication and 56% provided patient counseling. PPIs are widely used as an OTC medication at community pharmacies, there is a need to rationalize their use and dispensing amongst pharmacists. Pharmacists themselves need to acquire updated information via trustworthy sources regarding the PPI medications and must focus on more patient-based practice than just basic compounding and dispensing the medication.
207 PERCEIVED BURDEN AMONG CAREGIVER OF END STAGE RENAL DISEASE PATIENT UNDERGOING HEMODIALYSIS AT NATIONAL KIDNEY CENTRE, KATHMANDU, NEPAL , Sharma B.*, Bajracharya Shanti, Ban Rita, Pant Sarita and Adhikari Sarita
Background: Caregiver burden is the strain or load borne by a person who cares for a chronically ill, disabled, or elderly family member. This study aims to assess the perceived burden among the caregiver of end stage renal disease patient undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was commenced in 296 caregiver of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patient undergoing hemodialysis. The Zarit Burden Interview was used to assess the perceived burden among caregivers attending Kidney Centre using convenient sampling technique maintaining their privacy of data. Data was analysed by means of SPSS version 20 using descriptive as well as inferential statistics. Results: Majority of caregivers were ≥35 years, 52.4%, employed 55.7%, married 78.4%, existing health problem 84.5% and were spouse 41.9% of the patient. Similarly, the majority of 51.4% patients were ≥44 years, 63.5% male, 58.1% unemployed, 82.8% married, almost all 91.9% had comorbidity and 56.4% had dialysis done for ≥ 24 months. Around one third 34.5% had little or no burden while remaining 65.5% had perceived burden ranging from mild to severe level. The caregiver level of burden is statistically significant with caregiver age (p=0.018), caregiver existing health problem (p=0.027), relationship with patient (p=0.031), patient age (p=0.040), patient sex (p=0.024), and patient comorbidity (p=0.003). Conclusion: The majority of caregiver had perceived mild to severe level of burden. There should be counselling and support system from concerned authority to alleviate caregiver burden.
208 PLACENTA ITS CRUCIAL ROLE , S. Sangeetha*
The placenta is an organ that develops in your uterus during pregnancy. This structure provides oxygen and nutrients to your growing baby and removes waste products from your baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of your uterus, and your baby's umbilical cord arises from it. The placenta is a large organ that develops during pregnancy. It is attached to the wall of the uterus, usually at the top or side. The umbilical cord connects the placenta to your baby. Blood from the mother passes through the placenta, filtering oxygen, glucose and other nutrients to your baby via the umbilical cord. The placenta also filters out substances that could be harmful to your baby and removes carbon dioxide and waste products from your baby’s blood. The placenta produces a number of hormones that are needed during pregnancy, such as lactogen, oestrogen and progesterone. It keeps the mother’s blood separate from the baby’s blood to protect the baby against infections. Towards the end of the pregnancy, the placenta passes on antibodies to protect the baby after birth. The importance of the placenta was reviewed in this paper.
209 INVITRO FERTILIZATION – ITS ROLE, IMPORTANCE AND RISK FACTORS , S. Sangeetha*
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass"). The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. After the fertilised egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2–6 days, it is implanted in the same or another woman's uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy. IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for infertility treatment and gestational surrogacy. A fertilised egg may be implanted into a surrogate's uterus, and the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. Some countries have banned or otherwise regulate the availability of IVF treatment, giving rise to fertility tourism. Restrictions on the availability of IVF include costs and age, in order for a woman to carry a healthy pregnancy to term. IVF is generally not used until less invasive or expensive options have failed or been determined unlikely to work. This paper reviews the role, importance and complications of invitro fertilization.
210 DISSOLUTION METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TAMSULOSIN AND DUTASTERIDE IN ITS COMBINED MODIFIED RELEASE DOSAGE FORM USING RP-HPLC METHOD , Devi Thamizhanban*, Dr. Gampa Tulja Rani and Dr. Kathiresan Krishnasamy
The research work was aimed to develop a dissolution method for simultaneous estimation of Dutasteride and Tamsulosin from extended-release capsule. The formulation is having Dutasteride in immediate release and Tamsulosin in modified release form. A change over dissolution media was developed in this study. 0.1N HCl with 0.2% SLS was selected as dissolution medium to enable complete dissolution of Dutasteride for initial two hours, and continued by changing the dissolution medium to pH 7.2 phosphate buffer for 8 hours, using USP Apparatus 1, at 100RPM. Working standards were prepared by using the respective dissolution media, for specific sample. Chromatographic separation was achieved by analysing filtered sample, using Agilent's high performance liquid chromatograph and X bridge C18, 5μm, 4.6 x 150mm column, with solvent-A of 0.05M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), and solvent-B of acetonitrile by gradient elution technique. The flow rate was maintained at 1.5 ml/min and the detection wavelength was 225nm, with sample run time of 18 minutes. In acid stage Tamsulosin was eluted at 5.7 minutes, and Dutasteride was eluted at 9.4minutes. Buffer stage was developed only for Tamsulosin and eluted at 2.3minutes. Analytical method was validated and complies to the regulatory guidelines. The effect of RPM on dissolution profile was evaluated, which does not have any significance on drug release, and F2 value of 65 & 84 with 75 RPM & 91 and 71 with 125RPM against 100RPM for Dutasteride and Tamsulosin, respectively. Hence, the developed method is suitable for estimating drug release of both components simultaneously.
211 CURRENT UPDATED REVIEW ON PRONIOSOMES AS A NOVEL APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY , Meera Ingale*, Rahul Kasliwal and Yogesh Gholse
Proniosomes are one of the novel provesicular drug delivery systems which are dry formulations coated with carrier such as non-iconic surfactants. Proniosomes are formulated in such a manner that they can overcome the drawbacks of niosomes such as physical instabilities, fusion and aggregation. Proniosomes can be administered by various routes like oral, intravenous, buccal, topical, transdermal, ocular etc. Proniosomes are liquid crystalline compact niosome hybrids which upon hydration form niosomes. They help in reducing physical stability problems involved with niosomes such as leaking, fusion, aggregation and provide convenience in dosing, distribution, transportation and storage showing improved results than conventional niosomes.
212 ROLE OF KSHAR SUTRA IN BENIGN TUMOUR OVER PERIANAL REGION: A CASE STUDY , Dr. Vikash Kumar Sahu*
Kshara sutra karma mentioned in Ayurvedic texts for the treatment of Ano- rectal disorders. Acharya sushruta has advised its use and method of application in Nadi vrana,Arbuda and Bhagandara. The therapy also indicated for all those conditions which require gradual excision of over grown soft tissues like benign tumours, polyps ,warts etc. The present case study is done to rule out the role of kshar sutra in extra ano- rectal conditions to make therapy more popular .Benign tumour is a surgical condition and treatment of such condition is excision .However such surgical treatment is painful and recurrence rate is also high. So kshar sutra is alternative approach for treating such surgical conditions with good results and this technique not only cures the problem but also check its chances of reoccurences.
213 AWARENESS REGARDING NEONATAL CARE AMONG POSTNATAL MOTHERS ATTENDING TEACHING HOSPITAL, CHITWAN , Sujata Shrestha*, Parita Shrestha and Pratima Koirala
Background: In many countries around the world, neonatal deaths are so commonplace that children are not even named until they survive their first month of life. Most of the neonatal deaths are preventable if their mothers are aware and provide proper newborn care. The study was carried out with the aim to find out the level of awareness regarding neonatal care among postnatal mothers at Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur-10, Chitwan. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study design was used to measure the level of awareness among 80 postnatal mothers attending in Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur-10, Chitwan by using enumerative sampling technique. Data was collected by using structured face to face interview schedule from dated 2018 June 20- 2018 July 4 and was analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among a total of 80 respondents, 45% of respondents belonged to age group 20-27 years, while majority of respondents 72.5% were from urban areas, most of the respondents 97.5% were literate, 62.5% were primipara. Mean score of respondents’ awareness regarding neonatal warmth and breastfeeding was 77.5 and 60.7 respectively followed by hygiene, danger signs and immunization 63, 68 and 42 respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that more than half 58.8% of postnatal mothers had adequate level of awareness on neonatal care while statistical significant association was found between the level of awareness with religion p=0.012 and place of residence p=0.025. However, awareness regarding frequency of breastfeed in a day, position after burping, sleeping hours in a day, time and frequency of urination and meconium passed after birth, time for neonatal bath, hypothermia and disease preventable vaccine name after birth was still inadequate. Hence, there is need of awareness program by government and health personals on neonatal care to postnatal mothers.
214 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITYOF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA , Pal Neha, Singh N. P. and Joshi M. D.*
Objectives: To calculate the antimicrobial action of medicinal plants against human pathogenic bacteria and observe Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of extracts of plant. Methods: Rhizome of Curcuma longa, dried buds of Syzygium aromaticum, and seed of Piper nigrum and leaves of Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis, Murraya koenigiiwere collected from local market of Uttar Pradesh. The plant parts were air-dried at room temperature and crushed to powder form. The ethanolic extracts of medicinal plants were adapted by percolation process using separating funnel and tested against human pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion method. Then, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts was decisive. Results: All plants extracts show antibacterial properties against bacteria under study. However, extract from S. aromaticum (Clove), Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis (Gulhar) and Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) reveal most promising result against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition of 14.33mm, 12.90mm and 16.10mm respectively. Likewise, S. aromaticum (Clove), C. longa (Turmeric) and P.nigrum (Black pepper) showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with inhibition zone of 14.10mm, 12.03mm and 12.90mm respectively. S.aromaticum (Clove) and Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) showed promising activity against E.coli with inhibition zone of 19.67mm and 10.23mm. S.aromaticum (Clove) showed good result against P.aeruginosa with inhibition zone 19.53mm. MIC values of methanolic extracts of S. aromaticum and T.cordifolia were found to be at the range of 10.80mm. Conclusion: This study keep maintained to understand the use of these plants while traditional medicine as an economic and safe alternative to treat infectious diseases.
215 ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METAL BY E.COLI SPP. AND BACILLUS SPP. FROM SOIL , Shashank Chauhan, Rupesh Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Dinesh Kumar and Maya Datt Joshi*
Industrialization has led to introduction of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals are known to persist in the environment and become a risk for living beings. Micro-organisms present in industrial effluents are capable to cope up with the harmful effects of these metals. Microorganism adopt different mechanism and one such strategy is biosorption which is binding of metal ions with metal binding proteins present on the cell wall of microorganism. The present study is intended to analyze soil sample contaminated with heavy metals like Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), and Mercury (Hg) in Bacillus spp.and E. coli against different concentrations. Result showed that Bacillus spp. and E. coli has minimize the concentration of heavy metals in soil sample.
216 DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF HOUSEHOLD PLANTS TOXIN , Mohammad Athar*
People love plants, for food, decoration, or just because taking care of a succulent is a lot less responsibility than a puppy. But many of the house plants that spruce up our surroundings are also poisonous. Kids and pets are the usual victims in plant poisonings because they have a tendency to explore the world with their mouths. In fact, when the American Association of Poison Control Centers compiles their annual poisoning report, plants are typically in the top causes of accidental poisoning in children. So you can be aware of the dangers lurking in your house, Houseplants can be great for your mental health, but eating some of them can be far worse for your bodily health than you might think. Here are some plants you might have around your home that are actually pretty toxic if they end up inside you.
217 FAST DISSOLVING DOMPERIDONE TABLET , Pratik Kayasth, Smit Patel*, Kruti Bhatt, Krishna Kanoje, Vishal Chauhan, Dr. Jitendra Patel and Dr. Umesh Upadhyay
The purpose of this Project work is to prepare fast dissolving tablets of Domperidone by wet granulation. In the present study, Sodium Starch Glycolate, was taken as super disintegrant and starch paste as a binder for Preparation of fast dissolving Domperidone Tablet. Here the Domperidone (anti-emetic) is taken as the model drug for the study and wet granulation as a method for preparation of the Fast Dissolving Tablet. The disintegrant incorporated during the wet granulation process as extra granular incorporation. Here the concentration of Superdisintegrants and concentration of starch paste were taken as independent variables. The effect of Disintegration time and friability were investigated as dependent parameters. The optimized batch obtained from the study was compared with the marketed products.[1] Oral medication conveyance is the most prominent defeat. It is outstanding since quite a while for its generally utilized course of organization among all the failure that has been investigated for the precise conveyance of medication arranged different measurements from the pharmaceutical items. Dysphagia is a typical issue which needs to look in all times of gatherings in worry to strong dose shapes. The patient needs to improve consistency to take care of the problem of Dysphagia. The Rapidly dissolving tablets have risen as an option in contrast to regular oral medication use.[2]
218 BACTERIAL INFECTION ASSOCIATED WITH REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE IN DAIRY COWS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY IN KHARTOUM NORTH- SUDAN , Ibrahim Elrashied A. Ibrahim*, Hatim A. Zainalabein and Adil M. A. Salman
To investigate the risk factors and bacterial infections associated with reproductive failure in dairy cows. Vaginal swabs and blood samples were collected from 408 cows in all farms visited in Khartoum North, Khartoum State, Sudan. The bacteria isolated from these vaginal swabs were 232(39.1%) Staphylococcus spp, 162(27.2%) Streptococcus spp, 150(25.2%) E. coli spp and 50 (8.5%) Pseudomonas spp. The prevalence rate of brucellosis was (16.2%). The number of bacteria isolated from cows with reproductive problem was higher than randomly sampled cows. Brucellosis seroprevalence was higher in problematic cows 43(20.8%) compared to randomly selected cows 23(11.4%) this difference was found to be significant with p< 0.05, and the relative risk of problematic cow to get brucellosis was twice the randomly selected cow. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolated Gram positive bacteria, was Vancomycine, Gentamycine and Amoxyclave are considered and that of Gram negative bacteria were Ciprofloxacine, Ampcilline, Gentamycine and Cotrimoxazole.
219 ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE PROBLEMS OF DAIRY CATTLE IN KHARTOUM NORTH- SUDAN , Ibrahim Elrashied A. Ibrahim*, Hatim A. Zainalabein and Adil M. A. Salman
To assessed the reproductive problems and their association with reproductive failure in dairy Cattle two questionnaires were designed for this study, the first one for individual cows with infertility problem (207cow) and second one for the randomly selected farms (93farms), in Khartoum North (Bahri North and East Nile localities), Khartoum State, Sudan. The study revealed that the major reproductive Problems were repeat breeding 132(63.8%), retained placenta 47(22.7%), reproductive infection which includes (pyometra, metritis, viginitis and anoestrus) 18(8.7%) and abortion 10(4.8%). The risk factors such as breed, age, parity and mating system, were assessed and their associations with reproductive problems were evaluated in this study. There was association between age of cows and repeat breeding problem, increase in cows’ age followed by increase in the repeat breeding problem, there was association between the presence of Mineral block (any source of mineral and vitamins) in farms and cows with repeat breeding problem, the repeat breeding was higher in the farms that not using any source of minerals and vitamins. There was association between origin of cows and the reproductive infection, the reproductive infection in cows purchased from other farms was higher than in cows that born in the farm, and the relative risk of reproductive infection in cows purchased from other farms to be with reproductive infection was almost two time to that for cows born in farm.
220 IN VITRO ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF ANNONA RETICULATA FRUITS EXTRACTS BY SYBER GREEN I BASED FLUORESCENCE METHOD , Dr. Akhila S., Prof. Anu V.* and Sarath D.
The most serious form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum continuous to be a major public health problem. As a result, this study aimed to assess the antimalarial potential of ethanol leaf extracts. The cytotoxicity study of crude drug extracts accessed against Vero cell line and their antimalarial activity investigated against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and KI strain. Syber Green I Based fluorescence In vitro antimalarial study was used to access the efficacy of Annona reticulata extract. The plant extracts had no cytotoxicity effect on the Vero cell line (CC50= 200μg/ml). This study showed moderate antimalarial activity of ethanolic extract with IC50 values of 3D7 and KI are 38.5 and 52 respectively. The present study indicates that Annona reticulate could be a good source of antimalarial agent.
221 A REVIEW ON SCREENING OF THE LEAVES OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN (PEEPAL TREE) FOR ITS ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY , Sunil Singh*, Anjana Sharma and Amarjeet Singh
Diabetes is contemplated as one of the most common chronic diseases internationally. It is an extensive pancreatic disease affecting large amount of the community globally. This is growing authentication that grows manufacturing and/or unsuccessful scavenging of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) may play a censorious part in chronic diseases. Lipid can be produced by peroxidation highly responsive ROS which control the chemical changes in close to all cellular integrant, leading to production of ROS and disorder in antioxidant protect system in diabetic thing has been reported. The antioxidants are used to treat and decrease the complications (diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerosis) of diabetes mellitus. Herbal medications have been used for the treatment of variety of ailments among which Ficus religiosa belonging to the family Moraceae is the vital one. As mentioned in the herbal medicine system, F. religiosa have the potential to treat disorders including hyperglycemia, diarrhea, inflammatory disorders, epilepsy, and stomach problems, sexual and infectious diseases. There are countless studies on the reaction of antioxidants in the modulation of diabetes. The aim of this study was to abstract the middle role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes and the approaching role of antioxidants to overcome lipid peroxidation through their free radicals clearance properties.
222 ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF CAESALPINIA DECAPETALA , *Shirish S. Pingale
Elemental analysis of Caesalpinia decapetala medicinal plant was studied using XRF technique. All of the elements detected from leaves of C. decapetala were reported as per the WHO acceptable levels. The concentration of Ca, S, Si, P and K indicates that the plant is source of nutrient elements. The present research work may helpful for standardization of medicinal drug.
223 OVERVIEW OF HERBAL TREATMENTS IN INDIA FOR DIABETES: A SYSTEMATIZED REVIEW , Rasika D. Bhalke*, Mahendra A. Giri, Yash S. Lodha, Aditya S. More and Pranjal S. Dange
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia accompanied by greater or lesser impairment in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. DM is probably one of the oldest diseases known to man. It was first reported in an Egyptian manuscript about 3000 years ago. In 1936, the distinction between type 1 and type 2 DM was made. Type 2 DM was first described as a component of metabolic syndrome in 1988. The origin and etiology of DM can vary greatly but always include defects in either insulin secretion or response or both at some point in the course of the disease. Most patients with diabetes mellitus have either type 1 diabetes (which is immune-mediated or idiopathic) Type 2 DM (formerly known as non-insulin dependent DM) is the most common form of DM characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. Type 2 DM results from the interaction between genetic, environmental, and behavioral risk factors. Diabetes also can be related to the gestational hormonal environment, genetic defects, other infections, and certain drugs.[1]
224 DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIENT ENRICHED FUNCTINAL BISCUITS FOR MALNOURISHED SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN , Sumaiya Mamun, Mohammad Abduz Zaher, Ielias Uddin and Prof. Dr. A. K. Obidul Huq*
A nutrient-enriched functional biscuit was developed for malnourished children as a supplementary food in the present study. One control biscuits and vitamin premix enriched three sample biscuits were formulated and organoleptic properties were tested for evaluation. Total 11 children performed sensory evaluation. Control biscuits were devoid of vitamin premix, whereas in sample-1, 2 and 3 incorporating 0.5, 0.75 and 1% vitamin premix added respectively. Proximate composition analysis showed that controlled biscuits contain 4.8% moisture, 2.3% crude fiber, 14.7% protein, 19.5% fat, 56.1% carbohydrate, 2.1% ash and energy 458 Kcal. In case of organoleptic evaluation, sample -2 biscuits was more acceptable compared to all other quality characteristics by the organoleptic test. Sample-2 biscuits contain 4.5% moisture, 3.5% crude fiber, 14.6% protein, 19.9% fat, 55% carbohydrate, 2.3% ash and energy 457 Kcal. Proximate analysis and sensory evaluation concluded that, our newly developed biscuit-2 has the optimum taste and nutrient content; therefore, further implications of this research are necessary in favour of school-going children.
225 INVESTIGATION OF APOPTOTIC AND ANGIOGENÄ°C EFFECTS OF BORON IN HUMAN LUNG CANCER CELLS (A549) , Hande AytuÄŸ* and Funda KarabaÄŸ Çoban
Today, lung cancer, one of the most important health problems, is the most common cause of mortality in both men and women. A549 lung cells derived from human alveolar carcinoma cells match the type II alveolar cell phenotype, have many characteristics of human primary alveolar epithelial cells. Boron is used in many fields such as , nuclear, glass, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, detergents, agriculture and its usage areas are increasing day by day. Recent studies have shown that boron is an important element for human health. Based on this information, this study investigated the effect of different concentrations of boric acid in the A549 human lung cancer cell line, by analyzing proliferation assay, TAS (Total Antioxidant Status), TOS (Total Oxidant Status), VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) and PARP (Poly (ADP-). Ribose Polymerase). Proliferation assay was performed using CCK8 Assay Kit. TAS, TOS, VEGF and PARP analyzes were performed using Sun-Red Human Total Antioxidant Status Elisa Kit, Sun-Red Human Total Oxidant Status Elisa Kit, Sun-Red Human (VEGF) Elisa Kit and Sun-Red Human (PARP) Elisa Kit, respectively. it is made. In the study, the proliferation test showed that the viability values decreased in proportions with doses at 5 mM, 10 mM, 20 mM, 40 mM and 100 mM concentrations and the IC50 value was determined as 20 mM. There was no significant difference between TAS and TOS analysis. In VEGF values, it was observed that VEGF values decreased at 10 mM and 20 mM boric acid concentrations compared to the control group, but there was no significant difference in 40 mM boric acid concentration. A significant increase in PARP values was observed at all concentrations of 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM. As a result; We may be think 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM concentrations of boric acid may decrease angiogenesis by decreasing VEGF levels. As a result of the increase in PARP values, we may be think boric acid leads to cell necrosis at concentrations of 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM.
226 FORMULATION OF A NEWLY DEVELOPED DIETARY SUPPLEMENT FROM MARINE SOURCES , Md. Sohel Rana, Mesbah Uddin Talukder, Sumaiya Mamun, Shireen Nigar, Mohammad Abduz Zaher and Prof. Dr. A. K. Obidul Huq*
Supplementation of foods is of current interest because of increasing nutritional awareness among consumers. A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. Spirulina is selected to this study for its high protein content and its varieties health benefits. The objective of this study is to produce dietary capsule from marine sources and evaluate its efficacy on health and nutrition. Proximate composition of Spirulina plus capsule was analyzed. Protein content of Spirulina plus capsule was (71.19±1.11) % and it removes protein energy malnutrition. It contains a considerable amounts of ash, fiber which has beneficial health effects. The final product Spirulina plus capsule contained (9.16±0.004) % fat which can help for brain development. Spirulina plus capsule had (12.09±0.02) % fiber which can remove constipation. Microbial test of final product represents that the product was safe. It was concluded that Spirulina plus capsule is enriched with the mixture of some other ingredients and it becomes a good dietary supplement to the consumers.
227 INVESTIGATION OF APOPTOTIC AND ANTIANGIOGENIC EFFECTS OF BORON IN MCF-7 CELLS , Ali Osman Albayrak*, Funda KarabaÄŸ Çoban, Mehmet Emrah Åželli and Hande AytuÄŸ
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women and ranks second among the causes of female death in the world. In order to find a solution to breast cancer, different studies are being conducted for the treatment and the effects of different drugs and substances on this disease are intensively investigated. Boric acid has been shown to control the proliferation of certain types of cancer cells. In the study, different concentrations of boric acid were applied on MCF-7 cell line to determine IC50 values of boric acid and its antiproliferative effect was determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) ELISA kit at 24, 48 and 72 hours. According to the results, other analyzes were performed over the 48 hour incubation period. After the IC50 values of boric acid at 48 hours were determined, Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) kit was used to determine apoptotic effects for boric acid. Cell lysates were obtained after the application of defined IC50 doses to the cells for determination of biochemical parameters. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) kit was used to determine the angiogenic effects with the obtained samples. As a result, in this study, it was observed that concentration and time-dependent boric acid decreased proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. At the same time, according to the PARP results, it was found that the concentrations of boric acid significant differences compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between boric acid concentrations and Cis Platin groups. It is thought that both groups showed an increase compared to the control group, and boric acid leads the cell to necrosis like Cis Platinum. When VEGF results were examined to explain the relationship between boric acid and angiogenesis, significant differences were observed with both control group and Cis Platinum. Boric acid groups have been shown to be more effective than Cis Platin in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and to be an antiangiogenic agent. In this respect, further studies are needed to investigate how the effects of molecular anticancerogenic mechanisms of MCF-7 cells and boric acid on cell polarization are realized.
228 AN AYURVEDIC VIEW OF UNDERSTANDING KANDA BHAGNA AND ITS GENERAL MANAGEMENT (A REVIEW ARTICLE) , Dr. Bharat Kumar M.*, Dr. Vishwanath Sharma, Dr. Shailaja S. V.
Bhagna in ancient period were encountered during war or animal attack but in present time it occurs due to large sudden force on bone, chronic repetitive force or due to road traffic accidents. It was very well explained by Acharya Sushruta depending upon nature of trauma, shape of fracture, displacement of fractured fragment and fracture with or without wound. Acharya Sushruta explained Bhagna of 2 types- Kandabhagna and Sandhimoksha.[1] Kandabhagna is of 12 types which has been explained elaborately.[2] The principle of Bhagna Chikitsa defined by Acharya Sushruta centuries ago are as per condition either conservative or surgical management. The modalities explained by Acharya Sushruta like kusha bandha, aalepa, chakrayoga are much beneficial in the management of bhagna.[3] Therefore the concept theories and techniques which were practical several years ago holds true even in modern era.
229 DRYING AND SALTING FISH USING DIFFERENT METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE SENSORY, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL INDICES , *Hassan Hadi Mehdi AL- Rubaiy, Khalid Hassak Abdul Hassan and Mohammad Zyarah Eskandder
Different types of fish, such as sardines, Hamour, noebi, fsikh, carp, and other kinds, were salted and dried by different drying methods such as natural sun drying, drying by vacuum solar dryer, drying by electric ovens and by using a microwave oven, In different regions of the world. The studies indicated that the drying efficiency was varied with the different drying methods in terms of drying rate and storage period of dried fish and its effect on the organoleptic, chemical and microbial indices. In general, all the drying methods used to drying fish gave a high efficiency except natural sun drying. Even though different methods were used to dry the salted fish, the percentages of chemical composition and indices were close. As for the microbial indices, the microwave drying efficiency exceeded compared with all the drying methods. The natural sun drying method gave less efficiency in eliminating microbes, and it also differed whether the fish was salted or unsalted, and this affected the storage periods. The different methods in drying and salting fish were affected by the rate of dehydration, which led to a variation in the percentage.
230 TWO CASES OF DIABETIC CRANIAL NEUROPATHY , *Dr. Pranav Bhagwat
Diabetes has become one of the largest global health-care problems of the 21 st century. The number of people with diabetes worldwide is predicted to double between 2000 and 2030, reaching a pandemic level of 366 million people.[1] Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes [2] in which cranial nerve palsies are rare and associated with long-standing poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.
231 ASSESSMENT OF ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF A POLYHERBAL FORMULATION BA019 , Aparna P. and Dr. Brahma Srinivasa Rao Desu*
In this study, anti-hyperlipidemic activity of polyherbal formulation BA019 was assessed by two animal models, Triton induced hyperlipidaemia and fructose diet induced hyperelipidaemia in wisar rats. In both animal models, BA019 produced a significant reduction in serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides. The effect of 200 mg/kg of BA019 was significant when compared to vehicle treated group. The effect of 400mg/kg of BA019 was nearly equal to standard drug Atrovastatin (10mg/kg, p.o). These results showed that polyherbal formulation BA019 possessed anti-hyperlipidemic activity.
232 RATIO SUBTRACTION COUPLED WITH EXTENDED RATIO SUBTRACTION METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL AND ORPHENADRINE CITRATE IN THEIR COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS , Mahmoud M. Sebaiy* and Amr A. Mattar
A simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method was settled for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and orphenadrine citrate in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. Ratio Subtraction coupled with Extended Ratio Subtraction has been used in simultaneous determination of both drugs without prior separation. Ratio Subtraction coupled with Extended Ratio Subtraction method parameters were validated according to ICH guidelines in which accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found in accepted limits. Advantages and disadvantages of Ratio Subtraction coupled with Extended Ratio Subtraction were discussed and statistical comparison between the proposed method and the reference method was performed.
233 A CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF ROOKSHANA POORVAKA VAMANA KARMA IN PCOS , Seetharamu M. S.*, Kiran M. Goud and Shreyas D. M.
Polycystic ovarian disease or syndrome is a condition characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbances, obesity, hirsutism and infertility. It is a health problem that affects three in ten women of the child bearing age group. Menstrual disturbances include amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea and irregular menstruation which further leads to infertility. Ultrasound examination shows cysts in the ovaries. Conventional treatment for PCOS includes lifestyle changes, ovulation induction, surgical theraphy and other symptomatic treatment modalities. Considering the menstrual abnormalities and anovulation, pcos can be correlated to Arthava kshaya, where prakupitha Kapha does the avarana of Apana vata. Sarvanga Udhwartana followed sarvanga basshpa sweda as vishista poorva karma and Vamana karam is a treatment modality applied to enhance the suppressed action of vata by relieving the Kapha Avarana. Vamana karma helps in decreasing saumya guna and increases Agneya Guna. It was observed that Maximum patient in the study given statistically significant relief in almost all Parameters. The results of the present clinical study has given (p<o.oo1) which shown statistically highly significant.
234 CONCEPT OF GURU CHA ATARPANA IN THE PRESENT ERA W.S.R TO STHOULYA , Dr. Manjula*, Dr. Lolashri S. J., Dr. Kiran M. Goud
In the present era of modernization, people are dependent on modernized technologies forcing them to live in sedentary life style and every lifestyle has drastic changes in their dietary habits and regimens leading to chronic and non communicable diseases. Among them Sthoulya is one of the major risk factor. Sthoulya is common nutritional disorder in affluent societies and most prevalent in developed countries. The management of Sthoulya as described in Ayurvedic classics are Nidanaparivarjana, Apatarpana chikitsa and Shamana and Shodhana chikitsa, among them Guru cha Atarpana is selected as low calorie diet therapy to discuss its importance and way of use in the present era. So the Aim and Objective is to highlight the importance of Guru and Atarpana in the form of Ahara and Pana as low diet calorie, high fiber and protein in the context of Chikitsa of Medoroga or Santarpanottajanya vyadhi chikitsa as explained by our Acharya.
235 ALOPECIA MANAGEMENT MINOXIDIL IMPROVING HAIR GROWTH: AN OVERVIEW , Suresh Ghritlahare*, Pushpendra Kurre, Govind Panagar and Trilochan Satapathy
Hair is one of the important parts of our body. Hair failure is a familiar complaint, both men and women & use of prescription medications is well-known. Hair loss can be divided into three types: 1. Noncicatricial (potentially reversible), 2. Cicatricial 3. Due to hair shaft abnormalities. The scalp hair grows in cycles of anagen (growth), catagen (involution), telogen (resting), and exogen (release of dead hair) phases. Causes of hair loss: Hair loss is a dermatological disorder that has been recognised for more than 2000 years. Drugs that cause hair loss Drugs can cause telogen hair loss that starts about 12 weeks after starting the drug and continues while on the drug. 10 Dosing changes can also precipitate hair shedding. Any medication or over the counter product the patient is taking should be suspected in hair loss. Drugs known to cause telogen effluvium are oral contraceptive pills, androgens, retinoids, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and the anticoagulants heparin and warfarin. Medicines used to treat arthritis (Penicillamine, Indomethacin, Naprosyn and Methotrexate), parkinson’s disease (levodopa); any other medication which has an androgenic (male) hormone action, such as - anabolic steroids, often used by athletes and bodybuilders or danocrine used for treating endometriosis in women causes hair loss. Diagnosis of hair loss: Biopsy of central scalp, daily hair count, wash test, Hair pull test etc. Treatments of hair loss: a herbal drug used in treatment of alopecia i.e. Common names are Avocado Shikakai, Arnica, Onion, Birch, Mustard, Tea, Marigold, Pepper, Mandukparni ete. Synthetic drugs used for treatment of hair loss are Minoxidil, Finasteride, Zinc, Skinoren/Azelaic Acid, Ketoconazoie, Cyproterone Acetate with Ethinyl oestradiol, Cimetidine, Cyproterone Acetate, Spironoloactone, Prezatide copper etc. minoxidil was transformed from an antihypertensive to hair-loss drug, Minoxidil affects hair follicles by inducing proliferation and differentiation of the dermal papilla cell at the bulb base. FDA approved 2% solutions for female patients. This stops the hair loss in patients with AGA and stimulates new hair growth.
236 AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT OF PCOS WSR TO PUSHPAGNI JATAHARINI-A CASE STUDY , Dr. Raksha S.* and Papiya Jana
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) is the most common endocrine abnormality in reproductive aged women affecting approximately 5-10% of this population. The classis triad of this syndrome consists of chronic ovulation dysfunction, hirsutism (male pattern hair growth) and obesity. The exciting news recently involves understading the contribution of insulin resistance to the etiology and treatment of PCOS as well as the recent addition of ultrasound diagnostic tool. In Ayurveda, Pushpagni jataharini mentioned in kasyapa samhitha presents a clinical picture somewhat similar to that of PCOS. Analysing the signs and symptoms of disease, it can be inferred that vitiated kapha causes srotorodha resulting in vatavaigunya. Agneya property of pitta is also depleted. So adopting vata kaphahara and pitta vridhikara treatment, we can manage the disease through Ayurveda, which is affordable and devoid of major side effects.
237 APOPTOSIS AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE PROPERTIES OF LUPEOL ON HUMAN TUMOR CELLS , Madhan Mohan T., P. Arul Prakash and A. Jayachitra*
Lupeol, a triterpene found in plant source like fruits and vegetables which selectively induced apoptosis of cancer cells. It also regulates several apoptosis signaling pathways in cancer cells. It has downregulated the proteolysis activity of secreted MMP-2 protein suggesting the efficacy of Lupeol against the spread of Cancer cells. Its role in induction of pro-apoptotic protein indicates that Lupeol rectifies the errors in apoptotic machinery of cancer cells. Lupeol treatment showed cell growth inhibition, anti-inflammatory effects, and tumor regression using FACS for cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, ROS. Furthermore, Lupeol showed antiproliferative action towards U87MG cells at the Inhibitory concentration of 33.76μM. On cell cycle analysis, Inhibition of cells at various stages by lupeol was observed between control and treated. The vast difference in peak count revealed with treated sample count at 300(peak 1) & 240(peak 2) whereas control count at 440(peak 1)& 300(peak 2). The apoptosis inducing activity of lupeol on U-87MG cells shows mean difference treated at 64.982 compared to control at 80.823. Lupeol also regulated the reactive oxygen species in the cells in which excessive distribution occurred at the range of 50-150. These studies conclude that lupeol has the ability to inhibit and induce the Apoptosis, ROS. Thus, confirming anti tumor properties of lupeol.
238 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SINGLE POTENT BIOAGENT AGAINST THREE SPECIES OF MOSQUITO LARVAE , Selva Seematti R.* and Prabakaran V.
Mosquitoes are the most important transmitted vector. It can able to carry many disease-causing viruses and parasites. Several species belonging to genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex are vectors for the pathogen of various diseases like dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. Anopheles stephensi are major malaria vectors in India. With an annual incidence of 300-500 million, malaria is still one of the most important communicable diseases. Currently, about 40% of the world s population live in areas where malaria is endemic. Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of lymphatic filariasis, is widely distributed in tropical zones with around 120 million people infected worldwide and 44 million people having common chronic manifestation. Aedes aegypti is known to carry dengue. In the present study focused with three-difference mosquitoes were selected, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The three different mosquito larvae were selected based on instar 2nd, 3rd, 4th. In order to study the Predatory potential of Diplonychus indicus and the prey preference of various nymphal instars like III, IV, V, Male and Female were chosen. Hence the efficacy of three different mosquito larvae were exposed to Diplonychus indicus has been reported to show selective feeding behavior on mosquito larvae. Beyond, which in overall experiment denoted the predators (Diplonychus indicus) were studied, comparative between various larvae only the maximum activity exposed to Aedes aegypti at 4th instars larvae to the dominant exposure in male predators. The success of biological control agents using natural enemies depends on the ability of the predator to select target prey populations.
239 VANDYATVA – A CASE STUDY , Dr. Chaitra N.*, Dr. Papiya Jana
Motherhood is near to divinity. There are many conditions which prevent a woman from being a mother. A remarkable decline in fertility is observed beyond the age of 30years due to poor quality of ovum and quantitative reduction in the number of follicles. Conception depends on multiple factors, ovulation being one among them. Infertility is that, in which the ability to reproduce becomes impaired. Anovulation is one of the causes of infertility in 25% to 40% of women in child bearing age group. In ayurveda Vandhyatva is a vata dosha pradhana vyadi, Ovulation is under control of vata especially Apana vata. Here phala ghrita, Yosa jeevani lehya and Maharsi Amrita kalasha is been used and treated the present case successfully and proved effective. Present article will explain how to understand and manage infertility based on ayurvedic perspective.
240 SULPHONAMIDE DRUGS AND PSEUDOMONAS AEROGINOSA RESISTANCE: A REVIEW , Egbujor Melford C.*, Nwobodo David C., Egwuatu Pius I., Abu Ifeanyichukwu P., Ezeagu Casmir U.
Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial agents to be used systematically which have also been widely utilized as antimalarial, anticancer, antiretroviral, diuretic, antihypertensive agents to mention but a few. Sulphonamide was first isolated from coal tar in 1935 for the treatment of bacterial infections due to its selective toxicity against bacterium cell thereby paving the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. Over the years, sulphonamide drugs lost its preference as the first line drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial infections because of the increased resistance exhibited by certain bacteria especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The unique resistance of Pseudomonas aerusginosa against sulphonamide is quite worrisome due to the fact that this bacterium being one of the scariest bacteria in the world is responsible for several serious infections that were erstwhile curable with inexpensive sulphonamide drugs. Several isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have considerable defense against reliable antibiotics and their concomitant infections are difficult to treat because of complex enzymic and mutational mechanisms of resistance exhibited by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review observed and proposed the potential ways of tackling the recalcitrance of Pseudomonas aeroginosa to sulfonamide though structural modifications and derivatization.
241 STUDY OF PHYSICO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BUCCAL PATCHES ALONG WITH THE PERMEATION OF LOADED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG , Gopa Roy Biswas*, Simran Shaw, Parna Pati, Sutapa Biswas Majee
The buccal patches of Atenolol were designed in such a way that the mucoadhesive layers was incorporated along with the circumference of the circular patch. The major ingredients selected for the matrix layer were the drug and control release polymer (either HPMC K15M or HPMC K4M) while the Mucoadhesive layer was predominantly comprised of gum karaya. The designed patches were subjected to different evaluations like thickness uniformity, average weight, folding endurance, mucoadhesion strength, swelling behavior. The physico mechanical properties of the patches found to be satisfactory and they were subjected to permeation studies. In vitro permeation study was conducted for 8hrs in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 using dialysis membrane. The cumulative drug permeated from formulation was found to be 32 - 49 % and the permeation profiles for each batch was almost linear. The permeability coefficient was found in a range of 0.041 cm/h. to 0.053 cm/hr and flux was found in a range of 1.43- 1.85 mg cm-2 hr -1.
242 BOTANICALLY DERIVED FRIEDELANE TYPE ISOPRENOIDS: A MINI-REVIEW ON THEIR PESTICIDAL POTENTIALS. , Ekenna I. C. and Afieroho O. E.*
Friedelane-type isoprenoids are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes that includes friedelin and its derivatives. Several reports on their numerous biological activities in both in vivo and in vitro experimental models have been reported. This report is a review on the pesticidal friedelane-type isoprenoids of botanic origin, their mechanisms of action and salient structure activity relationship. Generally, the type and stereochemistry of the substituent at position C-3 of the friedelane 1 triterpene skeleton greatly affects biological activity of these phyto-constituents.
243 EXTRACTION, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW COMPOUND AND ANTI-BACTERIAL POTENTIALS OF THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPOUND FROM LEPTADENIA HASTATA LEAF EXTRACT , Isaac John Umaru*, Fasihuddin A. Badruddin and Hauwa A. Umaru
This study was carried out with the aim of exploring the chemical constituents medicinal plant Leptadenia hastata. Identification of the compounds were based on the molecular structure, molecular mass and calculated fragments. Interpretation on mass spectrum GC-MS was conducted using the database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST). The name, molecular weight and structure of the components of the test materials were ascertained using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrometry (FTIR). Phytochemicals were isolated from the leaves extracts of Leptadenia hastata, after the extraction from solvent, dichloromethane The chemical compounds isolated include Benzyl alcohol (1), 3-Pyridine carboxylate (2), 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol (3). This study revealed that this medicinal plant Leptadenia hastata extract from dichloromethane had some potential phytochemicals. These chemical constituents were isolated and characterised for the first in the leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata.
244 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS , Deshpande S.N.*
Plants are rich in phytochemicals. These play active role in the treatment of diseases. Though chemotherapeutic drugs are used to treat diseases they have side effects and develop resistance, hence there is need of alternative medicine. The present study was therefore undertaken to screen some medicinal plants for phytochemical constituents by simple chemical qualitative tests. For this ethanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of leaves of Abrus precatorius L., Psidium guajava L. Piper betle L., Azadirechta indica L.and stem bark of Acacia nilotica L.were prepared by Soxhlet method. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phytosterols and tannins in all selected plants extracts. However amino acids were absent in all selected plants extracts. Saponins and cardiac glycosides were found in all selected plants extracts except ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extract of Abrus precatorius L. Flavonoids and anthraquinones were found only in Acacia nilotica L.Fixed oils and fats were present in only Psidium guajava L however,proteins in Psidium guajava L. and Acacia nilotica L.Presence of various phytochemicals in the plants selected for study is suggestive of their medicinal use in folk medicine.
245 HAEMATOLOGICAL STUDY OF FRESH WATER FISH- LABEO ROHITA & CATLA CATLA , Sadaf Anis Don*
There are variations in blood cell count and percentage haemoglobin in different fish species, these variations are remarkable in planktophagous and carnivorous fishes found in fresh water reservoirs. In relation to change in habitat, seasonal changes, parasitic infection, effect of pollutants, relative physiological activities shows difference in haematological parameters. The blood sample of fish –Labeo rohita and Catla Catla were examined to study the blood cell count and haemoglobin percentage from vasundri Talao, Titwala (Distric-Thane.) The present study suggested that these fishes are important sources of animal protein and good for human health.
246 ADVERSE EVENTS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS AT WA, THE UPPER WEST REGIONAL HOSPITAL OF GHANA , Inusah Deunaa Iddrisu*, Akwasi Anyanful and Samuel Victor Nuvor
Background: Being discharged from the hospital is sometimes associated with complications which may be dangerous to the patient. Adverse events are unintended injuries or complications which may result in death, disability and prolonged hospital stay after discharge or related to the hospital visit. This paper aims at giving an insight into the relationship between patient demographic factors and the incidence, types and severity of adverse events after hospitalization in a secondary hospital in Northern Ghana. Method: A prospective cohort study into the relationship between adverse events and patient demographic factors. This was carried out with patients admitted and discharged from Wa Hospital. A total of 206 patients were recruited from the medical, surgical and emergency wards of the hospital. Findings: Adverse events were found to increase with age. The adverse events at age of less than 20 years was 2.4%, between 31 to 40 was 3.3% , 41 to 50 was 3.8%, 51 to 60 was 7.2% and 61 and above was 7.2%. However, 21 to 30 years age group had 9.2% of adverse events. There were no differences in occurrence of adverse events among sexes and other demographic characteristics of the patient with exception of age groups (p<0.050) which had influence on the type of adverse events. The level of literacy and education did not also influence the occurrences of adverse events. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics of patients might not contribute to the development of adverse events after they are discharged from the hospital. However, the age of patients may influence adverse events development probably because of their weaknesses in old age. Improvement in patients social lives will help to reduce the occurrence of adverse events after patients had been discharged from the hospital.
247 THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF BAUHINIA RACEMOSA LAM BARK ON CYSTEAMINE INDUCED ULCERS , Dr. C. Girish*, A. Neelima and D. Haritha Goud
An experiment was conducted to study the antiulcer effect of the dried bark powder of the plant Bauhinia racemosa in wistar albino rats. Cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in the rat is widely used as a model of peptic ulcer disease. 36 wistar rats of either sex weighing between 180 -200gm were selected and divided into six groups, each comprising of 6 rats. 6 groups of rats were given with 0.5% CMC solution, 50 mg/kg of Ranitidine, 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Bauhinia racemosa, 400mg/kg of aqueous extract of Bauhinia racemosa (AEBR), 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract of Bauhinia racemosa and 400mg/kg of methanolic extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR) respectively. After one hour all the groups were administered with cysteamine at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight orally. After 24 hrs, note down the number of ulcers, ulcer score, percent incidence, ulcer index and healing index were recorded. From the results obtained it was concluded that the methanolic extract at a dose of 400mg/kg shows antiulcer activity.
248 VIROSOMES; A NOVAL APPROACH IN NOVAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW , Mufeeda P., Nishad K. M.*, Sirajudheen M. K. and Shiji Kumar P. S.
Promising drugs are often discontinued during development because they cannot be suitably delivered to target cells, tissues and organs. The new generation therapy for various disorders needs a delivery system that target drug to specified cell types and host tissues. Virosomal technology represents a novel sophisticated delivery system to meet these challenges .Virosomes are reconstituted viral envelops that can fill in as vaccines or it can be utilized as vehicles for conveying peptide, nucleic acids and various medications like antitoxic ,anticancer agents and steroids. This safely modified viral envelop mainly consist of a phospholipid membrane and surface glycoprotein. It is derived from several virus envelops .Influenza virosome and sendai virosomes are most common. Their surface can be suitably modified to facilitate targeted drug delivery. How ever their pharmacokinetics clinical effect, bioavailability, stability etc. should be thoroughly studied to ensure long term reliability as safe, effective and affordable means of drug delivery. Thus drug delivery by using biomimetic novel drug delivery systems such as virosomes is a motivating research and development field. This review focus on various features of virosomes such as structure, advantages, disadvantages, formulation, application, kinetics etc
249 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF SPHAGNETICOLA TRILOBATA (L.) , A. K. Anjana, P. L. Rajagopal*, P. N. Sajith Kumar, I. Arthi, Meera B. Nair and S. Aneeshia
The invitro antioxidant properties of the whole plant were studied in ABTS ,NO and Superoxide dismutase models. The antioxidant study had been carried out with the leaves of the plant. The leaf extract of the plant showed significant antioxidant properties. The plant was also reported to contain secondary metabolites like phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The antioxidant property exhibited by the leaf extract of the plant could be due to the presence of these secondary metabolites.
250 MANAGING ANXIETY IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE , Irfat Ara, Shazad Yaqoob, Basharat Bukhari, Weeqar Younis Raja and Mudasir Maqbool*
Anxiety (Izterab-eNafsani) is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, cognitive, emotional and behavioural components. As per Unani Medicine, anxiety comes under the Infialat-e-Nafsaniyah (Psychic Reactions). Terminologically Infialat-e-Nafsaniyah is the movements of ruh (pneuma) and blood with the help of Quwwat-e-Haiwaniyah (vital faculty). Unani Medicine treats the patient on holistic parameters jointly together for preventive and curative aspects. In preventive aspect different high protein seeds are used to provide stimulus as brain tonic and strengthen the nervine activity for example almond, pistachio, kaju, kaddu and kahu seeds etc. Unani physicians use many single and compound drugs for the treatment of anxiety (Izteraab-e- Nafsaani), which is mentioned in their classical texts. The purpose of the drugs used in Unani system of Medicine is correction of Su-e- Mizaj (Abnormal Temperament) as they are of the opinion that anxiety (Izterab-e- Nafsani) is due to Su-e- Mizaj Har Sada and Su-e- Mizaj Maddi i.e Su-e- Mizaj Safrawi and Su-e- Mizaj Saudawi. This review briefly explains about Anxiety (Izterab-eNafsani) in terms of Unani medicine and some Unani and herbal drugs used in its treatment.
