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Journal of Crop and Weed

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1 ARIMA modeling to forecast area and production of rice in West Bengal, R. BISWAS AND B. BHATTACHARYYA Department of Agricultural Statistics Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal
Crop area estimation and forecasting of crop yield are an essential procedure in supporting policy decision regarding land use allocation, food security and environmental issues. The present paper intended to give a comprehensive picture of current status of rice production in West Bengal. Time series modeling using ARIMA model was developed for individual univariate series of both area and production of rice in West Bengal since independence. Box and Jenkins linear time series model, which involves autoregression, moving average, and integration, termed as ARIMA (p, d, q) model was applied.
2 Morphological diversity analysis in QPM and non-QPM maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes, A. RANAWAT, S. K. SINGH, R. SINGH, P. K. BHATI AND A. SHARMA Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agriculture Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005
D2 statistics used to measure the genetic divergence among the genotypes has been successfully utilized by the breeders to analyze the morphological diversity. Hybridization is one the tools to create variability. One may create more variability through hybridization when parents are diversed. Hence, genetic diversity in the parents is a prerequisite for crop improvement programmes. All the genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.) were grouped into three clusters on the basis of the morphological diversity using Mahalanobis D2 statistic. Maximum intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster II (15.44) whereas, maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster II and III (25.46). The analysis of divergence indicated significant differences among parental lines for all the agro-morphological characters. On the basis of results obtained in the present investigation, it was concluded that the allelic diversity can be used for future breeding program. The traits under study are also major yield contributing traits and are largely associated with each other. Therefore, these traits should be taken into consideration either simultaneously or alone for selecting a high yielding maize genotype.
3 Study on performance of aonla cultivars in laterite soil of West Bengal, S. N. GHOSH, 1S. ROY AND 1B. BERA Department of Fruits and Orchard Management Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur -741252, West Bengal 1MPS Farm, Dighisole, Dahijuri, Jhargram, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal
To find out suitable cultivar of aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) in laterite zone of West Bengal, a study was made on seven released varieties viz., Anand 1, BSR1, Chakaiya, Kanchan, Krishna, NA 10 and Neelum for six consecutive years adopting randomized block design. The soil was laterite and acidic in nature. Significant variation in yield and physicochemical characteriscts of fruits of different cultivars was observed. The cultivar Neelum gave peak production of 80 kg plant-1 at 9 year of age with an average of 56.0 kg tree-1 followed by Kanchan which produced maximum yield of 60 kg tree-1 at 9 year of age with an average of 27.7 kg tree-1. These two cultivars were found to resistance and tolerant respectively against the stem borer pest. The highest fruit weight (35g) with maximum in size (4.5 5.0 cm) was observed in Neelum while highest pulp content was noted from Kanchan (95.0%). The TSS content was maximum in Anand 1 and BSR 1 (14.2 14.3%) and minimum in Krishna (11.0%). The ascorbic acid content was highest in Krishna (475 mg 100-1 g) followed by Neelum (460 mg100-1g). Considering overall performance and presence of self-incompatibility phenomenon in aonla, the cultivars Neelum and Kanchan (10:1 :: Neelum : Kanchan) can be recommended for commercial cultivations in orchards under red and laterite zone of West Bengal.
4 Estimation of the attributes embedded with the economy of mango enterprise at Malda district of West Bangal, India, J.K. DAS, 1K. PRADHAN, G. MAZUMDER AND 2R. GHOSAL Departtment of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal 1Departtment of Agricultural Extension, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Coochbehar, West Bengal 2 Department of Agricultural Extension, Economics, Statistics, Palli Siksha Bhavan, Viswa Bharti, West Bengal
In the era of globalisation, there is a need to concentrate upon the value added product from the available resources to go with the global market with the help of supply chain management system for the upliftment of the livelihood status of the ultimate stakeholders. The present study was conducted to estimate the socio-economic attributes of the mango growers embedded with the economy of the mango enterprise at the Malda district of West Bengal, India. This study was conducted using multistage sampling with purposively selected villages Dhantola, Kalyanpur, Arapur, Govindapur and Ganipur in the English Bazar block of Malda district. The dependent and the independent variables were operationalised and measured with the help of structured interview schedule. For analyzing and interpretation of the data statistical tools like co-efficient of correlation, regression and path analysis were used. The study revealed that the age, secondary occupation, education, size of orchard, age of orchard, family composition, experience of growers, percentage of variety grown, return from orchard, primary income and secondary income found to be associated with the total income, total expenditure and total savings of the family and the fourteen predictor variables had contributed to explain total family income 57 percent, total yearly expenditure 49 percent and yearly savings 83 percent variations embedded with the predicted variables.