251 ANTIMICROBIAL USE IN LIVESTOCK AND AGRICULTURE: EXPLORING THE CONSEQUENTIAL RESISTANCE , K. K. Safdar*, Rashid K., Anwer K., Shana Thasni A. K. and Dr. Shiji Kumar P. S.
The use of antimicrobial compounds in the production of animal feed has demonstrated benefits, including better animal health, greater production and, in some cases, reduction of foodborne pathogens. However, the use of antibiotics for agricultural fins, in particular to stimulate growth, was closely monitored, as it demonstrates a contribution to the increased prevalence of bacterial antibiotics resistant to human importance. The transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and the selection of resistant bacteria can be done by different mechanisms, which are not always linked to the use of applicable antibiotics. Prevalence data can provide insight into the occurrence and changes in resistance over time; however, the reasons are diverse and complex. This issue has been widely discussed in the past nationally and internationally, and several adopted countries are either considering stricter restrictions or prohibitions on certain types of use of antibiotics in the production of animals for food. In some cases, the ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics appears to result in a decrease in the prevalence of certain drug-resistant bacteria; however, subsequent objects in animal morbidity and mortality, particularly in young animals, sometimes result in increased use of therapeutic antibiotics, which generally occur in families of drugs more relevant to human medicine.
252 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON PREVALENCE OF COLORECTAL CANCER WITH RANITIDINE , Naseeh P. K.* and Amit Ranjan
The relation between use of histamine-2-receptor (H2-receptor) antagonists and colorectal cancer risk was investigated in an exceedingly case-control study. The incidence of gastric cancer was raised for the primary few years once the beginning of treatment with H2-receptor antagonists, this could replicate misdiagnosis of some early gastric cancers. The findings square measure against long persistence of AN excess risk of gastric cancer in association with use of H2-receptor antagonists. In this review article, Includes the some of the article wised study review on prevalence of colorectal cancer with ranitidine.
253 A NARRATIVE REVIEW ARTICLE ON CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INTERRACTION OF DRUGS WITH GRAPE FRUITJUICE , Mohamed Fayis P.*, Dr. Lita Susan Thomas, Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K. and Sherin A.
 The aim of the review is to study the interaction between drugs and grape fruit juice. Grape fruit is a nutrition fruit. Many patient are concerned about the potential for drugs interaction with grape fruit juice. Grape fruit juice interact with many of the drugs produce severe problems. Grape fruit or grape fruit juice can alter enzyme in the body and effect how drugs are changed in the body before eliminated. Grape fruit juice decrease the activity of the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme that are responsible for taking down many drugs and toxins. It contains compound known as Furano coumarin that block CYP3A4 enzymes (CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition) which in turn affect s the metabolism of the drugs by this enzyme. Blood levels of the drug may rise, resulting in a risk for new or worsened side effects. The literature shows that one whole fruit or 200 milliliters of grape fruit juice can block the CYP3A4 enzyme and leads to drug toxicity metabolized by this enzyme. The review is done to analyze the alteration in clinical significance, class of drugs and the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs due to the interaction with the grape fruit juice. Therefore it is highly importa nt to know the effect of grape fruit juice on the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs involved. The same information can be shared and highlight it importance while prescribing the drugs among the healthcare professionals specially the prescriber and t he public health promoting safe effective and rational use of drugs in the society.
254 A REVIEW ON EVIDENCE OF VISUAL HALLUCINATION ON METOPROLOL USAGE , Naseemussalam P. T.*, Amit Ranjan
Metoprolol, a widely used beta blocker, has been associated with visual hallucinations and CNS disorders. Multiple reasons can lead to under- recognition and under-reporting of this adverse drug effect by both patients and physicians. The true incidence of metoprolol-related visual hallucinations is unknown. Doctors are urged to maintain diligent vigilance when managing patients receiving this medicine. We suspect that metoprolol-induced visual hallucinations may be under- recognized and under-reported. Patients may often fail to recognize this adverse effect, believing they are just dreaming, or may be ashamed to report visions that they think will not be perceived by others as real. Similarly, healthcare professionals may also fail to recognize this visual toxicity or attribute visual hallucinations to concomitant illness or other medications. Physicians should maintain diligent vigilance when managing patients receiving this medicine.
255 INDIVIDUALISING PERIODONTAL THERAPY NEED TO INDIVIDUALISE PERIODONTAL CARE , Javeria Khan, Pramod Virupapuram*
The basis of individualised periodontal therapy and medicine is targeting treatment to a patient‟s specific needs on the basis of genetics, biomarkers, epigenetic, phenotypic, and socioeconomic or psychosocial determinants that distinguish an individual from others with similar clinical presentations. The clinical experimental gingivitis studies in dental students and the experimental periodontitis studies in dogs strongly supported the general concept that bacterial accumulations on the teeth predictably led to gingivitis and, if untreated, progressed to periodontitis. This led to the basic understanding of the concept of non specific and specific plaque hypothesis and the treatment aimed at eliminating microbial insults to gingival and sub gingival areas. But on the other hand this concept suggested that the severity of periodontitis was a simple function of the magnitude of bacterial accumulations and the time of exposure and all individuals are equally susceptible to periodontitis, and if treated according to the proven principles from the longitudinal studies patients should respond in a predictable manner. If those concepts are correct, there is no clear value to stratifying a patient‟s risk for developing periodontitis or responding predictably to therapy.
256 TO STUDY THE ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF A POLY-HERBAL EXTRACT IN SWISS ALBINO MICE , *K. Sivaji, P. Sowjanya, B. Devi, G. Ratna Kumari, B. Tejaswini and N. Jayasri
Medicinal herbs are moving from fringe to mainstream use with a greater number of people seeking remedies and health approaches free from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to utilize eco-friendly and bio-friendly plant based products for the prevention and cure of different human diseases.
257 MORINGA OLIEFERA SEEDS FORMULATION AND ITS EFFECT AS A BIOACTIVE TOOL ON GLYCEMIC INDEX OF HEALTHY ALBINO RATS , *Kerenhappuch Isaac Umaru and Madu Sharif
Introduction: Glycemic control through diet is necessary for preventing or limiting the consequences of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the consumption of functional foods and nutraceutical or bioactive compounds derived from plants used as food can be used as nutritional tools because of their clinical effects. Thus, Moringa oleifera is a vegetable plant protein with bio-active multipurpose, it has been used as a food source and for traditional medicine purposes due to possible antihyperglycemic properties. These properties may be explained by the presence of numerous phytochemicals in the seeds. The aim of this study was to determine the bioactive potential of Moringa oliefera seed on glycemic index on healthy albino rats. Materials and methods: The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected in Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria and the rats weighing 110-120g were procured from Faculty of Pharmacy Animal farm. The seed was dried and grinded into powder using pestle and mortar. The milk like powder was weighed and stored in an airtight container. The animals were acclimatization and randomly divided into Four groups of three animals per group, with one group serving as control. They were weighed and fasted for twelve (12) hours (overnight) before diet administration. Result: The Postprandial glucose Level of rats treated with Moringa oleifera formulated diet indicated significantly result with p<0.05 lower compared to the test control. Conclusion: The scarce number of human studies, together with a diverse range of methodologies and Moringa oliefera seed doses, should be encouraged. In addition, evidence regarding changes in insulin levels due to Moringa oliefera seeds indicated potential intervention hence could be used an agent to cutile the hypoglycemic case.
258 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF RAFT FORMING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF FAMOTIDINE , Manasi Nikam*
The objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate raft forming chewable tablets of Famotidine for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux diseases. The purpose of this research work was to formulate raft‑forming tablets of Famotidine using a raft‑forming agent along with an antacid‑ and gas‑generating agent. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and evaluated for raft strength, acid neutralization capacity, weight variation, % drug content, thickness, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release.A 32 full‑factorial design was used in the present study for optimisation. Tablets containing sodium alginate were having maximum raft strength as compared with other raft‑forming agents. Acid neutralisation capacity and in- vitro drug release of all factorial batches were found to be satisfactory. The F9 batch was optimised based on maximum raft strength and good acid neutralisation capacity. Drug–excipient compatibility study showed no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that raft‑forming tablets prepared using an optimum amount of sodium alginate and sodium bicarbonate could be an efficient dosage form in the treatment of gastro esophageal reflux disease.
259 COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON NOVEL CORONA VIRUS - COVID 19 OUTBREAK , K. Naga Surya Sneha Sumanjali and C. Girish*
Corona viruses are the group of viruses which infect human respiratory system. There are 6 different types of corona viruses which are identified earlier. Recently a 7th group of corona virus made a sensation in Wuhan city of china. This corona virus is named first as Nova corona virus (2019-nCoV) and later as COVID-19. The virus seems to be a mix of two corona viruses known to infect bats and another corona virus is from unknown origin. They are called as zoonotic and they can be transmitted from animals to human. It is a contagious viral infection, caused by inhalation or ingestion of viral diseases as a result of coughing and sneezing, handshake, touching infectious surfaces is the primary source for infection. The symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, shortness of breath, pneumonia. There is no vaccine for the corona virus. The treatment of corona virus mainly consists of care in alleviating symptoms and preventing the transmission of viruses.
260 FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL ALOEVERA GEL FOR WOUND HEALING , Tole S. B.*, Joshi A. A., Korekar S. L., Dongare G. S. and Fawade M. M.
Gels are semisolid systems in which a liquid phase is constrained within a three dimensional polymeric matrix in which a high degree of physical cross linking has been introduced. The polymer used to prepare pharmaceutical gels include the natural gums, Tragacanth, pectin, carrageen, agar and alginic acid, synthetic and semisynthetic materials such as methyl Cellulose, Hydroxy ethylcellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose and the carbopols, which are synthetic vinyl polymers with ionizable carboxyl groups. The bulk of these semisolid preparation are applied to the skin, where they usually serve as vehicles for topically applied drugs, as emollients or as protective or occlusive dressings.
261 CURRENT NOVEL CORONA VIRUS COVID-19- A REVIEW , Swarupa Arvapalli*, V. Lalini, J. V. C. Sharma and A.V.S.S.S. Gupta
This review mainly focuses on the recent outbreak novel corona virus in Wuhan, China. Covid-19 most likely spreads via contact with virus-laden droplets expelled from an infected person‘s cough, sneeze or breath. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, such as fever and sore throat from swollen adenoids, primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and may cause bronchitis either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis. The 2019-nCoV infection was of clustering onset, is more likely to affect older males with comorbidities, and can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome.
262 PHARMACOGNOSITICAL STUDY OF ZIZYPHUS MAURITIANA , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam*
Objective: The present investigation has been carried out to determine preliminary and pharmacognostic characteristics of Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber. Its leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, gastric disorder, fever, liver damage and pulmonary disorders. Method: Macroscopic and microscopic study of the fresh and dry drug and determination of physicochemical parameters were performed. Results: Leaves are oval or sub-orbicular, alternate and petiolate from 4 mm to 5 mm. The limb, dark green in colour, is polished on the upper side and whitish and then densely tomentose on the lower side. The anatomo-histological cut of the limb showed a median rib slightly curved on the upper surface and strongly bulging on the lower side and a broader limb. Each epidermis consisted of small, visible cells more or less rectangular, is covered with a cuticle, outer lipoidal covering; impermissive and resistant, giving it a protective role. The cross-section of the stem, revealed a quadrangular shape, has two distinct zones: the bark and the central cylinder. The less developed bark comprises of 4 tissues (cuticle, epidermis, collenchyma and cortical parenchyma). The central cylinder, more developed than the bark, is composed of primary tissues (bone, wood, medullary parenchyma, sclerenchyma, and perimedullary fiber). The sclerenchyma occurs in small clusters around the conductive system. The chemical compositions of the leaves are proteins & amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, saponins, fibers, tannins and phenolic compounds. Conclusion: Pharmacognostic analysis and physicochemical characteristics can help in the efficient utilization of this medicinal plant.
263 A REVIEW ARTICLE ORGANOZINC REAGENT PREPARATION METHOD , Ramesh Gawade*, Arvind Burungale, Ashok Pise, Santosh Devkate and Sunil Jadhav
Organozinc reagents have unique ability to tolerate high functional group, valuable in many organic transformations via nucleophilic addition and cross coupling. The synthetic utilities of available organozinc reagents lead to development of various method of their generation. Now day pyrophoric and moisture sensitive organozinc reagent is replaced by solid air stable organozinc reagent.
264 NOVEL INHIBITOR FOR COVID-19 FROM ZINC NANO-BASED AZA-PC AND CQDS , Fadi Ibrahim*
In this article, the antiviral activity of seven different carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with Azaphthalocyanin (Az-Pcs) for the treatment of human coronavirus infections was investigated. Az-Pcs used to adsorb UV light and concentrate it to CQDs to avoid destruction of tissue and cells by high energy. The first generation Az- Pcs-CQDs antiviral with nanostructures showed a concentration-dependent virus inactivation with an expected estimated EC50 of 50±8 μ gmL-1. The underlying mechanism of action of these Az-Pcs-CQDs could be due to interaction of the functional groups of the CQDs with COVID-19 entry receptors; surprisingly, an equally large inhibition activity was observed at the viral replication step. Az-Pcs with boronic acid derivatives have been proposed as low toxicity agents for inhibiting the entry various viruses. The underlying mechanism of action of these CQDs was revealed to be the CQDs interaction with the COVID-19 S-protein. The antiviral activity of Az-Pcs-CQDs with different Zn nano-size need to be evaluated on Huh-7 cell monolayers infected with COVID-19.
265 ADRENOCORTICAL CARCINOMA , Mandava Mahima Swaroopa*, Chinnam Sri Varsha, Pulimala Saranya Raj and Sajja Sai Premika
Background: ACC seems to be commonest within the fourth and fifth decades in life, though there's a second peak in infancy, probably associated with genetic predisposition syndromes. Adrenocortical tumors are divided into benign and malignant teams, either hormonally silent or internally secreting. ACC enters through Mono-clonality which indicates that growth progression is the effect of associate intrinsic mutation, whereas polyclonality suggests that growth cells are plagued by native or general stimuli. Ras proteins, a layer related proteins which are associated with downstream flagging, when ligand incitement of receptor happens. X-ray gives data about the intrusion of an adrenocortical carcinoma into veins, especially the second rate vena cava, the adrenal and renal veins, in which tumor thrombi might be recognized sometimes.
266 ALPHA- SMOOTH MUSCLE ACTIN, C-KIT AND DESMIN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION FEATURES OF COMMONLY DIAGNOSED SARCOMAS IN NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL NNEWI , Samuel Ifedioranma Ogenyi*, Anthony Ajuluchukwu Ngokere, Anuli Obianuju Onyemelukwe and Jonathan Madukwe
Sarcoma is a group of complex heterogeneous malignant tumours of soft tissues and bones with mesenchymal origin with lots of diagnostic challenges unconnected with their heterogeneous nature, varied histological types and subtypes with considerable morphological overlaps between the different diagnostic entities, hence the need for immunohistochemical diagnosis and classification for specific management strategies and prognosis. The present study was aimed at evaluating α- smooth muscle actin, c-kit and desmin immunohistochemical expression features of commonly diagnosed sarcomas in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi. Twenty four (24) archived paraffin wax processed sarcoma samples were sourced from the histopathology laboratory and museums of the hospital while necessary data were obtained from records. Tissue blocks were re-embedded with fresh paraffin wax and 3μ thick sections cut with the aid of a rotary microtome. Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method was employed to confirm diagnosis before proceeding to immunohistochemistry. Monoclonal antibodies for α- smooth muscle actin, c-kit and desmin were employed for immunohistochemistry while exposed mouse and rabbit specific horseradish peroxidase/diaminobenzidine detection IHC kit was employed for immunostaining. Mean age of patients was 26 years, 14 (58.3%) females and 10 (41.7%) males. There were 9 commonly diagnosed sarcoma types α-smooth muscle actin and desmin were positive for 12 and samples respectively while as c-kit was negative for all samples. SMA and desmin co-expressed in metastatic liposarcoma and low grade leiomyosarcoma. Alpha-SMA, desmin and c-kit showed consistent expression features in many sarcoma types and could be explored further for sarcoma characterization in Nigeria.
267 REVIEW ON NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR THE CANCER TREATMENT , Aduri Prakash Reddy*, G. Suvarsha, SK. Uddandu Saheb, Dr. G. Nagaraju and S. Madhu Charan
Nanoparticles are rapidly being developed and trialed to overcome several limitations of traditional drug delivery systems and are coming up as a distinct therapeutics for cancer treatment. It also discusses specific drug delivery by nanoparticles inside the cells illustrating many successful researches and how nanoparticles remove the side effects of conventional therapies with tailored cancer treatment. Recent scientific evidence shows the potential uses of nanomaterials as therapeutic agents, systems for selective and controlled drug release, and contrast agents for diagnosing and locating tumors. Finally, nanotechnology is still developing science can be defined as next generation techniques for cancer disease; at the same time it comes with many advantages to treat cancer patients.
268 FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ORAL DISPERSIBLE TABLET OF DICYLOMINE HCL , Shivendra Agarwal*, Girendra Kumar Gautam, Neetu Rajpoot and Jagpal Singh
Dicyclomine HCL is an antispasmodic drug which is widely used in treatment of smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract but it undergoes to first pass Metabolism. So that to develop Fast dissolving tablet of Dicyclomine HCL to avoid first pass metabolism and increase bioavailability. This offers a new range of product having desired characteristics and intended benefits. In this research, orally dispersible tablets of Dicyclomine HCL were prepared using direct compression method. Tablets produced by direct compression method contain Lactose as diluent, Crosscarmellose sodium, crosspovidone and husk as a superdisintegrant and aspartame as a sweetener. The dissolution study was performed on PBS 6.8 (salivary pH) and the In-vitro release was found 98.51% without leaving residue for F3 Batch.
269 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHENOLIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CAFFEINATED AND NON-CAFFEINATED INFUSIONS , Sharmila Donepudi*, Dolavathi Pinjala, Padmini Mokka, Rajashekar Gandamala, Rama Rao Nazneen Begum Md and Lakshmana Rao Atmakuri
Tea is the second most consumed beverage aside from water and has gained much attention due to its health-promoting benefits. This study aimed to quantify the levels of phenolic and antioxidant content in various caffeinated (Green tea, White tea) and non-caffeinated (Hibiscus Sabdariffa tea) infusions and identify the most suitable infusion for consumption. UV spectroscopy analytical method was used for the quantification of phenolics and antioxidants. The results of present study indicate the total phenol and total flavonoid content of teas are high, and Hibiscus Sabdadiffa show considerable amount that of caffeinated teas. The study therefore contributes to the evaluation of antioxidant activity provides evidence that non-caffeinated infusions are equally good.
270 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FUROSEMIDE: AN APPROACH FOR THE FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT , Navneet Kumar Verma*, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Prem Chand Mall, Vikas Yadav, Rupali Jaiswal
The development of this buccal and fast acting highly efficacious diuretic was a breakthrough. Its maximal natriuretic effect is way greater than that of other classes. The diuretic response goes on increasing with increasing dose: upto 10 L of urine could even be produced during each day . it's active even in patients with relatively severe renal failure . The onset of action is prompt &#40;i.v. 2-5 min., i.m. 10-20 min., oral 20-40 min.&#41; and duration short (3-6 hours) the main site of action is that the thick Asc LH (site II) where Furosemide inhibits Na+- K+-2Cl cotransport. A rare component of action on PT has also been indicated. it's secreted in PT by organic anion transport and reaches Asc LH where it acts from luminal side of the membrane. It abolishes the corticomedullary osmotic gradient and blocks positive also as negative free water clearance. K+ excretion is increased mainly because of high Na+ load reaching DT. However, at equinatriuretic doses, K+ loss may be a smaller amount than that with thiazides. Identification test was done by estimation of drug, infra-red spectroscopy, FTIR, UV-Spectroscopy, freezing point determination etc.
271 RAPID GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS IN ALCOHOL BASED HAND SANITIZERS PRODUCTS , Dr. Rafael N. Infante*, Andrea Rodríguez and Mariangely Vélez
Demand for hand sanitizer is surging around the globe as the new coronavirus (convid-19) spreads. Sales of hand sanitizers and similar products have swelled across several international markets since the COVID-19 outbreak began in January. The virus, which originated in China, has now spread to more than 190 countries. As of March, 2020 over 400,000 confirmed cases and more that 20,000 deaths worldwide. Alcohol based hand sanitizer companies are struggling to supply the world demand while assuring the public that the product meet requirements set by regulatory agencies and the World Health Organization regarding the content of active ingredients. The most common alcohols used in hand sanitizers are methanol, ethanol, iso-propyl alcohol, and n-propanol or a mixture of thereof. The firms must use the most accurate method of analysis available for verification of the alcohol content in samples of the finished product before each batch is released for distribution. Discussed here is rapid method to analyze for alcohols in finished hand sanitizer products using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The method is aimed at assuring that the product complies with the alcohol % specification in the product label.
272 SINGLE CRYSTAL X-RAY STUDY AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF 5, 5-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE 1, 3-DIONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES , Kavita S. Mundhe*, Nirmala R. Deshpande and Rajashree V. Kashalkar
X- ray crystallography is an important modern technique for determination of structure of a molecule. 5, 5- dimethylcyclohexane 1, 3-dione and its derivatives are synthesized. Single crystal of synthesized compound has been studied by X-ray crystallography. Oak Ridge Thermal Elipsoid Plot (ORTEP), Crystal data and structure refinement for compound shows that molecules are inter molecularly hydrogen bonded with hydrogen atom of NH group. A linear chain of molecules is formed via N-H…O hydrogen bonding with x y z…x 1+y z and N…O while the distance noticed is 2.865 Å. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of synthesized compounds has been performed to obtain order of reaction and energy of activation which will be helpful in determining the biological potentials. Thermo gravimetric analysis of almost all synthesized compounds indicates that all molecules decompose in two steps. The first step starts around 950c to 350 0c and the second step extends from 267 0C to 657 0C. Compound 5 decomposes in three stages which correspond to 710C to 1060C, 106 0C to 2180C and 2180C to 5060C. It is very clear from the results that all molecules have order of reaction (η) of 0.8.The calculated energy of activation indicates an increase in Ea from first stage to second stage for all compounds except compound 5. The energy of activation (Ea) is very high (13.85 kJ) during first stage. It decreases to 6.59 KJ for second stage; while a significant increase (9.87 KJ) is noticed during third stage of compound 5.
273 SHORT ARTICLE ON HOME REMEDIES IN TREATING TOOTH ACHE OR DENTAL PAIN DURING LOCKDOWN , Dr. A. K. Anjali Tutor*
Pain can be defined as an unpleasant generation that can range from mild localised discomfort to Agony. There are different types of pain which include the acute chronic and nociceptive type of pain dental pain has been attributed as one of the most significantly prevalent pain seen in every individual it is one of the phase by which each individual and yours in his or her lifetime.[1] WHO have recommended the reduction of toothache as one of the oral priority issues in global health promotion agenda.[1] There have been evidences where in the epidemiology and the prevalence of oral diseases have been diverse in nature and also show regional variations. Many a times the majority of population in India have resorted to home remedies for dental pain rather than seeking help from dentist. Thus, this study has been penned down to focus on the use of home remedies to cure dental pain during lockdown period using available household commodities in a judicious way using multimodal approaches.
274 ANALYTICAL STUDY ON ONLINE ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS , A. K. Anjali*
Introduction: Online activity based learning or the distance learning is the current and favoured form of education network. Within the past decade, it had a marked influence on higher secondary students, college students’ part time working students. There has been a drastic shift from the past to the current scenario and the vogue is still shooting up. Aim: The aim of this study is to know about the online activity based learning engages the students who are unable to throw oneself into conventional classroom learning. Materials and Method: The pivot of this study concentrates on the effective online based learning by a group of students from the age group of 19 – 20 years of Saveetha Dental College (26 students)over a time period of 1 week. The method incorporated was that of a combination of both online and live teaching where video calling apps were used and the session was conducted. Results: The results were obtained based on the study conducted through a questionnaire consisting of 11 questions distributed to a set of 26 questions and the results were cumulated using a doughnut chart which divulges that majority of the students are interested in online activity based learning activity than in conventional classroom learning. Conclusion: This study can be concluded by saying that majority of the children experienced a shift from conventional classroom learning to online activity based learning which turned out to be positive.
275 EARLY REPAIR OF POST CHOLECYSTECTOMY CBD TRANSACTION AS DETECTED DURING OPERATION AND REFERRED IMMEDIATELY: AN EXPERIENCE , *Dr. Purujit Choudhury and Dr. Abhijit Sarma
Postcholecystectomy bile duct injuries are the causes of significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Intra-operative recognition and repair of complete biliary transaction with hepaticojejunostomy is the recommended treatment; however, it is possible only in few patients as either the injury is not recognized intraoperatively or the center is not geared up to perform an urgent hepaticojejunostomy in these patients with a nondilated duct. Retrospective analysis of data from our tertiary care referral center over a period of 10 years from January 2010 to December 2019 to report the feasibility and outcomes of prompt repair was done (defined as repair within 72 h of index operation) of postcholecystectomy bile duct injury. Ten patients of postcholecystectomy bile duct injury detected intra operatively and referred early underwent prompt repair. All patients had a complete transaction of the bile duct (type of injuries as per Strasberg classification: Type EV 1, Type E III: 7, Type E II : 3 and Type E1:1). The mean duration between injury and bile duct repair in the form of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) was 22.7 (range 5-42) hours. The mean stomal diameter of the anastomosis was 1.63 (rangel – 2.1) cm, and the anastomosis was stented in 7 patients. The mean duration of surgery was 4.6 + 1.7 h. One patient developed bile leak on the first postoperative day, which were settled by day 5. The mean duration of hospital stay was 8 (range 8-12) days. With a mean follow-up of 42 (range 24-110) months, all patient had excellent (70%) or good outcome (30%). Prompt RYHJ (within first 72 h) for postcholecystectomy biliary transaction is an effective treatment and potentially limits the morbidity to the patient.
276 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTANTS IN TEXTILE INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS FROM PANCHAGANGA RIVER, ICHALKARANJI, M.H., (INDIA) , J. P. Sarwade and S. J. Mankar*
The pollution of water bodies is a worldwide concern nowadays. The textile industrial effluent water is responsible for freshwater pollution. This paper mainly included the analysis of heavy metal like Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Iron(Fe), Lead(Pb), Nickel(Ni), Zinc(Zn), Cobalt(Co) from pre-confluence(site 1), at confluence(site 2) and post confluence site(site 3) on river Panchaganga of Ichalkaranji. The contents of heavy metal analysis were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (APHA2009).The results indicate that concentrations of heavy metals in studied water samples recorded higher than the standards proposed by WHO(2011) and the Indian Standards (2012).In this study, the concentration of each of the metal varies in all the samples. The average concentration of Lead recorded at three sites was (site 1=0.0059 mg/L, site 2=0.38mg/L, site 3=0.26mg/L) and chromium (site 1=0.041mg/L, site2=0. 24mg /L, site 3=0.094mg/L) were found to be high. The concentration of Zn in a water sample collected at three sites (site 1=0.02mg/L, site 2=0.23mg/L, site 3=0.01mg/L) was found to be lowest indicated that zinc was not causing pollution at these sites. Remaining metals showed variations in their concentrations. It was concluded that the effluent samples of textile industries discharge causes pollution to the Panchaganga river water and become problematic for a biological environment and human being. Therefore, the effluent water to be discharged by these industries must be sufficiently treated before release.
277 ISOLATION OF FRIEDELIN FROM THE FRUITS OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT HARUNGANA MADAGASCARIENSIS LAM. EX POIRET (HYPERICACEAE) , Afieroho O. E.* and Ajuzie J. I.
In a continued drive to characterized the constituents of the fruits of Harungana madagascariensis a plant widely used in ethnomedicine, this study is aimed at a phytochemical screening–guided column chromatography fractionation and isolation of triterpenoids from the non-polar solvent extract/fraction of the fresh and air-dried fruits of Harungana madagascariensis Two extraction and isolation protocols: isolation from the dichloromethane fraction from the cold macerated crude absolute ethanol extract of the fresh fruits, and isolation from the n-hexane fraction of the cold percolation crude chloroform extract of the air-dried fruit were employed. The structure of the isolated triterpenoid was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and by comparing the obtained spectra data with that reported in literature. The known pentacyclic isoprenoid ketone friedelin was isolated and characterized from both the fresh and air-dried fruits of H. madagascariensis. The yield obtained with the air-dried fruits was ninety fold higher compared to that with the fresh fruits. This study is reporting for the first time the isolation of friedelin a known plant derived bioactive triterpenoid from the fruits of H. madagascariensis a plant widely used in ethno-medicine.
278 INVESTIGATING THE USE OF AQEUOUS EXTRACTS OF BLACK SEED (NIGELLA SATIVA) AND SCENT LEAF TEA (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM) TO AMELIORATE THE SYMPTOMS OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID -19) , *Dr. Okoye Ngozi Franca
Aim: The coronavirus disease COVID – 19 has turned into a global pandemic and efforts are out by scientists to help produce solutions to combat this disease especially in immune boosting. Plants and plant products provide a potential source of immune boosting medication. This study investigated the potential use of aqueous extracts of black seed Nigella sativa and scent leaf Ocimum gratissimum tea to ameliorate the symptoms of coronavirus COVID 19 using hyperlipidimic and hyperglycemic Wistar rats. COVID -19 disease has worse effects on people with underlying conditions like diabetes and heart condition. This informed the decision to check the effects of black seed and scent leaf on cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL), Low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) using induced hyperlipidemic and hyperglycemic Wistar rats. Materials and Method: Twenty-five (25) Wistar rats were used for this research, five groups were created with five rats in each group. The rats were fed their normal rate feed but they gavaged on sucrose and margarine to induce hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia on the rats with exception to the positive control. The rats in the negative control were induced using the sucrose and margarine but were not treated using the aqueous extracts. The rats in the scent leaf group were treated with 2ml of scent leaf aqueous extract, while the rats in the black seed group were treated with 2ml of black seed aqueous extract. The rats in the black seed and scent leaf group were treated with 2ml of the combined aqueous extract. Results: The results showed that the extracts decreased the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins in the rats in a time dependent manner with highest decrease obtained on the third week of treatment with the extracts. The cholesterol level decreased from 10.58±0.12mmol/l to 2.51±0.28mmol/l, while triglyceride level decreased from 5.69±0.03mmol/l to 1.19±0.04mmol/l. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that the aqueous extract of N. sativa and O. gratissimum might be effective immune booster in the fight against coronavirus (COVID 19).
279 ASSESSMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE, PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA , Prince Ezenwa Onyemachi, *Nneka Chioma Okoronkwo and Chukwuemeka Ngozi Onyearugha
Background: Every year, thousands of drug addicts die as a result of drug over dose. Forty seven percent of adolescents/youths between 15 and 26 years of age have already tried at least one kind of illicit drug. Aims: To determine the knowledge, practice, prevalence and pattern of drug abuse among adolescents in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. A questionnaire was used to retrieve information on drug abuse from adolescents and youths aged 15–26 years. Information retrieved were social/ demographic data, level of knowledge on drug abuse, practice of drug abuse and type of substance abused. Results: There were 180 respondents with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.3. The age range was 15-26 years with a mean age of 20.5 ± 23 years. Eighty (44.4%) of the respondents were teenagers. Less than 50% of the respondents understood the full meaning of drug abuse. Majority (77.8%) of the study population started abusing drugs as a result of peer pressure. A small but significant percentage (22.2%) of the respondents were introduced to drug abuse from watching either or both of their parents abuse drugs. The prevalence of drug abuse was 77.8%. All the drug abusers were males (p=0.001). Tramadol (80.6%) followed by alcohol (66.7%) were the most abused drugs respectively. Cocaine (16.7%) was the least abused of the substances. Conclusion: The knowledge of drug abuse among our cohort was low. Peer pressure was the most identified risk for drug abuse. The prevalence of drug abuse among the adolescents was very high. Tramadol was the most abused drug.
280 EVALUATION OF CLEANING AND DISINFECTION OF LEAN BROILER SLAUGHTERHOUSE USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN NORTH BAHRI LOCALITY, SUDAN , Hussam Aldeen Mustafa Abdelrazig Bilal*, Elniema A. Mustafa, Qusai Hussain Abdel Samad and Adil M. A. Salman
This descriptive and experimental study was conducted between January and Aril, 2020 in Lean slaughterhouse, Alkadro, Khartoum North, Sudan using a regular swab sampling on a weekly basis for a period of 3 weeks with the objective to evaluate cleaning and disinfection procedures against some microbial isolates in the slaughterhouse. Routine cleaning and disinfection procedures which included walls, floors and equipment using hydrogen peroxide solution in 0.01 concentration were investigated. Both environmental swab samples and standardized and structured checklist were applied to assess the status of some of the Prerequisites Programs (PRPs). The study revealed that the location and structure of the slaughterhouse and staff training were found satisfactory while water supply had failed adequacy rule. According to adequacy rule used in this study all the parameters of sanitation program operational procedures scored satisfactory (100%). While the average of averages of coliform count in the floor, wall, equipment and water was found 2733.3±540.6 cfu during the three weeks period with significant statistical differences in the count between the three weeks with p ≤0.05. The average of Total Bacterial Count for the sample sites during the three weeks period was 2250±680.6 cfu, with statistical differences in the count between the three weeks with p ≤0.05.The average of E. coli count was 341.6±85.6 cfu for the sample sites during the three weeks period with statistical differences in the count between the three weeks with p ≤0.05. The multiple comparison test of least significant differences showed no significant differences in the Salmonella count between floor, wall, and equipment with p ≤0.05. The mean TBC differences was found to be significant between wall and floor and wall and equipment with p ≤0.05; also the mean differences of E. Coli count was found to be significant between wall and equipment from one side and floor and equipment from the other side with p ≤0.05, and the mean Coliform count differences was found to be significant between the wall and equipment with p ≤0.05. The study concluded that the overall evaluation of the PRPs and sanitation program operational procedures were satisfactory.
281 A CONCISE REVIEW ON HOMEOSTASIS OF ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM AND ITS DERANGEMENT , Sheema Fatima Khan*
The aim of this review article is to show importance of ions and ph of various metabolism occurring inside the complex human body. It informs the role of ions in maintaining homeostasis and their concentration. The importance of water as a universal solvent and its role as a vital nutrient is also highlighted. There exists an osmotic equilibrium in the body which is necessary for life. This is achieved by desirable levels of water and solutes present inside the body. These ionic solutes also determine ph of the body. Depending on the cause, that is, whether metabolic or respiratory, major changes in ph can cause the body environment to become alkaline or acidic. To combat the change, the body activates compensatory mechanism to bring ph back to normal. These compensatory changes can be respiratory for metabolic disorders and renal for respiratory disorders. The recent coronavirus pandemic, according to new researches is said to has been causing kidney failure and hence causes metabolic acidosis. This calls for the need to combat such common disorders with proper diagnosis and further treatments.
282 THE ROLE OF RAKTADHATU IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF COVID 19 AND ROLE OF RAKTAMOKSHANA IN THE MANAGEMENT: A CRITICAL REVIEW , Pranav Bhagwat*
COVID 19 is a novel pandemic with a spectrum ranging from mild disease to death. Internationally, the medical fraternity is struggling to find a cure or vaccine for this disease resulting into losses of thousands of lives. Indian system of medicine, because of its strong fundamentals and superb guidelines to tackle any novel disease, can find an answer for this. Raktadhatu is found to be a major culprit in the contact point and progress of the disease. The article provides insights into the role of raktadhatu in this process of COVID 19 starting from the contact with the patient, through various typical and atypical symptomatology and complications and even death. The article, after establishing this, predicts, future possible presentations and complications, which hitherto might have been missed by the eyes of the healthcare providers and hence many such patients may not have received required immediate therapy. The probable role of raktamokshana (bloodletting by controlled therapeutic phlebotomy) – a procedure described to be the important therapy- is also established with the help of evidences.
283 FOODS PRODUCED AND UTILIZED BY LACTATING MOTHERS’ HOUSEHOLDS IN MWIKI, PERI_URBAN OF NAIROBI , Dr. Nkirigacha-Miriti Evayline Muthoni*
Food production and utilization using urban agriculture goes a long way in fulfilling the human right to food and freedom from hunger. The aim of this study was to assess the foods produced and proportion consumed by lactating mothers of Nairobi. This cross sectional study was had 260 randomly selected lactating women living in Mwiki, Nairobi Kenya. A structured, validated and pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socioeconomic characteristics, food production and consumption. Data was entered into SPSS version 20 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine associations. Majority (61.6%) participated in urban agriculture. In crop production, maize (26.5%) home consumption, beans produced (28.4%) and home consumption was 18.4% and 10% was sold. Amaranth was produced at 25.7%, 8% consumed at home and 17.7% was sold other crops were grown in small quantities. 57.3% of the respondents owned land to practice urban agriculture. Majority of them (15.3%) had 250m2 plots and 26.3% of these had inherited the land they had. Where the respondents did not own the land, they were renting (7.8%). More women (31.8%) than men (21.6%) decided on what crops to plant. More women (35.7%) provided labor for agriculture. More respondents consumed and also sold (34.1%) the produce compared to those who consumed only (27.8%). Vegetables were not a major food crop produced. Intervention programs should target on emphasizing the production and consumption of vegetable to increase availability and help meet the increased nutritional needs of the lactating.
284 FOOD SECURITY AND FOOD CONSUMPTION FREQUENCY OF LACTATING MOTHERS IN MWIKI-KASARANI, NAIROBI METROPOLIS , Dr. Nkirigacha-Miriti Evayline Muthoni*
Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life, health and development across the lifespan. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 260 of the lactating mothers living in Mwiki peri-urban Nairobi County. The population of mothers was enumerated, the sample was randomly selected. Using structured and pre-tested questionnaire information on socio-demographic, socio-economic characteristics, food security and food consumption frequency mothers. Data analyzed using SSP version 20. Results indicate majority had 36 – 40 years. Education, 44.6% primary, 16.8% secondary. Household size 6–12 average 6 persons. Meru and Luhya. Majority lower socio-economic category. Majority (42.3%) food insecure hunger, 20% food insecure moderate hunger 37.6% food secure. Majority (32.3%) reduced meals frequency, 30% manual jobs, 16.2% sold household assets, and 11.1% reduced meal size and 10.4% food aids. Significant correlation between number of meals and animal protein a co-efficient (0.002). The survey shows significant relationship between cereals, vegetables and fruits with number of meals per day correlation co-efficient (0.024 and 0.018). There was insignificant relationship between roots and tubers with a coefficient of 0.182. Positive and significant association between reduce frequency of meals and food sufficiency p=0.007; manual jobs, frequency of meals p=0.006; reduce meal size and frequency of food 0.004. Positive but insignificant relationship between food aid and sell assets p=0.442 and 0.496. Results from the focus group discussion showed lack of employment and lack of space to farm as major reasons for food insecurity in the area. Concluded that food security major concern and affected lactating mothers, infants.
285 INCIDENCE AND PREDICTORS OF NEPHROTOXICITY IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS RECEIVING TENOFOVIR BASED ART , Dr. V. Ramachandran, Dr. A. Kalanad, *Dr. S. Mathew
Tenofovir based ART regimen is currently used as the first line anti retroviral therapy by NACO in India. As a part of national strategy, ―Paving the way for an AIDS free India‖ NACO recommends initiation of ART irrespective of stage or CD4 count. The major side effects of TDF are renal toxicity and decrease in bone marrow density. A prospective Cohort Study was conducted in 202 patients, started on Tenofovir based ART to find out the incidence and predictors of nephrotoxicity. S.Creatinine 1.5 times the basal value, increase in serum creatinine more than or equal to 0.3mg/dl above the basal value, hypophosphatemia, hypouricemia, proteinuria, glycosuria, hypokalaemia & hypocalcaemia were the parameters checked. Gender, age, stage of HIV infection, CD4 count, body mass index, co morbidities (diabetes, hypertension, opportunistic infections), concomitant nephrotoxic medications, & serum creatinine level before starting treatment were the predictors of nephrotoxicity studied. Nephrotoxicity of Tenofovir was 13.9%.Average time to develop nephrotoxicity was 118 days. Average decline in creatinine clearance during renal dysfunction was 21.4 ml/min & almost all cases were asymptomatic. Nephrotoxicity was detected in the form of mild derangement of RFT and proteinuria on regular follow up. Advanced clinical stage and low CD4 count had significant association with nephrotoxicity. Single most important predictor of Tenofovir induced nephrotoxicity was CD4 count. Small sample size, short period of follow up and a smaller number of cases in the subgroups of co-morbidities were the major limitations.
286 PROGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NEUROPATHY ACCORDING TO AYURVEDA - A REVIEW ARTICLE , Inderjit Kaur*, Shaleen Singh, Satyakam Rahul
Although, there are lot of reasons for onset of neuropathic symptoms, mainly the metabolic disorders; if the reason is not accidental or any other, then diabetes is a main factor which leads the body towards neuropathy symptoms. While practicing in Ayurveda medicines and working on the neuropathic patients, we have seen the patterns of changes in the body and made the prognosis which we have been using in preventing neuropathy and guiding the people saving their extremities from amputations.
287 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOSORBENTS PREPARED FROM SEEDS OF POLYALTHIA LONGIFOLIA , Kavita S. Mundhe*, Anjali D. Ruikar, Nirmala R. Deshpande and Rajashree V. Kashalkar
In order to prepare low cost carbons with desired properties various industrial and agro waste materials have been used as precursors. The adsorption of pollutants from an aqueous solution is frequently used to test the adsorption capability of various adsorbents. By changing the preparation and activation conditions, surface structure and pore size distribution can be modified. Physical and chemical activation involves treatment of precursor to produce carbon of desired properties. Chemical treatment modifies the surface structure and increases the adsorption capacity. Adsorbents have been prepared from seeds of Polyalthia longifolia by various treatments. Adsorption on biosorbents is due to the various functional groups present on the surface. These generally consist of carbonyl, amine, hydroxyl groups which can be analyzed qualitatively using FTIR and SEM techniques and quantitatively by Bohems titration. The proximate analysis gives information regarding properties such as ash content, pH and bulk density. The effect of lignocellulosic structures on their carbons is also observed. Use of such newer materials will result in carbons having diverse structures and thereby adsorption capacities. The peaks in the FT-IR of adsorbents, strongly supports the presence of surface groups obtained by Boehm’s titration. It is observed that there are significant changes in the band intensities of these adsorbents. Association of peak at 1371 cm -1 and many weak peaks had disappeared in SATM, indicating that the weak bonds disappeared under chemical treatment.
288 SPECTROSCOPY (UV-VISIBLE & FTIR) AND CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPTLC & HPLC) CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA LINN: A PRECLINICAL STUDY FOR MALE SEXUAL DISORDERS , Dr. Mradu Gupta*, Dr A. K. Mondal, Dr. K. A. Ahmed
An Ayurvedic formulation prepared from dried root powder of Sida cordifolia Linn. is standardized through pharmacognostical and phytochemical pre-clinical studies for treatment of male sexual disorders. While total ash value was 8.0%, acid insoluble ash was 0.5% and water soluble ash was 5.41%. Among elements, Nitrogen was found present. Flavonoids and carbohydrates were found present in both alcoholic and aqueous extracts. The results also showed high concentration of flavonoidic compounds (15.03 μg Quercetin equivalent / mg of extract) in the alcoholic extract and high phenolic content (23.26 μg Gallic acid equivalent / mg of extract) in the aqueous extract. HPTLC analysis at 280 and 360 nm indicated the presence of Ellagic acid and Gallic acid in both these extracts. Similarly, HPLC analysis at 276 nm showed elution of 4 compounds whose analysis confirmed the presence of Tannic acid, Benzoic acid and Quercetin in aqueous extract. UV-Visible spectroscopy scanning showed peaks at 896, 862.5 and 195.5 nm in aqueous and at 896, 862.5, 419.5 and 209.5 nm in alcoholic extract. FTIR analysis indicated presence of N-CH3 out-phase bending, N-CH3 in-phase stretching, Aryl -CH3 in-phase stretching and C-O stretching functional groups in aqueous and -NH2 Stretching, -CH2 in-phase stretching, (N)-CH3 in-phase stretching, -CH3 in-phase bending, Aryl-N stretching and N-O stretching functional groups in alcoholic extract suggesting the presence of amides, aldehydes, alkaloids and phenolic groups of compounds in the extracts. The presence of phenolic and flavonidic compounds in research formulation extracts may be responsible for its antioxidant, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.
289 BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI) BY USING SULPHONATED BIOMASS OF STALKS OF PRUNUSCERASUS , Anandrao A. Kale*
The sulphonated biomass prepared from stalk of Prunuscerasus was used for investigation of biosorption of Cr (VI). It was found that the biosorption process is dependent on pH value of solution, adsorbent mass, contact time, temperature and initial Cr (VI) concentration. Data of biosorption of Cr (VI) on Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus were applied to three adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined from the Langmuir isotherm as 21.0 mg/g. Adsorption process of Cr (VI) ions onto Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus (S-III) was found to obey the second-order kinetic equation The n value obtained from the Freundlich isotherm indicates that the sorption of Cr (VI) ions onto Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus (S-III) is favourable. Thermodynamic parameters proved that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. Investigation Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of chromium (VI) by using activated carbon from Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus was conducted in batch conditions. The effect of different parameters such as contact time, sorbent dose, pH and temperature has been studied. Adsorption kinetic modelling data were found out. The kinetics of biosorption results shows that sorption process is well explained by pseudo–second order model with determination coefficients higher than 0.96 for sorbent under all experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameter via KD, ΔG has also been calculated to determine the spontaneity of the process. The value Kp is found to be 0.825 to 2.50 for initial and final concentrations. The low value of activation energy indicates that sorption is an activated and physical process. Thus Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of chromium (VI) by using activated carbon from Sulphonated biomass of Stalks of Prunuscerasus is a low cost and easily available efficiently used as an excellent sorbent for the removal of chromium (VI) from wastewater.
290 NOVEL INSULIN DELIVERY METHODS FOR DIABETES MELLITUS , Mohamed Jasim P. P.*, Thasneem C. K., Dr. Shiji Kumar P. S. and Dr. Sirajudheen M. K.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar level. Hyperglycaemia results when the pancreatic beta cells are unable to secrete enough insulin to maintain normal glucose level. Insulin therapy, which is the exogenous supply of insulin is highly effective in regulating blood glucose level in diabetes patients. Insulin is supplied conventionally through subcutaneous routes. In early days, impurities present in bovine insulin led to many immunological reactions. The disadvantage of subcutaneous insulin delivery has inspired the research for new delivery system and hence we have many different invasive and non-invasive delivery system available today. Oral, buccal, pulmonary, transdermal, rectal and ocular routes of insulin delivery, nanotechnology based and gene therapy-based insulin delivery system, implantable insulin pump, pen devices, insulin inhalers, etc are the recent advances in insulin therapy. An oral delivery system of insulin will have tremendous benefits in terms of a decrease number of injections for diabetic patients and a reduced incidence of side effects. The proposed review on novel insulin delivery for diabetes mellitus treatment revealed that traditional subcutaneous insulin causes pain and immunological reactions. Hence novel insulin delivery enables better compliance and pharmaceutical therapies.
291 EFFECTS OF APPLE CIDER VINEGAR “WITH MOTHER” ON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF WISTAR RATS , *Dr. Okoye Ngozi Franca and Uloho Elo Treasure
Aim: Apple cider vinegar is widely used all over the world and it has been consistently used for its healing properties. In this study, the in vivo effect of apple cider vinegar with the mother on kidney function and haematological parameters of Wistar rat were investigated. Materials and method: A total of 18 rats (average weight of 110g) were used for the study. The rats were fed for a period of three weeks with the same concentrations the apple cider vinegar. The rats were grouped into six groups of three rats in each group. Three groups served as the control for each week (day 7, 14 and 21) while the other three groups were administered orally with 1ml of apple cider vinegar “with mother” twice daily for each week. The urea and creatinine levels were determined using spectrophotometric methods, The haemoglobin count, packed cell volume, total white blood cell count, red blood cell count, platelet count, neutrophil and lymphocyte count were also assayed. Results: Test results showed that the apple cider vinegar had a slight increase (p≤0.05) on the urea and creatinine levels in a time dependent manner. The highest increase was observed at the last week of feeding. The results for urea showed that the highest value was obtained in day 21 (11.00 ± 3.82) as compared to control animals (10.99 ± 0.01). The creatinine values also showed slight increase (P≤0.05) in test animals when compared to control animals. The highest increase was obtained in day 21 (36.10±1.52) as compared to control (34.42±0.02). Test results also showed that the apple cider vinegar had a lowering effect on the haematological parameters studied in a concentration and time dependent manner with differences in concentration and time at 95 % confidence levels (P< 0.05). The highest decrease of 11.11 ± 0.18 vs control 12.34 ± 0.24 (g/dl) was obtained for Hb at 21 days duration. PCV, WBC, RBC, platelet, neutrophil and lymphocyte analysis also showed highest decrease at 21 days duration. Conclusion: The results showed that using apple cider vinegar in small amounts for a short period of time had little effect. However, it is imperative that anyone intending to take large amounts of bentonite for long periods of time to undergo blood tests from time to time.
292 GС-MS ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE SUBSTANCES EXTRACTED FROM THE SURFACE OF THE PLANT MEDICAGO SATIVA L. , *Тоjiboev B., Umaraliev J., Sulaymonov Sh. and Sarimsakov T.
Alfalfa is one of the most widely grown perennial legumes in irrigated lands of Uzbekistan and Central Asia. Medicago sativa L. growing in the village of Gova, Chust district was selected for research. Samples of dried alfalfa leaves and stems were extracted in petroleum ether and hexane in a soxlet apparatus. According to the results of the chromatomass spectrum, the amounts of substances obtained from the extract of the stem and leaf parts of alfalfa in hexane and petroleum ether were compared. The analysis of volatile substances found in alfalfa was first studied using the chromatomass spectrum.
293 THE EFFECT OF FUNCTIONAL CHEESE NUTRITION FORTIFIED WITH A MIXTURE OF PROBIOTICS AND BIOSTIMULATORES ON SOME CELLULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF EXPERIMENTAL MICE , Maryam Malallah Gazal*, Haider Ibrahim Ali and Nawfal Alhelfi
This study was designed to evaluate the health effects of functional cheese produced from powdered milk, Landus brand, by adding a mixture of Probiotics, biostimulatores inulin and modified starch. the study included a procedure for estimating the logarithmic numbers of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bacteria in functional cheese, the logarithmic numbers for the control cheese treatment reached (8.04, 6.55 logarithm/gm) for the period (1 day and 28 days from storage), respectively, while the logarithmic numbers for cheese treated the synergistic mixture for the same periods were (11.63, 8.77 logarithm / gm) for Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria, while the algorithmic numbers of Bifidobacteriumanimals for the period (1 day and 28 days from storage) for the control treatment (8.55 and 6.10 logarithm / gm), respectively, while the treatment cheese mixture recorded logarithmic numbers reached (12.15 and 9.49 logarithm / gm) for the period (day and 28 days from Storage), respectively. To achieve the therapeutic goal of synergistic functional cheese consumption, experimental mice that used cheese as an emulsion were used in treatments of five groups of experimental mice, as the group that was fed to cheese added to it combined the mixture of Probiotics and biostimulatores together (biological synergy) in most of the results of cellular and biochemical blood tests moral advantage.
294 SELF-MEDICATION AMONG PHARMACY STUDENTS- A THREATENING TREND , P. B. Birari, S. S. Jalihalkar*, A. Gaykhe, R. H. Mishal and H. B. Mishal
Background: This survey examined the paradigm of self-medication and the effects caused due to this practice among Pharmacy students in Nashik. Methods: The study was done using a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed considering different parameters that are directly or indirectly linked to human health and also those that encourage people to self-medicate. The questionnaire was distributed in various Pharmacy colleges through Google forms and around 200 students responded to it. The data collected was analysed and graphs processed and the results were obtained. Results: The survey revealed that in most cases due to existing information about various medicaments, students avoided visiting the physician and getting professional help. Instead they frequently self-medicated. The study further revealed that most of them who self-medicated promoted the practice to others. Conclusions: The overall result showed that being in the pharmacy field and having knowledge of medicines the students generally opt for self-medication more frequently. This practice of self-medication is not limited to Over the Counter drugs but also has extended to the use of antibiotics, anti-bacterials and also sometimes Oral Contraceptive Pills too. The online pharmacy system and cyber doctor consultation obviously may add to and promotes self-medication. Students who obtain these medications may suffer drug–drug interactions and adverse effects, about which they may have no/inadequate prior warning or counseling.
295 URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN NEWBORNS AND INFANTS THREE YEARS OF AGE AND YOUNGER , Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva*, Eleonora Aleksandrovna Yuryeva, Galina Mikhailovna Dementieva and Angelika Khasabievna Zagashtokova
An analysis of the literature (71 references) on urinary tract infections (UTI) in newborns and infants 3 years or less is presented. The etiology and pathogenesis of diseases, the sensitivity of pathogens to antibiotics, the use of antibiotics for the treatment and prevention of infection are considered. The characteristics of laboratory diagnostics and the clinical course of UTI are given.
296 A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PATHYADI GUGGULU AND RASNADI GUTIKA IN CASES OF GRADHRASI W.S.R. TO SCIATIC SYNDROME , Dr. Yadav Shalini M.D, Prof. Saxena Chandra Prakash M.D. PhD., Dr. Garg Richa*, M.D., Dr. Sachdev Kamal, M.D., Dr. Dharmendra, M.D, PhD., Dr. Gupta Deepika, M.D.
Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of Pathyadi guggulu and Rasnadi gutika in cases of Gradhrasi (sciatic syndrome). Introduction: Gridhrasi i.e Sciatic syndrome is caused by pinching of sciatic nerve (nerve root is ventral rami of 4,5 lumbar and 1,2,3 sacral spinal nerve) which causing sharp shooting pain in the back of the leg running from the buttocks down the back of thigh into calf and foot. Settings and Design: For the present clinical study 68 Patients having Ruk (Pain which radiate to sphik, kati, uru, janu, jangha & pada successively), Sakthi utkshepa nigrahyad (restricted upward lifting of the affected lower limb), Stambha (Stiffness), Toda (Pricking sensation), Spandan (Tingling sensation), Tandra (Drowsiness), Gaurav (Heaviness) and Arochak (Anorexia) with Positive SLR TEST were registered. Materials and method: All patients were divided in two groups 34 patients in each. In Group A Pathyadi Guggulu were given orally 2 vati (500 mg each) 3 times daily after meal with Luke warm water for 60 days and in Group B Rasnadi gutika were given orally 2 vati (500 mg each) 3 times daily after meal with Luke warm water for 60 days. Type of study: Phase 2 rational, Randomized (Sequential) parallel group study. Statistical analysis used: p value, paired„t‟ test, unpaired „t‟ test, etc. Results: The trial drugs shows a significant results in terms of relieved & improvement in clinical parameters, out of 42 patients 64.28% were relieved, 28.57% patients were improved, 7.14% had no response, and there was no case of worsened had been reported. Conclusion: Trial drugs were well accepted and tolerated with good positive response and no any side effect has been observed.
297 MOYAMOYA: AN OVERVIEW OF THE DISEASE WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT , Garima Singh, Era Sharma, Pallabi Banerjee and Imteyaz Qamar*
Moyamoya is a chronic and progressive cerebrovascular disease, which is characterized by formation of occlusive lesions and stenosis in bilateral internal carotid arteries of brain. In such special cases aberrant vascular network is formed in close proximity to arterial occlusion. The process of narrowing down of arteries is followed, leading to repeated transient ischemic attacks, headaches etc. The ischemic attacks occur occasionally for short span of time and that may resolve in few minutes. This also causes involuntary movements of body parts such as legs, hands and even tongue. Revascularization method for symptomatic MMD is considered the standard treatment for preventing further stroke.
298 EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PLANTS FROM SIMAROUBACEAE FAMILY AGAINST HUMAN ORAL CANCER CELL LINE SCC-40 , Dr. Aruna Rai* and Deepa Dahar
Cancer is one of the most deadly type of disease, encompasses a broad group of syndrome involving unregulated cell population expansion and sustained focus on development of novel anticancer agents from medicinal plants. A number of plant derived compounds play important roles in treatment of cancer. India has the highest number of cases of oral cancer in the world and this is increasing. Because the aetiology of oral cancer is predominantly tobacco related, the immense public health challenge can be meliorated through habit intervention. Plants from simaroubaceae family has been the subject of many studies regarding its chemical constitution and numerous compounds have been isolated for the treatment of many diseases. Quassinoids can be considered a taxonomic markers of the simaroubaceae family. The leaf, stem and stem bark extracts of Ailanthus excelsa, Quassia amara and Simarouba glauca were used for anticancer potential using sulforhodamine B (SRB) cytotoxicity assay against human oral cancer cell line (SCC-40). Adriamycin was used as the standard to compare the results. The median growth inhibition (GI 50) concentration for extracts of Ailanthus stem and Bark, Simarouba leaf and Bark was <10μg/ml against human oral cancer cell line SCC-40 which indicates potential anticancer activity. It could be concluded that in vitro anti-cancer activity could be attributed to the presence of anti-cancerous phytochemicals like Quassinoids.
299 HISTORICAL OUTBREAK OF COVID-19 IN INDIA: A MECHANISM BASED OVERVIEW , Suresh Kumar Ghritlahare*, Pushpendra Kurre, Govind Panagar, Sarita Sahu
Corona virus is enveloped positive sense RNA virus belong to the Coronaviridae family and cause respiratory infection sneezing, coughing and cold including pneumonia. In Dec-2019, Wuhan, China, is a centre of a 2019-nCoV outbreak of unknown cause, in India first confirm case of novel corona virus reported 30Jan-2020. COVID-19 transmitted human to human or human to animal via close contact and airborne droplet infection. Prevention & managements of COVID-19, WHO give guidelines to avoid public place, maintain social distancing and close contacts to infected persons & pet animals. The International Federation Pharmaceutical emphasizing the crucial responsibility of community pharmacists can play major role in preventing the spreading of COVID-19.
300 PATHYA APATHYA IN VRANA , *Dr. Prajwala Amadihal, Dr. Syeda Ather Fathima, Dr. Shivalingappa J. Arakeri, Dr. Mohasin Kadegaon, Dr. Geethanjali Hiremath
Wound management is the one of the most burning problem during surgical practice. Improper nutritional intake is one of the main causes for delayed wound healing. Improper dietary habit will cause many metabolic changes in the body which delays wound healing. Proper nutritional support is considered as the fundamental part of the wound management. The treatments which are mentioned in the Samhitha are valid and successfully practiced till today. Still Acharya Sushruta gave prime importance to the wound care, Which should be managed by following strict dietary regimen (Pathya Apathya) explained in Susrutha Samhita so that the wound healing will be accelerated. Nutritional diet plays an essential role in wound healing; hence forth following Pathya not only promotes healing but also improves or stabilize the life qualities of the patient. Hence diet plays an important role in the wound healing process and also the person obtains long life.
301 DIODE LASER VS SURGICAL BLADE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ANKYLOGLOSSIA , *Dr. Md. Zeeshan Arif and Dr. Saket Kashyap
Ankyloglossia or tongue tie is a condition when the inferior lingual frenulum is attached to the tip of the tongue. Different surgical approaches has been used for the treatment of the same. This article focuses on the two techniques commonly used – surgery and lasers; and discusses both the techniques in brief.
302 MANAGEMENT OF LIP MUCOCELE – USING MICROSURGERY AND LASER , *Dr. Saket Kashyap and Dr. Md. Zeeshan Arif
Mucocele of the lip is one of the most common salivary gland pathology, presenting itself with soft tissue mass, often on the lower lip. The lesion is caused by extravasation or retention of mucous from the minor salivary gland, which may occur due to trauma or obstruction of the ducts of the salivary gland. Irrespective of the pathology, the management of the benign lesion mostly involves surgical removal of the mass. Due to the high recurrence rate, the involved salivary gland is also removed to prevent recurrence of the lesion. This case report presents the management of a mucocele lesion of the lower lip managed with a minimally invasive approach using microsurgery instruments and laser.
303 EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SANTALUM ALBUM ON ALBINO RATS , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam* and Aparna S.
Back round: Ulcer is the most common prevalent gastro intestinal disorder, which affects approximately 10 -15% of people in the world. It makes major global health problem today. Ulcer is an open sore, it can be developed inside the inner lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). Both the ulcers are also commonly referred to as peptic ulcers. Objectives: The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-ulcer activity of Aqueous and ethanolic extract of Santalum album on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out by NSAID induced ulcer models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Santalum album 250 mg and 505 mg/kg p.o. 5 days) was compared with standard drug (Lansoprazole). In NSAID induced ulcer model, the studied parameters were ulcer index and percentage protection. Results: In NSAID induces ulcer model, the ulcer index was significantly reduced at p<0.01 in 500mg/kg of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Santalum Album treated groups as compared with control. All the doses of AESA and EESA showed the dose-dependent antiulcer effect as well as significant (p<0.01) increase in percentage protection of ulcer as compared to control group in all the experimental models. The aqueous extract of AESA at 500 mg/kg has more potent antiulcer activity than 250 mg/kg of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Santalum album and 500mg/kg of EESA. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that the AESA has better potential against ulcer which supports the traditional claims in folklore medicine. Phytochemical investigation suggests the presence of, tannins which may be responsible for the anti-ulcer activity.
304 BOOSTING THE BRAIN’S INTRINSIC NEUROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY IN TREATMENT OF DEMENTIA , Gargi Velhal, Kedar S. Prabhavalkar* and Lokeshkumar Bhatt
Dementia is considered as a progressive disease, which is accompanied with irretrievable memory impairment, loss of cognitive abilities and reduction in the capacity for independent living. Population aging has a noteworthy impact on the occurrence of the dementia rampant. Individuals with dementia are known to suffer from problems affecting them throughout their life. Therefore, treating dementia in the initial stages has proved to be the current focus of the worldwide research work. By reviewing the current understanding of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches, this review intends to deliver new perceptions in treating dementia at the early stages by targeting the brain‘s intrinsic neuroprotective activity resulting in an increased resistance of the cells, increased cognitive function, and improved process of memory formation and lifestyle of an individual.
305 PROGNOSIS OF CORONA IN MODERN MEDICINE AND IN AYURVEDA CONTEXT AS THE SYMPTOMS IT POSSESS ARE OF TAMAK SHWASA - A REVIEW ARTICLE , Inderjit Kaur*, Shaleen Singh and Satyakam Rahul
CORONA needs no introduction now, everyone is well aware of it. CORONA has emerged from CHINA and affected globally. It is a strong virus which is affecting a large number of people as it spreads at a very fast speed. We had forgotten the term of communicable diseases; it is reminding us the term, described in our Scriptures. As the spread is fast and it is a new type of viral infection, no medicine has been discovered yet. Main purpose of writing this article is sharing the Prognosis of CORONA with respect to Ayurveda Prognosis (Samprapti) on the basis of the symptoms appearing in patients infected with it, so that we can help in developing some medicine for it. I am taking the pathophysiology of CORONA and relating it to the terms used in ayurveda. My study reveals that all the sites affected by the Corona are the KAPHA SITES in our body, starting from the Nose, Bucal cavity, Lungs, alveoli, brain, synovial fluid and plasma. Every symptom being possessed by the CORONA patient is described in the IN CHARAK SAMHITA CHIKITSA STHAAN CHAPTER 17, PAGE NO. 516 HIKKA SHWASA CHIKITSA ADHYAA). Here I am explaining the symptoms written in CHARAK SAMHITA in relation with various symptoms being possessed by the patient infected with the corona Virus. Various stages and types of swash roga can be associated with the symptoms of CORONA from simple infection to fatal, same as symptoms of SHAWASA from simple, then yapya and then fatal. See, how the parameters described in CHARAK SAMHITA ARE SO RELEVANT EVEN TODAY that is the importance and glory of Ayurveda. We categorize CORONA Infection in the Aagantuj Vyadhi (Accidental), As it has affected everyone, all of a sudden, but there are lot of aggravating factors existing in the people which have helped in spreading of CORONA. The compromised immunity of people due to various factors which has lead to higher mortality rate. I have come to this conclusion after reading various researches on the corona and the Autopsy reports of the patients who died due to CORONA.
306 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM (L.) BARK AND PEEL EXTRACTS , Yasmin Hassan Elshiekh* and Mahdi Abdelmageed Mohammed Ali
Punica granatum is the predominant member of Punicaceae family. The phytochemical screening was carried out using, Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and 70% ehanol, The results showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, Tannins, Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Coumarins and Anthraquinone glycoside. The different extracts of Punica granatum L. (bark and Peel) have been tested for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by cup diffusion method. The antibacterial activity shows that all of the extracts were found to be active against all bacterial strains tested.
307 AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF OCIMUMGRATISSIMUM AND ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE SYNERGISES INANTI-DIARRHOEAL PROPERTY , Ihekwereme C. P., *Bruce S. O., Orji C. E., Ibe C. I. and Iloh E. S.
Introduction: The present study was performed to substantiate the traditional claim of the anti-diarrhoeal activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale, in albino mice. Method: Acute toxicity study was determined. The dose levels 100, 200 and 400mg/kg of aqueous extract was tested in albino miceagainst castor-oil induced diarrhoea model and charcoal meal test/intestinal motility test. The symptoms observed were the consistency of faeces, onset of defecation and cumulative faecal weight in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea model, and the distance travelled by charcoal in the intestinal motility test. Results: The toxicological studies confirm that the aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale, in combined form, when administered, showed no mortality or any sign of toxicity at the dose level up to 5000mg/kg. A significant delay in the onset of defecation (p<0.05), reduction in the cumulative faecal weight (p<0.001), along with a change in the faecal consistency from watery to solid form was observed at the dose of 800mg/kg in the castor oil-induced diarrhoea model. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of leaves of Occimum gratissimum and Anacardium occidentale showed anti-diarrhoeal activity, which may be due to its anti-motility and anti-secretory effects, which thus proved the traditional claims.
308 SPIRITUAL SELF HEALING ON POST OPERATING SYNDROME OF PAIN IN LAPARATOMY PATIENTS , Jahidin Kuswanto*, Rr Sri Endang Puji Astuti and Bedjo Santoso
Surgical action is a treatment that uses an invasive method by opening the part of the body to be treated, after surgery the pain is physiologically felt, but this is the one complaint that is most feared by the patient after surgery. One of the complementariness used to reduce complications of postoperative syndrome of pain in Laparatomi patients is spiritual self-healing. Analyzing the effectiveness of spiritual self-healing against postoperative syndrome of pain in Laparatomi patients. This true experimental study used a pre-test and post-test control group design approach involving 60 post-operative laparotomy patients at the BLUD hospital RSD dr.H.Soemarno Sosroatmodjo Regency of Bulungan taken randomly with stratified random sampling. 30 respondents became the intervention group and 30 respondents became the control group. The intervention group received complementary spiritual self-healing therapy 7 times for 7 days with a duration of 15 minutes and the therapy was in accordance with the standard of postoperative patients in the hospital while the control group only received therapy according to the standard postoperative in the hospital. Data analyzed with repeated measure test. The results showed that there were differences in the mean pain scale in the intervention group and the control group after receiving therapy spiritual self-healing with a value of p = 0,000 which means that spiritual intervention is self-healing effective to reduce the scale of pain in Laparatomi patients. Spiritual self-healing is effective against postoperative syndrome of pain in Laparatomi patients.
309 AN OVERVIEW OF ENSETE SUPERBUM: CHEMISTRY & PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE , H. B. Mishal* and Dr. M. K. Shirsat
Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman is a wild banana species has been used widely by the tribals of Khandesh region of North Maharashtra for the medicinal and edible purpose. It is also endemic to Satpura range forests of northern Maharashtra, Western Ghats, Matheran and some other places in Southern India. The chemical ingredients reported from this plant belong to the different classes such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols, glycosides and flavonoids. It is commonly known as “Jungalee kela” or “rankeli” in this region and has a number of medicinal uses. Many of which have been verified and elaborated by different workers with scientific methods, in classical literature. This review article summarizes the chemistry and pharmacological profile of the plant.
310 HERBAL AND AYURVEDIC LEADS FROM PRECLINICAL STUDIES HAVING HEPATOPROTECTIVE POTENTIONAL - A REVIEW , Ruchi Sharma* and Mangala Jadhav
Liver disease is a major health problem worldwide, and it makes it necessary to develop new drug or formulation that help counteract or prevent these liver diseases. Liver plays a main role in the metabolism and excretion. Due to this reason, liver is exposed more to toxicity. In addition to it, there is still lack of some reliable hepatoprotective drug, which arose the scope for finding new drugs. There has been tremendous work done on herbal and ayurvedic formulation in invitro and invivo models to evaluate their hepatoprotective activity. In this study all the work done on 287 preclinical studies on hepatoprotective activity are review and were compiled. The drugs or formulation that show hepatoprotective potentional in preclinical studies are the source of lead for researchers/medicals in treating the patients with liver disease and also for evaluating their safety and efficacy in the human trials.
311 A CRITICAL STUDY ON AETIOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SVITRA , Dr. Samima Azmi and Dr. S. K. Chakraborty
ŝvitra is enumerated as raktaja vikāra and rakta and pitta are correlated with asraya asrayi bhāva. So, mainly pitta (bhrajaka) gets vitiated, which is responsible for normal skin color, leads to white colored skin patches, named as Švitra Vyādhi. though not included under kuá¹£tḥa by brihatrayi. separate ãhãraja vihãraja nidãna, purvarupa and samprãpti of ŝvitra has not been mentioned vividly in classics except Caraka who specified pãpa karma as nidãna for ŝvitra.It is basically of 3 types; Vãta-Pitta-Kapha. The nidāna for ŝvitrā is Astyã, Ká¹›itaghna, Nindāsurãnãma, Pãpakriyãpữrvaká¹›ta, Virodhá¿–annā as mentioned by Caraka. Sādhyā Asādhya Laká¹£ana are vividly mentioned in all classics for Švitra Vyādhi.
312 A REVIEW ON TRADITIONALLY USED MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY IN NORTH- EAST (INDIA) , Moksood Ahmed Laskar*, Priyanka Goswami and Mrinmoy Basak
The investigation of this study reports on some medicinally important plants which are found to be used traditionally by villager and tribal peoples of North east (India) for the beneficial treatment purposes of various male and female reproductive procurements related disease conditions such as leucorrhoea, erectly dysfunction, infertility, dysmenorrhoea, menstruation disorders and pregnancy related problems. Over a survey of it has been found that there are more than 100 medicinal plants which has been used to treat the reproductive disorders out of which very few of them has confirmed with such potential. The plants belonging from the family like Musaceae, Sterculiaceae, Liliaceae, Rubiaceae, Apiaceae, Punicaceae etc. has found highest uses followed by members of etc. which were used by total 14 tribes and 3 communities distributed in various part of Assam. The observation obtained in this study gives a better knowledge focusing the medicinal plants available in area of North east (India), which may often be helpful for a pathway for further experimental studies, which will be beneficial for the mankind with better reproducibility, safe and economical purposes of such treatment.
313 MANAGEMENT OF AMALPITTA WITH SHATAVARI, AMALAKI AND YASHTIMADHU - A REVIEW , Monica Salaria* and Aditya
The Amalpitta is one among the several GIT upsets. It is the root cause of many other ailments, as shuktatva is told to be the reason of indigestion, grahani, atisar etc. Today’s human is following almost all nidanas of the Amalpitta like improper food intake, untimely food intake, junk foods, divaswapan, ratrijagran etc. This all leads to disturbance in digestion and improperly digested matter becomes shukta or amal. Most of the patients visiting the health centres complain of hyperacidity, GORD and resultant conditions such as peptic ulcers. The increased use on NSAIDS is a strong cause besides the dietary habits and nature of diet. Thus, restriction or decrease in use of such drugs and diet, change in dietary habits and intake of Ayurvedic treatment can be the game changer. Some yogic procedures as Dhouti can also be very useful. The line of treatment explained in Ayurveda is vamana, virechana procedures which take some time for completion and bed rest also. This is difficult for present society to do such procedures so the frequently useful drugs should be studied for the purpose. Shatavari, Amalaki and Yashtimadhu are among the drugs that will be evaluated on the basis of Pharmacological properties and already done research studies.
314 ENHANCEMENT OF CEFPODOXIME PROXETIL DRUG BY USING SOLID DISPERSION METHOD AND POLYMER USING CYCLODEXTRINS , Shruti Jaswal and Rajeev Garg*
The primary aim of this research was to improve the solubility and Bioavailability of BCS Class-IV drugs because of their low solubility and Low permeability and dissolution rate. Solubility is one of the important parameter to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for therapeutic response to be shown. The aim of research work is to prepare oral dispersible tablets using solid dispersion as a core material. Solid dispersions were prepared by kneading method, physical mixture and solvent evaporation method using varied concentrations of hydrophilic polymer (Cyclodextrins). Dissolution profile predicted that solid dispersion prepared with 1:2 % w/w CP and Cyclodextrins by solvent evaporation has shown highest drug release. Powder blend of all formulations was evaluated for pre-compression parameters (FTIR, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index and angle of repose) and it was observed that all excipients were compatible with CP and has excellent flow properties. Dispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression method using different concentration (0, 2.5 and 5 % w/w) of croscarmellose sodium and were evaluated for drug content, weight variation, friability, dispersion time and in vitro drug release studies. Drug content was found to be more than 94 % for all prepared tablets whereas friability and weight variation were below 1 % and 5 % w/w respectively. Tablet formulations containing 5% w/w of croscarmellose sodium showed least dispersion time (2.51 minutes) and highest drug release 96 % in just 30 minutes which was better than marketed formulation (CEFOPROX) as well as pure drug.
315 FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM OF LICORICE FOR THE TREATMENT OF MOUTH ULCER , Sheetal Parse* and Milind Umekar
Herbal medicine are important and good for action. Oral mouth dissolving drug delivery system is considered to be an important alternative to the peroral route for the systemic administration of drugs, as it considered the most convenient, easy, safest route of administration. Mouth dissolving film may be preferred over the mouth dissolving tablets in terms of flexibility and comfort. The aim of this study is to formulate and characterize oral mouth dissolving film of licorice. Oral films were prepared by Solvent casting method using HPMC-E 15, Propylene glycol, and other recipients. Films were evaluated for mechanical properties, disintegration time, and in- vitro drug release.
316 DESIGN, FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ACECLOFENAC FAST DISINTEGRATING TABLETS USING NATURAL POLYMERS , P.S.S. Prasanna Kumar*, A. Ravi Kumar, Srinivas Nandyala, B Devaki Devi, T. Anjali, Ch. Srividya, Ch. Divya, T. Pujitha, A. Evanjelin, N. Ramya Krishnaveni and Y. Sireesha
Aceclofenac is a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with marked anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of the present work is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action. The present study was to formulate and in-vitro evaluation of fast disintegrating tablets of Aceclofenac by using Natural polymer such as Pithecellobium dulce seed gum and Guar gum by direct compression technique using 3 different concentrations of 2%W/W, 4%W/W & 6%W/W. Each formulation was evaluate for various pre and post compression parameters such as Flow property, Bulk density, Tapped density, Weight variation, Hardness, Friability, Wetting time, Disintegration time, Assay, in-vitro dissolution. Among the 06 formulations, “F3” formulation Aceclofenac with 6%w/w of Pithecellobium dulce seed gum showed excellent disintegration time and best dissolution rate studies. In-Vitro dissolution studies showed (99.96%) release of drug within 20 minutes It was concluded that the fast disintegrating tablets are prepared by Natural polymer Pithecellobium dulce seed gum and Guar gum acts as a Fast disintegrant and the Pithecellobium dulce seed gum showed excellent disintegration time and enhance the dissolution rate compared to Guar gum.
317 IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BUCHANANIA LANZAN SPRENG. BARK , C. Pramod*, Dr. Ratheesh M., Svenia P. Jose and Feena Paul
Methods: The bark was shade dried and coarsely powdered and then subjected to hot continuous percolation by Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol as solvent. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was carried out on extract. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic potential was evaluated by in vitro. In vitro methods include Nitric oxide scavenging assay, DPPH assay, Protein denaturation and proteinase inhibition methods. In vivo antiinflammatory activity was established by using carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton wool granuloma methods. In vivo antiarthritic potential was evaluated by collagen induced arthritis model. After 20 days of collagen administration, EEBL 200mg/Kg was administered to experimental Sprague dawley rats for next 20 days. Changes in body weight, paw volume, arthritic score were assessed weekly. In addition, on 41st day, radiological analysis, histopathological evaluation, TNF-α expression by RT PCR analysis were performed. Results and Discussion: In vitro studies showed that EEBL had got good nitric oxide and DPPH scavenging activity and also possess significant antiinflammatory activity. In in vivo studies, extract treatment in experimental rats at the dose of 200mg/Kg showed a decrease in the paw volume and granuloma weight indicating the possibility of EEBL be a promising antiinflammatory agent. Studies on EEBL treated collagen induced arthritic animals, showed an increase in body weight, significant reduction in paw volume, arthritic score and TNF-α expression. Radiological and histopathological analysis also strengthens the evidence of resolution of arthritis. Conclusion: The study confirmed the antiinflammatory and antiarthritic potential of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. bark belongs to the family Anacardaceae.
318 A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIABETES SELF MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES OF DIABETICS IN A SELECTED SETTING , Dr. Jeyadeepa R.*
Ancient Medical History had explained diabetes and how it affected people. Diabetes is a lifestyle disorder. To manage diabetes in an effective manner, the individuals have to take many decisions then and there regarding diet, exercise, medications, monitoring etc. Hence it is essential that knowledge on self-care plays an important role in diabetes management. The present study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of diabetes self-management training program on the physiological variables of the diabetics. Quantitative approach was adopted in this study. It was conducted by using true experimental research design. The study was conducted in two centres. 200 diabetics from each centre were selected. Randomization was done to allot the samples to either control or experimental group. The data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and lab reportsfor the physiological variables were assessment. The selected participants were given self-management training programme. The physiological parameters assessed were fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, HbA1c, body mass index, blood pressure and cholesterol. The data were analysed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that the intervention is effective in reducing BMI, PPBS, FBS, HbA1c and cholesterol. Even though the changes in the physiological variables noticed in the control group the rate of reduction is more in the experimental group which was statistically proved. Hence it can be concluded the treatment is effective when it is combined with self-management training.
319 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ACECLOFENAC FAST DISINTEGRATING TABLETS USING NATURAL POLYMER EXTRACTED FROM “PHYLLOPHORA RIBIS” , T. Anjali*, N. Srinivas, P. SS. Prasanna Kumar, P. Brahma Teja, D. Praneetha, P. DS Anjali, K. Vijaya, G. Swarajya Rao and S. Siva Saradhi
Aceclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of the present work is to design and formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly, give its rapid onset of action. The present study was to Formulate and evaluation of fast disintegrating tablet of Aceclofenac by using Natural polymer extracted from “Phyllophora Ribis” mushroom by direct compression technique in 05 different concentrations of 2%W/W, 4%W/W, 6%W/W, 8%W/W & 12%W/W. Each formulation was evaluate for various pre and post compression parameters such as Flow property, Bulk density, Tapped density, Weight variation, Hardness, Friability, Wetting time, Disintegration time, Assay, in- vitro dissolution. Among the 05 formulations, F5 formulation Aceclofenac with 12%w/w of mushroom extract powder showed the best dissolution rate studies. In-Vitro dissolution studies showed (99.98%) release of drug within 25 minutes and the mechanism of drug release from the tablets was followed to be first order kinetics. It was concluded that the fast disintegrating tablets are prepared by Natural polymer extracted from P.Ribis mushroom acts as a Fast disintegrant and the mushroom polymer powder showed excellent disintegration time.
320 A REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS VALIDATION AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE , Sirisha Pasupuleti*, G. Sushma Reddy and S. Supriya
Quality assurance functions primarily to monitor the fact that the quality function is being performed. Its role in process validation is readily associated with its main functions. Validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industries most recognized subjects. Validation is the art of designing and practicing the designed steps alongside with the documentation. Validation and quality assurance will go hand in hand, ensuring the thorough quality for the products. It analyzes the product complaints to learn how effective its test program has been in preventing rejectable product from reaching the market place. According to GMP validation studies are essential part of GMP these are required to be done as per predefined protocols, the minimum that should be validated include process, testing and cleaning as a result such control procedure stablish to monitor the output and validation of manufacturing processes that may be responsible for variability of drug product. The validation study provide the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the test methods employed by the firms, shall be established and documented. Thus validation is an essential part of quality assurance.
321 PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF PECTINASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS AWAMORI IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION , Praveen Kumar Dasari*
The present study deals with the process optimization and production of protease enzyme using Artocarpus heterophyllus as a substrate by Aspergillus awamori in a solid state fermentation process. Solid-state fermentation is defined as a process that occurs on a non-soluble material that acts both as support and a source of nutrients, with a reduced among of water, under the action of fermenting agent. In the process, the microorganism is cultivated on a solid substrate enriched with a high concentration of nutrients, micronutrients and materials and having large surface area. Process variables such as time, temperature, size of inoculum, pH and moisture content were optimized to get the maximum production of pectinase. The increased level of pectinase production was recorded at time 72hrs, temperature 30°C in solid-state conditions. The optimum inoculum level was 40%v/w, pH 5.0 and 70% v/w moisture content of the substrate were optimum for the maximum production of pectinase in solid-state condition. Increased yield of pectinase were observed when medium was supplemented with carbon (3% glucose) and nitrogen (ammonium sulphate, 0.4%) sources. A significant improvement in the enzyme yield was recorded when the basal medium was supplemented with different carbon and nitrogen sources.
322 A REVIEW ON CNS ACTIVITY OF METFORMIN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE , Nabeela C. H.*, Sherin A., Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K.
The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are major concern in medical field. Nowadays symptomatic treatment are preferred. Metformin has long since been used to treat type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. In vitro and in vivo studies shows beneficial effect in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses CNS Activities of Metformin in Alzheimer disease.
323 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF SALVADORA OLEOIDES: A REVIEW , *Rajshree Dahiya and Dr. Jai Singh Vaghela
Salvadora oleoides belong to the family Salvdoraceae is a small, multipurpose tree commonly grown in western Rajasthan and Gujarat states of India.It is known in India as “Mithi Jal” or :Peelu”. Many chemical constituents such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, mucilage, fats and oils have been reported from its leaves and stems extracts. Because of the presence of these active chemical constituents it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, analgesic, anti-ulcer, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal and diuretics.
324 HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE KIDNEY AND LIVER OF WISTAR RATS TREATED WITH CRUDE DECOCTION OF NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA, ENANTIA CHLORANTHA AND MANGIFERA INDICA (AGBOIBA PONTO) , Ogenyi Samuel Ifedioranma*, Onu June Amara, Okeke Monique Ugochinyere, Madukwe David Uche Promise, Ekenebe Dennis Chimaobi and Obikwue Chukwuemeka
The histomorphological and biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of wistar rats treated with Agboiba ponto was evaluated. Twenty-four male and female wistar rats weighing between 150 and 170g were divided into four groups (A-D) six rats each. Different doses of (500mg/kg, 600mg/kg, and 700mg/kg) of aqueous crude extract of Agboiba ponto were administered orally to the rats in groups B to D respectively, for a period of 28 days. Group A (control) received top feed and water only. Blood samples were collected from the rats for serum urea, creatinine, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) estimation, while kidney and liver tissue samples were excised for histological examination. The result, showed dose dependent progressive increase in serum urea and creatinine levels of test animals compared with the control, though not statistically significant. Serum ALT and AST levels progressively decreased from groups A to C but suddenly increased in group D. The histological findings revealed similar trend, the control showed normal histo-morphological architecture while test groups had progressive morphological degeneration ranging from mild histo-architectural distortion of the cortical structures to marked tubular necrosis, moderate-severe chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates and glomerulonephritis and hepatic periportal lymphocytic infiltration. Prolonged administration of higher doses of Agboiba ponto may cause adverse changes in the kidney and liver of wistar rats. Therefore, caution should be observed while usage.
325 VISITORS’ KNOWLEDGE REGARDING BLOOD DONATION AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL, CHITWAN, NEPAL , Jayalaxmi Shakya*, Bedantakala Thulung, Tripti Shrestha and Preeti Shakya
Human blood is an essential element of human life and there are no substitutes to blood as yet. The need for blood is growing day by day as a result of advancement in the clinical medicine but its supply remains short. Hence, it is essential to identify significant factors affecting blood donation. For this reason, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge regarding blood donation among patients’ visitors at Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. A descriptive cross sectional study design was used. Data were collected by using non-probability purposive sampling technique with face to face structured interview schedule among 100 respondents. Data were analysed in descriptive and inferential statistics. Results of this study revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 31.55 SD=11.72. The study revealed that the proportion of individuals with knowledge on blood donation is quite high. Majority of the respondents (88%) of them mentioned that the main goal of blood donation was to save someone’s life. Sixty percent of them answered that the major benefit of blood donation was a sense of psychological wellbeing. Only one-fourth of the respondents had ever donated blood. The major reason for not donating blood was the lack of opportunity to do so. It is important to increase the number of donors in order to meet the requirement of blood. Targeted strategies should be designed to increase more awareness among people about blood donation and to utilize potential donors who lack opportunities to donate blood.
326 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING FILM OF PANTAPRAZOLE SODIUM , Shalaka Vijay Borse* and Dr. Vaibhav Kumar A. Jagtap
New drug delivery system for the oral delivery of drug, was developed based on the technology of the transdermal patch. It consists of a very thin oral strip which releases the active ingredient immediately after uptake into the oral cavity. The technique involved in the preparation of mouth dissolving film was solvent casting method in which aqueous solution I (Pantaprazole Sodium, Sodium Starch Glycolate, Ascorbic acid, Vanilla flavour and Saccharin) and aqueous solution II (HPMC E15 and Glycerine) was prepared in specific proportion in distilled water. Both solution I & II were mixed & stir for 1 hour & kept for 1 hour to remove all air bubbles. Then the mixture solution was poured into petridish & it was dried in oven at 40-50 0C for 7- 8 hours then film was removed from petridish and cut according to Size (square film: 2cm length, 2cm width). Pantaprazole is a highly potent proton pump inhibitor, chemically a weak base, it concentrates under the acidic conditions of parietal cell secretory canaliculi where it is converted to a cationic cyclic sulfonamide by rearrangement. This activated molecule binds to two site of hydrogen/potassium ATPase (proton pump) in the gastric parietal cells, inactivating the system, which in turn blocks the final step of secretion of hydrochloric acid by these cells, producing a long lasting effect.
327 THE PREDICTIVE ROLE OF GALANIN IN GASTRIC CANCER , Hamit Karayagiz*, Umit Sekmen, Serra Bayrakçeken
Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the world.[1] In search of new approaches to diagnose or exclude gastric cancers, a number of tumor antigens have been identified, and many of these have been defined as immunotherapeutic agents.[2] However, therapeutic impacts of these agents have not been as satisfactory as expected. Galanin is a 29-amino acid COOH-terminally, highly conserved and only neuroendocrine peptide originally isolated from intestine.[3] The first 14 amino acids are fully conserved in near all species.[4] It modulates a diversity of physiologic processes, within perception, memory, sensory, pain processing, neurotransmitter, hormone secretion, and feeding behavior.[5] Various biologically active forms of galanin which have elongated or truncated NH2 terminal have been identified.[6]
328 PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY OF VAJRA DANTA MANJANA AND VIDANGADI GUGGULU- A POLY HERBAL MEDICINE , Dr. Priya Sharma*, Dr. Satish Sharma, Dr. Vijayant Bhardwaj and Dr. Priyanka Thakur
Dantveshta is a chronic disease of gums in which there is pus mixed blood discharge from gums with loosening of teeth, due to vitiation of Kapha Dosha and Rakta Dushti in Uttamanga. The clinical features of Dantaveshta as explained in Ayurvedic literature have the relevance with Pyorrhoea Alveolaris. Pyorrhea Alveolaris can be known as periodontitis which is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth. So the present study was carried out to standardize the finished product Vajradanta Manjana and Vidangadi Guggulu to confirm its identity, purity and quality. Physicochemical analysis of Vajradanta Manjan shows loss on drying 06.80%, total solid content is 93.20%, total ash 26.95%, Acid insoluble ash 03.36%, Water soluble Extractive 51.89%, pH 3.04, Thin Layer Chromatography showed 7and 7 Spots. Physicochemical analysis of Vidangadi Guggulu shows loss on drying is 04.83%, total solid content is 95.17%, total ash 06.33%, Acid insoluble ash 02.11%, Water soluble Extractive 34.07%, pH 3.90, average weight 532mg, Thin Layer Chromatography showed 7 and 8 Spots. This shows the presence of certain definite constituents in the Vajradanta Manjana and Vidangadi Guggulu and is helpful for the easy separation of these constituents.
329 PRACTICE ON PREVENTION OF NEEDLE STICK INJURY AMONG NURSES IN SELECTED TEACHING HOSPITAL, BHARATPUR, CHITWAN , Pratima Koirala* and Sushma Shrestha
A needle stick injury (NSI) is a common health hazards among health care workers which is known as percutaneous piercing wound typically set by a needle point, but possibly also by other sharp instruments or objects which may lead to serious blood-borne diseases like Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This study aimed to find out the nurses’ practice on prevention of needle stick injury. A descriptive cross-sectional observational research design was used for this study. A total 50 nurses who were working in Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMCTH), Bharatpur-10, Chitwan, having working experience of more than 3 months were selected by non-probability enumerative sampling technique. Observational check-list was used to collect data and the obtained data were analyzed into IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 program using descriptive and inferential statistics. Out of 50 nurses, 22.0% of nurses have satisfactory practice and 78.0% of nurses have unsatisfactory practice on prevention of needle stick injury. This issues need to be adressesed, through appropriate in-service education, training programs and interventional strategies.
330 HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIORS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A GOVERNMENT SCHOOL OF CHITWAN, NEPAL , Dipti Koirala*, Prof. Milan Lopchan and Assoicate Prof. Subina Bajracharya
Adolescent period is a foundation of the future life. Modifiable unhealthy behaviors during adolescence can lead to emergence of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in later stages of life. This study aimed to find out the health promoting behaviors among adolescents in a government school of Chitwan, Nepal. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 201 students of grade nine at a government school of Bharatpur, Chitwan. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire (a standard tool: AHP scale) and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean age of the respondents was 14.84±0.75 and majority of the respondents were male (51.7%). The total mean score of AHP scale was 78.95±12.20, and the percent of mean score was 75.19%. The highest score was obtained in the area of life appreciation (17.47±3.39), and least score in exercise (9.61±3.39). Statistically significant association was found between health promoting behaviors among adolescents and sources of health information {school teachers (p=0.008), family members (p=0.032), newspapers (p=0.003), internet (p=0.043), radio (p=0.025) and health workers (p=0.023)}. Statistically significant association was found between subscales (nutrition behavior) and father’s employment status (p=0.016), and between subscale (health responsibility) and mother’s educational status (p=0.021). Health promoting behaviors among adolescents was found inadequate, mainly in the area of nutrition and exercise. Thus, the school management and the parents, both needs to pay more attention to the adolescents; consultation and educational services to the adolescents need to be emphasized; internet, radio and newspaper need to be utilized to enhance health promoting behaviors among adolescents.
331 PATIENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS MEDICAL STUDENTS AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL, BHARATUR, NEPAL , Kalpana Basyal and Dipa Sigdel*
Patients are essential for the acquisition and development of medical students’ clinical skills thus, cooperation and positive attitude of patient towards medical students is very crucial. Therefore, this study was aimed to identify patients’ attitude towards medical students at a Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 119 patients admitted in the Tropical, Surgical, Gynecology/ Obstetrics and Orthopedic wards of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was adopted to select patient. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule from 27/08/2017 to 09/09/2017 and then collected data was analyzed and interpreted by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result of this study showed that majority of the respondents belongs to age group 19-39 years (54.6%) with mean age of the respondents 40.7 ± 17.79 and female (54.6%). The total mean score of attitude towards medical students of respondents is 3.38 ± 0.34. More than half of respondents (52.1%) had positive attitude however negative attitude had found in the area of communication skills of medical students with mean score of 3.04 ± 0.21. The significant variable for the respondents’ attitude towards medical students was admitted wards (p= 0.03). It is concluded that even though more than half of the patients’ attitude towards medical students is positive, the hospital needs to plan and implement various programs to maximize positive patient- medical student relationship emphasizing on the area of communication skills.
332 PUREESHA JANAKA DRAVYAS: THE PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE , Dr. Prayagaprasad U. R.*, Vasudha V. G. and A. S. Prashanth
Lifestyle of humans has improved substantially in this modernized world. Technology has set easy access to almost everything under our fingers, but has led to reduced physical activity leading to increased incidence of lifestyle related disorders. Recent trends have shown people taking high extent of calories, Junk food and Consumption of fibers in the diet has reduced. Further level of stress has increased both at personal and professional life. All these factors are having ill effects on every organ system of body. Due to these lifestyle changes gastrointestinal symptoms like constipation, heartburn, abdominal discomfort & diarrhea are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Constipation is a common prevalent problem in general population with prevalence 2-28% which is associated with significantly impaired quality of life and psychological distress, as well as increased health care costs and impaired work productivity. Different classes of laxatives have various limitations in one or another form. These dravya add soluble fiber to the stool causing the stools to absorb more water thereby creating larger, softer stools. So here an effort is made in understanding the dravya which help in increase the bulk of stool and easy evacuation of bowel as mentioned in Ayurveda (Pureesha Janaka Dravyas).
333 ROLE OF PORT SITE INFILTRATION OF LONG ACTING LOCAL ANAESTHETIC AGENTS IN POST-OPERATIVE PAIN REDUCTION, EARLY RECOVERY AND OVERALL PATIENT SATISFACTION AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY , *Dr. Goel Apoorv, Bansal Roli, Garg Prakhar and Kothari Shyam
Background: In today’s era of minimally invasive surgery early post-operative pain reduction, early recovery and return to normal activities is also an important aspect. This study has been designed to analyze the effect of a long acting local anaesthetic agent (0.25 % Bupivacaine) infiltration over port sites in cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: This is a comparative study carried out at St Joseph Hospital, Ghaziabad from September 2019 to March 2020 on 124 patients who underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Group I was control group in which no local anaesthesia was offered and Group II received 20ml of 0.25 % Bupivacaine infiltrated over port sites. Various parameters were assessed during intra-operative and post-operative period. Pain was analysed using Visual Analogue Scoring (VAS) for first 24 hours and overall patient satisfaction scoring was done using questionnaire and scorecard. Results: Cholelithiasis is a disease of middle aged females. Post-operative pain was significantly reduced in group II receiving port site infiltration with 0.25% Bupivacaine. Early recovery, return to normal activities and overall patient satisfaction was significantly better in group II. Conclusion: Port site infiltration with 0.25% Bupivacaine significantly reduces early post-operative pain, enhance early recovery and improves overall patient satisfaction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
334 GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS IN FICUS MOLLIS VAHL LEAVES , Narendra Shahare* and Shroni Bodele
Ficus mollis Vahl is an important medicinal plant belongs to family Moraceae. The leaf extract of this plant in different solvents were analyzed for different phytochemicals. It shows presence of different phytochemicals like carbohydrates, phenol, tannins, proteins, amino acids, anthocyanin, saponin, flavonoid anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. The analysis of the volatile compounds in the methanolic leaf extract was performed using GC-MS. About 100 compounds were reported out of which ten compounds are major while others are minors. The major compounds include Deoxyspergualin (7.79%), ç-Sitosterol (7.05%), Cyclopentasiloxane, decamethyl- (5.07%), dl-à-Tocophero (4.25%), 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-(3,8,12,16-tetramethyl-heptadeca-3,7,11,15 tetraenyl)-cyclohexanol (2.75%), à-Amyrin (2.43%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, 2,3-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]propyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.41%), Phytol (2.39%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, 2,3-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]propyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.31%) and Cyclohexasiloxane, dodecamethyl- (2.12%).
335 THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC UNIFLORAL ATAMISQUI HONEY (ATAMISQUEA EMARGINATA): IN VITRO AND IN VIVO BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION , Marcos A. Reynoso, Franco A. Medina and Nancy R. Vera*
The present study was carried out to investigate the medicinal properties and safety of organic unifloral atamisqui honey (Atamisquea emarginata). We evaluated the antioxidant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of honeys with a previous quantitative analysis of some phytoconstituents such as total phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Safety was evaluated with the acute toxicity test. The unifloral atamisqui honey (UAH) presented an important antioxidant activity with values higher than 90% (from 400 μg / ml) in both methods (DPPH and β-carotene bleaching) and similar to the positive patterns (BHT and quercetin). In addition, UAH exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the acute and chronic inflammation models. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in animals treated with both doses 14 days prior to the trial (84.13% reduction in edema and 42.63 % reduction the weight of exudate). UAH has antinociceptive activity at both central and peripheral levels. Acute toxicity results suggest that single oral doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg b.w. are safe to use in rats. Our data indicate that UAH is a natural source of bioactive substances with promising beneficial properties for human health.
336 MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS IN A PATIENT WITH BELL’S PALSY: A CASE REPORT , Maryam Jalali, Navid Kalani, Farshid Javdani and Naser Hatami*
Bell's palsy is a facial paralysis due to the demyelination of peripheral nerves of the face and it affects the person's face. In some cases, Bell's palsy is associated with multiple sclerosis, which despite the Bell’s palsy is a central nervous demyelination disease. This suggests the need to consider demyelinating autoimmune diseases, including MS, in identifying the cause of Bell’s palsy.
337 ASYMPTOMATIC CENTRAL PONTINE MYELINOLYSIS IN HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDIUM , Maryam Jalali, Dr. Navid Kalani, Farshid Javdani and Naser Hatami*
Central pontine myelinolysis occurs due to demyelination of the myelin sheath of the neurons of the Pons region of the brain stem, which may have different neurological symptoms. The case presented in our study was a 29-year-old pregnant woman who had no signs of neurological findings and was asymptomatic. The cause of the occurrence of Central pontine myelinolysis is mainly due to the incorrect correction of blood electrolytes. However, she did not show any clear electrolyte disturbances, which rejects that as an etiologic cause of this case. The similarity of this patient with other cases was malnutrition due to hyperemesis gravidium. However, Regarding to four weeks postpartum MRI, CPM complication was eliminated and normal MRI results were reported.
338 EVALUATION OF MEDICINES PRESCRIBING PATTERN AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN AT THE PRINCESS CHRISTIAN MATERNITY HOSPITAL IN FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE , Oluwatoba Atolagbe*, Joseph Sam Kanu, Mohamed Bella Jalloh, James B. W. Russell, Joseph B. A. Beckley, Onome Thomas Abiri
Background: Appropriate use of medications during pregnancy is an essential part of prenatal care, since it can affect not only the health of the pregnant woman but also that of the developing foetus. This study evaluated prescribing patterns, rational prescribing and occurrence of contraindicated medicines among pregnant women at the Princess Christian Maternity Hospital in Freetown. Materials and Methods: 314 antenatal prescriptions were obtained from the pharmacy of the Princess Christian Maternity Hospital and evaluated retrospectively. Prescription patterns, rational prescribing and risk to the foetus were evaluated using the WHO core prescribing indicators, index of rational drug prescribing (IRDP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy risk classification of medicines. Results: Excluding minerals and vitamins, 25 (8.0%) of pregnant women received at least one drug. The average number of drugs per encounter, percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name, percentage encounters with an antibiotic and an injection and the percentage of drugs prescribed from the NEML were 3.9, 49.5%, 53.5%, 2.2% and 99.9% respectively. The congruent indices of rational drug prescribing were 0.09. 0.50, 0.56, 4.55 and 0.99 correspondingly. Minerals and vitamins 394 (32.6%), were the most frequently prescribed medicines. Of all the medicines prescribed, 221 (43.1%) were FDA category C medicines followed by category A 125 (32.3%). Conclusion: The prescribing pattern was not rational as three of the prescribing indicators fell short of the WHO standard. The existence of contraindicated medicines was suitably low. Therefore, there is need to improve rational prescribing.
339 VAGINAL IMMUNITY – REVIEW ARTICLE , Bharti Mittu* and Neha
The innate immune system is the most primitive and evolutionary conserved arm of the immune system. It triggers a sequence of events leading to release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of the acquired immune system (T and B lymphocytes). Once T and B lymphocytes activated, these lymphocytes generate microbial antigen-specific cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity. A delicate balance is maintained by a complex interplay of local humoral, cell mediated and innate immunity in female reproductive system (Summers et al., 2010). Innate immune system can recognize multiple microbes and components of their cell walls. The potential pathogens can be eliminated by multiple mechanisms, which include antimicrobial factors secreted by local epithelial cells, ingestion by resident phagocytes and activation of an inflammatory response (Janeway et al., 2005).
340 DANTA SHAREERA AVALOKANA & DANTA ROGAS- A CONCEPTUAL STUDY , *Dr. Snehapriya P. R. and Dr. Venkatesh B. A.
Mouth is considered as a window into health of the body by being a gateway of the alimentary canal and by this fact it is to be understood as one of the most important part of the body. Importance has been put on to Dental hygiene to maintain health and beauty. The glorious and beautiful smiles flash only with glossy white and well arranged teeth. These are the most important organ of mechanical digestion in body. Main function of teeth is to pulverize the food, the enzymes cannot chemically digest it. Therein, painful teeth, absence of teeth or diseased teeth and gums often lead to indigestion and insufficient utilization of the undigested food, results in malnutrition. The Healthy Status of the Tooth can effectively managed with Nidana parivarjana and regular practice of Dinacharya. Maintaining proper oral hygiene helps in preventing dental health and other diseases of oral cavity. Early management of dental pathology helps in saving the teeth and its associated structures.
341 A VIEW ON HERBAL MEDICINES AND FOOD HABITS OF INDIANS AND IT’S EFFECTS ON COVID-19 AND MORTALITY RATE , Divya R., Dr. Gururaj S. Kulkarni*, Dr. Padma M. Paarakh
Since last decade the most of new infections which are causing panic effects in humans are viral infections. Many viral infections have attacked on humans and cause numerous losses of human lives. Despite of this scientists and health professional are struggling to find a right therapy to treat or eradicate completely these viral infections. There are various reasons for this delaying getting right medicines or vaccines. In such difficult situation the Indian herbal medicines and spices used in the regular food preparations proved savior to treat or control these viral infections particularly in this pandemic COVID-19. Indian herbs and spices have enormous medicinal and antioxidant properties, this prevents the effects of viral infections either by killing theme by its anti-viral properties or boost the immunity to minimize the effects of viruses. The best example for herbal medicines is turmeric curcumin, which has both anti-viral, antioxidant and prophylactic properties. Such herbs or spices helping in combating the pandemic COVID-19.
342 DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FACE PACK FOR COSMETIC PURPOSE , Kolhe Rohini C.*, Chatur Vibhavari M., Patil Sheetal V. and Dr. Ghode Shweta P.
Objective: The main objective of the work is to formulate and evaluate a face mask for cosmetic purposes. Materials and method: Sandalwood, Turmeric, Aloe vera extract, Neem, Amla, Tulsi and fullers earth were purchased at the local market and dried, pulverized and then passed through sieve no. 100, mixed geometrically and packaged in an airtight container for further evaluation. Results and Discussion: the distinctive microscopic characters of the individual powders were observed and quantitative measurements were taken. The particle size of the powder was found between 20 and 30 μm. Conclusion: Herbal compresses or masks are used to stimulate blood circulation, rejuvenate the skin and help maintain skin elasticity and remove dirt from skin pores. The advantage of herbal cosmetics is their non-toxic nature, reduces allergic reactions and the usefulness of many proven ingredients over time. Therefore, in the present work, we have found good properties for masks and more optimization studies are needed in this study to find the useful benefits of masks in human use as a cosmetic product.
343 EFFECT OF VYAGHRI TAILA NASYA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VATAJA PRATISHYAYA W.S.R. TO ALLERGIC RHINITIS , Dr. Priyanka Thakur*, Dr. Vijayant Bhardwaj, Dr. Satish Sharma, Dr. Rajika Gupta and Dr. Priya Sharma
Pratishyaya is A condition of continuous Nasal discharge, Vata Pradhana disease occur due to accumulation of Doshas in Uttamanga. Vataja Pratishyaya is explained in Ayurvedic system of medicine as Sneezing, Watery discharge from nose, Stuffy nose, Itching in nose etc. which have relevance with Allergic Rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is an IgE mediated immunologic response of nasal mucosa to airborne allergen and is characterized by watery nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, sneezing and itching in the nose. In the present study 10 patients were selected randomly and treated with Vyaghri Taila as Nasya which is mentioned as best treatment modality for uttmanga shudhi by Acharyas. The signs and symptoms were studied before and after treatment. Results of study showed moderate(50%) and marked (50%) improvement in patients.
344 CHENGE IN PROPERTIES SOIL DUE TO APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SILICO IN GARLIC FIELD , *Prof. B. J. Shete and P. U. Bhosale
The present investigation was under taken on garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Phule Nilima to study the effect of silicon at All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Department of Horticulture, MPKV, Rahuri, Dist. Ahmednagar in rabi season of 2017-18, by using different sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil and silicon availability in the soil related to growth, yield and quality characters in garlic. Fifteen treatment combinations formed by three sources of fertilizer silicon (viz., diatomaceous earth, calcium silicate and bagasse ash) with five levels of silicon (viz., 0,100,150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1) and one absolute control, were tried and each replicated three times. The basal dose of fertilizer 100 N, 50 P2O5 and 50 K2O kg ha-1was applied before planting. In case of effect of sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil, source A1 (DE) recorded significantly highest OC, while source A2 (CS) recorded significantly highest pH and EC (dsm-1) while in case of levels (B5) application of Si @ 250 kg ha-1 recorded significantly highest pH, EC, and OC. The interaction effect of sources and levels of silicon was not significant for all three soil properties under study. The pH, EC and Organic Carbon were significantly increased with treated over control.
345 CHANGE IN PROPERTIES OF SOIL DUE TO APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF SILICON IN GARLIC FIELD , *Dr. B. J. Shete and P. U. Bhosale
The present investigation was under taken on garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Phule Nilima to study the effect of silicon at All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Department of Horticulture, MPKV, Rahuri, Dist. Ahmednagar in rabi season of 2017-18, by using different sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil and silicon availability in the soil related to growth, yield and quality characters in garlic. Fifteen treatment combinations formed by three sources of fertilizer silicon (viz., diatomaceous earth, calcium silicate and bagasse ash) with five levels of silicon (viz., 0,100,150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1) and one absolute control, were tried and each replicated three times. The basal dose of fertilizer 100 N, 50 P2O5 and 50 K2O kg ha-1was applied before planting. In case of effect of sources and levels of silicon on chemical properties of soil, source A1 (DE) recorded significantly highest OC, while source A2 (CS) recorded significantly highest pH and EC (dsm-1) while in case of levels (B5) application of Si @ 250 kg ha-1 recorded significantly highest pH, EC, and OC. The interaction effect of sources and levels of silicon was not significant for all three soil properties under study. The pH, EC and Organic Carbon were significantly increased with treated over control.
346 EFFECT OF TRUNCAL VAGOTOMY ON MOTOR FUNCTION OF GALLBLADDER-A PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS , Dr. Abhijit Sarma and *Dr. Purujit Choudhury
A prospective clinical study on choleakinesia following total vagectomy (Bilateral truncal vagotomy) was carried out during the period from April 2010 to December 2016.Total 55 cases were studied who was suffering from chronic duodenal ulcer. Out of these total 55 cases fifteen cases had gastric outlet obstruction with hugely dilated stomach which was considered as control group in this study. Other 40 cases were considered as study group.Truncal vagotomy with retrocolic isoperistaltic GJA done in study group and only retrocolic isoperistaltic GJA operation done in control group. Two patients had incomplete vagotomy.All the patients were male and average age was 38.1 years.32.7% cases were belonging to the age group between 26-35 years which was the highest. Though the cases were operated till September 2016, they were followed up till December2016.Gastric acidity, oral cholecystography and ultrasonography of upper abdomen was done in both pre and post operative period. All cases were meticulously examined to exclude other associated pathology. Cases were diagnosed by Barium meal and clinical analysis.14 days post-operatively gastric acid analysis and three months post-operatively oral cholecystography was done. In the post-operative follow up period ultrasonography upper abdomen was done.39 (71%) patients were turned up for check up in post-operative period out of which 29 patients belong to complete vagotomy group. In conclusion it was seen that following total vagotomy the contraction of gall bladder was definitely reduced with decrease % loss of bile results stasis of bile. There was more than double dilatation of the gall bladder.[1,4] as detected three months post-operatively after complete section of vagus. 7.5% of patients of complete vagotomy group developed gall stones till three to four years post-operatively.[1] and 20% patients developed minimal gall bladder sludge and 5% patients developed dense peripheral sludge with wall thickening till that period. Incomplete vagotomy and control group didn’t show such significant changes. More than 50% acidity was reduced following truncal vagotomy in fasting, basal and maximum acid output in both free and total state.
347 MANAGEMENT OF PREMATURE CONTRACTIONS WITH SHATHAVARI KSHEERAPAKA BASTHI – A CASE REPORT , *Dr. Amrutha B. S. and Dr. Padmasaritha K.
Preterm labour is defined as one where the labour starts before the 37th completed week (<259 days), counting from the first day of last menstrual period. Premature contraction of the uterus is the very first sign of premature labour and Preterm birth is the significant cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In about 50% cases, the cause is not known. As per Ayurveda, akala prasava , ie preterm labour, results due to apana vatha vaigunya, the type of vatha which helps in Garbha nishkramana kriya. Basthi is considered as the best treatment for management of vitiated vatha dosha. In Garbhini, basthi is indicated after completion of 7 months of pregnancy. Here, in this study, a 20 year old, primi gravida of 36 weeks of gestation with premature contraction and reduced fetal movements is administered with shathavari ksheerapaka basthi. Per rectal basthi with 300ml shathavari ksheerapaka administerd for 3 consecutive days. This was found effective in preventing uterine contractions and further advancement of preterm labour.
348 IDENTIFICATION OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF ALBAHA PLUECHEA OVALIS AND THEIR POTENT MANIFOLD BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES , Saleh B. Alghamdi*
Cancer and microbial infections are main causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Pluchea is a genus of flowering plants belongs to Asteraceae (compositeae) family, Pluchea ovalis (PO) is one of its species growing in Albaha region. The volatile constituents were extracted with pet. ether and were identified using GC/MS analysis. It was found that, the volatile constituents consist of a mixture of 15 - selinene, humulene oxide and β- eudesmol constitutes about 61%. The aerial parts of PO were extracted with pet ether. The pet ether extract was fractionated into unsaponifiable fraction and fatty acids and their constituents were identified by GC/MS analysis. In the present study Gram (+) bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Gram (-) bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa have been used. In addition; fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans were also studied. The results of antimicrobial activity of different extracts demonstrated that, pet. ether extract exhibited highest activity against B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aureus with MIC=6.4, 10.0 and 7.2 mg/ml respectively. The results of antitumor activity against colon carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) showed that alcoholic extract is most active extract with IC50 = 21.4 ± 1.3 μg/ml.
349 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON LIPOSOMES , Zaquiyya Naaz*, Dr. Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
This article is intended to provide an overview of liposomal drug delievery system. In this, we focussed on the factors affecting the behaviour of the liposomes, these are one amongst the various drug delievery system is used to target the drug to particular tissue. Because of structure similarity between the lipid bilayer and cell membrane, lip[osomes can easily penetrate and show their effect and a free drug would not penetrate. Liposome were first made by A.D Bangham in early 1960. Their size range from 25 to 500nm.
350 PHARMACOSOMES: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Kirti Negi*, Dr. Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
Pharmacosomes are colloidal dispersion of drugs covalently bound to lipids and may exist as ultrafine vascular, micellar or hexagonal aggregates, depending on the chemical structure of drug-lipid complex. Pharmacosomes are the amphiphilic phospholipid complexes of drug bearing active hydrogen that bind to phospholipid. It is based on the principle that the drug binds covalently to a lipid where the resulting compound is the carrier and the active compound at the same time. The physicochemical properties depend on drug as well as the lipid. They are mainly prepared by hand-shaking and ether injection method. The Pharmacosomes were evaluated for different parameters such as size, NMR, surface morphology and invitro release rate. This review describes all aspect of Pharmacosomes including composition, method of preparation, method of characterization and their therapeutic application. Pharmacosomes have been prepared for various non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins, cardiovascular and anti-neoplastic drugs.
351 RARE COLLISION TUMORS IN THE PROSTATE , Dr. Spasimir T. Shopov*
Collision tumors are rare, consisting of two or more distinct neoplasms that develop adjacent to one another and coexist with no or minimal intermingling between them. Their diagnosis is often incidental and their behavior remains widely unknown. Several theories have been proposed regarding their pathogenesis. I report a 75-year-old man with a mictional disturbances for several years. Ultrasound examination of organs in a small pelvis: enlarged prostate, and stagnant urine in the bladder. Paraclinical: PSA 19,7 ng/ml. Histologically: a collision between two tumors in the prostate.
352 STUDIES ON ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MUD WASP NEST ACTINOMYCETES AGAINST MTCC BACTERIAL STRAINS BY SCREENING METHODS , Nithiya G., Umadevi D., *B. K. Nayak and Anima Nanda
During the study period, actinomycetes were isolated from mud wasp nest by serial dilution pour plate method. All the actinomycetes were curtained for their antagonistic proeprties against pathogenic bacterial strains procured from IMTECH, Chandigarh, India. Initially the actinomycetes were primarily screened by cross streak method and only two potential actinomycetes were tested subjected to secondary screening which was done by Agar well diffusion method. Most of the isolates were found active against E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Vibrio cholerae. Most of the actinomycetes (around (80%) showed good antagonistic effect against most of the tested pathogens and 20% of the total actinomycetes were found non-effective against the test pathogens.
353 STUDIES ON THE FUNGAL DIVERSITY AND THEIR PREVALENCE ON THE ANTHILL SOIL COLLECTED FROM PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY CAMPUS , Ramkumar R., Surendra S., *B. K. Nayak and A. Nanda
Studies on fungal diversity of diverse soils mostly trust on its fruitful implication to find bio-compounds for the purpose of bioprospecting. Fungi not only provide pharmaceutical products, such as antibiotics and other valuable substances, but also organic acids, enzymes, pigments and secondary metabolites which are employed in the food and fermentation industry. Many soil fungi are used as biological control agents for plant pathogens and insect pests. In our recent work, anthill soil samples of Pondicherry University campus were studied to record the incidence of fungal composition and their diversity. Aspergillus niger was found as the dominant one and it was followed by Penicillium chrysogenum and Sterile mycelia. One-gram anthill soil was found to harbor 5000 to 6000 fungal spores in our study. The results obtained clearly indicated that Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus awamori and Penicillium digitatum, Trichoderma were of high occurrence in anthill soil and other fungi like Fusarium, Cladosporium sp., Curvularia and Rhizopus were isolated with least numbers. Among the isolates, aspergilli, penicilli and white sterile mycelia were dominant in anthill soils due to their high sporulation capacity and high adaptability nature. The frequency of mycoflora in anthill soil were found to be regulated by many factors like humidity, vegetation, temperature, inorganic and organic materials, soil type and its texture.
354 EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS SEED EXTRACTS AGAINST PECTOBACTERIUM CAROTOVORUM CAUSING BLACK LEG AND SOFT ROT OF POTATO   , G. Biswal* and N. K. Dhal
Studies were conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar following inhibition zone technique to test the bio-efficacy of seed extracts in vitro against Pectobacterium carotovorum causing pre-emergence and post–emergence rotting, black leg in field soft rot in storage in potato. The seeds used in the tests were Terminalia chhebula (Chhebulic myrobalan),T. belerica (Beleric myrobalan), Emblica officinalis (Indian goose berry), (Azadirachata indica (Neem), (Greater cardamom), Rauvolfia serpentina (Snake root), Coriandrum sativum (Dhania), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Nigella sativa (Black cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Cassia fistula (Indian laburn), Cassia tora (Senna tora). The results revealed that R.serpentina exhibited maximum size of inhibition zone 13.53 followed by A.subulatum(11.33) against the test bacterial species .The inhibition zone was found to be10.0mm in seed extracts of T.chebula while 9.30mm in F.vulgare 8.68 in C.cyminum and 8.03mm in N.sativa. There was no significant difference in antibacterial activity between A aromaticum (7.97) and A.indica(7.92). The antibacterial activity was same(7.01mm) in T.bellirica and C.viscosa. In P.nigrum, C.fistula and C.tora expressed same inhibiting activity (6.95mm). Minimum inhibition zone was observed in E.officinallis (6.68mm).  
355 ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE PROFILE OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM DAIRY FARMS MANURE IN BAHRI LOCALITY, SUDAN , Sarah Azhary Mohamed, Yassir A. Almofti*, Elniema A. Mustafa and Sheimaa S. A. O. Fagirii
This study was conducted between November 2016 and February 2018 and aimed to isolate some bacteria, mainly E. coli, Staphylococci and Salmonella from dairy farms manure and to assess their antibiotics resistance profile to different antimicrobial agents. This study included 19 dairy farms distributed in Bahri locality, Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 95 manure samples were collected from these farms and a questionnaire was introduced to each dairy farm owner before samples collection. The questionnaire showed that the density of the cows within the farms was appropriate. Mastitis was common in visited farms and the control of mastitis was made by the owners. The majority of the farms had no hoof care and the incidence of lameness was frequent. Also multiple diseases such as abortion, metritis, retention of placenta, pneumonia, eye infection and calf diarrhea that requires antibiotic treatment were prevalent in the visited farms. The majority of the cows received at least two courses of antibiotics treatment per year. In addition to that the most commonly used antibiotics were tetracycline and tylosin, penicillin and the least used antibiotic was ciprofloxacin. These antibiotics were mostly administered by the owners rather than veterinarians. A total of 68 bacterial isolates were identified using the conventional bacteriological isolation method. These include 28 isolates as E. coli (41.18%), 26 isolates as Staphylococci (38.23%) and 14 isolates as Salmonella (20.58%). The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using broth microdilution method. The three isolates showed resistance to Erythromycin, Azithromycin and Tetracycline but demonstrated susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin. Therefore, it could be concluded that untreated manure could impose a great risk if it is used as a fertilizer in vegetables farms as the resistant bacteria in manure may transferred to humans through contaminated vegetables.
356 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF TUBER EXTRACTS OF CHLOROPHYTUM BORIVILIANUM , *Sunil Kumar and Vinai Kumar
Chlorophytum borivilianum is an important medicinal plant knows as 'Safed musli' and is used in herbal drug industries. In the present investigation the extracts obtained from tubers of C. borivilianum were used to evaluate in-vitro antibacterial activities against three bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus and Paenibacillus. Glacial acetic acid, petroleum ether, methanol and water were used as solvent to prepare tuber extract. The antibacterial activity of tuber extract for the micrococcus sensitivity was observed as 6, 15, 18 and 12mm zone of inhibition at 50 mg/ml conc. of water, methanol, glacial acetic acid and petroleum ether respectively. The most effective conc. for the antibacterial activity of tuber extract was 50 mg/ml conc. of glacial acetic acid.
357 CONTRIBUTION OF HOSPITAL SERVICES TO THE OCCURRENCE OF ADVERSE EVENTS AFTER DISCHARGE FROM A SECONDARY HOSPITAL IN NORTHERN GHANA , Inusah Deunaa Iddrisu*, Akwasi Anyanful and Samuel Victor Nuvor
Background: Being discharged from the hospital is sometimes associated with complications which may be dangerous to the patient. Adverse events are unintended injuries or complications which may result in death, disability and prolonged hospital stay after discharge or related to the hospital visit. 6th to 19th of January 2018 and the incidence, types and severity of adverse events after hospitalization in a secondary hospital in Northern Ghana. Method: A prospective cohort study was used to establish the relationship between adverse events and hospital services. This was carried out with patients admitted and discharged from Wa Hospital. A total of 206 patients were recruited from the medical, surgical and emergency wards of the hospital. Finding: the result shows that there was a significant influence of the type of hospital ward a patient was admitted to on types of adverse events reported (r=-0.251, p=0.005) 6th to 19th of January 2018. However there were no other significant influences of service delivery factors on the severity of adverse events reported. There were also no significant influences of specific service delivery factors on the general incidence of reported adverse events. Conclusion: Understanding of how health services delivered leads to adverse events will help in improvement in patient outcomes and reduce the occurrence of adverse events after patients had been discharged from the hospital.
358 COSMETOVIGILANCE: COSMETICUTILISATION PATTERN, ADVERSE EVENTS AND AWARENESS ABOUT COSMETOVIGILANCE AMONG PARAMEDICS IN SOUTH KERALA , Dhanya Dharman*, Shammy Rajan, Prof. Shaiju S. Dharan
Cosmetovigilance is an ongoing process and systematic monitoring of the safety of cosmetic in terms of human health. The aim of Cosmetovigilance is to detect the best effect of cosmetic product and to prevent adverse effects by taking appropriate measure. The study was conducted among pharmacy students and pharmacy graduate in Kerala by KAP questionnaire for a period of 6 month. Approximate 67 pharmacy students and pharmacy graduates were responded to this study. Among this 67 peoples, they use cosmetics to boost their confidence, for leisure purpose and without any indications, and they experiences the type of reactions were itching,burning sensation, hyper pigmentation, hair loss and running eyes. The process of Cosmetovigilance is evolving and coming up as a strong regulatory science to protect public health and beauty. In European Union, directive 76/768/EEC regulates the monitoring of cosmetics. The unwanted or adverse reactions due to cosmetic products are very low go unnoticed,or unde reported due to lack of proper organized reporting system. India can initiate to have formal Cosmetovigilance system. In future it could contribute to increased safety of cosmetics use which is important for the safeguard of public health.
359 RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CANDESARTAN AND AMLODIPINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS , M. K. Ranganath, Kalyani Arikatla*, Prasanta Deka
The main objective of this study is to develop a reverse phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of candesartan and amlodipine bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form with a simple, rapid, specific, validated and sensitive method. An isocratic separation is achieved using C18(150 x 4.6mm, 5μ) with mobile phase comprises of water and methanol in the ratio of 10:90 v/v. candesartan shows a retention time 3.5min and amlodipine shows 1.17min at 1ml/min flow rate and the wavelength was detected at 355nm. Robustness, specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, LOD and LOQ was validated using this method. The LOD and LOQ are 0.48 and 1.5 for amlodipine and 0.75 and 2.3 for candesartan respectively. The calibration curve in the concentration range of 4-24 mcg/ml for both AMLO and CANDE are linear with the coefficient of correlation 0.997 and 0.998 respectively. The % of recovery of candesartan is 99.5% and amlodipine is 100.3% and the % od RSD is <2%. This method is successfully applied for quantitative determination of candesartan and amlodipine bulk as well as the formulation.
360 ROLE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS BY TRADITIONAL PRACTITIONERS OF KADAPA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA , *S. Rajagopal Reddy and A. Madhusudhana Reddy
Plants occupy an important place in Indian medical systems. Every nation has its own set of medicinal plants. Plants are integral parts of Indian life and culture. The present article attempts to highlight the importance of some medicinal plants which are traditionally used in the treatment of psychological disorders by the people of Kadapa District. About 33 plant species belonging to 31 genera and 23 families were documented. All these plant species are used to treat 20 psychological disorders. Significance of these plants in different psychological disorders has been discussed. People of this study area are highly conscious about medicinal plants which have their defined roles and importance. These plants are found in wild as well as grown in close vicinity of people in various places of this study area. These medicinal properties are not only showing the human relation with plant diversity, but also help in the conservation of species.
361 EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ACACIA MODESTA , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam*
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate in-vitro efficacy of antibacterial activity of crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Acacia modestaagainstsome human pathogenic bacterial strains.Acacia modesta, commonly known as Phulai, is a member of the family Leguminosae) and sub-family Mimosaceae. It is a deciduous, slow-growing small tree with thorny young shoots and dark brown and black wood. The plant is also popular in herbal medicines, including those for the treatment of muscular conditions, back pain, and stomach problems. Methodology: Crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Acacia modestawere used for antibacterial screening. Antibacterial activity was tested against pathogenic bacterial strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus Pumilus, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Enterobacteraerogenesand Streptococcus pneumonia.Antibacterial activity of Acacia modesta extract was carried out by using disc diffusion method. Results: The crude methanolic extract showed moderate activity against E. coli (40.74%), P. aeruginosa (40.74%) and B. pumalis (40%), low against S. epidermidis (34.61%), S. typhi (22.22%), S. pneumoniae(27.58%) and E. aerogens (31.03%) and no activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. The n-hexane fraction was significantly active against K. pneumoniae (66.66%) and moderately active against E. coli (48.14%), S. typhi (51.85%), P. aeruginosa (51.85%) and B. pumalis (40%). It showed low activity against S. epidermidis (34.61%), S. pneumoniae (20.68%), S. aureus (38.46%) and E. aerogens (34.48%). Chloroform fraction was moderately active against K. pneumoniae (57.14%), S. typhi (48.14%), E .aerogens (41.37%) and B. pumalis (40%) and low active against S. aureus (38.46%), P. aerugenosa (37.03%), S. epidermidis (34.61%), E. coli (33.33%) and S. pneumoniae (24.13%). Significant activity was shown by theEtOAcfraction against K. pneumoniae (61.90%), moderate against S. typhi (48.14%), E. coli (44.44%), P. aeruginosa (44.44%) and B. pumalis (40%) while low activity against E. aerogens (37.93%), S. aureus (34.61%), S. epidermidis (34.61%) and S. pneumoniae (24.13%). The aqueous fraction showed moderate activity against S. epidermidis (53.84%), B. pumalis (44%), E. coli (48.14%) and S. typhi (40.74%), low activity against K. pneumoniae (38.09%), P. aeruginosa (37.03%), E. aerogens (37.93%), S. aureus (34.61%) and no activity against S. pneumoniae.The n-hexane and EtOAc fractions exhibited significant while CHCl3fraction showed moderate activity against K. pneumoniae. The aqueous fraction showed low activity against the majority of test pathogens.The crude methanolic extract have low activity against most of the test pathogens. Conclusions: The results concludes that n-hexane, ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia modesta possess antibacterial activity.
362 INCIDENTAL RISK OF PRE-DIABTES AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAKKARDARA REGION AT NAGPUR : AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , *Dr. Anjali Turale, Dr. Vrushali Khandekar, Dr. Shubhangi Kshirsagar, Dr. Madhavi Charmode and Dr. Vijay S. Jadhav
Introduction-Pre-diabetes is a precursor condition for type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Although in many cases it is reversible, Pre-diabetes frequently remains undiagnosed and therefore risk of developing type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increased. The risk factors for pre-diabetes are same as those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. An individual’s risk factors for pre-diabetes include obesity, high waist circumference, family history of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. Pre-diabetes itself is a risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.(4) Material and Methods-In this study 66 individuals were selected from our institutions on the basis of Indian diabetes risk score and blood sugar level. After diagnosed pre-diabetic individuals all were observed for demographic characteristics andthe statistical analysis done. conclusion-In this observational study we can conclude that Age, occupation, dietary habits, frequency of micturition at night, physical Inactivity, diwaswap( day time sleep), overweight or abnormal BMI, Kapha predominant prakriti all these factors might be the risk factors for Pre-diabetes and Diabetes.
363 HOW FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM HELPS YOU TO MAKE YOUR DOSAGE FORM MORE RELEVANT: A REVIEW , Modi Yagneshkumar Dipakbhai*, Dr. Chainesh Shah and Dr. Umesh Upadhyay
The foremost goal behind the composition of this article on the floating drug delivery system (FDDS) was to systematize the ongoing writing with the center cycle of floatation in gaining gastric maintenance. The various procedures utilized in the improvement of FDDS by developing the bubbly and non bubbly kind of floating tablets premise of which is lightness system. FDDS is a strategy to convey the drugs that are dynamic locally with a thin retention window in the upper gastrointestinal plot, unsteady in the lower intestinal climate, and have low solvency with higher pH esteems. The tale techniques in FDDS incorporate ways to deal with plan a solitary unit and different unit floating systems, the physiological and definition changeability influencing gastric maintenance alongside the utilization of as of late concocted and created polymers. This audit likewise centers around different in vitro methods and in vivo examinations taking into account execution and use of floating systems. Floating dose structures can be conveyed in customary structures like tablets, containers with the expansion of reasonable fixings alongside the gas producing operator. This survey additionally illuminates various strategies utilized in creating floating dose shapes alongside current and novel progressions.
364 IMMINENT ATTRIBUTES OF SPLENDID STAR FRUIT (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L.) , Lakha Ram, Sukhraj Punar, Sulochana Sharma, Ashok K. Kakodia, Raaz K. Maheshwari
Indisputably, fruits are very important in our daily diet for various health benefits. However, some fruits may contain high amounts of unique secondary metabolites, which are hazardous to our health. Star-fruit plants are cultivated commercially in tropical countries for their fruits. This fruit have several medicinal properties; hence, it is used medicinally for many years in Ayurvedic treatments. Star-fruits contain various antioxidants which are considered medicinally important and beneficial for the health. The Starfruit is sweet tasting fruit that possesses high nutritional value. From the time immemorial, the whole starfruit tree is used as a traditional medicine. The medicinal properties of Starfruit include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, anti-ulcer, hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, anti-tumor activities. It is effectively used in diabetes and help to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. The endeavour of this review is to highlight the nutritional aspects, medicinal value, toxicological traits, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities along with the current trends in research on starfruit.
365 DETECTION OF LEISHMANIA TROPICA USING NESTED PCR AND MEASURE SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN THI-QAR PROVINCE, IRAQ: EARLY DERMAL LESIONS , Mohammed Hassan Flaih*, Fadhil Abbas Al-Abady and Khwam Reissan Hussein
The study includes three local locations, Al-Hussein Teaching, Suq Al-Shyokh General and Al-Shatrah General Hospitals in province for the period from December 2018 to September 2019. The samples were collected from 80 patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Nested-PCR was used to amplify kinetoplast minicircle fragments DNA (kDNA). Also, 3ml of the venous blood was collected before they take a drug, then putted in EDTA tube for order complete blood count (CBC) test. Electrophoresis results for 80 samples of kinetoplast minicircle fragments DNA gene were amplified by Nested PCR, discovered 65 positives for cutaneous leishmaniasis and Furthermore, the results were recorded 46 (57.5%) positive samples of L. tropica at 750bp. In present study, there are not significant differences of erythrocytes count and hemoglobin concentration by compared between patients and control, whereas platelet blood count showed a significant increase. On the other hand, the statistical analysis findings were showed significant differences by compared between leukocytes count and WBC differential (neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils) of patients group and control specimen, except of monocytes which showed an insignificant difference at compared between patients group and control.
366 A CLINICAL STUDY OF CBD STONE WITH DIFFERENT SURGICAL MODALITIES OF MANAGEMENT , Dr. Abhijit Sarma and Dr. Purujit Choudhury*
Gallstone diseases are one of the most common biliary pathology. Prevalence of gallstone is 10-14% in adult population of eastern world. About 3-14.7% of cholelithiasis may be associated with common bile duct stones. The aim of this study is to study the clinical spectrum of choledocholithiasis and to study the various surgical methods available of the disease. This study also aims primarily to compare t tube closure of CBD with primary closure of CBD in terms of complication and hospital stay. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study carried out in the department of surgery of Guwahati Medical college since June, 2017 till July,2018. This study includes 110 patients who underwent various types of surgeries for choledochotomy. Stones in the CBD were detected on the basis of preoperative USG and MRCP. Results: The mean age of patients was 46.37±10.7 years and pain was the most common presenting symptom. Pain abdomen was present in 72 patients at the time of diagnosis. Jaundice was present in 42 patients where as fever was present in 30 patients. Open choledochotomy with t tube closure was done in majority of patients. Out of 110 patients 17 patients had developed various complications. Mean hospital stay of patients underwent surgery for choledochotomy is found to be 8.69 days. Mean hospital stay in primary closure is 5.86 days as compare to 10.16 days in t tube closure Conclusions: MRCP is more sensitive than USG and there is no significant difference between primary closure and T tube closure in terms of complication but primary closure is way better than t tube closure in terms of hospital stay.
367 MECHANISTIC EVALUATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULANT PROPERTIES OF TEA ON MURINE MACROPHAGE (RAW264.7) CELL LINE , Vishal Sharma, Piyali Das, Shila Elizabeth Besra*
NO plays many more roles in the immune system as well as in other organ systems. Macrophages are key modulator and effectors cells in the immune response, their activation influences and respond to other arms of the immune system. Generation of NO is a feature of genuine immune-system cells (dendritic cells, NK cells, mast cells and phagocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages, microglia, Kupffer cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils). The present study elaborated the immunomodulatory effects of Tea on RAW264.7 cell line. Tea treated cells showed enhancement in NO production whereas it showed marked enhancement when cells were stimulated with rIFN-ϒ. Pretreatment with PDTC and NGMMA to the rIFNϒ plus Tea treated RAW264.7 cells ameliorated NO production as compared to the primed cells. It was found that Tea acted as an accelerator of activation of RAW264.7 cells by rIFNϒ via a process involving L-arginine-dependent NO production and that Tea elevated NO production via activation of NF-Kb signaling pathway. These findings suggest that Tea can be a potential immunostimulant beverage.
368 FREE-RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF FLOWER AND FRUIT EXTRACTS CADABA FRUTICOSA (L.) DRUCE , A. Valankanni*, T. Sekar, P. Gurusaravanan and S. Sujatha
Objective: In the present study, antioxidant activities flower and fruit of the pet-ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts from Cadaba fruticosa (L.). Flower and fruit were investigated by employing established in-vitro studies. C. fruticosa is one of the folk herbal used in various traditional medicaments. Many people of rural and urban areas depend upon treatment, which has been developed through prolonged traditional experience. Method: The ability of the plant extract to act as hydrogen/electrons donor or scavenger of radicals were determined by in-vitro antioxidant assays using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH.) scavenging, reducing power assay, superoxide radical (O2*-) scavenging activity, phosphomolybdenum assay, FRAP and metal chelating activity ,were performed to know the antioxidant potency of the plant extract of flower and fruit of C. fruticosa. Result: Results are evaluate higher in flower and fruit of C. fruticosa recorded antioxidant as well as to phytochemical quantitative of total phenol and flavonoid present in the plant extracts of C. fruticosa. The plant C. fruticosa methanolic extract of flower showed greater IC50 for DPPH assay (11.23μg/ml) and compare to other extract, higher Reducing power activity flower in methanol (1.296 ascorbic acid /100g extract), better fruit in phosphomolybdenum reduction (104.6mg/g extract) and higher superoxide radical scavenging activity in fruit extract (92.06%). However, the better metal chelating ability was shown by the water extracts of flower (9.11 Ascorbic acid /100g) compared to other solvent extracts. Conclusion: The result indicates the antioxidant and total phenol activity potential of C. fruticosa.
369 A LACONIC APPRAISE OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF INDIAN DEVIL TREE - ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS (L.) R.BR. , Lakha Ram, Sukhraj Punar, Ashok K. Kakodia, Bina Rani, Upma Singh and Raaz K. Maheshwari*
The decoction, mostly prepared from the bark, is used to treat a variety of diseases, of which the most important is malaria. In Ayurveda, it is used as a bitter and as an astringent herb for treating skin disorders, malarial fever, urticaria, chronic dysentery, diarrhea, and in snake bite. Alkaloids such as chlorogenic acid and several other hallucinogenic indole alkaloids which have been reported in the seeds of A. scolaris are chlorogenine, alstovenine, reserpine, echitamine, ditamine, and venenatine. 7-megastigmene-3, 6, 9-triol and megastigmane-3β, 4α, 9-triol are the two important structures which have been identified and were extracted from the leaves of A. scholaris and are known to be C13-norisoprenoids. Alstonic acids such as 2, 3-secofernane triterpenoids were also found to be isolated from leaves of A. scholaris. The plant Alstonia scholaris has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. It is reported to contain various types of alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids. A. scholaris is also observed to possess antioxidant, immunomodulatory effects, and free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, analgesic, hepatoprotective, wound healing, antidiarrheal, and antiplasmodial activities. The current review summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological delineation on A. scholaris.
370 MICROSPHERES AS CONTROLLED & SUSTAINED ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Patel Parita N.*, Dr. Chainesh Shah and Dr. Umesh Upadhyay
Microspheres are naturally free flowing powders having molecule size going from 1-1000 μm comprising of proteins or polymers. Commercially available in wide variety of materials, including ceramics, glass, polymer & metals. Microspheres are spherical microparticles. In general microspheres are solid or hollow & do not have fluid inside, as opposed to microcapsules. There are different methodologies in conveying remedial substance to objective site in sustained controlled delivery style. Very much planned controlled medication conveyance framework can conquer issues of show drug treatment and gives better restorative adequacy of medication. It is dependable way to convey medication to objective site with explicitness, whenever altered, and to keep up ideal fixation at site of intrigue. Besides microspheres are of micron size so they can undoubtedly find way into different hair like beds which are likewise having micron size. Microspheres got lot of consideration for delayed delivery, yet in addition for focusing of anticancer medications. There are different branches of medication like malignancy, pneumonic, cardiology, radiology, gynaecology, and oncology and so on, various medications are utilized and they are conveyed by different sorts of medication conveyance framework. Among them microspheric drug conveyance framework has increased tremendous consideration. Motivation behind audit is to gather different kinds of microspheres, various techniques to readiness, its applications and furthermore different boundaries to assess their proficiency.
371 INTERVENTION OF ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY AND RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISE TO INCREASING MUSCLE STRENGTH IN NON-HEMORRHAGIC POST STROKE PATIENTS , Ismunandar Wahyu Kindang*, Rr. Sri Endang Pujiastitu and Arwani
Background: The function of the brain is as the control center of every member of human movement, so the damage to the brain causes loss of brain function. Disturbances that occur in sensory and motor functions in stroke patients cause imbalance and difficulty walking due to disturbances in muscle strength, balance and coordination of movements. Motor neuron disorders with symptoms such as limb movement disorders, loss of voluntary movement control (conscious movement), limited muscle tone, and limited reflexes that can result in weakness and contractures for a long time which can result in paralysis of the upper extremities and lower extremities. Objective: Analyzing the effect of the combination of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention and Range of Motion on the improvement of motor function in non-hemorrhagic post stroke patients. Method: This study used a Quasy Experiment research method and used a pretest - posttest design with a control group design. 60 respondents were divided into 2 groups, the intervention group (n = 30) was given a combination of ACT and ROM while the control group (n = 30). Data analysis using Friedman. Result: shows that there is a significant difference in upper limb muscle strength with p value = 0,001 and lower limb muscle strength p value = 0,001 while the range of motion of the upper limb p value = 0,001 and the range of motion of the lower limb p value = 0,001. Conclusion: The combination of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Range of Motion affects the improvement of motoric function in non-hemorrhagic post stroke patients.
372 MOTOR RELAXATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS , Rizkaningsih*, Rr. Sri Endang Pujiastuti and Supriyana
Background: Hemodialysis is one of the management measures for patients with chronic renal failure, apart from having benefits, on the other hand, it can generally cause physical, psychological stress to patients during and after hemodialysis, one of which is blood pressure instability. Motor relaxation is a physical exercise on the patient's upper and lower extremities during hemodialysis which can cause the patient's relaxation response during hemodialysis. Objective: To analyze the effect of motor relaxation on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Methods: Used a True Experimental approaches pre-post test design with control group, research was conducted in RSU Anutapura Palu with the number of 40 respondents who met the inclusion criteria using the technique of simple random sampling. Respondents were divided into intervention groups (n = 20) and control groups (n = 20). Data analysis used Repeated Measures ANOVA test. Results: It shows that there is a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in the intervention group before and after the intervention with a p value of 0.000 <0.05 and there is a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure in the intervention group before and after the intervention with p value 0.000 <0, 05 Conclusion: Relaxation motor effect on the blood pressure fitting ie n undergoing hemodialysis. It is suggested that this intervention could be used as an independent nursing measure in reducing complications of hemodialysis.
373 FLAVONOIDS, PHENOLICS, AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF THE SEAGRASSES ENHALUS ACOROIDES AND THALASSIA HEMPRICHII OF GO-SOON CARMEN, AGUSAN DEL NORTE, PHILIPPINES , Efren Tangon*, Elvinia R Alivio, Jocelyn A. Pajiji and Kingpu O. Ajik
The total flavonoids and total phenolics contents are important parameters of the antioxidant that inhibit oxidation or reactions promoted by oxygen, peroxides, or free radicals. The total flavonoids and total phenolics contents and antioxidant activities of the seagrasses Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii collected from Go-soon, Carmen, Agusan Del Norte, Philipines were determined using Aluminum Chloride complex forming assay for the total flavonoid content, Folin-Ciocalteu reagents with analytic grade gallic acid as the standard for the total phenolic contents and the antioxidant activities were determined using DPPH and ABTS. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Thalassia hemprichii had the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents which values were 0.078 mgGA/g and 0.454 mg Q/g, followed by Enhalus acoroides which values were 0.037 mgGA/g and 0.096 mg Q/g. The strongest free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) of the extracts were recorded by Thalassia hemprichii followed by Enhalus acoroides which values were 0.006 and 0.005 mg trolox/g respectively. The results of the radical cation decolorization power (ABTS) showed Thalassia hemprichii 0.252 mg trolox/g and Enhalus acoroides 0.005 mg trolox/g. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS demonstrated a strong linear relationship with the phenolics and flavonoids. The results suggested that the seagrasses have strong antioxidant potential and could be a source of natural antioxidant compounds.
374 CARBAMAZEPINE IN BIPOLAR DISORDER: AN OVERVIEW , Vijay D. Havaldar*, Snehal S. Shinde, Nilam Y. Jadhav and Savita S. Mali
The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the bipolar disorder and potential use of carbamazepine (CBZ) in such bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is characterized by affective episodes such as manic, hypomanic or major depressive. This paper covers the information about the bipolar disorder, its consequences and pathophysiology in brief. Also, it focuses on the potential use of anticonvulsant drug, carbamazepine in such disorder and its superiority over other drugs such as chlorpromazine and lithium. Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder and carbamazepine is effective in combination therapy with other drugs as compared to monotherapy. More emphasis should be given on the treatment adherence by the patient while treating bipolar disorder.
375 INCREDIBLY VIVACIOUS AEGLE MARMELOS L. CORR. (GOLDEN APPLE) AND ITS COMPREHENSIVE THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS: AN EYE-CATCHING REVIEW , Ravi Sharma, Abhilasha Chaudhary, Lakha Ram, Ashok K. Kakodia, Sukhraj Punar, Sulochana Sharma and Raaz K. Maheshwari*
Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. Several parts of A. marmelos have been reported as various traditional healers for treating various ailments of mankind. These contains Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antidiarrheal, Antidiabetic, Antiproliferative, Cytoprotective, Hepatoprotective, Antifertility, Analgesic, Antiarthritis, Contractile, Antihyperlipidemic, Cardioprotective, Radioprotective, Anticancer, Antiviral, Anti-ulcer, Immunomodulatory and Wound Healing properties. A number of biologically active compounds isolated from various parts of A. marmelos which Baelongs to various chemical groups. The isolated components Baelong to Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Vitamins, Coumarins, Tannins, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids, Fatty Acids, Essential Oils and some other miscellaneous compounds. This review mainly focused on several phytochemical and pharmacological studies which have explained phytoconstituents and therapeutic potential of A. marmelos.
376 INCIDENTAL RISK OF PRE-DIABETES AMONG INDIVIDUALS OF SAKKARDARA REGION AT NAGPUR: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , *Dr. Anjali Turale, Dr. Vrushali Khandekar, Dr. Shubhangi Kshirsagar, Dr. Madhavi Charmode and Dr. Vijay S. Jadhav
Introduction-Pre-diabetes is a precursor condition for type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Although in many cases it is reversible, Pre-diabetes frequently remains undiagnosed and therefore risk of developing type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increased. The risk factors for pre-diabetes are same as those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. An individual’s risk factors for pre-diabetes include obesity, high waist circumference, family history of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. Pre-diabetes itself is a risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.[4] Material and Methods-In this study 66 individuals were selected from our institutions on the basis of Indian diabetes risk score and blood sugar level. After diagnosed pre-diabetic individuals all were observed for demographic characteristics andthe statistical analysis done. conclusion-In this observational study we can conclude that Age, occupation, dietary habits, frequency of micturition at night, physical Inactivity, diwaswap (day time sleep), overweight or abnormal BMI, Kapha predominant prakriti all these factors might be the risk factors for Pre- diabetes and Diabetes.
377 INVESTIGATION OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CHRYSANTHEMUM BALSAMITA AND APONYCEPUM VENETUM FOR ANTI DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY , Dr. Mehnoor Farheeen*, Neha Jabeen, Syeda Qadar Unnisa and Zehra Fatima
The testimony presented hereby fortify the entrenched use of Apocynum venetum and Chrysanthemum balsamita to alleviate depression. Regardless of extensive use of Apocynum venetum and Chrysanthemum balsamita for treating assorted affictions there is no report/ knowledge of scientific appraisal in combination of Apocynum venetum and Chrysanthemum balsamita of its anti-depressant activity. Investigation performed shows that, when the extracts of Chrysanthemum balsamita and Apocynum venetum administered to an animal model (mice), had conspicuous effects on depression pertinent related behavioral parameter’s on vulnerability to TAIL SUSPENSION TEST &FST in mice. Extracts of A. venetum and C. balsamita in combination causes anti-depressant behavior comparable with the effects of imipramine. Further investigations should be focused on neurobiological MOA and potential synergy of Chrysanthemum balsamita and Apocynum venetum extracts in combination with phytoconstituent (s) and neurotransmitters responsible for observed central actions has to be confined and recognized.
378 DETERMINATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY USING PLANT EXTRACT IN ISONIAZID –RIFAMPICIN INDUCED HEPOTOTOXIC RAT MODELS , Dr. Mehnoor Farheen*, Syeda Khairunnisa Amreen, Zehra Fatima and Syeda Qadar Unnisa
The study was conducted which involves the investigation of protective action of liver by using tubers of juncus sabulatus and the leaves of cordia macleodii against isoniazid and rifamocin induced toxic rats models.the action was assayed using ethanolic extracts by using maceration technique. The extract were screened for standard phytochemical screening. The study was analysed by invitro and invivo methods by i.p administration and the mortality and toxic signs was observed for 24hrs.The study was carried out for 21days, and were administered with dose of 200mg/kg body weight and 400mg/kg bof dy weight both individually and in combination respectively against isoniazid and rifampicin toxicated rats. Silymarin was used as a refrence standard.The biochemical parameters ,ic50 value and histological resukts wre carried out. The reults shows the effects by decrement in the levels of GOT,ALP,MDA,alkaline phosphate and total bilirubin and increasing the levels of total protein,albumin,SOD and CAT. By this study it as found that the plants contain moderate effect of protective action which was supported by the histopathological reports.
379 A BASIC REVIEW ON FLOATING TABLETS , *Kamal Kant Ravi, Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
This article is intended to provide an overview of floating drug delivery systems [FDDS]. Floating tablets prolong the gastric residence times of drugs, improve bioavailability and facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach. Floating drug delivery systems or hydro dynamically balance systems have a bulk density lower than gastric fluid and thus remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time. This results in an increased gastric retention time and a better control of the fluctuations in plasma drug concentration.
380 OVERVIEW OF TRADITIONAL USE, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE) , Riska Sri Rahayu Ningsih, Ridho Asraˡ and Harrizul Rivai*
Foeniculum vulgare is commonly known as fennel. Foeniculum vulgare is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to find information about this plant's traditional uses, phytochemicals, and pharmacological activities. Information searches were performed using Google Scholar using the keywords "Foeniculum vulgare," “fennel,” "traditional uses," "phytochemical," and "pharmacological activity." The results show that, in traditional medicine, fennel has been many traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, fever, abdominal pains, flatulence, gastralgia, gastritis, insomnia, liver pain, mouth ulcer, stomachache, and others. Fennel seeds have been shown a potential drug for the treatment of hypertension. The main components of F. vulgare seed essential oil, such as anethole, estragole, and fenchone. The researchers showed several pharmacological activities in these plants, such as antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antihepatotoxic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, antifungal, cardiovascular, and anticancer. The conclusion is that fennel is proven to have a phytochemical component, which can be used as a medicinal ingredient as a phytopharmaca.
381 HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS OF SEAGRASSES ENHALUS ACOROIDES AND THALASSIA HEMPRICHII IN BUTUAN BAY, PHILIPPINES , Jocelyn A. Pajiji*, Elvinia R. Alivio, Kingpu O. Ajik and Efren Tangon
Environmental pollution of heavy metals is increasingly becoming a problem and nowadays become a great concern due to its adverse effects. Thus, it is essential to determine the heavy metal concentrations when considering seagrasses as resource of food stuffs and medicinal purposes. The heavy metal concentrations of the seagrasses in this study were determined using a Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 200 atomic absorption spectrophotometer with acetylene as gas fuel. The results of heavy metal concentrations of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii were Zn > Cr > Pb > Cd (mg/kg), while Enhalus acoroides were Cr > Zn > Pb > Cd (mg/kg). The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations of the seagrasses were all classified as non-polluted except for the chromium concentrations of the seagrass Enhalus acoroides, which was slightly polluted. The results could be utilized also in policy decisions to strengthen the Butuan Bay integrated coastal resource management in addressing other environmental issues considering seagrasses, an important food stuffs’ resource in the area.
382 CONTRACEPTIVES IN AYURVEDA , Dr. Vidyavati R. Chavan*, Dr. Papiya Jana and Dr. Shridevi M. Reddi
Family planning is important for health of a mother and her children, as well as the family‟s economic status as parents are responsible for providing education, shelter, clothing, and food for their children. Family planning also known as contraception which includes all measures temporary and permanent, designed to prevent pregnancy due to coital act. According to WHO it is defined as “A way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily upon the basis of knowledge, attitude and responsible decisions by individuals and couples, in order to promote health and welfare of the family group and thus contribute effectively to the social development of a country. In Ayurveda it is termed as Garbha Nirodha which means control of conception. Various side effects have been observed with modern contraceptives. An incantation in the Rigveda says “A man with many children succumbs to miseries”. This is perhaps the oldest statement with a suggestion against a large family. Some local and oral contraceptives described in the ancient classics and treatises like Yogaratnakara, Brihat Yoga Tarangini, Tantra Sara Sangraha, Brihat Nighantu Ratnakara, Rasa Ratna Samucchya etc are listed. Some claims have been tested scientifically and some yet to be tested. This has been based on the wise knowledge of physiology of conception, healthy methods of fertilization, stressing on the quality of progeny and family welfare.
383 A REVIEW ON VIRAL INFECTIONS INCLUDING SPECIAL MAGNITUDE ON SYNTHETIC AND HERBAL REMEDIES , Mohini Upadhye*, Shailja Kadam and Priyanka Mule
This review describes the viral infection of the interactions between stress proteins and viral components have been described in a large variety of experimental models at different stages of the viral life cycle depending on the type of virus and host cell. viruses get more important perform and functions for humans, plants, animals, and the environment. viral infections cause of death worldwide. in addition to the viruses such as influenza, Ebola, HIV/Aids, Smallpox and Pneumonia, Herpes, Rotavirus and Chicken Pox are responsible for emergent epidemics that threaten global health. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects, also gives a special emphasis on important herbs used for treating these infections.
384 SUTIKA PARICHARYA AND ITS IMPORTANCE , *Dr. Jyoti Sharma and Dr. Papiya Jana
Post Natal Care refers to as Sutika Paricharya in Ayurvedic classics and Sutika is the phase of the woman which starts immediately after the delivery of a baby followed by expulsion of placenta. Sutika Paricharya as mentioned in classics emphasises on appropriate diet and regimen that should be followed by women in puerperium which helps restore her health and revert to normal pre pregnant state. A proper Sutika Paricharya leads to faster recovery of women in terms of her strength and health.
385 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF FAGONIA INDICA: A REVIEW , Rajshree Dahiya* and Dr. Jai Singh Vaghela
Fagonia indica belong to zygophyllaceae family commonly known as dhamasa. It is a small spiny under-shrub, mostly found in the deserts of Asia and Africa. Many chemical constituents such as alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, flavonol, ursolic, saponins and oleanolic acids have been reported. Because of the presence of these active chemical constituents it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, astringent and analgesic.
386 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS SELF MEDICATION IN GENERAL POPULATION: A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY , Kartikey Pathak*, Irfanul Haque, Sarita Jangra Bhyan, Anjali and Purna Atray
Self-medication can be defined as taking and consuming drugs without physician’s advice for prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. Self-medication is widely practiced in urban as well as in rural population including developing countries like India because OTC medications are dispensed without prescription as it provides low-cost alternative for people. A cross-sectional, observational study was designed based on a self administered questionnaire which was designed by Google forms. From 216 respondents, 142 (65.74%) practiced self-medication in last 6 months out of which 35 were females and 107 were males. About 108 (50%) respondents have self-medicated themselves with an antibiotic. About 166 (76.85%) respondents agree that self medication is harmful where as 50 (23.15%) disagree from this fact. 175(81.02%) people think that OTC medications are effective and 130(60.19%) think that they are safe. People are well known about the consequences of self medication but still they self-medicate themselves for their convenience. Self-medication is a boon as well as a curse to the society.
387 EFFLUX PUMPS IN THE INSURGENCE OF MDR CONCEIVABLY CURATIVE WITH EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS OF THERAPEUTICALLY ORIGIN FROM PLANT SOURCES , Navroop Kaur*, Premnidhi Yadav, Hemant Kardam, Ram Pramod tiwari, Mohit Chaudhary, Deepali Vashisth, Jaya Malik, Shivani Singh, MS Laxmi, Rupal Chauhan, Poonam, Satakshi Singh, Neha Sharma
With the appearance of antibiotics, bacterial infections have been speculated to be a factor of past. However, this rather brought about the selection and evolution of microorganism with mechanisms to counter the movement of antibiotics. Antibiotic efflux is one many of the principal mechanisms, wherein microorganism pump out the antibiotics from their cell indoors to the outside surroundings the use of unique transporter proteins referred to as efflux pumps. Inhibiting those pumps appears to be a stunning approach at a time whilst novel antibiotic materials are dwindling. Molecules able to be inhibiting those pumps, referred to as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), had been considered as capability healing marketers that may rejuvenate the interest of antibiotics which are not powerful towards bacterial EPIs comply with a few well-known mechanisms of efflux inhibition and are derived from numerous herbals additionally as artificial sources. This assessment makes a specialty of EPIs and identifies the demanding situations which have stored those futuristic therapeutics far far from the industrial realm so.
388 A REVIEW ON GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME , Aparna P.*, Subash Chandran M. P., Prasobh G. R., Remya S. B., Blessy M. R., Anu A. L.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a very rare immune mediated disorder which is associated with demyelination of peripheral nervous system and progressive muscle weakness that occurs mostly in previously healthy individuals. It usually presents with ascending paralysis and is severe enough to warrant hospital admission for its management. The incidence of GBS is 1.1-1.8 cases in 100,000 per year and the incidences increases with age. GBS clinical spectrum is heterogeneous and encompasses Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (AIDP), Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy (AMAN), Acute Motor and Sensory Axonal Neuropathy (AMSAN) and Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS). The disease is typically characterized by a rapid onset of symmetrical limb weakness, which progresses over days to 4 weeks, and occurs in patients of all ages. Most patients also have sensory disturbances such as tingling or dull feelings. In developed countries GBS has become the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis. Despite improved recognition and treatment, GBS continues to be a severe disease. Efficacious treatments include intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange but supportive care during and following the hospitalization is also very much crucial.
389 DRUG SCREENING METHODS FOR PSORIASIS PLAQUES - A REVIEW , Sagar N. Ande*, Ravindra L. Bakal, Mahendra D. Kshirsagar, Anil V. Chandewar, Nitin I. Kochar, Deepak S. Mohale and Harigopal S. Sawarkar
Psoriasis is an autoimmune inflammatory skin disease characterised by red plaques with silver or white multi-layered scales and a thickened acanthotic epidermis that is markedly demarcated from the adjacent non-lesion skin in affected individuals. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial; genetic, immunological and environmental factors influencing the disease. The major lacuna in designing a dermatological disease model is recapitulating the pathophysiology of the disease from its origin until its manifestation and progression. Each model is based on a slightly different pathogenic mechanism, and each has its strong points/similarities to psoriasis, as well as its limitations, not the least of which are the fundamental morphologic differences between human psoriatic skin and murine psoriasis models. As on today, a relatively large number of models have been developed to study the disease, each trying to mirror the complexity of the mechanisms. The objective of the current review article is to consolidate all the relevant literature pertaining to the various screening methods that have been employed to study psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. This review has shortlisted the ex-vivo, in-vivo and in-vitro animal models for psoriasis which have been developed till date. Murine models in use employ xenotransplantation, direct induction method or knock-in and knock-out studies whereas models currently in use, in-vitro are 2-D and 3-D cell cultures. Also, the various therapies in existence to combat the disease have been highlighted. Although findings have been impressive, there still remains scope for identifying the ideal model of psoriasis which can mimic all the features of the disease.
390 SUSTAINED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF NOVEL APPROACH. , Prof. Remya S. B.*, Subash Chandran M. P., Prasobh G. R., Aparna P., Blessy M. R., Anu A. L.
Drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is a highly variable process and prolonging gastric retention of the dosage form extends the time for drug absorption. Novel drug delivery system overcomes the physiological problems of short gastric retention through various approaches including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), these systems float due to bulk density less than gastric fluids and so, remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time, releases the drug slowly at the desired rate from the system and increase the bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs. This review entitles the applications of sustained release floating tablets, suitable for sustained release of those drugs incompatible with floating constituents over an extended period of time for better patient compliance and acceptability. The purpose of this paper is to review the principle of sustained release drug delivery system, current technology used in the development of same as well as summarizes the applications, advantages, methodology, evaluation methods and future potential for sustained release drug delivery systems.
391 GARBHOPAGHATAKARA BHAVA – A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW , *Dr. Hamsashree and Dr. Anupama V.
Ayurveda – An ancient system of medicine, along with preventive and curative aspects of health, also explains about obtaining healthy progeny. Pregnancy which is a delicate condition gets affected by enormous factors such as food habits, lifestyle and psychological factors. The foetus, in the intra–uterine life, is in constant relation with the mother for both growth and nourishment. While explaining Garbhini Paricharya, the Ayurvedic classics have explained about the things to avoid in pregnancy called Garbhopaghatakara Bhavas. They are certain factors which when followed by a pregnant lady can harm or destroy the foetus. Data reveals that 10-20% of all pregnancies result in miscarriage, out of which 75% occur before 16th week, and 5-10% of the pregnancies lead to Preterm Labor. In today’s fast moving life, all women unknowingly follow certain things which are told as contraindications during pregnancy, due to negligence or unawareness, leading to abortions, preterm labor and other obstetrical complications. Hence, attempt is made to critically study the impact of Garbhopaghatakara Bhavas on the mother and progeny.
392 EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZERS ON SEEDLING GROWTH OF PADDY (ORYZA SATIVA L.) CV. PANVEL 3. , N. B. Pawar and N. S. Suryaawanshi2*
The present investigation was carried out in kharif season, during 2015 and 2016 at research farm, ‘Rayat Shikshan Sanstha’s, M.P.A.S.C. College Panvel, District- Raigad (Maharashtra), India. To observed the effect of different biofertilizers on growth and yield parameters on Paddy (Oryza sativa L. cv. Jaya). The experimental farm was geographically situated at 18°, 59” 40' N latitude and 73°, 06' 50” E longitude at an altitude of 28 meters above mean sea level.The experiment was laid out in RBD replicated thrice with twelve treatmentsi.e.(T0) Control (without fertilizer), (T1) Chemical fertilizer(19:19:19,) (T2) Blue green algae,(T3) Azospirillum brasilense, (T4) Bacillus megaterium, (T5)Trichoderma viride,(T6) Mycorrhizae, (T7) Pseudomonas aeruginosa,(T8)T2+T7,(T9)T2+ T6, (T10) T3+T4, and (T11) T3+T4+T7. RDC fertilizer was applied in three splitted doses. The first dose, consisting of 1/3 the normal dose, was applied before transplantation; the second 1/3 at the time of tillering; arid the last 1/3 at the panicle initiation phase. The study revealed the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, and dry matter production at various stages of growth in Paddy (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Jaya were favorably influenced by biofertilizers treatment. Overall results suggest that combine effect of Biofertilizers improves vegetative and reproductive growth of Paddy (Oryza sativa L. cv. Jaya)”.
393 ANTIMICROBIAL ASSAY OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM RHIZOSPHERE AND NON-RHIZOSPHERE AREA OF PLECTRANTHUS ROTUNDIFOLIUS POIR. , Pavithra G., Surendra S., Ramkumar R, *B. K. Nayak and A. Nanda#
Soil fungi are generally very reachable to different sources and their involvement in providing the basic needs for bioprospecting. Rhizosphere micro fungi are considered as significant decomposers in the root ecosystems, ensuring the assimilation of dead plants and animals into smaller molecules that can be used by other organisms of the soil ecosystem. During the present study, rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of the plant, Plectranthus rotundifolius Poir. were studied to record the prevalence of fungal communities. Rhizosphere soil was dominated (81%) with the fungal flora than Non-rhizosphere (19%) in our study. Aspergillus niger was found as the dominant one in Rhizosphere soil but Penicillium chrysogenum was the dominant one in Non-rhizosphere soil. The results obtained clearly indicated that Aspergillus awamori, A. flavus, A. terreus, Aspergillus niger, White sterile mycelia, Gray sterile mycelia and Penicillium citrinum were recorded at different concentration in both the soils. Among the isolates Aspergillus and white sterile mycelia were dominant in all the soil conditions due to high sporulation capacity. Quantitatively, the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils contributed 3000 and 1000 fungal spores respectively in their environments. Antimicrobial properties of the active grown agar plug of the isolated dominant fungi were found very good against all the pathogens but Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were found as more susceptible towards the fungal extracts in comparison to other bacteria and Candida albicans, the later one was the third susceptible microbe among all.
394 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES ABOUT GENERIC MEDICINES AMONG DOCTORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF NORTH INDIA- A CROSSSECTIONAL STUDY , *Roshi, Sapna Gupta, Brij Mohan Gupta, Vishal R. Tandon
Background: The assessment of doctors’ perceptions and understanding about generic medicines may help in recognizing possible barriers to greater generic medicine usage. The primary objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of doctors toward generic medicines. Methods: A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary-care teaching hospital of Jammu. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP about generic medicines. The doctors working in this institute during the study period were included. Results: All the participants had fair idea about generic medicines and Jan Aaushadi scheme, maximum (92.7%) of them knew about the Jan Aaushadi store near the hospital. 90.9% of the participants had knowledge about the cost of generic medicine. Only 72.7% knew about the bioequivalence studies being conducted. Only 36.36% of the doctors had an attitude that generic medicine should be prescribed over branded medicine. No one among the participants had an attitude that generic medicines are for poor. 97.2% of the participants were of the attitude that continuous monitoring should be done to see the efficacy and safety of generic medicines. 99% of the doctors said that they prescribe generic medicines, 18.18% of them used to read articles comparing efficacy and safety of generic and branded medicines. Conclusion: The study showed that the doctors were well aware of generic medicines and Jan Aushadhi scheme of Govt. of India. It was also observed that efficacy, safety and quality profile of the medicine were the most important factors considered by doctors when they prescribe drugs.
395 REGULAR CLEANING OF EAR CANAL WITH BETADINE SWAB AND COTTON PLUG APPLICATION IN THE CANAL IN PATIENTS OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA (CSOM) – DO THESE REALLY HELP? , Dr. Pankaj Srivastava*, Dr. Rohit Mehrotra, Mansi Pankaj, Manvi Pankaj
Introduction- Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases worldwide especially affecting children. Hearing impairment is one of the most common sequelae of CSOM if not treated early. In this prospective study patients mostly had ear discharge as chief complaint. Itching being the second complaint. Third was hearing impairment. Although in all available literature betadine cleaning is advisable and has shown beneficial effect and seems to be logical. But in this study the effect of betadine ear cleaning and cotton application in the ear of CSOM patients has not shown any beneficial effect, rather it has shown a worse result. Method- Patients having Tubotympanic type CSOM, who had unilateral or bilateral ear discharge were divided into two groups. One group was advised to do Betadine dipped cotton swab cleaning of ear canal twice a day and keep a clean cotton in the ear all the time, it was called Group A. Second group was asked not to clean their ear and apply cotton in their ears. This was called Group B. Both group of patients were prescribed Ciprofloxacin ear drops for two weeks and if after two weeks discharge persisted, oral Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid was given for 5 days. Patients were followed every two week and the amount of discharge and other complaints were noted. Data was collected and filled in Performa. Conclusions- Antibiotics in the form of ear drops or sometimes oral are mainstay antibiotic treatment in CSOM. In addition patients are advised to clean the ear with betadine and to apply cotton to keep ear dry and clean. In our study these two precautions were not found to help the patients.
396 AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY TO EVALUATE KNOWLEDGE AGAINST ADVERSE EFFECTS OF MEDICATIONS USED IN COVID-19 PATIENTS IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Dr. Namrata Pawar, *Dr. Vasundhara Bhople, Dr. Suhaas Wighne and Dr. Uma Bhosale
Purpose: With the currently growing spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, its affective treatment is also a major concern for the medical fraternity. At present there are no proven effective therapies for COVID–19 and the vaccine is also not available yet. The current treatments mainly focus on symptomatic relief and respiratory support. Various pharmacological treatments are currently being tested for patients with COVID–19. The elderly population and patients with underlying disease are at high risk of severe illness from COVID–19.These patients were more prone to experience adverse events (AEs) due to the use of concomitant medications and limited knowledge and inappropriate promotion of unproven therapies by the media and certain public figures leading to some severe ADRs. Thus, quality pharmacovigilance has become more important than ever. Methods: An Observational, non-interventional, questionnaire-based study was conducted by the Department of Pharmacology in the COVID ward of SKNMC & GH, Pune. This was a questionnaire-based study including 12 questions on adverse effects experienced due to medication in Covid-19 positive patients. Results: Out of the total, about 14% of patients suffered from ADR due to COVID medications while 76% experienced no ADR and 10% didn’t know about any ADR. When asked about the severity of ADR; out of 14% of patients,6% wrote as they were having mild symptoms, 6% were moderate and 2% were severe. Conclusions: The study indicates that there are few ADRs related to the COVID 19 treatment. Those ADRs were not life-threatening ones.
397 ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SEA BEACH AND DRY FISH AREA OF PUDUCHERRY COAST , Nithiya E., Nayak B. K.*, Ramkumar R., Surendra S., Pavithra G. and Nanda A.
Fungi from different sources regularly soil provide pharmaceutical products and other valuable substances, including organic acids, enzymes that are used in varied ways for the mankind. In the present study, Beach soil and Dry Fish area soil of Muthialpet coast, Puducherry were studied for the isolation and enumeration of fungi based on their availability. Dry Fish area soil (73%) was dominated with the fungal flora than Beach soil (27%) in our study. Aspergillus niger was found as the dominant one in Dry Fish area soil but Penicillium chrysogenum was the dominant one in Beach soil. The results obtained clearly indicated that Aspergillus flavus, A. terreus, Aspergillus niger, A. terreus and Penicillium verruculosum were recorded at different concentration in both the soils. Among the isolates, aspergillus and penicilli were dominant in all the soil conditions due to high sporulation capacity. Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus flavus were found to be more effective fungi in order to prevent the growth of the pathogenic bacteria and Candida albicans than other isolated fungi in our present study. The frequency of mycoflora in soil samples in beach area were found to be regulated by many factors like temperature, humidity, vegetation, organic and inorganic materials, soil type and texture. Pseudomonas sp. and Candida albicans were found as more susceptible pathogens towards the fungal active plugs in our study. The present would be helpful to the enthusiastic people who have great interest to find out stressful microbe in particular with fungi from these types of environments to find any bioprospecting fungi.
398 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-UPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF AMLODIPINE AND OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL IN TABLET FORMULATION , Shweta Rajendra Yadav* and Dr. Shailesh B. Patil
A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible gradient phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and fully validated for the estimation of Amlodipine Besylate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form gradientlly using acetonitrile: triethylamine buffer(pH4.0+0.5) as mobile phase and Acquity BEH C8 column (4.6x 150 mm,2.6μg) as stationary phase and chromatogram was recorded at 237nm at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The retention time of AML were 1.5to 2.8 and OLM 3.2 to 5.5 min respectively and showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 5-25μg/ml with a concentration coefficient (R) of 0.99956 and 0.99985 respectively. The developed UPLC method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, ruggedness (reproducibility), robustness and stability. The recovery data was in the range of 98.0%to 102.0%. the proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to the development and validation of AML and OLM in tablet formulation.
399 EFFECT OF NUTRIENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON NITROGEN FIXING ABILITY OF AZOTOBACTER ISOLATED FROM DROUGHT AREA. , Pawar Jyotirmayee S.* and Khambe S. D.
Azotobacter is free living, diazotrophic bacteria found in soil, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen non-symbiotically. Isolation, characterization of Azotobacter from drought area and testing its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen can be helpful to use it as a biofertilizer in such area. Thus we can enhance the crop yield in these area. Nitrogen fixing ability of isolates is studied using different nutrients like, carbon source, molybdenum, ferrous and at various temperature, pH. NFA of the isolate can be enhanced by adding the nutrients at specific conc.
400 A CASE STUDY ON MANAGEMENT OF BHAGANDARA (FISTULA-IN-ANO) WITH CHEDANA KARMA FOLLOWED BY PRATISARNIYA KSHARA KARMA , *Dr. Prashant Saini and Dr. Anukriti Guar
Bhagandara (Fistula-in-ano) considered difficult to treat due to its high recurrence rate thus it is mentioned as Mahagada in Sushruta Samhita. A very much similar condition is described in modern medical science as Fistula-in-ano. We present a case of Kaphaja Bhagandara (Low anal Fistula-in-ano) in a 32 years old man. The case was evaluated with physical examination. Chedana Karma (Fistulectomy) followed by application of Mridu Pratisarniya Palasha Kshara under local infiltration anaesthesia was performed. There were no complications during and after procedure. No recurrence was noticed during follow-up and each complaints were also resolved.
401 PREVALENCE AND PREDICTORS OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AMONG HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS RECEIVING ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AT A TERTIARY TEACHING HOSPITAL IN FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE , Onome T. Abiri,* Diane A. Kawa, James P. Komeh, Sulaiman Lakoh, Alren O. Vandy, Abdul J. Njai, Gibrilla F. Deen, Zikan Koroma, James B.W. Russell, Samuel Massacquoi, Abdulai J. Bah, Richard M. Conteh, Thomas A. Conteh, Fawzi Thomas, Joseph S. K.
Background: Despite the benefits of Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing morbidity and mortality related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, it is associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study was therefore conducted to assess the nature, prevalence, and severity of ADRs in HIV positive patients receiving ART since no such data is available in Sierra Leone. Methods: A crosssectional descriptive study was conducted by interviewing and reviewing medical charts of 384 HIV-positive patients receiving ART at Connaught hospital in Freetown Sierra Leone. Information on socio-demographic characteristics of patients, details of medicines used, and adverse effects were collected and assessed. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the associations of the dependent variable with a 95% confidence interval and P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Of the 384 patients sampled in this study, 157(40.8%) reported at least one ADR. Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz accounted for 87(38.0%) of the ADRs, while symptoms associated with the nervous system like dizziness and sedation were the most frequently occurring ADRs 97(42.4%). Causality assessment conducted revealed that most of the ADRs were of „possible‟ causal association with the ART 129(82.2%) while severity assessment showed that 108(68.8%) were mild. In the simple logistics regression analysis, only employment status (OR=0.558, 95%CI=0.367-0.846, P=0.006) and CD4 counts (OR=1.812, 95%CI=1.093-3.005, P=0.021) were significantly associated with severity of ADR. Conclusion: Adverse drug reactions were prevalent and some caused moderate and severe ADRs that necessitated a change in therapy and medical intervention.
402 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED CAMEL MILK AND ITS EFFICACY AS PROBIOTIC , Amel Alkinany*, Adil M. A. Salman, Iman M. Elnasri and Hind A. Elnasri
Lactic acid bacteria (LABs) are important microorganisms that are becoming widely used as probiotics. They have a positive effect on human health and are commonly used in food industry. Camel milk is believed to have the ability to treat many diseases, and is considered an important source for LABs. This study aimed to identify LABs isolated from fermented camel milk and investigate its antagonist effect towards other bacteria. Twenty four samples of camel milk were obtained from different camel farms. Milk samples were allowed to ferment naturally and then isolation of LAB was carried out using MRS medium. The isolates were then subjected to different biochemical tests for identification. The tolerance of the isolates towards different temperature, pH, NaCl and bile salt concentration was also tested. The antagonist effect of the different isolates was tested against Salmonella spp, E. Coli, and Staphylococcus aureus The identified isolates were: Lactobacillus spp. (29.4%), Lactococcus spp (35.3%) and Enterococcus (17.6%) Leuconostoc mesenteroides (5.9%) and Pediococcus spp (11.8). Two isolates namely: Lactobacillus brevis and Enterococcus. faecalis were found to have the best antagonist effect against the tested bacteria. This study revealed that LAB bacteria isolated from camel milk has the potential to be used as probiotics.
403 MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF YOGHURT PURCHASED IN KHARTOUM STATE, SUDAN , Mishkat, O. Karar Altayeb, Fatima A. Douda, Elniema A. Mustafa and Prof. Adil M. A. Salman*
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of yoghurt purchased in Khartoum State during its shelf life and to compare the yoghurt produced in different factories. A total of 36 yoghurt samples were collected from December to February/2019-2020. Samples were collected from 9 groceries and 9 supermarkets with 18 samples for factory A and B in the three localities of Khartoum State. The samples were subjected to the total coliform count (TCC), tentative isolation of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella and the detection of pH and temperature values of yoghurt. By using the Most Probable Number Method (MPN) the TCC in day one of factory A was found 4.6±1.8cfu/ml and 315.2±105.2cfu/ml for factory B, whereas it was found 6.9±4cfu/ml for factory A and 1100 cfu/ml for factory B in day ten. There were significant differences in the TCC of day one and day ten between the two factories with p≤0.05. The TCC in day one for the groceries and supermarkets in the State was 129.8cfu/ml and 190cfu/ml and increased in day ten to 551cfu/ml and 555cfu/ml, respectively. Statistically there were no significant differences between groceries and supermarkets in day one and day ten with p≤0.05. The mean pH observed in these samples in day one for factory A was 5.6 and 5.2 for factory B, and decreased in day ten to 4.6, 4.4 for factory A and B, respectively. These values were above the yoghurt acceptable pH of Sudanese standard and metrology organization (SSMO) (4.5) in day one, but it decreased in day ten matching the SSMO with about 17 (48.6%) of samples. E. coli was detected in 12 (33.3%) of the samples. One sample was positive for both Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The refrigerator temperature of the groceries and supermarkets in the three localities was above the optimum storage temperature (5℃). The highest ambient temperature in the groceries and supermarkets was detected in Bahri 39.5℃ and 38℃ in groceries and supermarkets, respectively. In conclusion the overall hygienic quality of yoghurt samples was lower than the limits recommended by the SSMO. It was recommended that all producers should maintain adequate hygienic practices to produce good quality and healthy yoghurt.
404 BANDHA VIDHI - THE CONCEPT OF BANDAGING IN AYURVEDA , Dr. Suchitra N. Adiga*, Dr. Shankar S. and Dr. Shailaja S. V.
One of the common problems and challenges to the modern world is trauma and its management. The observance of immobilisation is the key to treat fracture or a wound. A bandage plays a more important part as regards its healing and curative efficacy, inasmuch as it materially contributes to the purification and healing of an ulcer and also keeps the joints steady. Bandhana is the technique of bandaging mentioned in Susrutha Samhita written around 1st BC. Acharya Susrutha mentioned about this in Susrutha Samhita in vrana alepana bandhana vidhi. The chapter includes basic principles to be followed during a bandaging, location where it is applicable, Dos and don’ts, when to change a bandage, pressure of bandages on various situations, materials for preparation of bandage etc.
405 ROLE OF GARBHINI PARICHARYA IN THE PREVENTION ASPECT OF GDM , *Dr. Vidyavati R. Chavan, Dr. Papiya Jana and Dr. Chaitra N.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is an important important public health problem, given its high prevalence and its high prevalence and its association with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Recent evidence has confirmed that risk of adverse outcomes is a continuum, women with GDM are a high risk group for the future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. GDM affects roughly 7% of pregnancies with an incidence of more than 20,000 case per year. The prevalence, however varies from 1-14%, depending on population the diagnostic criteria that have been used. Women with GDM have a 40-60% chance of developing diabetes mellitus over the 5-10 years after pregnancy. Through Ayurveda GDM can be efficiently managed with our medications without interfering in the gestational health of the woman in the present case the diagnosed GDM patient has been managed with the Tab Nishaamalaki and modification in her Ahara sevana the outcome of the patient has been recorded accordingly.
406 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TOWARDS PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES IN SIERRA LEONE (FREETOWN, WESTERN AREA URBAN) , Fawzi Thomas*, Joseph Sam Kanu, Onome T. Abiri, Thomas A. Conteh, James P.Komeh, Mohamed Sesay, Jennet Buck and Joy B. Johnson
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of infirmity. Donald Acheson in 1988 defined public health as: “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting, protecting and improving health through the organized efforts of society”. Community pharmacists are the health professionals most accessible to the public (WHO 2019). They supply medicines in accordance with a prescription or, when legally permitted, sell them without a prescription. In addition to ensuring an accurate supply of appropriate products, their professional activities also cover counselling of patients at the time of dispensing of prescription and non-prescription drugs, providing drug information to health professionals, patients and the public, and participation in health-promotion programs. They maintain links with other health professionals in primary health care WHO (2010). This study was conducted to assess the role of community pharmacists in public health to determine the level of community satisfaction on the services provided by community pharmacists, to determine community perception on the services provided by community pharmacists. Method: This study was a Descriptive Cross-Sectional study with a convenience sampling method of Pharmacist working in community pharmacies using a self-administered questionnaire giving a total of 125 community pharmacists working in this study setting. The study also included community people using a P value of 0.85 from a previous study by Al-Arifi MN, (2012) giving a sample size of 196. The outcome measured were demographics, role in public health services, perception and satisfaction. The data was analysed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel to produce Figures and Tables. Result: The results of the study points towards the fact that community pharmacists are contributing towards public health in the areas of screening and health promotion as 76(60.8%) are involved in promotion of smoking cessation, 61.2% are very involved promotion of weight management. 72.0% very involved in screening for hypertension whilst 64.8% are very involved in screening for diabetes. 64.8% of community people strongly agree that pharmacists are integral part of the health system.59.2% and 64.3% of community people strongly agree that community pharmacists should provide blood pressure and blood sugar monitoring services respectively. 71.2% are very involved in counselling on treatment for STDs whilst 47.2% are very involved in counselling on emergency and other contraception
407 PALANDAANJANA – AN OPHTHALMIC PREPARATION , Tejaswini L. N.*, Dr. B. A. Venkatesh and Dr. Sunitha G. S.
Eye, one of the most important sense organs, is given utmost priority in the field of the Ayurvedic medical science, which considers it as the pradhana anga, taking ashraya in the uttamanga.[1] Adhering to the fundamental principle of Ayurveda, ―Swasthasya Swasthya rakshanam‖, the present preparation is carried out with the intension of protecting the eyes and preventing it from possible diseases. In the present world, a wide range of population is involved in the use of mobiles or laptops, whose light rays have been proved to cause lenticular changes. Also, owing to the increase in the cases of senile and pre-senile cataract, the population would be benefitted by an ophthalmic formulation, that, in the current study, is analyzed to have a prophylactic effect in the above conditions of lenticular changes such as presbyopia and cataract. The palandanjana is a unique preparation, whose drug action is assessed to have a potential role in the prevention of the ophthalmic diseases involving the lenticular changes, such as cataract, presbyopia etc., which are considered under one big umbrella called Timira, according to Ayurveda. This unique preparation serves the dual purpose of medicinal usage as well as cosmetic use.
408 PHYTOCHEMICAL & PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF EUPATORIUM ADENOPHORUM SPRENGE , Vipin Tiwari*, Tailor Chandra Shekhar and Bahuguna Yogendr
Eupatorium adenophorum Sprenge is a weed found at the hills of northern India, southern Nepal and Bhutan. It has many common names, including eupatory, Mexican devil, Sticky snakeroot and crofton weed. Ageratina adenophora is a synonym.Various species of Eupatorium adenophorum sprenge have been used in the traditional system of medicine across the world. Eupatorium adenophorum is accredited for diverse medicinal properties and finds therapeutic applications in traditional medicines asantiseptic, antimicrobial, blood coagulant, antipyretic, and analgesic. The total ash value is an indicative of total amount of inorganic material after complete incineration and the acid insoluble ash value is an indicative of silicate impurities, which might have arisen due to improper washing of drug. The results of phytochemical tests indicate the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and sugars. The result of present study will also serve as reference mono graph in the preparation of drugformulation.
409 PECTINASE PRODUCTION FROM THUJA OCCIDENTALIS IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION , Praveen Kumar Dasari*, Ashok Babu Chokka, Bhavya Sai Kumari Mallelli and Satyanarayana Tanuku
The present research work is about the production and process optimization of pectinase enzyme using substrate Thuja occidentalis leaves by Aspergillus awamori in solid state fermentation. Pectinase having varied applications in food industry such as fruit juice extraction, coffee and tea fermentation, textile, paper and pulp industries and in waste-water treatment. Solid-state fermentation is expressed as a process that take place on a non-soluble material that performs both as support and a source of nutrients, with a reduced among of water, under the action of fermenting agent. Optimizing process evaluations like time, temperature, size of inoculum, pH and moisture content were optimized to induce the high yield of pectinase. The increased level of pectinase enzyme production was detected at time 72hrs, temperature 30°C, optimum inoculum level was 50%v/w, pH 5 and 60% v/w moisture content of the substrate were foremost for the maximum production of pectinase in solid-state condition. A remarkable enzyme production was enhanced and recorded when the basal medium was supplemented with carbon (4% glucose) and nitrogen (ammonium sulphate, 0.4%) sources.
410 TOXICITY STUDY OF LANTANA CAMARA LEAVES , Dr. Shirish S. Pingale*
The aim of the present work is to study the toxicity of slurry of dry powder aimed from leaves of Lantana camara. The leaves of this plant were collected from Rajgurunagar, Pune, Maharashtra. The fresh leaves were dried in shade and grinded with high power electric mixer. The dry sample was kept in airtight plastic container and was used for toxicity study as per OECD guidelines by using white albino Wister Rats. The plant material was administered orally at dose of 2 to 10gm/Kg body weight of Swiss mice. The animals were observed continuously for the period of first 4 hours continuously for behavioral changes and then they were kept under observation for 14 days after administration of powder in the form of slurry with the help of gavage. The mortality observations were reported to find out the toxic effect of leaves of Lantana camara. From these results it is observed that Lantana camara leaves powder at doses of 10gm/kg body weight is found to be nontoxic as no any type of abnormal changes were reported in behavior, food and water intake of the administered animals. The Lantana camara plant material was found to be relatively safe when administered orally in Swiss mice. Lethality or adverse toxic signs were not at all observed during the experimental period for our sample.
411 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF COLEBROOKEA OPPOSITIFOLIA SMITH. , Darshan Kathait*, Bahuguna Yogendr, Tailor Chandra Shekhar
The species Colebrookea oppositifolia smith is one of the largest family member of dicotyledons, in plantae kingdoms and highly aromatic, due to the external glandular structures which produce volatile oil.[1] The volatile oil of the plants is importants in pharmaceutical, pesticide, and others usese. The investigation present deals with importantsphyto-constituents which is usese as various disorder such as eplipepsy,[3,4] ulcer, hepatitis, antibacterials, antifungals, wound healing, bleeding[6] (heamostatic) anti-inflammatory[7] etc.C.oppositifolia Sm indicated the presence of various phyto-constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and saponins terpenoids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides are showed only in different medium.
412 INFLUENZA SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE BASED ON SENTINEL PHARMACIES IN CATALONIA (SPAIN) IN 2017−2020 , Pedro Plans-Rubió*, Anna M. Jambrina, Glòria Carmona, Manel Rabanal, Mireia Jané and Pilar Rius
Objective: To analyse influenza surveillance data obtained from sentinel pharmacies of Catalonia, Spain, in 2017−18, 2018−19 and 2019-20 influenza seasons. Methods: Influenza surveillance information was collected from a representative sample of community pharmacies of Catalonia. Influenza-like cases were identified based on the ECDC criteria.The Chi-square test and Odds ratios were used to compare percentages between different population groups, with a p <0.05 considered as statistically significant. The screening method was used to assess influenza vaccination effectiveness. The moving epidemic method (MEM) was used to assess influenza epidemics in the three influenza seasons. Results: A total of 836, 1,000 and 587 influenza-like cases were reported in 2017−18, 2018−19 and 2019−20. Sentinel pharmacies dispended medications to 94-98% of patients. Paracetamol, cough medication, ibuprofen and antihistamines were dispended to more than 25% of patients. Dispensation of antibiotics decreased by 57% from 2017-18 to 2019-20 (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.28-0.74, p < 0.001). Physicians prescribed medications to 30-38% of influenza-like patients. The influenza vaccination effectiveness in individuals aged 65 or more years was 51.4% (95% CI: 41.9−60.7) in 2018-19 and 67% (95% CI: 53.4−79.8) in 2019-20 influenza seasons. Influenza epidemics occurred from week 50 of 2017 to week 7 of 2018; from week 51 of 2017 to week 8 of 2019; and from week 2 to week 7 of 2020. Conclusion: The influenza surveillance system based on sentinel pharmacies provided consistent information on the influenza epidemic, influenza morbidity not assisted in health centres and medications used to treat influenza-like cases during 2017−2019.
413 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF PARKIA BIGLOBOSA , Oyero A. B.*, Ekeleme I. K. and Obiekezie S. O.
Phytochemical and Antibacterial activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Parkia Biglobosa. The antibacterial potential of Parkia Biglobosa, Bark, root and leaf extracts against bacteria isolated from food items. The test bacteria were isolated from food items and identified using standard microbiological methods; ethanol and ethyl acetate were used as solvents in the extraction of the extract from the Bark, root and leaf of Parkia Biglobosa. The phytochemical screening showed that the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts contained tannins, Phenols, Steroids and saponins in varying proportions. The Antibacterial activity of the extract against the test bacteria was determined using cup agar plate method and diameter inhibition zones formed around wells on the agar plates were measured. The mean antibacterial activity of the extracts in vitro showed that the Ethyl acetate extract of leaves was most efficacious at 50mg amount of the concentration inhibiting Salmonella sp (11.02mm), E. coli (14.10mm), Klebsiella sp (18.0mm), Bacillus sp (15.0mm) and S. aureus (13.0mm). The ethanol extract at 12.5mg amount of the concentration inhibited Salmonella sp (7.0mm), E. coli (8.0mm) and Klebsiella sp (10.0mm). The ethyl acetate extract of the Root of P. biglobosa inhibition zone varied from 7.0mm - 21.0 mm against the tested bacteria such as Salmonella sp, E. coli, Klebsiella sp, Bacillus sp and S. aureus. The ethyl acetate Bark extract of P. biglobosa extracts were found to be less efficient than ethanol extracts. This study has revealed that the extract of P. biglobosa contains antibacterial and phytochemical substances which can be harnessed.
414 INTERVENTION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND SELF EFFICACY TRAINING ON SELF MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW , Nadhifah Rahmawati*, Tri Johan Agus Yuswanto and Diyah Fatmasari
Chronic kidney failure (CRF) is one of the leading causes of death in Indonesia. This is a concern for health workersto keep the disease under control, prevent physical, psychological and social damage and complications. KActive involvement in patient self-management is one of the keys to prevent further damage to kidney function and slowing the progression of the CRF stage. Improved self-management of CKD patients can be provided through education and training programs such as self-efficacy training and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Both methods focused on reducing anxiety and depression as well as increasing self-efficacy have been shown to improve patient self-management behavior. In this systematic review study, several research literature on CBT interventions and self-efficacy were reviewed in patients with end-stage renal failure. This study reviews CBT interventions and self-efficacy training on self-management in chronic renal failure patients. Systematic review by looking for research studies from electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Science direct and ProQuest) with randomized control trial and quasi-experimental designs published in 2015-2020 and have been published internationally indexed Scopus Q1, Q2 and Q3 and indexed SINTA-2. The research studies analyzed were related to CBT, self-efficacy training and self-management with chronic kidney failure patient respondents. Based on the literatures, therapies that have a high level of recommendation in improving self-care in patients with CRF are CBT and training to increase self-efficacy. This is evidenced by the strong effect size value. However, some journals use a sample size that is not representative, the instrument used is the previous instrument and the intervention method used is quite complex. Twenty five reports have been reviewed shows that CBT and self-efficacy can be an effective intervention that can be applied to improve self-management in CRF patients.
415 AN EVALUATION OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND ROLE OF COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION (A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY) IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT OF FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE , Fawzi Thomas*, Stella F. Usifoh, Joseph Sam Kanu and William Jimmy
Background: The prevalence of hypertension in Sierra Leone is well established and at an average of 46.2% for females and 43.2% of males based on several studies. The management of hypertension requires a multi-disciplinary effort from healthcare professionals (Doctor, Pharmacist, Nurses) as well as the patient. The first point of contact for most patients is the pharmacist working in a community pharmacy. The role of the Pharmacists in hypertension encompasses medication management, disease state education and patient counseling and is most successful when integrated into the patient's care team. Further validation through larger, prospective trials and evaluation of long-term outcomes, such as mortality, remain viable research opportunities. This study was conducted to assess community Pharmacists knowledge in hypertension, to determine whether community pharmacists are well-acquainted with their roles in managing hypertension as well as to assess how community pharmacists manage or treat hypertensive patients. Method: The study was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted at community pharmacies in the central part of Freetown. All Pharmacists working in community pharmacies in central Freetown were included in this study. According to the Pharmacy Board’s Gazette of 2018, there is a total of 58 community pharmacists working in this study setting giving a sample size of 58. The outcome measures were demographics, years of experience, knowledge in hypertension, role in management of hypertension, Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire .The data was analysed using SPSS and Microsoft excel to produce Graphs and Tables. Result: The results showed more male pharmacists 42(72.4%) than female community Pharmacists 16 (27.6%). 39.7% has between 2-5 years of experience working in community pharmacies. Most pharmacists showed they were knowledgeable or having a high knowledge on hypertension as 86.2% were able to correctly define hypertension,82.8% and 63.8% can identify obesity and age as a risk factor for hypertension, however most don’t know their roles in the management of hypertension as 13.8% don’t take blood pressure measurements of their patients even when they suspect hypertension, 69.0% and 53.4% of community pharmacists never ask patients about laboratory tests such GFR and ECG respectively. Gaps where also identified with respect to how to manage hypertension especially with the right forms of medications with only 20.7% that sometimes asking whether patients are on hypertensive medications and with only 44.8% of Community pharmacists that ask for prescription for new patients. The lack of a pharmaceutical care model or a Pharmacist/Doctor /Physician collaboration in the management of hypertension was also clearly visible
416 ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF FLUOROQUINOLONES RESISTANCE GENES FROM SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM ISOLATED FROM POULTRY FARMS IN KEFFI, NIGERIA , Anzaku S.* and Ishaleku D.
Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular detection of fluoroquinolones resistance genes from Salmonella typhimurium isolated from Poultry farms in Keffi, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and sixty (160) samples of feacal droppings were collected from different poultry farms and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated and identified using standard microbiological methods. Fluoroquinolone resistant genes (parE, gyrB and gyrA) were carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The occurrence of Salmonella typhimurium was 24.4%. The occurrence of Salmonella typhimurium in respect to different poultry farm was higher in farm C (32.5%) and lower in farm D with (15%). In this study Antibiotics Resistance shows that Salmonella isolates were resistant to Ciprofloxacin, Cefotaxime and Ofloxacin. Antibiotics resistant phenotype against Salmonella isolate were distributed into different antibiotic resistance pattern and the most common pattern were STX-CTX-NOR-AMC-CXM-CIP-C with 12.8% Resistance and CTX-NOR-AMC-CXM-TET-CIP-C with 1.03% Resistance. The multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index of Salmonella species isolated was common at ≥0.7 with 38.5%. fluoroquinolone resistant genes gyrA, gyrB, and parE were detection from isolates that were highly resistant to quinolone drugs. Poultry farmers and handlers should ensure proper hygiene to avoid contamination in poultry farms and poultry products.
417 VALIDATION OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) KIT FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF GLIADINS IN MEDICINES AND COSMETICS , Arlene Loría Gutiérrez*, Jeimy Blanco Barrantes and Giovanni Ramirez Elizondo
Celiac disease is caused by intolerance to gluten and the only current treatment is a gluten-free diet. Gliadins are the alcohol-soluble proteins that make up the majority of gluten and are the ones that have the most harmful effect on patients with celiac disease. In recent years the issue of the presence of gluten in medicines and cosmetics, has become relevant since it is present in many excipients that are used as lubricants or absorbents, to provide mass or volume, give shape, color and consistency. The quantification of gliadins was carried out using the ELISA technique based on the R5 antibody, with a RIDASCREEN® Gliadin kit from R-Biopharm and a microplate ELISA spectrophotometer. To validate the immunological analytical method, the specificity, intermediate precision, relative accuracy and range were measured according to the USP 41 specifications for biologic assays. Recovery percentages of gliadins in positive control samples higher than 65 % were obtained. The relative standard deviation resulting from the amount of gliadins recovered to determine the intermediate precision of the kit was 7,6 %. Then, when determining the relative accuracy, an average absolute error value of 9,5 % was obtained. The range established to accurately and precisely analyze a sample was from 5 mg/kg to 80 mg/kg. The analytical method validated in this project meets performance characteristics such as specificity, intermediate precision, relative accuracy and range, suitable for the determination of gliadin content in drugs and cosmetics.
418 AFLATOXINS- AN OVERVIEW , H. B. Mishal and R. H. Mishal*
The aflatoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus spp., are widespread in nature and have severely contaminated food supplies of humans and animals, resulting in health hazards and even death. Hence, to ensure the safety of human health, there is great demand for aflatoxins research to develop suitable methods for their quantification, precise detection and control. This review throws light on the resources, production, detection and control measures of aflatoxins to ensure food and feed safety. The review is informative for health-conscious consumers as well as research experts in the fields. Furthermore, providing knowledge on aflatoxins toxicity will help in ensuring food safety and meet the future demands of the increasing population by decreasing the incidence of outbreaks due to aflatoxins.
419 SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF ANTIBIOTICS AND BIOACTIVE PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA , Navroop Kaur*, Deepali Vashisth, Jaya Malik, Mohit Chaudhary, MS Laxmi, Rupal Chauhan, Abhishek Tomer, Premnidhi Yadav, Gayatri Sharma, Saumyata Sahay, Lajmi Porwal, Tisha Gupta, Anjali Chaturvedi, Aaditya Satsangi, Anjali Sharma, Mohammed Tafseel Anzar
Antibiotics provide the main basis for the therapy of microbial (bacterial and fungal) infections. Since the discovery of these antibiotics and their uses as chemotherapeutic agents there was a belief in the medical fraternity that this would lead to the eventual eradication of infectious diseases. There is a continuous and urgent need to discover new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanisms of action because there has been an alarming increase in the incidence of new and re-emerging infectious diseases. Another big concern is the development of resistance to the antibiotics in current clinical use. In recent years, drug resistance to human pathogenic bacteria has been commonly reported from all over the world. In the present scenario of emergence of multiple drug resistance to human pathogenic organisms, this has necessitated a search for new antimicrobial substances from other sources including plants. Higher plants produce hundreds to thousands of diverse chemical compounds with different biological activities. The antimicrobial compounds produced by plants are active against plant and human pathogenic microorganisms. It is expected that plant extracts showing target sites other than those used by antibiotics will be active against drug-resistant microbial pathogens.
420 PHYTOSOMES: NOVEL CARRIERS FOR DELIVERY OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS , Dr. C. Sadak Vali*, Abdullah Khan, Mare Pratibha Bharathi, S. Siva Prasad, S. Mohammed Yusuf, Asma Khanam and B. Nageswara Naik
Phytosome technology as a novel delivery system utilizes water soluble phytoconstituents and phospholipids for drug delivery. “Phyto” means plants and “some” resembles a covering around/or a structure over the substance. Phytosomes are prepared by reacting one or two polyphenolic phytoconstituents and phospholipids in 1:1 or 1:2 ratio. Phytosomes acts as a bridge between novel and traditional drug delivery systems. Poor solubility of phytoconstituents and polyphenolic compound is barrier for their absorption and bioavailability of several phytoconstituents. Phytosomal technology can overcome the solubility problems of phytoconstituents and increases the bioavailability and absorption of water soluble phytoconstituents. Phospholipid improves both hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of phytoconstituents and hence acts as emulsifiers. Hydrophilicity (helps in dissolution of phytoconstituents in gastro-intestinal fluids) and hydrophobicity (helps phytoconstituents to cross lipid rich cell membranes) are required for better absorption and bioavailability of natural phytoconstituents. For passage of drugs through acidic and basic environment before being get absorbed into systemic circulation the DDS must have optimum water and lipid solubility. Phytosomal preparations of Olive oil, Ginkgo biloba, Grape seed and Silybum are available in the market. The current review highlights the potential scope and emerging technologies in the field of NDDS for the benefit of herbal and traditional medicines prepared from plant origins. This review covers the preparation techniques employed for phytosome preparation, advantages, applications and characterization techniques employed for phytosomal evaluation.
421 TOXICITY STUDY OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM LINN , Shirish S. Pingale*, Popat S. Virkar, Rajendrashing G. Mahale and Verla Andrew Wirnkor
The aim of the present work is to evaluate the acute toxicity study of dry powder Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves. The leaves of this plant were collected from Rajgurunagar area of Pune district, Maharashtra, INDIA. The fresh leaves were dried in shade till constant weight for few days and grinded with high power electric mixer. The dry sample was kept in airtight plastic container and was used for toxicity study as per OECD guidelines by using white albino Wister Rats. The plant material was administered orally at dose of 2 to 10gm/Kg body weight of Swiss mice. The animals were observed continuously for the period of first 4 hours continuously for behavioral changes and then they were kept under observation for 14 days after single administration of powder in the form of aqueous slurry with the help of gavage. The mortality observations were recorded to find out the toxic effect of leaves of Coriandrum sativum Linn. From these results it is observed that Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves powder at higher doses of 10gm/kg body weight is found to be nontoxic in male as well as in female, as no any type of abnormal changes were reported in behavior, food and water intake of the administered animals. The Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves powder was found to be relatively safe when administered orally in Swiss mice. Lethality or adverse toxic signs were not at all observed during the experimental period for our sample.
422 TOXICITY STUDY OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM LINN , Shirish S. Pingale*, Popat S. Virkar, Rajendrashing G. Mahale and Verla Andrew Wirnkor
The aim of the present work is to evaluate the acute toxicity study of dry powder Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves. The leaves of this plant were collected from Rajgurunagar area of Pune district, Maharashtra, INDIA. The fresh leaves were dried in shade till constant weight for few days and grinded with high power electric mixer. The dry sample was kept in airtight plastic container and was used for toxicity study as per OECD guidelines by using white albino Wister Rats. The plant material was administered orally at dose of 2 to 10gm/Kg body weight of Swiss mice. The animals were observed continuously for the period of first 4 hours continuously for behavioral changes and then they were kept under observation for 14 days after single administration of powder in the form of aqueous slurry with the help of gavage. The mortality observations were recorded to find out the toxic effect of leaves of Coriandrum sativum Linn. From these results it is observed that Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves powder at higher doses of 10gm/kg body weight is found to be nontoxic in male as well as in female, as no any type of abnormal changes were reported in behavior, food and water intake of the administered animals. The Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves powder was found to be relatively safe when administered orally in Swiss mice. Lethality or adverse toxic signs were not at all observed during the experimental period for our sample.
423 ANALYSIS OF CAESAREAN SECTION RATE ACCORDING TO ROBSON`S 10 GROUPS CLASSIFICATION: A RETROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN INDIA , Dr. Moushmi Parpillewar Tadas DGO, DNB*, Dr. Prashanthi S. M. S. and Dr. SnehalLede
Background: The cesarean section rate is increasing worldwide. Classifying cesarean section according to Robson’s Ten group classification system helps to bring down cesarean section rate. Aim was to classify the cesarean section according to their causes and standardize indication of caesarian section. Method: This study was conducted at Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Data of all pregnant women delivered during 6 months period by cesarean section during January 2020 to June 2020 collected and percentage of various groups as per Robson’s Ten Group Classification System were calculated. Results: Out of 4858 deliveries, 2134 delivered by lower segment cesarean section. The cesarean section rate was 43.9%. Group 5 contributes to maximum (32.75%).Cesarean section rate was maximum among primigravida (58.8%). Conclusion: In present study, previous cesarean section group was highest contributors to all cesarean section deliveries. Robsons classification provides the contributors to cesarean section and help to identify the large contributors so easy to work on it. It also allows evaluation and comparison of contributors to cesarean section.
424 DEVLOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF ‘SINGHARA (INDIAN WATER CHESTNUT) VADI’: RESEARCH ARTICLE , Supriya Joshi* and Priya Darshane
The study was undertaken to develop and standardise an innovative, wholesome and functional traditional Indian sweet which was prepared with Singhara (Trapa bispinosa Roxb) with an intention to develop an innovative and nutritive food product that can be used as an acidity pacifier. Vadi was standardized as per the reference found in the Ancient Ayurvedic literature ( Kshemkutuhala) with slight changes as per practical application. Various trials were conducted and Vadi was prepared from the most acceptable trial (T2: Water chestnut flour 45%, Sugar 32%, Cow’s ghee 22%). In the present investigation, Vadis made from Indian water chestnut were subjected to proximate analysis and sensory analysis which exhibited better results in terms of nutritional quality when compared with the control sample.
425 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF IMATINIB MESYLATE , Jahnavi Bandla* and Ashok Gorja
The aim of this paper was to develop and validate the stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of Imatinib mesylate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive and stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Imatinib mesylate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form, in which separations are done using develosil C18, 5μm, 150 × 4.6mm i.d. column at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min with an injection volume of 20μL. The beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range of 5 - 35μg/mL. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.996 and it showed good linearity, reproducibility, precision in this concentration range. The % recovery values were found to be within the limits, which showed that the method was accurate. The LOD and LOQ were calculated using statistical methods. The % RSD values were less than 2. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of Imatinib mesylate in pharmaceutical dosage form. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by using the standard method.
426 RECENT ADVANCES IN THE APPLICATION OF RESVERATROL TO IMPROVE HEALTH IN DIFFERENT THALASSAEMIC PATIENTS , Anirban Roy Chowdhury*, Sudipa Chakravarty and Amit Chakravarty
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) belongs to a class of polyphenolic compounds called stilbenes. It may have numerous protective effects against age-related disorders, including renal diseases, through the activation of SIRT1. SIRT1 and NAD+-dependent deacetylase was identified as one of the molecules through which calorie restriction extends the lifespan or delays age-related diseases, and this protein may regulate multiple cellular functions, including apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis, inflammation, glucose/lipid metabolism, autophagy, and adaptations to cellular stress, through the deacetylation of target proteins. In our present study we observed the administration of trans-resveratrol might effect the blood parameters, LFT, RFT and the Body weight and height evaluation according to their age of different male and female thalassaemic patients. This study we conclude that trans-resveratrol play an important role to increase the blood parameters of both Beta and Hb E- Beta thalassaemic patients. It also very effective for the liver and kidney and it play very important role in body growth.
427 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF THE SEAGRASS HALODULE PINIFOLIA OF THE COASTAL WATERS OF CARMEN, AGUSAN DEL NORTE, PHILIPPINES , Efren Tangon*, Elvinia R. Alivio, Jocelyn A. Pajiji and Kingpu O. Ajik
Phytochemical screening provides basic information about the medicinal importance of the plant extract and are lead compound for drug discoveries and knowledge of the chemical composition of seagrass is important both for the assessment of the nutritional value of marine invertebrate or vertebrate herbivores and for the evaluation of potential sources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids for commercial use or for possible human consumption. Phytochemical and proximate analyses were determined on the seagrass Halodule pinifolia using standard methods on a dry basis. The phytochemicals detected in the methanolic extracts of Halodule pinifolia were alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, triterpenoids, and steroids. The results of the proximate composition showed that Halodule pinifolia contained 10.06% crude protein, 0.33% crude lipid, 58.30% total carbohydrate contents and 31.31% ash content. The results indicated that the seagrass Halodule pinifolia contained different active secondary metabolites along with significant bioactive potential that might be helpful for the future pharmaceutical applications and are good potential sources of highly nutritious feed stuff.
428 ROLE OF NANOPARTICLES IN TREATMENT OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA , Abdulhakim Umar Toro and Maya Datt Joshi*
Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of body cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. There are many treatment strategies available for hepatocellular carcinoma but there are several limitations of traditional surgery and radiation therapy and chemotherapy that results into failure and poor prognosis. In recent years, the development and advances of nanotechnology has brought new hope for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC. This article reviews the development of nanoparticles used for detection, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma due to their large specific surface area and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Moreover, research have shown that after Nanoparticle based therapy including nano-carriers can achieve active targeting effect, which improves the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs and decreases their side effects.
429 ASSESS KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS AS GENERAL ANTACIDS BY REGISTERED PHARMACISTS AT COMMUNITY PHARMACY IN URBAN AREA , Atharva Pushkar Nanday, Dr. Narendra Bheemraj Parihar* and Seeta Narendra Parihar
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most efficacious agents used for minimizing gastric acid secretions. The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and preferences of proton pump inhibitors amongst pharmacists. PPIs are mainly used to treat Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD), Gastroesophaygeal Reflux Disease (GERD), Erosive Esophagitis, Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES), Barrett’s Esophagus, and an Upper Gastro-Intestinal bleeding. They are also a primitive measure to reduce acidity. A cross-sectional survey-based study was carried out to assess the knowledge and preferences of pharmacists regarding proton pump inhibitors for various ailments. Google form link for filling out the survey questionnaire was sent to pharmacists and were asked to fill it out accordingly. All the pharmacists included in this survey were given a copy of the information chart and were properly counseled for rationalizing PPIs as an essential OTC medication. Pharmacists primarily preferred pantoprazole as the treatment of choice for acidity and heartburn 50% followed by omeprazole 20% to 30%, lansoprazole 5% to 10%, and rabeprazole 5% to 15%. The majority 89% of pharmacists enquired about the patient details before dispensing the medication and 56% provided patient counseling. PPIs are widely used as an OTC medication at community pharmacies, there is a need to rationalize their use and dispensing amongst pharmacists. Pharmacists themselves need to acquire updated information via trustworthy sources regarding the PPI medications and must focus on more patient-based practice than just basic compounding and dispensing the medication.
430 PERCEIVED BURDEN AMONG CAREGIVER OF END STAGE RENAL DISEASE PATIENT UNDERGOING HEMODIALYSIS AT NATIONAL KIDNEY CENTRE, KATHMANDU, NEPAL , Sharma B.*, Bajracharya Shanti, Ban Rita, Pant Sarita and Adhikari Sarita
Background: Caregiver burden is the strain or load borne by a person who cares for a chronically ill, disabled, or elderly family member. This study aims to assess the perceived burden among the caregiver of end stage renal disease patient undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was commenced in 296 caregiver of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patient undergoing hemodialysis. The Zarit Burden Interview was used to assess the perceived burden among caregivers attending Kidney Centre using convenient sampling technique maintaining their privacy of data. Data was analysed by means of SPSS version 20 using descriptive as well as inferential statistics. Results: Majority of caregivers were ≥35 years, 52.4%, employed 55.7%, married 78.4%, existing health problem 84.5% and were spouse 41.9% of the patient. Similarly, the majority of 51.4% patients were ≥44 years, 63.5% male, 58.1% unemployed, 82.8% married, almost all 91.9% had comorbidity and 56.4% had dialysis done for ≥ 24 months. Around one third 34.5% had little or no burden while remaining 65.5% had perceived burden ranging from mild to severe level. The caregiver level of burden is statistically significant with caregiver age (p=0.018), caregiver existing health problem (p=0.027), relationship with patient (p=0.031), patient age (p=0.040), patient sex (p=0.024), and patient comorbidity (p=0.003). Conclusion: The majority of caregiver had perceived mild to severe level of burden. There should be counselling and support system from concerned authority to alleviate caregiver burden.
431 PLACENTA ITS CRUCIAL ROLE , S. Sangeetha*
The placenta is an organ that develops in your uterus during pregnancy. This structure provides oxygen and nutrients to your growing baby and removes waste products from your baby's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of your uterus, and your baby's umbilical cord arises from it. The placenta is a large organ that develops during pregnancy. It is attached to the wall of the uterus, usually at the top or side. The umbilical cord connects the placenta to your baby. Blood from the mother passes through the placenta, filtering oxygen, glucose and other nutrients to your baby via the umbilical cord. The placenta also filters out substances that could be harmful to your baby and removes carbon dioxide and waste products from your baby’s blood. The placenta produces a number of hormones that are needed during pregnancy, such as lactogen, oestrogen and progesterone. It keeps the mother’s blood separate from the baby’s blood to protect the baby against infections. Towards the end of the pregnancy, the placenta passes on antibodies to protect the baby after birth. The importance of the placenta was reviewed in this paper.
432 INVITRO FERTILIZATION – ITS ROLE, IMPORTANCE AND RISK FACTORS , S. Sangeetha*
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass"). The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. After the fertilised egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2–6 days, it is implanted in the same or another woman's uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy. IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for infertility treatment and gestational surrogacy. A fertilised egg may be implanted into a surrogate's uterus, and the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. Some countries have banned or otherwise regulate the availability of IVF treatment, giving rise to fertility tourism. Restrictions on the availability of IVF include costs and age, in order for a woman to carry a healthy pregnancy to term. IVF is generally not used until less invasive or expensive options have failed or been determined unlikely to work. This paper reviews the role, importance and complications of invitro fertilization.
433 DISSOLUTION METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TAMSULOSIN AND DUTASTERIDE IN ITS COMBINED MODIFIED RELEASE DOSAGE FORM USING RP-HPLC METHOD , Devi Thamizhanban*, Dr. Gampa Tulja Rani and Dr. Kathiresan Krishnasamy
The research work was aimed to develop a dissolution method for simultaneous estimation of Dutasteride and Tamsulosin from extended-release capsule. The formulation is having Dutasteride in immediate release and Tamsulosin in modified release form. A change over dissolution media was developed in this study. 0.1N HCl with 0.2% SLS was selected as dissolution medium to enable complete dissolution of Dutasteride for initial two hours, and continued by changing the dissolution medium to pH 7.2 phosphate buffer for 8 hours, using USP Apparatus 1, at 100RPM. Working standards were prepared by using the respective dissolution media, for specific sample. Chromatographic separation was achieved by analysing filtered sample, using Agilent's high performance liquid chromatograph and X bridge C18, 5μm, 4.6 x 150mm column, with solvent-A of 0.05M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), and solvent-B of acetonitrile by gradient elution technique. The flow rate was maintained at 1.5 ml/min and the detection wavelength was 225nm, with sample run time of 18 minutes. In acid stage Tamsulosin was eluted at 5.7 minutes, and Dutasteride was eluted at 9.4minutes. Buffer stage was developed only for Tamsulosin and eluted at 2.3minutes. Analytical method was validated and complies to the regulatory guidelines. The effect of RPM on dissolution profile was evaluated, which does not have any significance on drug release, and F2 value of 65 & 84 with 75 RPM & 91 and 71 with 125RPM against 100RPM for Dutasteride and Tamsulosin, respectively. Hence, the developed method is suitable for estimating drug release of both components simultaneously.
434 CURRENT UPDATED REVIEW ON PRONIOSOMES AS A NOVEL APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY , Meera Ingale*, Rahul Kasliwal and Yogesh Gholse
Proniosomes are one of the novel provesicular drug delivery systems which are dry formulations coated with carrier such as non-iconic surfactants. Proniosomes are formulated in such a manner that they can overcome the drawbacks of niosomes such as physical instabilities, fusion and aggregation. Proniosomes can be administered by various routes like oral, intravenous, buccal, topical, transdermal, ocular etc. Proniosomes are liquid crystalline compact niosome hybrids which upon hydration form niosomes. They help in reducing physical stability problems involved with niosomes such as leaking, fusion, aggregation and provide convenience in dosing, distribution, transportation and storage showing improved results than conventional niosomes.
435 ROLE OF KSHAR SUTRA IN BENIGN TUMOUR OVER PERIANAL REGION: A CASE STUDY , Dr. Vikash Kumar Sahu*
Kshara sutra karma mentioned in Ayurvedic texts for the treatment of Ano- rectal disorders. Acharya sushruta has advised its use and method of application in Nadi vrana,Arbuda and Bhagandara. The therapy also indicated for all those conditions which require gradual excision of over grown soft tissues like benign tumours, polyps ,warts etc. The present case study is done to rule out the role of kshar sutra in extra ano- rectal conditions to make therapy more popular .Benign tumour is a surgical condition and treatment of such condition is excision .However such surgical treatment is painful and recurrence rate is also high. So kshar sutra is alternative approach for treating such surgical conditions with good results and this technique not only cures the problem but also check its chances of reoccurences.
436 AWARENESS REGARDING NEONATAL CARE AMONG POSTNATAL MOTHERS ATTENDING TEACHING HOSPITAL, CHITWAN , Sujata Shrestha*, Parita Shrestha and Pratima Koirala
Background: In many countries around the world, neonatal deaths are so commonplace that children are not even named until they survive their first month of life. Most of the neonatal deaths are preventable if their mothers are aware and provide proper newborn care. The study was carried out with the aim to find out the level of awareness regarding neonatal care among postnatal mothers at Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur-10, Chitwan. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study design was used to measure the level of awareness among 80 postnatal mothers attending in Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur-10, Chitwan by using enumerative sampling technique. Data was collected by using structured face to face interview schedule from dated 2018 June 20- 2018 July 4 and was analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among a total of 80 respondents, 45% of respondents belonged to age group 20-27 years, while majority of respondents 72.5% were from urban areas, most of the respondents 97.5% were literate, 62.5% were primipara. Mean score of respondents’ awareness regarding neonatal warmth and breastfeeding was 77.5 and 60.7 respectively followed by hygiene, danger signs and immunization 63, 68 and 42 respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that more than half 58.8% of postnatal mothers had adequate level of awareness on neonatal care while statistical significant association was found between the level of awareness with religion p=0.012 and place of residence p=0.025. However, awareness regarding frequency of breastfeed in a day, position after burping, sleeping hours in a day, time and frequency of urination and meconium passed after birth, time for neonatal bath, hypothermia and disease preventable vaccine name after birth was still inadequate. Hence, there is need of awareness program by government and health personals on neonatal care to postnatal mothers.
437 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITYOF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA , Pal Neha, Singh N. P. and Joshi M. D.*
Objectives: To calculate the antimicrobial action of medicinal plants against human pathogenic bacteria and observe Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of extracts of plant. Methods: Rhizome of Curcuma longa, dried buds of Syzygium aromaticum, and seed of Piper nigrum and leaves of Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis, Murraya koenigiiwere collected from local market of Uttar Pradesh. The plant parts were air-dried at room temperature and crushed to powder form. The ethanolic extracts of medicinal plants were adapted by percolation process using separating funnel and tested against human pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion method. Then, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts was decisive. Results: All plants extracts show antibacterial properties against bacteria under study. However, extract from S. aromaticum (Clove), Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis (Gulhar) and Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) reveal most promising result against Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition of 14.33mm, 12.90mm and 16.10mm respectively. Likewise, S. aromaticum (Clove), C. longa (Turmeric) and P.nigrum (Black pepper) showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with inhibition zone of 14.10mm, 12.03mm and 12.90mm respectively. S.aromaticum (Clove) and Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) showed promising activity against E.coli with inhibition zone of 19.67mm and 10.23mm. S.aromaticum (Clove) showed good result against P.aeruginosa with inhibition zone 19.53mm. MIC values of methanolic extracts of S. aromaticum and T.cordifolia were found to be at the range of 10.80mm. Conclusion: This study keep maintained to understand the use of these plants while traditional medicine as an economic and safe alternative to treat infectious diseases.
438 ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METAL BY E.COLI SPP. AND BACILLUS SPP. FROM SOIL , Shashank Chauhan, Rupesh Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Dinesh Kumar and Maya Datt Joshi*
Industrialization has led to introduction of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals are known to persist in the environment and become a risk for living beings. Micro-organisms present in industrial effluents are capable to cope up with the harmful effects of these metals. Microorganism adopt different mechanism and one such strategy is biosorption which is binding of metal ions with metal binding proteins present on the cell wall of microorganism. The present study is intended to analyze soil sample contaminated with heavy metals like Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), and Mercury (Hg) in Bacillus spp.and E. coli against different concentrations. Result showed that Bacillus spp. and E. coli has minimize the concentration of heavy metals in soil sample.
439 DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF HOUSEHOLD PLANTS TOXIN , Mohammad Athar*
People love plants, for food, decoration, or just because taking care of a succulent is a lot less responsibility than a puppy. But many of the house plants that spruce up our surroundings are also poisonous. Kids and pets are the usual victims in plant poisonings because they have a tendency to explore the world with their mouths. In fact, when the American Association of Poison Control Centers compiles their annual poisoning report, plants are typically in the top causes of accidental poisoning in children. So you can be aware of the dangers lurking in your house, Houseplants can be great for your mental health, but eating some of them can be far worse for your bodily health than you might think. Here are some plants you might have around your home that are actually pretty toxic if they end up inside you.
440 FAST DISSOLVING DOMPERIDONE TABLET , Pratik Kayasth, Smit Patel*, Kruti Bhatt, Krishna Kanoje, Vishal Chauhan, Dr. Jitendra Patel and Dr. Umesh Upadhyay
The purpose of this Project work is to prepare fast dissolving tablets of Domperidone by wet granulation. In the present study, Sodium Starch Glycolate, was taken as super disintegrant and starch paste as a binder for Preparation of fast dissolving Domperidone Tablet. Here the Domperidone (anti-emetic) is taken as the model drug for the study and wet granulation as a method for preparation of the Fast Dissolving Tablet. The disintegrant incorporated during the wet granulation process as extra granular incorporation. Here the concentration of Superdisintegrants and concentration of starch paste were taken as independent variables. The effect of Disintegration time and friability were investigated as dependent parameters. The optimized batch obtained from the study was compared with the marketed products.[1] Oral medication conveyance is the most prominent defeat. It is outstanding since quite a while for its generally utilized course of organization among all the failure that has been investigated for the precise conveyance of medication arranged different measurements from the pharmaceutical items. Dysphagia is a typical issue which needs to look in all times of gatherings in worry to strong dose shapes. The patient needs to improve consistency to take care of the problem of Dysphagia. The Rapidly dissolving tablets have risen as an option in contrast to regular oral medication use.[2]
441 BACTERIAL INFECTION ASSOCIATED WITH REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE IN DAIRY COWS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY IN KHARTOUM NORTH- SUDAN , Ibrahim Elrashied A. Ibrahim*, Hatim A. Zainalabein and Adil M. A. Salman
To investigate the risk factors and bacterial infections associated with reproductive failure in dairy cows. Vaginal swabs and blood samples were collected from 408 cows in all farms visited in Khartoum North, Khartoum State, Sudan. The bacteria isolated from these vaginal swabs were 232(39.1%) Staphylococcus spp, 162(27.2%) Streptococcus spp, 150(25.2%) E. coli spp and 50 (8.5%) Pseudomonas spp. The prevalence rate of brucellosis was (16.2%). The number of bacteria isolated from cows with reproductive problem was higher than randomly sampled cows. Brucellosis seroprevalence was higher in problematic cows 43(20.8%) compared to randomly selected cows 23(11.4%) this difference was found to be significant with p< 0.05, and the relative risk of problematic cow to get brucellosis was twice the randomly selected cow. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolated Gram positive bacteria, was Vancomycine, Gentamycine and Amoxyclave are considered and that of Gram negative bacteria were Ciprofloxacine, Ampcilline, Gentamycine and Cotrimoxazole.
442 ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE PROBLEMS OF DAIRY CATTLE IN KHARTOUM NORTH- SUDAN , Ibrahim Elrashied A. Ibrahim*, Hatim A. Zainalabein and Adil M. A. Salman
To assessed the reproductive problems and their association with reproductive failure in dairy Cattle two questionnaires were designed for this study, the first one for individual cows with infertility problem (207cow) and second one for the randomly selected farms (93farms), in Khartoum North (Bahri North and East Nile localities), Khartoum State, Sudan. The study revealed that the major reproductive Problems were repeat breeding 132(63.8%), retained placenta 47(22.7%), reproductive infection which includes (pyometra, metritis, viginitis and anoestrus) 18(8.7%) and abortion 10(4.8%). The risk factors such as breed, age, parity and mating system, were assessed and their associations with reproductive problems were evaluated in this study. There was association between age of cows and repeat breeding problem, increase in cows’ age followed by increase in the repeat breeding problem, there was association between the presence of Mineral block (any source of mineral and vitamins) in farms and cows with repeat breeding problem, the repeat breeding was higher in the farms that not using any source of minerals and vitamins. There was association between origin of cows and the reproductive infection, the reproductive infection in cows purchased from other farms was higher than in cows that born in the farm, and the relative risk of reproductive infection in cows purchased from other farms to be with reproductive infection was almost two time to that for cows born in farm.
443 IN VITRO ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF ANNONA RETICULATA FRUITS EXTRACTS BY SYBER GREEN I BASED FLUORESCENCE METHOD , Dr. Akhila S., Prof. Anu V.* and Sarath D.
The most serious form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum continuous to be a major public health problem. As a result, this study aimed to assess the antimalarial potential of ethanol leaf extracts. The cytotoxicity study of crude drug extracts accessed against Vero cell line and their antimalarial activity investigated against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and KI strain. Syber Green I Based fluorescence In vitro antimalarial study was used to access the efficacy of Annona reticulata extract. The plant extracts had no cytotoxicity effect on the Vero cell line (CC50= 200μg/ml). This study showed moderate antimalarial activity of ethanolic extract with IC50 values of 3D7 and KI are 38.5 and 52 respectively. The present study indicates that Annona reticulate could be a good source of antimalarial agent.
444 A REVIEW ON SCREENING OF THE LEAVES OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN (PEEPAL TREE) FOR ITS ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY , Sunil Singh*, Anjana Sharma and Amarjeet Singh
Diabetes is contemplated as one of the most common chronic diseases internationally. It is an extensive pancreatic disease affecting large amount of the community globally. This is growing authentication that grows manufacturing and/or unsuccessful scavenging of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) may play a censorious part in chronic diseases. Lipid can be produced by peroxidation highly responsive ROS which control the chemical changes in close to all cellular integrant, leading to production of ROS and disorder in antioxidant protect system in diabetic thing has been reported. The antioxidants are used to treat and decrease the complications (diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerosis) of diabetes mellitus. Herbal medications have been used for the treatment of variety of ailments among which Ficus religiosa belonging to the family Moraceae is the vital one. As mentioned in the herbal medicine system, F. religiosa have the potential to treat disorders including hyperglycemia, diarrhea, inflammatory disorders, epilepsy, and stomach problems, sexual and infectious diseases. There are countless studies on the reaction of antioxidants in the modulation of diabetes. The aim of this study was to abstract the middle role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes and the approaching role of antioxidants to overcome lipid peroxidation through their free radicals clearance properties.
445 ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF CAESALPINIA DECAPETALA , *Shirish S. Pingale
Elemental analysis of Caesalpinia decapetala medicinal plant was studied using XRF technique. All of the elements detected from leaves of C. decapetala were reported as per the WHO acceptable levels. The concentration of Ca, S, Si, P and K indicates that the plant is source of nutrient elements. The present research work may helpful for standardization of medicinal drug.
446 OVERVIEW OF HERBAL TREATMENTS IN INDIA FOR DIABETES: A SYSTEMATIZED REVIEW , Rasika D. Bhalke*, Mahendra A. Giri, Yash S. Lodha, Aditya S. More and Pranjal S. Dange
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia accompanied by greater or lesser impairment in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. DM is probably one of the oldest diseases known to man. It was first reported in an Egyptian manuscript about 3000 years ago. In 1936, the distinction between type 1 and type 2 DM was made. Type 2 DM was first described as a component of metabolic syndrome in 1988. The origin and etiology of DM can vary greatly but always include defects in either insulin secretion or response or both at some point in the course of the disease. Most patients with diabetes mellitus have either type 1 diabetes (which is immune-mediated or idiopathic) Type 2 DM (formerly known as non-insulin dependent DM) is the most common form of DM characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. Type 2 DM results from the interaction between genetic, environmental, and behavioral risk factors. Diabetes also can be related to the gestational hormonal environment, genetic defects, other infections, and certain drugs.[1]
447 ANTIFUNGAL, ANTIOXIDANT, PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF HIBISCUS MOSCHEUTOS FLOWER EXTRACT AND ACTIVITIES AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS , Isaac John Umaru*
Recent years have witnessed enhanced research work reported on plants and plant products. In this regard, plants with traditional therapeutic usage are being screened more efficiently to be considered as a substitution or as a better alternative agent for Human Pathogens. Antioxidant activity, antibacterial, antifungal properties, colour, phytochemical and FT-IR spectral analysis of flowers belonging to Hibiscus moscheutos was determined. Radical scavenging activity of sample extracts were determined based on the percent inhibition of DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total phenolics were estimated based on the Folin–Ciocalteu method, while, vanillin–HCl and aluminum chloride methods were employed to estimate total tannins and flavonoids in the sample extracts, respectively. To determine total flavonols and anthocyanin contents, spectrophotometric method was employed. For antibacterial activities, modified agar disk diffusion method was adopted. Color analysis was performed using a colorimeter, while functional groups of compounds were identified using a FTIR-spectrophotometer. In this study, the flower extracts encompass high amount of antioxidant compounds and exhibit significant antioxidant activities, which depended on extraction solvents. Methanol extracts of Hibiscus moscheutos had high total phenolic, total flavonoid and total flavonol content, and showed highest activity for inhibition of DPPH. The colour analysis of Hibiscus moscheutos showed lower chroma and hue angle values. The crude extracts of hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, extracts with concentration levels at 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mg/mL were shown to significantly affect the inhibition of bacterial and fungal selected. Among the crude extracts, ethyl acetate and methanol extract was shown to be the most potent in terms of antifungal activities. The profile of the flower extract observation proved the chemical constituent that the treatment altered the fungal and bacterial morphology, which leads to the organism growth inhibition. For the in vivo bioassay, the pathogen treated with ethyl acetate and methanol extract at 250 and 500 mg/mL showed the higher inhibition value. There were 49 chemical compounds identified in Hibiscus moscheutos methanol extract using GCMS analysis. The top five major compounds were dominated by squalene triterpene (13.17%), phytol (3.18%), Neophytadiene (5.36%), spinasterol acetate (7.41%), and tocopherol acetate (7.41%). Some of these significant compounds possess high antifungal and antibacterial activities. This study proved that Hibiscus moscheutos flowers from the five solvent extract could be useful for inhibiting the selected pathogens which has potential as a natural antifungal and bacterial agent.
448 PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FELICIA MURICATA THUNB. (NEES): A REVIEW , Rupali Jaiswal, Navneet Kumar Verma*, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Vikas Yadav and Anuj Srivastava
Felicia muricata is a medicinal plant used for the management of different human and livestock diseases in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The antioxidant potential of the leaves from this herb was investigated using its water, methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts. Secondary metabolites mainly flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones, triterpenoids besides volatile oils are among 1the active principles reported in this family. Concerning the genus Felicia, no enough data is available in literature about it's phytoconstituents, in spite of its common traditional use in several areas of the world especially South Africa. The aim of the review is to provide collective and updated information about this genus including its taxonomy, description, active principles, ethno-pharmacology and pharmacological uses. We mainly aim to encourage researchers to discover this genus, particularly those species whose phytoconstituents and biological activities have not been explored until now.
449 FAST DISSOLVING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW ON NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Karunakar Prasad Dwivedi*, Amresh Gupta, Swarnima Pandey, Arpita Singh
A quick dissolving drug conveyance framework, by and large, is a tablet which deteriorates or breaks down in the buccal depression without the need for water or biting.Most fast dissolving delivery system films must contain substances to mask the taste of the active ingredient. This masked active ingredient is then swallowed via the patient’s saliva along with the soluble and insoluble excipients. Enhanced patient compliance is a main benefit of the fast-dissolving drug delivery systems. Other benefits of fast-dissolving tablet systems include easy of swallowing, no water needed for administration, and accuracy of dosage. These additional, superior benefits allow patients to take their medication anytime and anyplace under all conditions. These tablets are any very porous or integrally soft-molded matrices or tablets compacted at very low compression forces in order to maximize tablet porosity and minimize oral dissolution or disintegration time. Quick-Dis™ however, comprises a tough, solid, soft, flexible film and does not need special packaging. It is thin and can be approved in a patient’s pocket, wallet.[1]
450 HYDROGEL (SUPER POROUS HYDROGEL)- NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW , Swadesh Kumar Vishwakarma*, Dhaneshwar Kumar Vishwakarma and Jai Narayan Mishra
These materials can be synthesized to respond to a number of physiological stimuli present in the body, such as PH, ionic strength, temperature. Hydrogels are a unique class of three dimensional cross-linked polymeric networks that can hold a large fraction of aqueous solvents and biological fluids within their structures. Nowadays, hydrogels have attracted a growing interest of many scientists in different fields of research. Intelligent hydrogels have found a significant role in a wide variety of applications such as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, optics, diagnostics and imaging. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review on the basis concept of hydrogels, the description about classification, synthesis methods, stimulation situations, relevant mechanisms, and applications. It also involved technologies adopted for hydrogel production together with process design implications, block diagrams, and optimized conditions of the preparation process. An innovated category of recent generations of hydrogel materials was also presented in some details.
451 ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND RATE OF ABSORPTION OF POORLY WATER-SOLUBLE DRUGS: A REVIEW , Navneet Kumar Verma*, Vikas Yadav, Ankur Srivastava, Satendra Kumar and Mojahidul Islam
Solubility of a drug is an important parameter in the formulation development. Hence various techniques are used for the improvement of the solubility of poorly water-soluble and water insoluble drugs include Particle Size Reduction, Solid Dispersion, Nanosuspension, Supercritical Fluid Technology, Cryogenic Technology, Inclusion Complex Formation Techniques, and Floating Granules etc. The purpose of this review article is to describe the techniques of solubilizaton for the attainment of effective absorption and improved bioavailability. Solubility is the phenomenon of dissolution of solid in liquid phase to give a homogenous system. Solubility is one of the important parameter to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for pharmacological response to be shown. Poorly water soluble drugs often require high doses in order to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations after oral administration. Water is the solvent of choice for liquid pharmaceutical formulations. Most of drugs weakly acidic and weakly basic with poor aqueous solubility. Dendrimers are the novel class of polymer and it is used to enhance the solubility for the delivery of many water insoluble drugs, eg; anticancer, anti-inflammatory etc. Various techniques are used for the enhancement of the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which include micronization, nanonization, sonocrystallization, supercritical fluid method, spray freezing into liquid and lyophilization, evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution, use of surfactant, use of co-solvent, hydrotropy method, use of salt forms, solvent deposition, solubilising agents, modification of the crystal habit, co-crystallisation, complexation and drug dispersion in carriers. Selection of solubility improving method depends on drug property, site of absorption, and required dosage form characteristics.
452 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA , Rasika D. Bhalke*, Mahendra A. Giri, Mayuri Shinde, Anjali Lad and Vishal V. Pande
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) is a member of Menispermaceae family. It is also known as Giloe, Giloy, Gurcha (Hindi) and Amrta (Sanskrit). It is found almost everywhere in India and in Himalayas, even up to 1000 feet height. Its habitat ranges across a wide region in India spreading from Kumaon Mountains to Kanyakumari. It is also found in China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Borneo, Vietnam, Bangladesh, North Africa, West Africa and South Africa. T. cordifolia contains different classes of constituents such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides etc. T. cordifolia is an important drug of Indian systems of medicine and used in medicines since ancient times. The drug is used in fevers, diabetes, dyspepsia, jaundice, urinary problems, skin diseases and chronic diarrhea and dysentery. It is also useful in the treatment of heart disease, leprosy, and helmenthiasis. The starch obtained from the stem is highly nutritive and digestive and used in many diseases. Objective of present review is summarization of the information about pharmacological and phytochemical aspect of Tinospora cordifolia plant which will be helpful for researchers.
453 ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM , Dr. R. Radhika*
Diabetes and its different types are an age-old disease for clinicians since centuries. Many aspects of diabetes need to be explored with respect to physiological actions of insulin and the various clinical features of this disease such as tissue complications, since this is life style disease, so proper treatment in relation to diet and anti-diabetic agents is emphasized. In the present review attempts have been made to understand various aspects of diabetes in relation with its cause, epidemiology, path physiology, site and mechanism of action for anti-diabetic potential of Ganoderma lucidum as drug of choice for the future research.
454 CURRENT UPDATES AND REVIEW: SYNERGISM BETWEEN ESSENTIAL OIL WITH ANTIBIOTICS FOR MANAGEMENT OF SKIN CONDITION , Vrushali H. Talmale*, Rahul H. Kasliwal and Yogesh N. Gholse
With the increase of antibiotic-resistant microorganism and the lack of recent antibiotics being delivered onto the marketplace, alternative strategies want to be observed to address infections as a consequence of drug-resistant bacteria. A feasible solution may be to combine current antibiotics with essential oil to increase the efficacy of antibiotics. A group of phytochemicals this is said to have such consequences, according to in vitro research, is important oils (EOs) and their additives. Amongst others, EOs containing phytochemical they show a synergistic effect in aggregate with antibiotics. Several modes of action were recommended by which antibiotics and the essential oil additives may additionally act synergistically, such as through affecting a multiple target; through physicochemical interactions and inhibiting antibacterial-resistance mechanisms. Many pronounced assays display additivity or moderate synergism, indicating that EOs may also provide opportunities for minimizing antibiotic use for management of skin condition.
455 CURRENT PROGRESS IN HOT-MELT EXTRUSION OF NATURAL POLYMERS FOR DRUG DELIVERY , Aanchal P. Singhaniaa, Yashvi S. Agarwala, Srushti M. Tambea, Divya D. Jaina and Purnima D. Amina*
Natural polymers or biopolymers have gained immense popularity in biomedical applications, distinctly in the pharmaceutical industry owing to their advantages over synthetic polymers. Over the years, hot-melt extrusion (HME) has also emerged as a promising technology for producing a myriad of pharmaceutical dosage forms. An essential requirement of materials used in HME is their ability to exhibit thermoplastic characteristics, drug-polymer miscibility as well as thermal stability in an allowable extrusion temperature range. Since natural polymers like starch, celluloses are rigid, high molecular weight polymers that do not soften or melt below their decomposition temperatures, exhibit difficultly in extrusion via HME. The fundamental objective of this review is to bridge the current manufacturing gap in the pharmaceutical sphere that exists owing to the poor extrudability of natural polymers via HME. The critical polymer parameters including melt viscosity, Tg, Tm, solubilization capacity, mechanical properties, plasticizer effects as well as characterization techniques with regards to natural polymers are discussed. In light of the current paradigm of drug development, this review summarizes various reports on natural polymers-based formulations developed using HME technology. This review discusses technical and scientific specificities of extrusion of natural polymers to encourage systematic screening and selection of natural polymers for the HME process to minimize the number of trials and improve study design to achieve target formulation.
456 IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAVES EXTRACT , Vikas Yadav, Navneet Kumar Verma*, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Rupali Jaiswal and Anuj Srivastava
In this present experiment we had studied about to evaluate invitro anthelmintic activity of Ocimum sanctum by using leaves extract. Anthelmintic activity was tested against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Extraction of Ocimum sanctum demonstrated potent anthelmintic activity tested against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. The dose-dependent anthelmintic efficacy of the fractions was quite similar to that of piperazine citrate The result obtained in the study led to the conclude that leaves of the mangrove plant, high level of polyphenolics and show significant anthelmintic activity. Ocimum sanctum Linn known as Tulsi in India is a sacred plant for hindus known from centuries and being used in Ayurveda for its varied healing properties belonging to the Labiateae family. To this purpose we have studied in vitro antihelminthic activity of osmium in comparison with albendazole.
457 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE FLOATING MATRIX TABLETS OF FAMOTIDINE , Kanupriya Choudhary*, Nimrata Seth and Naresh Singh Gill
The objective of the study is to prolong the gastric residence time, increase drug bioavailability and also to target the gastric ulcer for local drug action. A floating drug delivery system of famotidine was developed using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M, Xanthum gum, guar gum in various ratios. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation. The formulated tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, buoyancy lag time. The prepared tablets exhibit satisfactory physical characteristics. All formulations showed good in vitro buoyancy. The results of the invitro release studies show that the formulation remain buoyant for more than 12 hrs. Finally, the tablet formulation was found to be economical and will overcome the draw backs associated with the drug during its absorption.
458 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BENZILIC ACID-TYROSINE METAL COMPLEXES , N. P. Pranamya*, G. Indiradevi, M. Ali Hassan and Susannah Seth
The antimicrobial drugs occupy a unique niche in the history of medicine. Amino acid complexes are proving to be an efficient antimicrobial drug nowadays. The new Benzilic acid –tyrosine metal complexes were prepared on condensation of Benzilic acid and the amino acid, tyrosine and the synthesized compounds were authenticated by UV-Visible, Fourier Transformer-Infrared (FT-IR) and Gouy Method techniques, Elemental analysis, Molar conductance study. Tyrosine, a non-essential amino acid used widely as a precursor to neurotransmitters. Benzilic acid and its derivatives are of wide interest due to their diverse antimicrobial activities. The synthesized compounds were authenticated by UV-Visible, Fourier Transformer-Infrared (FT-IR) and Gouy Method techniques. The biological activity of the DT ligand and its complexes has been tested for antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia coli using well diffusion method. The antibacterial study revealed that compound S4 showed excellent activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus. The S4 complex was found to be more potent than free ligand showing that on complexation the activity of the complexes were altered.[1] Certain metal ions possess effective antimicrobial activity; here the Cobalt complex is efficient to act against Staphylococcus Aureus.
459 ELEMENTS AFFECTING FERTILITY, FAMILY PLANNING AND CHILD SPACING: A RESEARCH STUDY CONDUCTED IN SUBURBAN REGIONS OF HYDERABAD, INDIA , Dr. Moazam Ali*, Dr. Mohammad Younus Mohiuddin, Neha Samreen, Rumana Taskeen, Samreen Feroz, Sania Fatima
The Aim and Objective of this study is to enlighten the factors that affect Birth Spacing/Fertility among sexually active, married women living in sub urban regions of India. Birth spacing can be defined as the time from one child birth to the next pregnancy. WHO recommends a waiting of at least 24 months between two successive pregnancies, which is necessary to ensure a better maternal and child health. As per our study 44% women were already practicing birth spacing, while 66% women strongly agreed toward the necessity of birth spacing. This study brings out the grey areas for development towards women and child health.
460 INDIAN HERBAL PLANT PREPARATIONS USED AS SOURCE OF DRUGS AGAINST NOVEL COVID-19. , Navroop Kaur*, Charu Tomar, Premnidhi Yadav, Deepali Vashisth, MS Laxmi, Vedanshi Sharma, Mohit Chaudhary, Jaya Malik, Akshay Bharti, Aniket Raj, Pragati Kushwaha and Om Prakash Tiwari
India has a long history and strong base for ayurvedic plants, which is a traditional herbal medicinal system. Herbal plants play an important role in preventing and treating human diseases. Plants are related to the event of human civilization round the whole world. In recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therefore the therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derived from plants. Plants are considered as one of the main sources of biologically active materials. Plants are considered as rich sources of phytochemical ingredients that enable them to possess medicinal value. Medicinal plants are a potential source for the development of new herbal drug. In the 21st century, the pharmacological effects of medicinal plants are considered a promising future drug/medicine for the management of health care. A number of the medicinal plant have been subjected to detail chemical investigations, and this has led to the isolation of pure bioactive molecules which have been the emergence of the new era of the health care system to treat human disease in the future awareness of the traditional knowledge, and the medicinal plant can play a key role in the exploitation and discovery of natural plant resources. Therefore, this review was conducted to research and describe the method of using medicinal plants throughout history. The aim of the present review is to understand the knowledge of medicinal plants as a future source of herbal drugs.
461 CASE REPORT ON SJOGREN’S SYNDROME , *Gnaneswari Regati and Giri Raja Sekhar Dornadula
Sjogren’s syndrome is a persistent autoimmune disorder discriminates the symptoms of xeropthalmia, xerostomia, tiredness, arthralgia, and inflammation of major salivary glands. These symptoms of SS are due to excessive lymphocytic infiltration.Women with Sjogren’s syndrome considerably greater than men; the gender dissimilarity tries between 9:1 to 19:1. SS is associated with genetic factors which may be triggered through some viruses and strain.SS can have effect on both central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Pathophysiology of SS focus on part of epithelial tissue, cytokines, T-lymphocytes cell activating factor (BAFF) in the pathology and inaddition autoantibody secreted by B lymphocytes. Treatment goals of SS consists of palliative control of signs and symptoms, preventing complications and immunosuppressive agents which consist of medications such as cyclophosphamide, methorexate, mycophenolate and azathiaprine which suppress the immune system. Potential healing interventions encompass BAFF inhibitors and anti-CD20 and anti-C22 therapy. Here we portray a case of 45 years old women with clinical manifestations of dry eyes, dry mouth, swelling of the lips and burning micturition. Specific antigen tests, ocular examination and other laboratory tests were performed. She was identified as Sjogren’s syndrome and her signs and symptoms receded after treatment.
462 A MANAGEMENT OF ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE (ALD) BY ONLY SHODHANA CHIKITSA (THERAPEUTIC PURGATION-VIRECHANA): A CASE STUDY , Rakesh Mishra*, Ankita Mishra and I. B. Kotturshetti
A forty two year recent man with clinical sign and symptoms of weakness, muscle wasting poor craving, nausea, fatigue, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, expulsion sensation diagnosed as Alcoholic Liver Disease. As per written material Veda It’s a issue of pitta dusti and Shodhana Chikitsa is more practical in such kind of patient during this case once the routine examination i.e. History, Palpation, Blood Investigation(LFT), patient is treated by Virechana karma. it's a Panchakarma treatment (Bio-purification therapy) during this Poorva karma (Snehan- Bahya/Abhyantara) and Pradhana karma (Virechana Karma- Trivriita Choorna with Draksha Kwath) within which vitiated doshas are expelled through Adhomarga(Anal route). once the Virechana karma for restoration of the body Sansarjana karma ( Ayurvedic Dietary & Behavior regimen) is additionally done. The patient is purgated thirty six times(Vegas). At the top of the virechana karma Kapha is conferred within the stool (Kaphant-Virechana). once the entire procedure followed patient felt outstanding relief from on top of cited symptoms i.e. poor craving, nausea, fatigue, distend abdomen, redoubled abdominal size and form, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, expulsion sensation. The therapeutic purgation is safe and effective Panchakarma protocol to eliminate the morbid pitta Dosha within the body either by pathological condition or diet and activity management. Virechana karma is very effective in the management of ALD.
463 THE PREVALENCE OF S. aureus AND E. coli IN JOLLOF RICE SOLD IN VARIOUS EATERIES IN OZORO , *Okobia U. B. and Orogu J. O.
The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in jollof rice was carried out to determine the microbial quality of jollof rice sold in various eatries in Ozoro, Delta State. Eleven (11) samples were collected from various eatries and brought to the laboratory for analysis. Six (6) bacteria species was identified; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., proteus spp., citrobacter jejuni, Strepococcus pyogene. and Staphylococcus aureus. The total heterotrophic plate count ranges from 1.2 X 105CFU/ML to 6.2 X 105CFU/ML. E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus has the highest percentage occurrence of 27.27% while Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Citrobater jejuni has the least percentage occurrence of 9.09%. These micro-organisms isolated are pathogenic and are toxic when ingested in contaminated food.
464 THE PREVALENCE OF Enterococcus spp IN TOILET DOOR HANDLES OF MALE AND FEMALE HOSTEL IN DELTA STATE POLYTECHNIC OZORO , Orogu J. O.* and Okobia U. B.
The prevalence of Enterococcus spp. on fomites such as the toilet door handles in the male and female hostel of Delta State Polytechnic Ozoro was examined to determine the level of bacterial contamination on the toilet door handles which may pose a risk to the students through transmission of infection. A total of 15 samples were analyzed and coded as. A to H (Male toilet door handles) and I to O (Female toilet door handles). Seven Isolates were obtained; Staphylococcus sp., E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus sp., Bacillus spp. The total heterotrophic plate count ranges from 5.3 X 103CFU/ML to 9.2 X 103CFU/ML. The present study showed that Enterococcus sp. was the most prevalent organism (25%) and the least prevalent organism was Bacillus spp. The spread of microorganism and prevention of infection from door handles can be minimized by thorough hand washing and use of hand sanitizer as well as daily washing and cleaning of restrooms with disinfectants.
465 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING ORAL FILMS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE , Anupama A. Vardai*
Background: Mouth dissolving film becomes a novel approach to oral drug delivery system as it provides convenience and ease of use over other dosage forms such as orally disintegrating buccal tablets and sublingual tablets. Mouth dissolving film was developed on the basis of technology of transdermal patch. These are thin solid dosage forms which when placed in the oral cavity; dissolve within few seconds without chewing and intake of water. The oral buccal mucosa being highly vascularized, drugs can absorbed directly and can enter the systemic circulation without undergoing first-pass hepatic metabolism. These films offer convenient way of dosing medication to pediatric, geriatric and bedridden patients. The sublingual and buccal delivery of a drug via thin film has the potential to improve the onset of action, lower the dosing and enhance the efficacy and safety profile of medicament. Material and methods: Fast dissolving oral films were prepared by solvent casting method using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose in varying ratios and evaluated for in vitro disintegration/ dissolution time, Tensile strength, Percent of elongation at break (% E), Folding endurance, Thickness of film, Drug content of film, Stability study. Optimized fast dissolving oral films were tested for its in vitro drug release study and Stability studies. Results: Formulated fast dissolving oral films showed improved bioavailability of salbutamol sulphate when compared to its oral route. Conclusion: Salbutamol sulphate loaded fast dissolving oral films could serve as better alternative to existing marketed formulation in terms of bioavailability.
466 IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAVES EXTRACT , Vikas Yadav, Navneet Kumar Verma*, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Rupali Jaiswal and Anuj Srivastava
In this present experiment we had studied about to evaluate invitro anthelmintic activity of Ocimum sanctum by using leaves extract. Anthelmintic activity was tested against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Extraction of Ocimum sanctum demonstrated potent anthelmintic activity tested against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. The dose-dependent anthelmintic efficacy of the fractions was quite similar to that of piperazine citrate The result obtained in the study led to the conclude that leaves of the mangrove plant, high level of polyphenolics and show significant anthelmintic activity. Ocimum sanctum Linn known as Tulsi in India is a sacred plant for hindus known from centuries and being used in Ayurveda for its varied healing properties belonging to the Labiateae family. To this purpose we have studied in vitro antihelminthic activity of osmium in comparison with albendazole.
467 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE FLOATING MATRIX TABLETS OF FAMOTIDINE , Kanupriya Choudhary*, Nimrata Seth and Naresh Singh Gill
The objective of the study is to prolong the gastric residence time, increase drug bioavailability and also to target the gastric ulcer for local drug action. A floating drug delivery system of famotidine was developed using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M, Xanthum gum, guar gum in various ratios. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation. The formulated tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, buoyancy lag time. The prepared tablets exhibit satisfactory physical characteristics. All formulations showed good in vitro buoyancy. The results of the invitro release studies show that the formulation remain buoyant for more than 12 hrs. Finally, the tablet formulation was found to be economical and will overcome the draw backs associated with the drug during its absorption.
468 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BENZILIC ACID-TYROSINE METAL COMPLEXES , N. P. Pranamya*, G. Indiradevi, M. Ali Hassan and Susannah Seth
The antimicrobial drugs occupy a unique niche in the history of medicine. Amino acid complexes are proving to be an efficient antimicrobial drug nowadays. The new Benzilic acid –tyrosine metal complexes were prepared on condensation of Benzilic acid and the amino acid, tyrosine and the synthesized compounds were authenticated by UV-Visible, Fourier Transformer-Infrared (FT-IR) and Gouy Method techniques, Elemental analysis, Molar conductance study. Tyrosine, a non-essential amino acid used widely as a precursor to neurotransmitters. Benzilic acid and its derivatives are of wide interest due to their diverse antimicrobial activities. The synthesized compounds were authenticated by UV-Visible, Fourier Transformer-Infrared (FT-IR) and Gouy Method techniques. The biological activity of the DT ligand and its complexes has been tested for antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia coli using well diffusion method. The antibacterial study revealed that compound S4 showed excellent activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus. The S4 complex was found to be more potent than free ligand showing that on complexation the activity of the complexes were altered.[1] Certain metal ions possess effective antimicrobial activity; here the Cobalt complex is efficient to act against Staphylococcus Aureus.
469 ELEMENTS AFFECTING FERTILITY, FAMILY PLANNING AND CHILD SPACING: A RESEARCH STUDY CONDUCTED IN SUBURBAN REGIONS OF HYDERABAD, INDIA , Dr. Moazam Ali*, Dr. Mohammad Younus Mohiuddin, Neha Samreen, Rumana Taskeen, Samreen Feroz, Sania Fatima
The Aim and Objective of this study is to enlighten the factors that affect Birth Spacing/Fertility among sexually active, married women living in sub urban regions of India. Birth spacing can be defined as the time from one child birth to the next pregnancy. WHO recommends a waiting of at least 24 months between two successive pregnancies, which is necessary to ensure a better maternal and child health. As per our study 44% women were already practicing birth spacing, while 66% women strongly agreed toward the necessity of birth spacing. This study brings out the grey areas for development towards women and child health.
470 INDIAN HERBAL PLANT PREPARATIONS USED AS SOURCE OF DRUGS AGAINST NOVEL COVID-19. , Navroop Kaur*, Charu Tomar, Premnidhi Yadav, Deepali Vashisth, MS Laxmi, Vedanshi Sharma, Mohit Chaudhary, Jaya Malik, Akshay Bharti, Aniket Raj, Pragati Kushwaha and Om Prakash Tiwari
India has a long history and strong base for ayurvedic plants, which is a traditional herbal medicinal system. Herbal plants play an important role in preventing and treating human diseases. Plants are related to the event of human civilization round the whole world. In recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therefore the therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derived from plants. Plants are considered as one of the main sources of biologically active materials. Plants are considered as rich sources of phytochemical ingredients that enable them to possess medicinal value. Medicinal plants are a potential source for the development of new herbal drug. In the 21st century, the pharmacological effects of medicinal plants are considered a promising future drug/medicine for the management of health care. A number of the medicinal plant have been subjected to detail chemical investigations, and this has led to the isolation of pure bioactive molecules which have been the emergence of the new era of the health care system to treat human disease in the future awareness of the traditional knowledge, and the medicinal plant can play a key role in the exploitation and discovery of natural plant resources. Therefore, this review was conducted to research and describe the method of using medicinal plants throughout history. The aim of the present review is to understand the knowledge of medicinal plants as a future source of herbal drugs.
471 CASE REPORT ON SJOGREN’S SYNDROME , *Gnaneswari Regati and Giri Raja Sekhar Dornadula
Sjogren’s syndrome is a persistent autoimmune disorder discriminates the symptoms of xeropthalmia, xerostomia, tiredness, arthralgia, and inflammation of major salivary glands. These symptoms of SS are due to excessive lymphocytic infiltration.Women with Sjogren’s syndrome considerably greater than men; the gender dissimilarity tries between 9:1 to 19:1. SS is associated with genetic factors which may be triggered through some viruses and strain.SS can have effect on both central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Pathophysiology of SS focus on part of epithelial tissue, cytokines, T-lymphocytes cell activating factor (BAFF) in the pathology and inaddition autoantibody secreted by B lymphocytes. Treatment goals of SS consists of palliative control of signs and symptoms, preventing complications and immunosuppressive agents which consist of medications such as cyclophosphamide, methorexate, mycophenolate and azathiaprine which suppress the immune system. Potential healing interventions encompass BAFF inhibitors and anti-CD20 and anti-C22 therapy. Here we portray a case of 45 years old women with clinical manifestations of dry eyes, dry mouth, swelling of the lips and burning micturition. Specific antigen tests, ocular examination and other laboratory tests were performed. She was identified as Sjogren’s syndrome and her signs and symptoms receded after treatment.
472 A MANAGEMENT OF ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE (ALD) BY ONLY SHODHANA CHIKITSA (THERAPEUTIC PURGATION-VIRECHANA): A CASE STUDY , Rakesh Mishra*, Ankita Mishra and I. B. Kotturshetti
A forty two year recent man with clinical sign and symptoms of weakness, muscle wasting poor craving, nausea, fatigue, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, expulsion sensation diagnosed as Alcoholic Liver Disease. As per written material Veda It’s a issue of pitta dusti and Shodhana Chikitsa is more practical in such kind of patient during this case once the routine examination i.e. History, Palpation, Blood Investigation(LFT), patient is treated by Virechana karma. it's a Panchakarma treatment (Bio-purification therapy) during this Poorva karma (Snehan- Bahya/Abhyantara) and Pradhana karma (Virechana Karma- Trivriita Choorna with Draksha Kwath) within which vitiated doshas are expelled through Adhomarga(Anal route). once the Virechana karma for restoration of the body Sansarjana karma ( Ayurvedic Dietary & Behavior regimen) is additionally done. The patient is purgated thirty six times(Vegas). At the top of the virechana karma Kapha is conferred within the stool (Kaphant-Virechana). once the entire procedure followed patient felt outstanding relief from on top of cited symptoms i.e. poor craving, nausea, fatigue, distend abdomen, redoubled abdominal size and form, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, expulsion sensation. The therapeutic purgation is safe and effective Panchakarma protocol to eliminate the morbid pitta Dosha within the body either by pathological condition or diet and activity management. Virechana karma is very effective in the management of ALD.
473 THE PREVALENCE OF S. aureus AND E. coli IN JOLLOF RICE SOLD IN VARIOUS EATERIES IN OZORO , *Okobia U. B. and Orogu J. O.
The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in jollof rice was carried out to determine the microbial quality of jollof rice sold in various eatries in Ozoro, Delta State. Eleven (11) samples were collected from various eatries and brought to the laboratory for analysis. Six (6) bacteria species was identified; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., proteus spp., citrobacter jejuni, Strepococcus pyogene. and Staphylococcus aureus. The total heterotrophic plate count ranges from 1.2 X 105CFU/ML to 6.2 X 105CFU/ML. E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus has the highest percentage occurrence of 27.27% while Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Citrobater jejuni has the least percentage occurrence of 9.09%. These micro-organisms isolated are pathogenic and are toxic when ingested in contaminated food.
474 THE PREVALENCE OF Enterococcus spp IN TOILET DOOR HANDLES OF MALE AND FEMALE HOSTEL IN DELTA STATE POLYTECHNIC OZORO , Orogu J. O.* and Okobia U. B.
The prevalence of Enterococcus spp. on fomites such as the toilet door handles in the male and female hostel of Delta State Polytechnic Ozoro was examined to determine the level of bacterial contamination on the toilet door handles which may pose a risk to the students through transmission of infection. A total of 15 samples were analyzed and coded as. A to H (Male toilet door handles) and I to O (Female toilet door handles). Seven Isolates were obtained; Staphylococcus sp., E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus sp., Bacillus spp. The total heterotrophic plate count ranges from 5.3 X 103CFU/ML to 9.2 X 103CFU/ML. The present study showed that Enterococcus sp. was the most prevalent organism (25%) and the least prevalent organism was Bacillus spp. The spread of microorganism and prevention of infection from door handles can be minimized by thorough hand washing and use of hand sanitizer as well as daily washing and cleaning of restrooms with disinfectants.
475 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING ORAL FILMS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE , Anupama A. Vardai*
Background: Mouth dissolving film becomes a novel approach to oral drug delivery system as it provides convenience and ease of use over other dosage forms such as orally disintegrating buccal tablets and sublingual tablets. Mouth dissolving film was developed on the basis of technology of transdermal patch. These are thin solid dosage forms which when placed in the oral cavity; dissolve within few seconds without chewing and intake of water. The oral buccal mucosa being highly vascularized, drugs can absorbed directly and can enter the systemic circulation without undergoing first-pass hepatic metabolism. These films offer convenient way of dosing medication to pediatric, geriatric and bedridden patients. The sublingual and buccal delivery of a drug via thin film has the potential to improve the onset of action, lower the dosing and enhance the efficacy and safety profile of medicament. Material and methods: Fast dissolving oral films were prepared by solvent casting method using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose in varying ratios and evaluated for in vitro disintegration/ dissolution time, Tensile strength, Percent of elongation at break (% E), Folding endurance, Thickness of film, Drug content of film, Stability study. Optimized fast dissolving oral films were tested for its in vitro drug release study and Stability studies. Results: Formulated fast dissolving oral films showed improved bioavailability of salbutamol sulphate when compared to its oral route. Conclusion: Salbutamol sulphate loaded fast dissolving oral films could serve as better alternative to existing marketed formulation in terms of bioavailability.
476 EXTRACTION AND EVALUATION OF THE BINDING PROPERTIES OF PECTIN DERIVED FROM Azanza garckeana FRUIT IN DICLOFENAC SODIUM BASED TABLET , Oraeluno J. N.*, Obasi J. C., Bamigbola E. A. and Joseph B. A.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the binding ability of Azanza garckeana pectin. For this purpose, pectin was obtained by precipitation with 96% ethanol. Three different batches of diclofenac sodium tablets were formulated using 5%w/w of Azanza garckeana (Ag) pectin in comparison to Tragacanth (Tr) and Acacia (Ac) at same concentration. Pre-compression and post-compression studies were performed for each formulation. The results obtained for pre and post-compression parameters were found within acceptable pharmacopoeial range. The results showed that at 5% w/w concentration, hardness test was in this order: Ag>Tr>Ac, all the tablets had friability of < 1%. Disintegration time test showed that increase in hardness value increased the disintegration time with Ag, Tr and Ac disintegrating in 16.00, 15.00 and 12.00 minutes respectively. This study concludes that Azanza garckeana at 5%w/w concentration gave better binding capacity than tragacanth and acacia, hence might be explored in future for introduction as a binder in the pharmaceutical industry.
477 UV-VISIBLE AND FTIR SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE CRUDE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PEURARIA PHASEOLOIDE LEAF (ROXB) BENTH. (FABACEAE) , Onyemailu V. O., *Bruce S.O and Iloh E. S.
The present study was carried out to characterize the bioactive constituents present in the Ethanolic extract of Peuraria phaseoloides leaves using UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. UV-VIS method was performed using a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 19 spectrometer while the FTIR method was performed using Buck scientific M530 system which was used to detect the characteristic peak values and their functional groups. UV-Visible spectrum revealed varying peaks in the range of 220-900nm recording the absorptions at its respective wavelengths. It showed a λmax peak at 500nm, with peaks at 420, 440 and 460nm indicating the presence of flavonoids. The FTIR analysis revealed the highest peak at 3291.098cm-1, which signifies the presence of R2NH 20 amine functional group. Other functional groups such as Halogen, ether, ethane, carboxylic acid, carbonyl, nitrile and alcohol were equally present. The presence of various functional groups and phytocompounds in Peuraria phaseoloides confirm that it act as a most important source of drugs against various ailments.
478 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND SAFETY SURGICAL PROCEDURES OF HYSTERECTOMY IN URBAN AND RURAL WOMAN OF WARANGAL DISTRICT , Deepika Eppalapalli*, Neethu Palli, Dr. B. Sandhya Rani, Dr. B. Naresh and Dr. B. Agaiah Goud
Aim: To know the indication and safety procedure of hysterectomy in urban & rural women of Warangal district. Objectives:  To analyze the relation between predisposing factors and hysterectomy with the help of a survey.  To bring awareness on predisposing factors that leads to hysterectomy by changing their life style modifications.  To know the safe and effective surgical procedures of hysterectomies  To know the percentage of hysterectomies in urban and rural areas. Methodology: A Suitably designed Data collection form was prepared for patients which includes demographic details of the patient such as age, gender, weight, status, occupation, reason for admission, laboratory data of hematology, biochemistry, USG of uterus, type of surgery, indication for surgery, medication chart, follow up.Statistical analysis was performed by using meanPaired T- test and single factor –ANOVA test are used in the study for probability estimation mean is also used to estimate the safe surgical procedures for hysterectomy and major indications for hysterectomy. Results: In our study 150 patient who underwent Hysterectomy, were enrolled in which 81 urban and 69 rural with various predisposition factors and various surgical procedures as subjects. The role of predisposing factors, severity of indications, USG impression and cost effectively helps the physician to make the decision for type of hysterectomy to be conducted. The majority of the patients are reported from urban residence are at 54% and rural are at 46%. In 150 patients, 150 (100%) were married and 0 (0%) were unmarried. working women were 23(15.3%) and housewife were 127(84.7%). The maximum numbers of patients are between the age group of 40-49 years. In 150 patients, patients with AUB were 36(24%), Uterine Fibroid were 66(44%), Uterine Prolapse were 13(8.66%), Adenomyosis were 29(19.3%) and Endometriosis 6(4%). The patient demographic details and mild complications were collected after the surgery until the patient was discharged. In 150 patients, TLH was done for 93, AH was done for 37 and VH was done for 20. The maximum type of surgery is TLH (62%), AH (25%) and VH (13%). The significance of surgical procedure was compared with eachother at p=0.05.TLH (p=0.118512), AH (0.131877), VH (p=0.14792 there is a significance difference between the type of surgical procedures. TLH is more significant followed by AH and VH.TLH is safer followed by AH and VH as the average of the total is least i.e., 1.612903±0.084365, 4.05405±0.13373 and 7.5±0.109746 respectively. Bleeding is the least complication followed by blood in urine, raise in temperature, abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: our study subjects, the family history, obesity, stress, menopausal stage and diet habits are found to be predisposing factors for development of indications like adenomyosis, endometriosis, uterine fibroid, uterine prolapse, abnormal uterine bleeding which are responsible for conducting hysterectomy. Urban woman is more prone with above mentioned complications thus underwent hysterectomy. Uterine fibroid is the most common indication for hysterectomy, TLH is the safe and effective procedure for hysterectomy when compared with vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy.
479 DISPOSAL OF BLOOD CONTAMINATED GAUZE PACKS BY ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY PATIENTS IN SOUTH INDIA: A SURVEY , *Dr. Md. Zeeshan Arif and Dr. Kritika Rai
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if adequate instructions were given to patients after oral surgical procedures and to assess the possible risk of cross contamination due to incorrect disposal of blood contaminated gauze packs by patients. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted amongst 95 oral and maxillofacial surgeons and 210 patients between January 2019 and March 2019. Separate questionnaires were sent electronically consisting of six questions for both, the oral and maxillofacial surgeons as well as the patients. Results: The results of the survey showed that none of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons provided instructions on how to dispose the blood contaminated gauze packs or provide a self-sealing bag for disposal of the same. Most patients did not follow a proper method for disposal of gauze packs and more than half of them readjusted the gauze pack with bare hands. None of the patients were aware of the correct method of disposal of the gauze pack if they had blood transmittable diseases. Conclusion: There is a need to enhance the education of oral and maxillofacial surgeons and increase patient awareness so as to minimize the risk of cross infections and to create specific policies and guidelines regarding disposal of gauze packs.
480 FAMOTIDINE SOLID DISPERSION AND ADMINISTRATION BY ORAL ROUTE , Jagpal Singh*, Jonny Kumar and Anuj Kumar
Background: famotidine is a H2 Blockers drugs having a component of low aqueous solubility and less oral bioavailability. Its need to develop of solubility and dissolution rate obtained for good therapeutic effect. Materials and Methods: The objectives of famotidine current work to formulation of solid dispersion (SDs) by kneading method for aqueous solubility enhancement. The low solubility problems were eliminated by preparing the solid dispersion using the poloxamer 188 as hydrophilic carrier. Result and Conclusion: The Famotidine tablets of solid dispersion characterized by employing solubility, FTIR, friability test, disintegration test, wetting time in-vitro drug release. The high value of solubility of Famotidine (FAM) solid dispersion were prepared Successfully, enhance dissolution rate and bioavailability.
481 CHEMISTRY OF BENZIMIDAZOLE AND THEIR DERIVATIVES: MINI REVIEW , Rohit Verma*, Chitra Gupta, Ali Mohd Ganie, Vaibhav Kumar, Sanjay Singh and P.K. Singh
Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound containing nitrogen. This bicyclic compound is formed by the fusion of benzene with imidazole ring. It is a vital Pharmacophore and privileged structure in medicinal chemistry which exhibits various therapeutic activities like antiulcer, antihypertensive, analgesic, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer and antihistaminic. The disease conditions targeted by these activities are discussed. The present article extensively covers various procedures of synthesis of 2- substituted benzimidazole and its analogs by utilizing different catalysts, solvent conditions, reactants and microwave irradiation with the aim to obtain an inexpensive, eco-friendly, less time-consuming procedure which ensures good yield and quick isolation of the pure product. Presence of benzimidazole nucleus in numerous categories of therapeutic agents such as antimicrobials, antivirals, antiparasites, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, proton pump inhibitors, antihypertensives, anticoagulants, immunomodulators, hormone modulators, CNS stimulants as well as depressants, lipid level modulators, antidiabetics, etc. has made it an indispensable anchor for development of new therapeutic agents. This review is summarized to know about the chemistry of benzimidazole and their derivatives of substituted benzimidazole along with their physical and chemical properties. We demonstrate the change in properties of benzimidazole with change in their structure, their isomers, uses and their pharmacological activity.
482 A REVIEW ON HOLY IMPROVING PLANT NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS LINN. (NIGHT JASMINE) WITH MONSTER THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES , Indu Mittal*, Dr. Mohd. Javed Naim, Dr. Amarjeet Singh, Suraj Mandal
The current study of this review is exploration and compiling the comprehensive information of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn and find out some medicinal values, therapeutic use, chemical properties, pharmacological actions and some of biological activities so can emphasizes the need for further exploring available information. A traditional plant Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn is a most useful medicinal plant found in India. Every part of this plant having different kind of medicinal properties and values thus it is commercially exploitable. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn commonly known as Harsingar or Parijat is a traditional herbal medicine which is being used to treat the rheumatism and inflammatory diseases. It is also known as a night jasmine. Night jasmine is widely distributed in sub-Himalayan regions to southwards to Godavari.
483 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT OF FLUEGGEA LEUCOPYRUS WILLD , Suresh J. and Saravana Ganthi A.*
Plants are the unending source for a number of compound which can maintain the health of human being plant have been the corner stone of pharmacy not only in ancient times but alsoin the area of modern drug discovery. The plant Flueggea leucopyrus Willd. is belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The plant has been utilized in traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, asthma, bowel complaints and sterilizations, intestinal medicines for loose bowels, gonorrhea, clogging and emotional sickness and kidney stones. In the present work, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis were carried out in leaf, stem and root powder extract of F. leucopyrus. The preliminary phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of leaf, stem and root powder extracts shows the presence of chemical compound like alkaloids, flavonoids, protein, carbohydrates, phenol, saponins and tannins. Quantitative estimation of mineral shows significant amount of total calcium, total magnesium, manganese and iron. Total alkaloid and total flavonoid content was comparative more in root samples. The presence of these phytochemicals may contribute medicinal as well as physiological properties to the plant studied in the treatment of different ailments.
484 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS LEAVES , Praveen Kumar Dasari*, Gannamaneni Jagruthi Sai, Bathula Naga Vara Laxmi Kumari, Medidhi Keerthana, Tanuku Satyanarayana
The present research work deals with determination of phytochemical constituents and anthelmintic activity of Thuja occidentalis leaves of Cupressaceae family were identified in order to relate their presence with bioactivities of the plants. The research find highlights that methanolic extracts of Thuja occidentalis had the highest number of phytochemicals compared to other solvent extracts. Hence, methanolic extracts of Thuja occidentalis holds the greatest potential to treat various human diseases and has profound medical applicability. In-vitro anthelmintic activity was evaluated by taking adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma having anatomical and physiological resemblance with intestinal roundworms. The earthworms were washed in normal saline solution before they were placed in to 10ml of respective formulation. To observe anthelmintic activity, all the investigations were carried out by methanolic extract with different concentrations of 10, 20, 50mg/ml, significant activity like time of paralysis and time of death were noted. At highest concentrations of 50mg/ml, a significant anthelmintic activity was observed and compared with piperazine citrate (10, 20, 50mg/ml as standard reference and distilled water as control. Herbal drugs and synthetic drugs were equally effective in helminthic infestations but methanolic extract of Indian medicinal plants exhibits potentiality and have maximum anthelmintic activity.
485 AWARENESS REGARDING STREET FOOD HYGIENE AMONG VENDORS OF BHARTPUR METROPOLITIAN CITY , Pramila Adhikari and Sabita Sharma*
Background: Street food is ready-to-eat food and beverages found in the street which can transmit multiple harmful bacteria via the food chain and can result in morbidity and mortality due to food-borne diseases. This study aimed to assess the awareness regarding street food hygiene among vendors at Bharatpur Metropolitan City near a Narayani River Bank. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 83 street food vendors near Narayani River Bank of Bharatpur Metropolitan City. Sample were selected by using Non-Probability Consecutive sampling method. Data was collected by using Structured interview schedule. Obtained data were analyzed in IPM SPSS 20 software version by using descriptive statistics, chi square test and fisher’s exact test. Results: Findings revealed that respondents were from the age between 18 to 65 years and also noted a nearly equal percentage of vendors of both genders (male=50.6%, female=49.4), whereas less than one fourth (18.1%) respondents were illiterate. As far as experience, the median years of work experience were 3 years with an inter-quartile range of 6 and nearly more than half(57.8%) of respondents attended the food training program. Regarding awareness, less than half(44.6%) of respondents had an adequate level of awareness regarding street food hygiene whereas a level of awareness regarding street food hygiene was significantly associated with attending a food training program at p=0.012 level of significance. Conclusions: In conclusion, a considerable proportion of vendors are not aware of street food hygiene. Attending food training tends to influence the level of awareness of street food hygiene. So, it is recommended that the local level management committee of street food vendors should make a concerned effort to provide food training regarding street food hygiene.
486 FAMOTIDINE AS COVID-19 APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY AND REDUCES MORTALITY , Dr. Jagpal Singh*, Jonny Kumar, Abdul Mannan and Bhawna Sharma
Despite multiple trials that are currently underway to investigate the safety and efficacy of a large number of possible therapeutic agents, no drug available to reduced COVID-19 mortality. The famotidine is commonly used for gastric acid suppression but has recently affected and achieved via its antagonism of histamine -2 receptor, inferring that the SARS-CoV-2 infection that results in COVID-19 occurs, can be partially medicated by pathological histamine release. As histamine-2 receptor antagonist, famotidine is a therapeutic option in COVID-19 positive patient therapy.
487 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON EMULGEL: A NEW APPROACH FOR ENHANCED TOPICAL DRUG DELIVERY , Rani J. Rode*, Gouri R. Dixit, Kanchan P. Upadhye, Suparna S. Bakhle and Rohit T. Durge
Emulgel is a new approach and recent technology of NDDS for topical drug transport having characteristics of dual controlled release i.e emulsion and gel Emulsion used for treating for muscle pain, headache, acne, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis. When emulsion and gel used in combination its known as Emulgel. Emulgel is transparent gel which is used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic product. Emulgel overcome the problem which is come in gel and emulsion. Gel is a new class of formulation, gel release drug faster in comparison of ointment, cream, lotion etc. Limitation of gel in the delivery of hydrophobic drug through the skin. Overcome the limitation on emulsion based approach is being used so that even a hydrophobic therapeutic moiety can exhibit the unique properties of gels. Emulgel is prepared by different polymers which act as an emulsifying agent and thickening agent because the gelling capacity of these polymers give rise to stable emulsions by decreasing interfacial and surface tension while at the same time increasing the viscosity of the aqueous phase. Emulgel are having major advantages on novel vesicular systems as well as on conventional systems considering various aspects. The emulgel provide several favourable properties for its dermatological use such as greaseless, thixotropic, easily spreadable, emollient, easily removable, non-staining, water soluble, longer shelf life, transparent, bio-friendly and pleasing appearance.
488 INVESTIGATING ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT VARIETY OF FRESH AND DRIED BANANA PEEL EXTRACTS , V. Kavitha* and Dr. G. Manonmani
Banana is one of the valuable sources for maintaining human health. The use of fresh banana peel extractsfor antimicrobial properties can be of great significance in therapeutic treatments. Objective: This study aimed to evaluatethe antibacterial activity of both fresh and dried various banana peel extracts. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic extract of banana peel extracts was subjected to antibacterial efficacy against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the well agar diffusion method. Results: The alcoholic extract of fresh and dried banana peel showed a various inhibitory effect against various microbial isolates. Highest inhibitory effects were observed on Nendran and Poovan against Staphylococcus aureus (13.55 ± 0.04), Bacillus subtilis (13.26 ± 0.02), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.5 ± 0.00). Conclusion: Alcoholic peel extracts of fresh and dried banana could be considered as a good antibacterial agent against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
489 GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A SIGNIFICANT TOOL TO INCREASE THE GASTRIC RESIDENCE TIME OF DRUGS , Kanupriya Choudhary*, Nimrata Seth and N. S. Gill
Writing the review on gastro retentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) was to start up the current literature with a special consequence on several gastro retentive approaches that have become main mode in the field of site-specific orally conduct sustained/controlled release drug delivery. Multi furious ways have been made in research and development to rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems to solve physiological difficulties, like short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET). GRDDS is a tool to prolong the GRT, thereby targeting site-specific drug release in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for local or systemic effect. Oral dosage forms as low bioavailability issues because of their swift gastric transition from the stomach, particularly in the case of drugs that are less soluble at an alkaline pH of the intestine. The drugs that produce their local action in the stomach get quickly emptied and don’t get enough residence time in the stomach. Many efforts have been made to extend the retention time of a drug delivery system to reduce the frequency of dose administration. GRDDS not only prolong dosing intervals but also increase patient compliance beyond the level of existing controlled release dosage forms. This article gives an overview of the advantages, disadvantages, and characterization of gastro retentive drug delivery systems. This also includes commercially available gastro retentive products and patents.
490 REVIEW ARTICLE ON NOVEL OPERATING POLICIES, PURPOSES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE STANDARD PHARMACY PRACTICE FOR INDIAN HOSPITALS , Syed Akmal Shah Qadry*, Pankaj Sharma and Amarjeet Singh
Health and socioeconomic developments are so closely interrelated that it is impossible to achieve one without the other. Although economic development in India has been gaining momentum over the past decade, our health system is at crossroads. Even though government initiatives in public health have recorded some remarkable success over time, the Indian health system is ranked 118 among 191 WHO countries on the health programme. The vision and mission statement of an organization is to help it in preparing the policies and guidelines for its smooth operation. The vision and mission statements need to be published and popularized among the staff and the public as guiding principles for the optimum functioning. The hospital pharmacy should function within the administrative and financial policy of the hospital. Nevertheless, the pharmacy can have its own policy and planning majors to improve the quality and efficiency in service.
491 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTIFUNGAL EFFECTS OF HOME MADE AND COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA SPECIES IN ABAKALIKI , **Orji J. O., Nwankwo C. E, Onwuliri E. A., Oru C. M., Okoye, A. U., Inyogu, J. C., *Agumah, N. B
This study was aimed at comparing the antifungal effects of homemade virgin coconut oil (VCO) and commercially available (VCO) on Vulvovaginal isolates of Candida species. Seventy-two isolates of various Candida species which included C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis and C. krusei were isolated from vaginal swab and endocervical swab specimens of women attending a tertiary hospital in Abakaliki. Agar well diffusion technique was used and the isolates were exposed to serially diluted VCO at dilutions ranging from 1:2, 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16. There were varying degrees of susceptibility and resistance to both homemade and commercially available VCO. Resistance was recorded more with the commercial VCO than the home made VCO. C. albicans, C, glabrata and C, krusei showed less susceptibility and high resistance than the other two species C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis. This study shows a high prospect of Virgin coconut oil being a veritable alternative to contemporary antifungals.
492 PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILE AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF NELSONIA CANESCENS PLANT (LAM.) ACATHECEAE IN MICE MODEL , Hope Morris Nchekwube Ifebi*, Ifeoma Judith Oguejiofor, Charity Chinasa Ezea, Cyril Onyeka Ogbue, Chinenye Henrietta Nedum and Felix Ahamefule Onyegbule
Background: This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacognostic standardization and antidiarrhea effect of Nelsonia canescence plant. However, its antidiarrhea activity of has not been scientifically evaluated, hence this study. Methods: Fresh leaves was collected, dried, powdered and subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. The plant material was cold-macerated in ethanol, the extract was fractionated using liquid-liquid partitioning to obtain n-hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. Pharmacognostic profile, phytochemical analyses, and acute toxicity were determined using standard procedure. The antidiarrheal activity and gastrointestinal motility study of the ethanol extract and fractions were evaluated using standard procedures. Results: Microscopic examination revealed the presence of diacytic stomata, prisms of calcium oxalate crystal, unicellular trichomes. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, proteins, tannins and carbohydrates. The leaves were found to be dark green with acute apex, reticulate veination, bitter taste and pungent smell. Proximate analysis N. canescense revealed moisture content of 7.3 %, ash value of 19.5 %. The LD50 value was found to be greater than 5000mg/kg. N. canescens was established to have a significant antidiarrhea effect. At the dose of 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg, the crude extract showed a significant antidiarrhea activity with percentage inhibition of 53.4, 76.4 and 73.2% respectively. The fractions showed a significant antidiarrhea activity with 100 and 250mg/kg ethylacetate showing extremely significant (P<0.01) antidiarrhea effect. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the ethanol extract and fractions of N. canescense contain bioactive constituents that have antidiarrheal activity. Therefore, this study provides a scientific support for its acclaimed traditional use in the treatment of diarrheal.
493 CYTOMEGALOVIRUS COLITIS IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: RISK FACTORS FOR CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT COLITIS AND COLECTOMY , García-Gavilán Maria Carmen*, Fernández-Pérez Francisco, Pérez-Salguero Teresa and Fernández-Sánchez Fernando
Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a frequent cause of infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has been linked with a poor prognosis. Its diagnosis is currently made by immunohistochemistry staining or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of intestinal tissue samples. Material and Methods: Retrospective study of patients with IBD and confirmed CMV-colitis, diagnosed from January-2010 to June-2019 at the Costa del Sol Hospital. Risk factors associated to clinically significant colitis (CSC) and colectomy were evaluated. Results: Thirty patients (median of age 49 years), 29 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and one with Crohn´s disease (CD), were included. Most of our patients were immunocompromised (83,3%) due to the use of immunosuppressive medication, and 56,7% showed a steroid-refractory colitis. In 23 out of 30 patients (75.9%) the established criterion for clinically significant colitis was met. Of all patients with CMV-colitis, 89,3% resolved the infection and 7,1% relapsed. At the end of study follow-up, 5 patients (16,7%) required an emergency or scheduled colectomy. Male gender (p = 0.030) and the severe endoscopic activity (p = 0.032) were risk factors for CSC, while malnutrition was the single risk factor related to colectomy (p = 0,003). Conclusions: In our study some patients presented with severe colitis needing antiviral treatment and in others CMV did not seem to have an important prognostic role. Male sex and the endoscopic inflammatory activity were risk factors of CSC. Malnutrition was the only risk factor related to colectomy.
494 HUMAN CORONAVIRUS: CURRENT EVIDENCE & EXPLORATIONS , Amrita Masanta and Shikha Singh*
A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, and previously known as 2019-nCoV) is a responsible for a severe respiratory disease that spreads from Wuhan City, China to rest of the world by early of December 2019. World Health Organization (WHO), on 30 January 2020, officially announced the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic as a serious public health disaster of international concern. By 12 February, 2020, around 45000 clinical confirmed a COVID-19 positive case has been recorded and almost 1100 individuals killed worldwide. Recognized exposure of achieving disease has forced many governance to establish a modification in control measure. Hence, we manage to design a review literature rely on the availability of global and national information to compile the knowledge against the virus and the recent pandemic. This review article consist the classification of pathogen, epidemiology, transmission of disease, clinical symptoms, risk factors, disease diagnosis and treatments, clinical outcomes along with control & prevention approaches are all outlined and reviewed.
495 A REVIEW ON PALONOSETRON - A POTENT 5-HT3 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND ITS THERAPEUTIC USES , Pungsh Tadar, Manikanta Murahari and Mohammad Azamthulla*
5-HT3 receptor antagonist have major role play in the management of neuro psychiatric and GIT disorders. Palonosetron is a newly generated 2nd generation of 5HT3 receptor antagonist. FDA first approved Palonosetron in 2003 for prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy and used as antiemetic agent. It also used in pediatric patients to control sickness. The first generation of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist such as ondansetron, granisetron, dolasetron and tropisetron are found to have similar efficacies in preventing acute cancer induced nausea and vomiting. Palonosetron hydrochloride is white to grayish, non-hygroscopic, glasslike powder, uninhibitedly dissolvable in water and dissolvable in methanol. It has two chiral focuses while the dynamic substance in the item comprises of a solitary stereoisomer. Palonosetron hydrochloride is known to show polymorphism. Its chemical name is (3aS)- 2-[(3S)- 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-l]- 2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-benz[de]-isoquinolin-1-one hydrochloride relating to the atomic equation C19H24N2O·HCl and has an overall sub-atomic mass of 332.87g/mol. The pharmacokinetics of Palonosetron have half-life around 40 hours and shows to be broadly appropriated in the body, bound to plasma proteins at an extent of 62%, processed by cytochrome P450 compounds, basically CYP2D6, with minor commitments from CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 and eliminates through urine. This review highlights the therapeutic, pharma kinetic and pharmacological properties of palonosetron that have been reported since 2003 and also displays the gaps in our knowledge about both the compounds and its characteristic limitations which deserves more exploration.
496 REVIEW ARTICLE ON MANILKARA HEXANDRA (KHIRNI) , Amandeep Kaur* and Dr. Naresh Singh Gill
Manilkara hexandra commonly known as Rayan and Khirni is an evergreen tree species with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in South Asia chiefly in western and central India, belongs to family Sapotaceae. The genus Manilkara includes 135 plants that are distributed Worldwide. Sapotaceae family consists of 58 genus and just about 1250 species with morphological variation, ranging from shrubs to medium and giant trees. Brazil comprises of 11 genera, and 231 species, covering 1 endemic genus, and 104 endemic species. The plant has been famous for its curative properties and has been put to use for treatment of various ailments suchlike ulcer, bronchitis, jaundice, fever, hyper dyspepsia, arthritis and alimentary disorders. A record of the literature show extracts and metabolites from this plant having pharmacological properties such as anti–inflammatory, antiulcer, aphrodisiac, alexipharmic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, and free radical scavenging activity. Apart from medicinal uses, plant has high scale value because of its edible and nutritive fruit, useful wood, latex and bark and contributes substantial livelihood support to local inhabitants.
497 MOUTH DISSOLVING FILMS: AN INNOVATIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Ravi S. K.* and V. Chandrakala
Now a days new techniques are developing in every sector, many of the pharmaceutical groups are focusing their research on mouth dissolving technology. Mouth Dissolving Films technology is gaining much attention. Dosage forms like tablets, syrup and injections are expensive and time consuming, so developing the innovative drug delivery for the existing drug have been done. Mouth dissolving film is the Novel drug delivery system consisting of a very thin oral strip which gives onset of action, without drinking water or swallowing. Mouth Dissolving Films evolved over the past few years from the confection and oral care markets in the form of breath strips and has become a novel delivery system. Hence it gives site specification and local action and leads to better bioavailability of drug. The formulation is convenient for pediatrics, geriatrics and bedridden patients. This review describes about the formulation methodology, evaluation parameters and the future aspects of mouth dissolving films.
498 AN AYURVEDIC APPROACH IN LUNG CANCER , Prajwal H. N.*, Nataraj H. R., Gazala Hussain, Sri Krishna S. and Sowmya K. S.
Lung cancer or bronchogenic carcinoma refers to tumors originating in the lung parenchyma or within bronchi. It is the leading cause of cancer death and is attributed to more than 25% of all cancer deaths. The estimated incidence of lung cancer in India was 70,275 in all ages and both genders. Primary lung cancer is typically divided into two main histopathological types: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC accounts for 85% of lung cancer cases, including three main subtypes, namely adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and large cell carcinoma (LCC). The treatments for lung cancer mainly include surgical resection and chemotherapy which have their own side effects. In Ayurveda many single & compound formulations have proved to have anti- cancerous effect by different researches carried out. Hence here an attempt is made to analyse the disease and its management through Ayurveda.
499 POLYMERS USED IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY: AN OVERVIEW , Hemalatha P. C.* and Dr. V. Chandrakala
Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms that involve drug transport to viable epidermal and or dermal tissues of the skin for local therapeutic effect while a very major fraction of drug is transported into the systemic blood circulation. It is one of the best pharmaceutical dosage forms for patients, who cannot take medicaments orally. On the application of transdermal patches, the delivery of the drug across the dermis gives the systemic effect. Advances in transdermal delivery systems (TDS) and the technology involved have been rapid because of the sophistication of polymer science which now allows the incorporation of polymeric additives in TDS in adequate quantity.[1] Careful polymer selection is essential to control the drug loading, release rate, and duration of release. Many polymers can be formulated into various drug delivery systems to address the controlled release, Targeted delivery and solubility enhancement strategies enable improved drug efficacy. The most critical factor in polymer selection is considering the interaction of the drug and polymer. Polymer selection will determine the mechanism of drug release (bulk erosion, system degradation) and the choice of polymer properties (molecular weight, surface charge) will influence release rate and impact pharmacokinetics. This article summarizes the factors contributing to polymers for the formulation aspects of the transdermal drug delivery system and emphasizes the selection criteria and various release patterns of polymers. In addition, Applications, Manufacturing considerations and recent developments of TDDS have also been reviewed.[2]
500 A REVIEW ON SOLID DISPERSION AND IT’S APPLICATION , Ravina N. Pounikar*, Dr. Mrs. Suparna S. Bakhale, Jayshree V. Motghare, Anuja Bhure, Madhav Korde
Poor solubility of drugs is a major challenge in the formulation development. Solid dispersion is introduced as a novel means for enhancement of solubility. Solid dispersion may be defined as a set of solid products comprising of at least two diverse components, usually hydrophilic matrix and hydrophobic drug. Depending on nature of carriers the immediate release solid dispersions and/or controlled release solid dispersions can be formulated. This matrix may be crystalline or amorphous in nature. As per biopharmaceutical classification system class II drugs are with low solubility and high permeability and are the promising candidates for improvement of solubility as well as bioavailability by means of solid dispersion. The carriers used previously were mostly synthetic one. Recent trend towards the use of natural carriers have replaced the use of synthetic carriers. This review is the overview of various synthetic, natural, semisynthetic, modified natural hydrophilic carriers used for formulation of solid dispersions. Since a solid dispersion is basically a drug–polymer two-component system, the drug– polymer interaction is the determining factor in its design and performance. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of solid dispersions both in the solid state and in dissolution, emphasizing the fundamental aspects of this important technology Practical aspects pertaining to preparation of solid dispersions, like the selection of carrier, drugs molecular arrangement in these preparations are discussed in this article. Proposed article highlights the various preparation techniques of solid dispersion, characterization, available recent technologies, marketed preparation, future prospective etc.
501 PHARMACEUTICAL CO-CRYSTAL: A TECHNIQUE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DRUGS , *Tejaswini W. Fulzele, Swati K. Turkar, Dr. Mrs. Gauri R. Dixit, Dr. Mrs. Suparna S. Bakhle
In development of new product major constraints are poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability. Crystallization emerge as potential technique for enhancement of solubility of poorly aqueous soluble drugs also helps to improve physicochemical with preserving the pharmacological properties of the API. Cocrystals are solids that are crystalline single-phase materials composed of two or more different molecular and/or ionic compounds generally in a stoichiometric ratio which are neither solvates/hydrates nor simple salts. It is multicomponent system in which one component is API and another is called coformer. Coformer selection is the main challenging step during cocrystal synthesis, so various screening methods for the selection of coformers was explained. This article also summarizes differences between cocrystals with salts, solvates and hydrates along with the implications and limitations of cocrystals. It also provides a brief review on different methods of cocrystal formation and characterization technique of cocrystals.
502 MICROSPHERES: AN APPROACH FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES , Usha Rani S.*
The concept of targeted drug delivery is designed for attempting to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest while reducing the relative concentration of the medication in the remaining tissues. As a result, drug is localized on the targeted site. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. So, carrier technology offers an intelligent approach for drug delivery by coupling the drug to a carrier particle such as microspheres, nanoparticles, liposomes, niosomes etc which modulates the release and absorption characteristics of the drug. Microspheres are characteristically free flowing powders consisting of proteins or synthetic polymers which are biodegradable in nature and ideally having a particle size less than 200 μm. It is the reliable means to deliver the drug to the target site with specificity, if modified, and to maintain the desired concentration at the site of interest without untoward effects. Microspheres received much attention not only for prolonged release, butnal so for targeting of anticancer drugs to the tumour. In future by combining various other strategies, microspheres will find the central place in novel drug delivery, particularly in diseased cell sorting, diagnostics, gene & genetic materials, safe, targeted and effective in vivo delivery and supplements as miniature versions of diseased organ and tissues in the body.
503 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, ESR STUDIES, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF COPPER COMPLEXES WITH 5, 5-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE 1, 3-DIONE DERIVATIVES , Kavita S. Mundhe*
Many Schiff bases are medicinally important hence used to design medicinal compounds. Chelation with metal may increase the biological activity of the Schiff bases. Transition metal complexes of O-donor ligands possess antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity. Transition metal complexes of N-donor ligands (Schiff bases) showed anti-Candida activities. Copper complexes are important due to the variety in their coordination chemistry, technical applications, catalysis, spectroscopic properties, anion selectivity, and their biological significance. Taking into consideration the important applications of these compounds the study of dimedone derivatives and their copper complexes have been carried out. The copper complexes of 5, 5-dimethyl-3-(phenylimino) cyclohexanone (L1), 5, 5 -dimethyl-3-(o-phenylimino) cyclohexanone (L2), 5,5-dimethyl-3-(m-phenylimino) cyclohexanone (L3), 5,5-dimethyl-3-(p-phenylimino) cyclohexanone (L4) have been synthesized. The synthesized complexes are characterized by using magnetic measurements, thermogravimetric analysis and spectral techniques. These metal complexes have been evaluated for their antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity. It is observed that the Schiff bases coordinated to metal ions through amine nitrogen and oxygen of carbonyl group. The anti microbial study shows that the metal complexes show better activity against bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus in comparison to the ligands. The copper complex shows significant anthelmintic activity.
504 OVERVIEW OF PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF SYZYGIUM AQUEUM , Manuvarthi Sushma*, Atluri Bhavana and K. Padmalatha
In the last few decades there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in traditional methods of practice such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Medicinal components from plants play an important role in conventional as well as western medicine. They were the sole source of active principles capable of curing man‟s ailments. Thus natural products have been a major source of drugs for centuries. Syzygium aqueum, commonly called „water apple‟ belonging to the family Myrtaceae is a tropical, evergreen and low growing small tree. Syzygium aqueum, consisting of various fruit colors, is one of the plants that have been used as traditional medicine. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethanobotanical and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on Syzygium aqueum.
505 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ALLAMANDA CATHARATICA LOADED EMULGEL , Vikas Srivastav*, Swarnima Pandey and Dr. Amresh Gupta
The objective of the present work was formulation of emulsion containing allamanda cathartica in a gel topical delivery system(emulgel) for management of wound. Crude extract of Allamanda Cathartica leaves were subjected to various chemical test for the identification of different active phytoconstituents. The ethanolic extract shows the presence of tannin, Phlobatannin and saponin. Emulgel was prepared and different concentration of HPMC and propylene glycol were used. six batches were prepared with 1% concentration of gelling agent. Out of six batches (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6) F5 showed good spreadibility and drug release in comparison with other batches. The selected batch was of greenish colour, semisolid consistency, neutral pH and without any grittiness. Spreadibility and in vitro release were found to be 17.20 cm and 79.40%.
506 REVIEW ON VARIOUS POSSIBLE PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN , Suhas Ashok Mane*, Dr. Shubhangi Bhaskar Sutar, Dr. Sandip Bandgar and Dr. Sachinkumar Patil
Psidium guajava is an important food crop and medicinal plant available in tropical and subtropical countries, widely used in food and folk medicines around the world. The photochemical and pharmacological investigations carried out on P. guajava validate the immense potential of this plant in the treatment of numerous diseases. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to exhibit antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anticancer activities and it supports the traditional uses. This is a comprehensive of the phytoconstituents and pharmacological benefits.
507 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE VERSUS METHOTREXATE IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS , Madasu Venkata Sai Lakshmi Priyanka*, Dasari Naga lakshmi, Gongati Rajanikanth Reddy, P.V.S.N. Vimala, Dr. Shaik Faizan Ali Pharm.D, PGDPV, PGDCA (Ph.D) and Dr. Amarnath Surath (Orthopaedic Surgeon)
Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Methotrexate(MTX) versus hydroxychloroquine(HCQ) in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis. Materials and methods: This prospective study involves 100 patients who were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and those who met the study criteria were enrolled for the study.Relevant data such as demographic details, past medical history,drug name were collected from out- patient profile form and by patient interview. Statistical Analysis: All the raw data was collected, entered in Excel sheet 2010 in windows 10 version, the statistical analysis was done in SPSS 16.0 Software by an appropriate statistical method, paired sample T-test for knowing the significant p-value <0.05(confidence interval 95%). Results: Among 100 patients, 50% of patients have received the drug, Hydroxychloroquine(HCQ) (400 mg/day p.o), 50% patients have received the drug, Methotrexate(MTX)(15 mg/week in divided doses p.o).The study shows that Hydroxychloroquine group having remission rate of 4%(2 patients out of 50) with the remission value <2.6 and shown to be significant with p value < 0.05. Methotrexate group being assessed having remission rate of 8% (4 patients out of 50) with the remission value of <2.6 which is found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) and there is significance decrease in Erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR). Conclusion: In our study we have observed that methotrexate was more effective in managing rheumatoid arthritis when compared to hydroxychloroquine by comparing the DAS28 score of both groups.Pain and inflammation also reduced by avoiding further exacerbation of condition.
508 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MATRIX TABLETS OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM , Vinod Babaleshwar*, Vinod Reddy, Vitthal Vijapure and Prashant Jorapur
The current study was designed to develop sustained release matrix tablets of losartan potassium used to treat hypertension. The sustained release matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method using different polymer ratio with the drug, nine such formulations were prepared (F1 to F9). The polymers with hydrophilic (HPMC) and hydrophobic (Ethyl cellulose) nature as well as one natural polymer (Gaur Gum) were used. The drug compatibility with the excipients was evaluated. The compatibility showed by formulations was in compliance with the limits prescribed in pharmacopoeia. The formulation F7 showed remarkable pre-compression and post compression parameters when compared with other formulations as it had robust nature with optimum hardness, uniformity weight and friability. In-vitro dissolution study of F7 showed the sustained release of drug losartan potassium (96.26%) release at the end of 12th hrs. Increased polymer ratio showed decrease in release kinetics of drugs.
509 MANAGEMENT OPTIONS IN SPLENIC TRAUMA – OUR EXPERIENCE , Dr. Rijumani Das, Dr. Jnandeep Sarma, *Dr. Hussain Ahmed, Dr. Partha Pratim Das,
Introduction: The spleen is a lymphoreticular organ situated in upper left quadrant of the abdomen which is extremely friable and highly vascular organ, and very prone to injury during trauma to abdomen (both blunt and penetrating, although more common in blunt trauma). Splenic trauma is most commonly seen to occur following motor vehicle accidents (RTA), though it can also result following falls, sport related activities or assault. Materials and Methods: During the period of study from 1st June 2018 to 31st May 2019, 50 patients with splenic trauma admitted in Department of Surgery, GMCH were taken up for the purpose of study. Appropriate investigations like hematological investigations, X-ray chest and abdomen, ultrasonography, CT scan and angiography were done as required in those cases of splenic injury. Either non-operative or operative management was done in these cases depending upon the situation. Results and Observations: Our study population comprised 50 patients of splenic injury following blunt trauma out of which 46 patients were male (92%) and 4 patients were female (8%) with a ratio of 11.5:1. Majority of the cases were observed in second and third decade of life and the most common cause was found to be motor vehicle accidents (60%). 28 patients (56%) presented with mild to severe pain abdomen, 14 patients (28%) with distension of abdomen, 10 patients (20%) with dyspnoea, 5 patients (10%) with vomiting and 4 patients (8%) with oliguria. Physical findings on abdominal examination in order of frequency were tenderness in 27 cases (54%), abdominal distension in 14 patients (28 %), tenderness in chest in 14 patients (28%), shock in 5 patients (10%), rigidity in 6 cases (12%), absent bowel sound in 2 patients (4%) and pallor in 8 patients (16%). Out of 50 patients with splenic injury, 12 patients (24%) had associated chest injury, 10 patients (20 %) had renal injury, 10 patients (20 %) had hepatic injury, 5 patients (10%) had head injury and 4 patients (8%) had bowel injury. Most of the patients, i.e., 5 in numbers were operated within 7-12 hours of presentation to hospital (28.56 %). All the operative procedure were splenectomy. Conclusion: It has been found that splenic injury is very common following road traffic accidents, that too, among the male population between the age of 15-25 years. Careful physical examination is the key factor in early diagnosis. Investigation reports are complementary to physical findings. Great number of patients, except a few, sustaining blunt abdominal injury can be saved, provided they reach the hospital early. Early hospitalization, better methods of diagnosis, proper timely surgical intervention, availability of blood transfusion, close clinical observation and nursing care are have allowed reliable identification of variables that can guide the surgeon either to immediate laparotomy, angiography, or a non-operative course.
510 MOLECULAR DOCKING OF CHROMONE DERIVATIVES COMPARE WITH IBUPROFEN BY THE PAR1 RECEPTORS AS AN ANITIINFLAMMATORY AGENTS , Datta Avhad*, Dinesh Chaple, Pratyush Kumar, Neha Dubey and Nikita Naidu
Inflammation is the widely spread symptoms of the different serious condition of disease its responsible the chemical and internal factors. In this find out the best affinity towards the crystal structure of muirne thrombin complex with the extracellular fragment of murine PAR3 (PDB ID: 2PUX) which controls the inflammation. Flavonoids category must shows the anti-inflammatroy actions here using chromone derivatives. The Default parameters of the software program have been applied similar to the protocol followed elsewhere. Briefly, Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm (LGA) with default atomic salvation parameters 126 Å (x, y, and z) grid box in ratio of (60:60:60) for scoring energy was set at co-ordinates as X = 24.320; Y = 25.104 and Z = 26.480 with 0.375 angstroms grid points spacing. Care was given during the grid box preparation to ensure that the active site of receptor was surrounded by the 3D grid box centered at its active ligand binding site location. Camparison between the standard and synthesized derivatives then found to be same amino acid present in Ibuprofen and 5-Nitro-2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one Leu:99; His:57; Tyr:60A; Lys:60F; Asn:98; Glu:97A; Trp:60D; Ile:174; Trp:215. Potent comp 1a studied details about their structural and predicted properties by online molinspoiration calculator.
511 UV SPECTROSCOPIC ESTIMATION OF LEVOSULPIRIDE IN BULK DRUG AND FORMULATIONS , Kumar Raja Jayavarapu*, M. Sai Harsha Sriya, CH. Hima Bindu, CH. Hyma, B. Naveen, Dr. T. Satyanarayana
A simple and sensitive uv spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Levosulpiride in tablet dosage form was described. From the solubility data phosphate buffer (pH 8) was used as solvent and shows absorption maximum at 291 nm. The Beer’s Law range is 10-100 μg/ml. The linear regression for method found to be 0.999. When tablet dosage forms where analyzed, the results obtained by the proposed methods are in good agreement with the labelled amount and the developed method was validated statistically as per ICH guidelines. Conclusion: The developed method is simple, sensitive, specific and can be successfully employed in routine analysis of Levosulpiride Pharmaceutical dosage forms.
512 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ACECLOFENAC TOPICAL EMULGELS , *Varsha Singh and Sangeeta Singh
Aceclofenac is a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) having a remarkable analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic potential. Chemically it is named as (2-[(2,6- dichlorophenyl) amine] or phenylacetoxya acetic acid. So, this research was based on designing and formulation of topical aceclofenac emulgel with different and suitable gelling agents with different ratio of mixing and evaluation of same by following standard parameters. Firstly, preformulation studies were done to make sure the raw materials are of quality grade. The different emulgels were formulated as Aceclofenac (API), API + Span 20, API + Tween 20, API + Carbopol 934, API + HPMC K4 M, API + Liq. Paraffin, API + Propylene Glycol, API + Menthol and API + Methyl Paraben. The emulgels were evaluated for various parameters such as physical tests, rheological properties, estimation of pH, skin irritation test, in-vitro drug release and swelling index. The different formulations of Emulgels were evaluated for their rheological properties. Formulation no. 1, 2 and 3 were analyzed at RPM 0.2. At shear stress of 165.8 for F1 demonstrated the viscosity of 13950. For F2 at shear stress 170.6 the viscosity was noted as 15526. At last, for F3 at shear stress of 170.6 the viscosity was found as 14526. The in-vitro drug release study was recorded from 0.5 hr to 8 hrs. The amount of drug was found to be 1.32mg, 1.31mg and 1.31mg in 1 gm of Emulgel formulation no. 1, 2 and 3. This research comes under the New Drug Delivery System (NDDS) that enhances the new approach in frequent dermal delivery of loaded Aceclofenac topical emulgel.
513 CONCEPT OF TRIVIDHA KARMA W.S.R POORVAKARMA PRADHANKARMA AND PASHCHATKARMA IN SHALYATANTRA VYADHIS , *Dr. Prerana Santosh Bandekar and Dr. Rashmi Dike
Ayurveda is an ancient science of life since the time of immemorial. In Ayurvedic classics, there is two types of treatment for all diseases, either with use of Aushadhi (medicines) or by use of surgery. In Ayurveda the 3 phases of Surgical procedure explained in the name of Trividha karma namely, Poorva karma or Preoperative measures, Pradhana karma or Operative procedures, Paschat karma or postoperative care.[1] Karma refers to all the procedures and also indicates the timing of the surgical operations. Every shastra karma has definite Preoperative procedure called as Poorva karma, Operative procedure called as Pradhana karma, Postoperative procedure called as Paschat karma. The word Poorva karma means a former action. The therapeutic procedure which are adopted before the commencement of Pradhana karma. Pradhana karma is the second step under Trividha karma. It refers to therapeutical or surgical procedures. Paschat karma indicated the measures taken after the therapeutical or surgical procedure. The vyadhis which are treated using Yantra, Shastra, Kshara and Agni are known as Shalya tantra vyadhis.[2]
514 NIOSOMES: PROMISING NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING TARGETING PROPERTIES AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF VARIOUS PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUNDS , Prajakta Ghatage*, Vijaya Govande, Omkar Gurav, Pooja Hupare, Sanyogita Harale, Sandip Bandgar and Sachin Patil
Niosomes acts as a novel drug delivery system, in which the formation of niosomes can take place by using non-ionic surfactants. The particle size of niosomes required must be in the range between 10nm to100nm which is mainly to avoid the fusion and its aggregation. There are many types of niosomes but their types and size mainly depend on the method used for its preparation. There are many factors affecting on the formation of niosomes such as nature of drug, type of surfactants used, cholesterol content and charge, resistance to osmotic stress and temperature of hydration. Various methods are used for separation of un-entrapped drug from final product such as dialysis, gel filtration and centrifugation. There are several routes used for its administration includes oral, parenteral, transdermal, ocular etc. The present article represents the preparation, characterization of niosomes and its effective applications in the drug delivery.
515 REVIEW ON FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF VERAPAMIL BY USING SOLID DISPERSION TABLETS FOR SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT , Manisha K. Pimpalkar*, Swapnali S. Todkar, Akshada V. Deshmukh and S. V. Patil
The goal of the research was to use solid- dispersion via direct compression to increase the solubility and dissolving rate of the medication Verapamil. Solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using PEG 6000 and Urea as carriers. Verapamil solid dispersion was developed by, melt solvent method and to modify the release and enhance solubility of the drug. The used to determine the physical state of the disseminated verapamil in the polymer matrix. By using the direct compression method, verapamil solid dispersions (FT 12) were formed into tablets. Verapamil solid dispersion dissolving was considerably improved as compared to pure drug and physical mixture. The results of this investigation convincingly showed that using water soluble carriers in various solid dispersion processes enhanced the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs.
516 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION, DOCKING STUDIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF ETHYL 3-(5-(2-OXIDO-2-(4-SUBSTITUTED PHENOXY) BENZO[D][1,3,2]DIOXAPHOS PHOL-5-YL)-1H-TETRAZOL-1-YL)THIOPHENE-2-CARBOXYLATES , Y. N. Spoorthy, P. Vijaya Kumar*, T. Sailaja Rani and L. K. Ravindranath
The reaction of ethyl 3-((3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)amino) thiophene-2-carboxylate (5) reacts with phosphorus tri chloride followed by sodium azide in presence znic chloride, sodium acetae in tetrahydrofuran forms ethyl 3-(5-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H–tetrazol-1-yl)thiophene-2-carboxylate (6) which on hydrolysis affords the ethyl 3-(5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1H–tetrazol-1-yl)thiophene-2-carboxylate (7). A new series of ethyl3-(5-(2-oxido-2-(4-substituted phenoxy)benzo[d][1,3,2]dioxaphosphol-5-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)thiophene-2-carboxylates (9a-g) were synthesized from ethyl 3-(5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1H–tetrazol-1-yl)thiophene-2-carboxylate (7) by condensing with 4-substituted phenyl phosphoro dichloridates (8a-g). The structures of these analogues (9a-g) have been established by 1H NMR, IR, Mass spectral data and elemental analysis. This study describes the anti-microbial activity and docking studies of newly synthesized analogues (9a-g).
517 EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF COLDENIA PROCUMBENS , *Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate in-vitro Anti-inflammatory activity of Ethanol and aqueous extracts of whole plant of Coldenia procumbens. It is an annual herb belonging to Boraginaceae family. In the traditional system of medicine, the plant was used as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-diabetic, CNS depressant, hepato protective activity, anti-oxidant activity. Methodology: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of whole plant of Coldeniaprocumbens were used for Anti-inflammatory activity. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of the whole plant of Coldeniaprocumbens were studied for anti-inflammatory activity by protein denaturation, Human Red blood cell membrane stabilization and albumin denaturation method with reference to aspirin. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of Coldeniaprocumbens with reference to aspirin was shown in the parameters. The percentage of inhibition of protein denaturation and percentage of membrane stabilization for ethanol extracts and aspirin was done at 100μg/ml. The ethanol extract of C.procumbens shows anti-inflammatory activity at concentration 1000 μg/ml shows 94% protection (inhibit protein denaturation) and 98% protection (Human red blood cell membrane stabilization). The aqueous extract of C.procumbens shows anti-inflammatory activity at concentration of 1000 μg/ml shows 89% (inhibition of protein denaturation) and 95% protection Human red blood cell membrane stabilization). Conclusions: The result concludes that the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Coldeniaprocumbens possess anti-inflammatory activity properties and further the plant can be explored for isolation of its active constituents.
518 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN. LOADED ANTI-BACTERIAL CREAM , Anchal Srivastava*, Swarnima Pandey and Dr. Amresh Gupta
The main objective of the present study was formulation and evaluation of the antibacterial cream of the leaf extract of the plant bauhinia variegata linn. The antibacterial activity of the leaf extract and developed formulation are tested against the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strain. The other evaluation parameter of formulation like ph of the formulation, spreadability, appearance of the cream, homogeneity, stability, viscocity, drug released and spreadability are also tested. The plant bauhinia variegata linn. are show the various biological activity like Antimicrobial activity, Anti-diabetic action, Anti oxidant, Anti-cancer activity for the treatment of disease. The ethanolic extract of the leaf are further used to formulate the antibacterial cream and evaluate the cream by using the different parameter like ph of the cream is the very important parameter for topical preparation and it was come under the range acceptable. Appearance of the cream was good homogenous, viscosity and spreadability are come under the acceptable range.
519 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BUDESONIDE CONTROLLED RELEASE TABLETS BY USING NATURAL GUM , Dr. Sathya Surya Prasad CH*, G. Dakshayani, V. Manohar, I. Madhuri Priya, J. Dakshayani and S. Chandra Sekhar
The aim of present work was to develop 300mg control release budesonide tablets by using direct compression method. It is a potent glucocorticoid used for the treatment of ulcerative disease and wheezing and shortness of breath caused by asthma. In this work four formulations are selected for the design of budesonide controlled release formulations. In this formulations are prepared by using different concentrations gum karaya as a polymer and different ingredients are used as fillers to develop the formula. The granules and tablets are evaluated by FT-IR, DSC, pre-compression, post-compression parameters and In-vitro dissolution studies. Based on the dissolution studies F4 was selected as an optimized formula because of it gives best results in controlled by drug release manner and best fitted to order of kinetics.
520 ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF COCOS NUCIFERA EXTRACTS ON MICROBIAL PATHOGENS , Dr. P. N. Rajarajan*
The antibacterial activity of extracts of Cocos nucifera, family Arecaceae, had studied against pathogens.The coconut parts were collected from in and around Madurai. In this study selected the different parts of coconut tree they are coconut shell, leave, husk, oil, milk and selected different types of microbial strain Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, E. coli, Klebsiella. In this study selected two different solvents, they are polar solvents and non polar solvents. The two methods follow against antibacterial activity of coconut plant extract. They are agar disc diffusion method & agar well diffusion method. Among the coconut part extracts shell, leaf, husk, milk, has higher antibacterial activity in lowest concentration than the compared to the other. The phytochemical screening of crude extracts shows the presence of tannins, lignin, flavonoid, as secondary metabolites, which may contribute to the antibacterial activity.
521 RESEARCH ARTICLE ON ANTI-BACTERIAL EFFICACY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THYME AND CINNAMON IN TREATMENT OF ACNE VULGARIS , Jaya Bhati*, Amarjeet Singh and Giriraj T. Kulkarni
In current scenario, Herbal Formulations are being treatment of choice, as Allopathy drugs posing harmful side effects and additionally, microbes developing resistance to Allopathy drugs. Hence, the development of herbal formulation is going to be essential for enhancing the patient’s quality of life, safety and avoiding harmful side effects. In this study, we have explored anti-bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Thymus vulgaris and Cinnamomum verum against Propionibacterium acnes.Thymus vulgaris and Cinnamomum verumwere macerated with aqueous-ethanolic solution to get extracts.The formulated proniosomal gel by using surfactants, lecithin, cholesterol with extracts. Formulations were evaluated for its physicochemical parameters and other parameters like TEM, DLS, in vitro study, optical microscopy. The efficacy of Thyme and Cinnamon was determined by evaluating zone of inhibition against standard Clindamycin.The formulated proniosomal gel was found effective against the acne and it was able to kill acne causing bacteria (P.acnes) and provide controlled release upto 24 hours.
522 A CASE REPORT OF PRIMARY RETROPERITONEAL TERATOMA IN A CHILD WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE , Dr. Swagata Dowerah, Dr. Rashmi Deori and *Dr. Kaustubhmoni Gogoi
Introduction: Teratomas belong to a class of tumors known as nonseminomatous germ cell tumors occurring in a decreasing order of frequency in ovary, testis, mediastinum and retroperitoneum. We present a case of primary retroperitoneal teratoma occurring in a child of 1 year 8 months which was successfully resected along with review of literature. Case report: A 1 year 8 month old boy male presented to the pediatric surgery OPD with a lump in the abdomen. The patient was operated upon by the pediatric surgeon and specimen was sent for histopathological examination. On gross examination, a soft tissue specimen measuring 17x12x5cms was noted which was multicystic, grayish-white in colour. Upon cut section, the specimen was multiloculated with solid and cystic parts. The cysts contained sebaceous material. There was also presence of hair arising from within the solid and the cystic parts. On microscopic examination different areas showed presence of a normal looking stratified squamous epithelium mostly and pseudostrafied ciliated columnar epithelium at a few places. The subepithelium contained a few clusters of acinar looking glandular structures along with presence of mature looking sebaceous glands, hair follicles. Immature neuroectodermal components were not seen. The picture was consistent with mature cystic teratoma. Conclusion: Retroperitoneal teratomas are uncommon tumors and mostly benign. The most important factor in the treatment of these tumors is complete surgical resection of the tumor which offers an excellent prognosis.
523 AWARENESS REGARDING EAR INFECTIONS AMONG MOTHERS OF UNDER-5 CHILDREN ATTENDING IN TEACHING HOSPITAL , Pratima Koirala* and Apekshya Poudel
Ear infections is a collective of infective or inflammatory disorders of the middle ear. These infections account for majority of antibiotic prescriptions and surgery in children. Many of the risk factors for ear infections in children could be modified by adopting proper lifestyle changes which helps in control of ear infections and its complications. Descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used to find out awareness regarding ear infections among mothers of under-5 years children. Total 118 mothers were selected by using non-probability purposive sampling technique from pediatric out-patient department of Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur-5, Chitwan and data were collected by using structured interview schedule. The data was entered into IBM SPSS version 20 and analysed in terms of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Out of 118 respondent, median age was 26 with inter-quartile range of 6. More than half 52.5% of respondent were aware about ear infections whereas less than half 47.5% of respondent were unaware about ear infections. Level of awareness regarding ear infections was significantly associated with ethnicity (p=0.006), religion (p=0.002) and respondent child previous history of ear infections (p= 0.003). Level of awareness plays an important role in the care of a child. Mothers knowledge regarding ear infections plays an important role in bringing down the morbidity caused by it. Lifestyle modification such as avoidance of child exposure to cigarette smoke, vaccinating the child, avoidance of bottle feeding etc can prevent ear infections in children.
524 ISOLATION OF MANILKARA HEXANDRA SEEDS FOR ITS PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY , Amandeep Kaur* and Dr. Naresh Singh Gill
Manilkara hexandra seed extract were investigated for its potential of natural antioxidant properties. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extract was evaluated by Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Nitric Oxide (NO) method. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of phytochemicals of the selected medicinal plant and also to check its Antioxidant activity. Cold maceration was used for the organic solvent extraction. Solvent used was methanol. Cardiac glycosides and sterols were detected in the plant tested. With the increase in concentration of seed extract, the antioxidant activity increased proportionally to the maximum activity of 81.61 % at 100μg/mL and 60.5% at 100μg/mL with H2O2 and NO respectively. Our outcomes presented evidence that crude methanolic extract of Manilkara encompass medicinally essential bioactive compounds and it validates their use in the traditional medicines for the medication of several diseases.
525 IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING EFFECTS OF DESH (PLACE/DIRECTIONS) IN PULSE , Dr. Inderjit Kaur* and Shaleen Singh
Diagnosing a patient just by feeling the pulse is the precious art of Ayurveda. With the passage of time and destruction of the Ayurveda and other Vedic texts this art vanished almost. Very few people saved this art and passed it to next generations. This article of mine is an effort to create awareness among coming generations about the importance of this art of pulse diagnosis. How precise and focussed this art is, that too without spending money on instruments. AYURVEDA‟s Tenfold or Eightfold examination includes feeling the pulse to know the physical as well as mental status of the patient so that the treatment is done to remove the reason and giving permanent relief. It also includes knowing the details of the DESH (place) where a patient lives, as every place has different environment and it also affects the mindset and physical body of a patient e.g. North is rich in water element and southeast in fire element. Dr. Vasant Dattatraya Lad has described the effect of directions on the pulse. I have gone a step forward to describe the detail of every direction on body and tried to explain the science working behind it. This article is my effort to create awareness among masses how effective is knowing about affects of a DESH (PLACE) in diagnosis and moreover helpful in giving a permanent solution to the problem. Now a day‟s once a medicine is started, a person has to continue it for years and years as treatment is done for relieving the symptoms not eradicating the reasons. While practicing in Ayurveda medicines and working on the patients, I have seen changing the direction or the place alone helped people to get rid of chronic diseases, which is the beauty of Ayurveda. Universe has lot to offer to people, but it works in a very disciplinary manner if we learn to live in discipline and in harmony with the nature, we are happy and healthy. We get sick only whenever we go out of its harmony.
526 CONCEPTUAL STUDY FOR PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DIET AND LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION , Dr. Karishma R. Kadam*, Dr. Sumedha Yogesh Kotangale and Dr. Yogesh Tukaram Kotangale
Diseases among of them, Hridya Roga (heart disease) are tremendously increasing in our society due to the changes in the lifestyle diet pattern and environmental conditions. The global burden of diseases is altering from infectious diseases to the non communicable diseases and now becoming the chief cause of death in all over the world. However, various advanced treatment and diagnostic techniques are available in the modern medicines for the patients of Hridya Roga (Cardiac disease), but these techniques are not affordable by every patient and their family. In text of Ayurveda, there are a number of drugs like Arjuna, medicinal preparations. Pathya-apathya, Dinacharya and diverse techniques of yoga which have wonderful preventive and curative effect on Hridya Roga (cardio disease). Furthermore the good health is necessary for everyone, so all the sections of Ayurveda can work together in the prevention of cardiovascular circular and other diseases. This article explains the symptoms of cardiovascular disease and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.[1] Daily habits and actions powerfully affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), in general and coronary heart disease in particular regular physical activity sound nutrition, weight management and not smoking cigarettes have all been demonstrated to significantly reduce risk of CVD.[2]
527 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON CURRENT ASPECTS OF COVID-19 , Rasika Dnyandeo Bhalke*, Mahendra Ashok Giri, Sanket Sitaram Bawake, Shruti Narayan Khokale, Swapnil Anil Dawkhar, K. Vanitha Prakash and Sanjay B. Kasture
COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. There were continuous rise in number of COVID-19 cases worldwide which further declared as pandemic situation by WHO to the world. On 16 may 2021 more than 17,175,658 active cases were present in world. In this review we discussed about epidemiological characteristics, pathophysiology, diagnostics method, available treatment measures, still there is no specific treatment available for COVID-19. Also we discussed preventive measures including various Vaccine development strategies which are been used in the development of COVID-19 vaccine along with vaccine candidates.
528 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL FILM OF CEPHALEXIN , *Rakshith B. K., Kiran Kumar G. B., Madhu B. K. Jayatheertha S. Lokapur, Arpitha J. Lokapur
The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a buccal films for oral delivery of Cephalexin. Method: Cephalexin-loaded buccal films were prepared by using mucoadhesive polymers like HPMC K4M and Chitosan, using a solvent casting method. The films were evaluated in terms of thickness, weight, folding endurance, drug content, drug release study, release kinetics studies, and short-term stability study. Results: The cumulative percentage release of Cephalexin from different mucoadhesive buccal films varied from 96.68±1.53 % to 99.89±1.21 % depending uponthe polymer plasticizer ratio and the type of plasticizers used. The order of in-vitro drug release data was found to be highest for formulation F11 [(containing Chitosan: tween80: PEG 400 (10%)]. The drug release kinetic showed Higuchi release kinetic and found to follow non-Fickian release mechanism. Stability results exhibited no significant change in drug content, and percentage drug release when stored at room temperature. Conclusion: It can be concluded that buccal films of Cephalexin could provide sustained buccal delivery for prolonged period.
529 AWARENESS REGARDING ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AMONG THE MOTHERS OF UNDER FIVE YEAR CHILDREN OF KALIKA MUNICIPALITY-5, CHITWAN , Parita Shrestha*, Sushmita Shrestha and Alisha Joshi
Background: Acute Respiratory Infections has become a major killer disease worldwide under 5 years of age children. It is continuing to be the leading cause of acute illnesses worldwide and remains the most important cause of under five children morbidity and mortality in developing countries like Nepal. The study was carried out with the aim to find out the awareness regarding Acute Respiratory Infections among the mothers of under five children of Kalika Municipality, Chitwan. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional research design was used to find out the level of awareness regarding acute respiratory tract infections among the mothers of under five children at Kalika Municipality-5, Chitwan. A total of 118 mothers of under five children were selected by using non-probability, purposive sampling technique. Structured face to face interview schedule was used for data collection from dated Dec 14th 2020 to Jan 10th 2021 and data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results: More than half of the respondents (56.8 %) were above and equal to 25 years of age and most of them (94.1%) follow hindu religion whereas only 59.3% of respondents’ had completed secondary level education, while more than two third (75.4%) were homemaker. The study also found that only 35.6% of the respondents had adequate level of awareness regarding acute respiratory infections and there was no association between the level of awareness and demographic variables. This finding of the study creates a need to aware the mothers about acute respiratory infection through awareness program.
530 MOLECULAR DOCKING AND MOLECULAR DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL DERIVED COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL ANTI CANCER AGENT AGAINST TYROSINE KINASE , Prachi Gohil*, Dhara Patel, Sharav Desai and Dhananjay Meshram
There is a continuous requirement to develop novel, safe, effective and affordable anti cancer drugs because cancer is a serious at current situation. A huge number of patients die annually due to cancer disease. Phytochemical are the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants and significantly used in conventional cancer research. Bioactive phytochemical are favored as they claim differentially on cancer cell only without altering normal cell. Carcinogenesis is an intricate process and includes multifold signaling procedures. Phytochemical are pleiotropic in nature, function and target these events in multiple manners so they are considered as most appropriate candidate for drug development. The aim of the present research was to find out the anti cancer activity of the phytochemical constituents through computer aided drug design approach. In this experiment, we have find total 42 natural compounds with anti cancer activity against the cancer target 1QCF tyrosine kinase. The data set comprising of phytochemical compounds were used for virtual screening and molecular docking in PyRx software. Along with screened compound, hit compound Cytisine was further docked to confirm the binding mode and confirmed the effective inhibition of 1QCF and anticancer activity. Molecular dynamic simulation studies were done to confirm the stability of the protein and ligand complex during a simulation. Parameters like RMSD, RMSF, and radius of gyration were experiential to understand the fluctuations. Protein-ligand interaction studies also expose that enough hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds are present to validate our results. Our study suggests that the potential use of Cytisine can come out as a potential candidate and in turn prevent cancer.
531 A POTENTIAL SIDDHA MINERAL DRUG; PAVALAPARPAM , Thanuja N. K., Mohammad Azamthulla* and Sandhya K. V.
Pavala parpam is a conventional Siddha therapeutic agent. This marine sourced medication is blended through calcination of Corals as described in the old-style Siddha writing – Anuboga Vaidhya navaneetham. This paper centers on its source, character, filtration and handling procedures and distinctive type of drug forms. The writing audit uncovered that Pavalam based medications are generally utilized for the administration of respiratory illnesses, bleeding issues, metabolic disorders like diabetes mellitus, malignant tumours and even used as an antioxidant. The different research gives an account of Pavalam through logical approval additionally featured for its future turn of events. The logical reports affirm the customary guarantee of Pavalam's viability.
532 PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ANTI-OBESITY ACTIVITY OF SEEDS OF CUCUMIS MELO LINN. IN RATS , Azra Banu Gokak, Nataraj G R*, Bharathi D R, Abubaker Siddiq
Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat is accumulated to an extent that health may be negatively affected. The prevalence and severity of obesity and its associated co-morbidities are rapidly increasing for the management of obesity ailments. The use of herbal medicines became the subject of interest for the management of obesity due to its natural origin, cost effectiveness and minimal side effects. The present study designed to investigate the effect of Ethanolic extract of Cucumis melo (EECM) 250 and 500mg/kg b.w on energy balance disease like obesity in wistar albino rats using two models namely High fat diet (HFD) and Monosodium glutamate induced (MSG). Obesity was induced by administration of hypercaloric diet for 49 days in HFD model and 15 days in MSG. From the observations of the study, it could be predicted that methanolic extract of Cucumis melo Linn exerted significant antiobesity due to hypophagic. Over the course of study, it was found that Cucumis melo Linn significantly reduced body weight, food intake and lipid profile parameters like LDL, TGs, TC, VLDL, and marked increase in HDL level was observed and significantly decrease SGOT and SGPT levels. In MSG model it showed significant decrease in body weight and food intake no significant changes was observed in water intake. Dose dependent antiobesity activity (250mg/kg, 500mg/kg) was observed with EECM seeds due to presence of phytoconstituents. These results suggest that seeds of Cucumis melo Linn possess Antiobesity activity.
533 ASSESSMENT OF PRESCRIPTION PATTERN AND DETERMINANTS OF OBESITY IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS , Abhi Raj, *Nataraj G. R., Bharathi D. R. and Abubaker Siddiq
Background: Obesity in Type II DM may be a common problem within the global scenario. It’s day by day increasing. Pathogenesis of Obesity in Type II DM is affected mainly by Physical Inactivity, Food Intake which plays a key role. “Diabesity” may be a new term which refers to diabetes occurring within the context of obesity. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out in the General Medicine Department of Basaveshwara Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chitradurga for a period of 10 months.A total of 111 patients with Obesity in Type II DM out of 160 Type II DM cases were enrolled. Results: The prevalence of obesity in Type II Diabetes mellitus subjects is 69.4%. Most commonly prescribed drugs for obesity in Type II DM is Metformin which is Monotherapy. The major risk factors responsible for the occurrence of obesity arePhysical inactivity and Food Intake. Conclusions: The study exhibits a higher level on the prevalence of Obesity in Type II DM subjects. Majority of the population is obesity in Type II DM, so the associated complication of obesity in Type II DM will be more.Much of the population is not working so this will also be one of the reasons for causing the obesity as it is lack of Physical inactivity and Food Intake.
534 REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SENNA AURICULATA LINN , Santosh S. Ghule*, Shubhangi B. Sutar and Sachinkumar V. Patil
Senna Auriculata has been used since ancient times to treat various ailments, this plant is widely used in the Ayurvedic medicine treatment. About the senna auriculata more specific information in the form of medicine is mentioned in old golden heritage Ayurvedic literature and other alternative medicine practices. It is screening of variety phytochemical constituents such as steroids, proteins, quinines, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. The phytopharmacological survey revealed that the different senna auriculata part was used in as treatment of antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-anthelmintic, antibacterial, antimicrobial and anticancer and support ancient use. The present review focuses on its phytochemical constituents and phytopharmacological activities.
535 DOCKING STUDY OF FDA-APPROVED DRUGS AND MODIFIED DERIVATIVES ON HUMAN CORONAVIRUS PAPAIN-LIKE PROTEASES (4OVZ) , Vidya Magar*, Chandrakant Gawli, Prasad Dahatonde, Rushikesh Dhondge, Hanuman Gholap and Mohini Gopal
The COVID-19 outbreak is a matter of concern worldwide due to unavailability of promising treatment comprising medication or vaccination till date. The discovery of antiviral drug is of immense importance in the existing spread of novel coronavirus. The goal of the present study was to evolve an opposite antiviral drug against the novel COVID-19 virus. A directly succeeding perspective would be to use the prevailing influential drugs from several antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic agents. The encouraging approach is to identify promising drug molecules and compounds through virtual screening via molecular docking of FDA-approved drugs and some derivatives for probable therapeutic outcome.
536 A REVIEW GASTRO-RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: TO INCREASE GASTRIC RETENTION FOR SUSTAINED DRUGS RELEASE , *Swadesh Kumar Vishwakarma, Jai Narayan Mishra and Dhaneshwar Kumar Vishwakarma
Drug delivery system with gastro-retentive properties is one such proven approach, thereby targeting site specific drug release in the stomach for local or systemic effects. There has been a significant deal of attention in the pharmaceutical sector in developing oral controlled release and site specific drug delivery systems in order to gain greater therapeutic benefit. Drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is a highly variable procedure and prolonging gastric retention of the dosage form extends the time for drug absorption. This approach is useful particularly for the drugs which have narrow absorption window in the upper part of gastro intestinal tract. Various approaches of gastro retentive drug delivery system, such as floating and non-floating, have been discussed in this review. This review also gives an overview of merits, demerits and evaluation parameters of gastro retentive system. The development of Gastro retentive drug delivery system has many advantages, such as increasing the bioavailability of the drug, increasing the solubility of less soluble drugs at high pH, controlling the therapeutic rate thereby reducing the incidence of fluctuations, and can extend the half-life thus reducing drug delivery. In this review article we concentrate on some important mechanisms for the delivery of gastro-retentive drugs (floating, bioadhesive, high density, swellable, raft forming, and magnetic systems) in varied dose forms, this drug will be beneficial in the treatment of peptic ulcer.
537 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF DACLATASVIR TABLET DOSAGE FROM , Shivrani W. Nimbokar, Ravindra L. Bakal, Jagdish V. Manwar
A Novel simple, precise and economical high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the analysis of antiviral drug Daclatasvir in pure form and in tablet dosage form as well. The chromatographic analysis was performed on HPLC 30000 series analytical technologies ltd. Detector UV 3000 M. Column- cosmosil C18 (250mm*4.6ID, particle size: 5micron) Mobile phase methanol:water (60:40) detection wavelength 230nm, flow rate 1ml/min, Temperature – ambient, Sample size-5.0μg were selected to develop an accurate method. The flow rate of mobile phase was maintained at 1ml/min and the response was monitored at 230nm with a run time of 10 min. the volume. The volume of injection loop was20μl.The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines; it was precise, accurate and robust. The calibration curve of Daclatasvir was linear in range og 10- 50μg/ ml with a correlation coefficient> 0.997.
538 RESEARCH ARTICLE ON FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF COLON TARGETED MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERE OF ACECLOFENAC , Sandhya Sharma*, Amarjeet Singh and Neelam Singh
The colon may be one of the finest sites for drug delivery because of the long residence time and the low digestive enzymatic activity; this may be useful for prolonged drug delivery. Also it is a prospective site for systemic delivery of therapeutic drugs. Mucoadhesive microspheres are comprehensively proved as a targeted drug delivery system for pharmaceutical appliances. To formulate and evaluate the colon targeted mucoadhesive microsphere of Aceclofenac. Formulation containing sodium alginate as a release retarding polymer and pectin as a mucoadhesive polymer prepared by ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as cross-linking agent. Mucoadhesive microsphere was enclosed in to hard gelatin capsule and capsule shell was coated with pH sensitive polymer to prevent the adherence of mucoadhesive microsphere in upper GIT. The microspheres were evaluated for physical characteristics such as surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and in vitro mucoadhesion. The optimized formulation was found on the basis of evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres. Formulation (A30) showed the best result as drug entrapment efficiency 82.5%, in vitro drug release 98.7% and in vitro mucoadhesion 84%. Capsule was subjected to evaluate for in vitro drug release, disintegration time and drug release kinetic model was found as 96.43%, 2.41±1.16904 hr and first order model with R2 is0.951 respectively. The microspheres are found to have a good mucoadhesive property. Due to the mucoadhesive property of microsphere it was adhering to colonic mucosa for extended period of time and exerts local action in colonic mucosa. The outer enteric coating provided a satisfactory acid resistibility due to negligible release of drug in upper GIT. This proves the ability of the formulated capsule to sense the arrival of the dosage form to the colon where it gave the highest release. Thus it is signifying a promising sustained release drug delivery system.
539 HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF TAMARINDUS INDICA L. LEAF EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS , Dr. Shyamal Kanti Das and Dr. Soumendra Nath Karmakar*
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term toxicity of paracetamol infusion in male albino wister rat. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica Linn in comparison to Hepamerz were studied on paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Different groups of animals were administered with the paracetamol, hepamerz and Tamarind leaf extract for 40 days. Biochemical estimation like SGPT, SGOT, total bilirubin count and serum total protein were done along with hematological study such as total RBC count and Hb%. Also histo-pathological studies of liver tissue were observed. On treatment with paracetamol a significant increase in SGPT, SGOT, total bilirubin, serum total protein and significant decrease in total RBC count, Hb% were observed. Moderate hepato-protective effect as well as significant decrease in the level of SGPT, SGOT and increase in total RBC count was observed after application of the aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica leaf. These results were almost same as hepamerz effect. Histopathological impairment after paracetamol application, was also improved by supplementation of Tamarind leaf extract and hepamerz.
540 INCREASED SEMINAL PLASMA STLR-4 LEVELS IN RELEVANCE TO THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIOSPERMIA AMONG INFERTILE MEN , Emad S. Aboud, Hayder A. L. Mossa* and Haider F. Ghazi
Background: Soluble toll like receptor -4 protein level increased due to cellular activation during inflammatory process. Aim: This study aimed toquantitative evaluation of sTLR-4 in seminal plasma of bacteriospermic and none bacteriospermic infertile men. Subjects: A total of 170 semen samples were collected from infertile men attending High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies / AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad. Semen samples were processed according to WHO manual 2010 and seminal plasma were used for sTLR-4 measurement using sandwich ELISA kit. Results: The results showed that an elevated sTLR-4 was associated with reduction of grade A motility (r=-0.510) and increased grade D motility (r=0.680), round cell count (r=0.228). Interestingly, it was not related to the leukocyte number (r=0.126). Conclusion: sTLR-4 is sensitive and specific marker for Bacteriospermia in particular pattern of bacterial infection.
541 DEVELOPMENT AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF “PAKVA AMRAPHALA PANAKA” (MANGO FRUIT DRINK)”: RESEARCH ARTICLE , Onkar Subhash Avachat*, Prof. Dr. Abhijit Joshi & Asst Prof. Priya Darshane
The recipe “PAKVA AMRAPHALA PANAKA” was selected from the Ayurvedic text as “Shemkutuhal” with respect to its known benefits as it imparts the taste, confirms strength and satiates the senses. The research was undertaken to carry out a pilot study for developing this product for the community. The product was prepared by taking in consideration the amount of ingredients given in the “Shemkutuhal”, then the product was further carried forward to sensory analysis. Panaka- the appetizers are beneficial in various treatments, like urine infection, piles, diabetes, for cooling, soothing and strengthening effects. It imparts taste, maintain the doshas, increases digestive fire, improves digestion, etc. Finally, it is concluded that the product has been accepted by the community and it would be really helpful for health benefits. The product can be carried forward for better detail analytical procedure.