5 Correlation and path coefficient analysis in tuberose, VANLALRUATI , T. MANDAL AND S. PRADHAN Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Faculty of Horticulture Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal
Genetic variability studies in tuberose were carried out among 11 varieties for 18 characters at Horticultural Research Farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya. Days to spike emergence (DAP), length of flower spike and number of spikes per plot showed highest phenotypic and genotypic variance. Higher heritability associated high genetic advance was observed for length of rachis indicating the presence of additive gene action. A study on the association of various morphological traits through correlation and path co-efficient analysis showed that leaf area, diameter of florets, length of florets, length of flower spike, weight of flower spike, florets spike-1, length of rachis and weight of 10 florets exhibited significant and positive correlation with that of spike yield. Spike weight imparted maximum positive direct effect on spike yield followed by field life, floret diameter, florets per spike and spike diameter. Similarly, weight of 10 florets imparted maximum negative direct effect on spike yield followed by leaf area and spike length.
6 Nature and shape of wind profile over the mungbean canopy sown under different dates and its impact on biological parameters in the tropical subhumid environment, L. TZUDIR, S. MAJI, 1S. BASU, 1P. S. BERA, 1R. NATH AND 2P. K. CHAKRABORTY Department of Agronomy, School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development, Nagaland University, Medziphema-797106, Nagaland 1Department of Agronomy, 2Department of Agricultural Meteorology and Physics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal
A two year experiment on four mungbean varieties sown on three different dates has been conducted at the BCKV research farm (2256' N latitude, 8832' E longitude). The wind speed at 11:30 h at the initial phase was higher under 15th February and 1st March sowings but the later phase recorded higher wind speed in case of 15th March sowing. The later phase recorded higher wind speed at 15:30 hour irrespective of dates of sowing. Wind speed over the crop was maximum when the leaf area index (LAI) was approximately 0.50. Dry matter accumulation and plant height significantly reduced the wind speed over the crop canopy. Wind speed declined when the LAI exceeded 1.15 under 15th February and 1st March sowings and 1.75 under 15th March sowing. Height over 40.8cm reduced the wind speed of late sown crops. Biological parameters were found to be the polynomial functions of wind speed.
7 Revealing effect of selected agrochemicals on salinity stress tolerance of rice cultivars at seedling stage, A.L. RANAWAKE, U.T.D. RODRIGO AND S.G.J.N. SENANAYAKE Department of Agricultural Biology Faculty of Agriculture University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
Salinity is a major factor reducing plant growth and productivity in rice cultivation. The effect of selected Agro-chemicals named Imidacloprid 70% WS (Gaucho), Thiamethoxam 70% WS (Cruiser), Nitrophenolate 0.5% WS (Atonik) on salinity tolerance at the seedling stage of 8 rice varieties (Bg 250, Bg 305, At 302, Bg 352, Bg 357, Bg 358, Bg 360, Bg 379/2) were studied. Recommended dosage of each chemical was used for seed treatment in each case. Control seeds were germinated without any seed treatment. Germinated seedlings were planted in sterilized sand medium supplemented with nutrient solution. Experiment was carried out following randomized complete block design with 4 replication and 50 plants were included in each replication. After 12 days, plants were treated with 5 dS/m salinized solution and let them grow in the salinized medium for 8 days. Another set of plants treated with Agrochemicals were maintained without giving salinity stress. After 8 day salinity stress different seedling parameters were recorded. All the Agrochemicals significantly reduced the adverse affects of salinity stress in rice seedlings. Varieties Bg 250, Bg 352 and Bg 379/2 recorded most positive effects of the chemicals.
8 Correlates of school going childrens calorie consumption and nutritional level in Mizoram, L. SOPHIE AND S. K. ACHARYA Department of Agricultural Extension Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal, India
Across the world, the problem of malnutrition has been perceived as the most dangerous and menacing factor towards ensuring a decent and secure livelihood. The problem of malnutrition has got social, political, technical and motivational dimensions as well. Education being the basic driving force for any economy and process per se, the school going children need to be focussed and attended comprehensively so that they can grow up themselves as healthy citizens having belligerent mind and body. The available research findings on child nutrition has proved that nutrition is basically a complex phenomenon and cannot be managed in a single intervention. Accordingly the present study was conceptualised with an aim to identify the correlates of school going childrens calorie consumption and nutritional level. The nutrition has been conceived as a composite configuration of food intake, calorie intake, high value food intake, sanitation and total calorie consumption. The study was conducted at Champhai district of Mizoram. It depicts that the predictor variables like age, training, family size, subsidiary income, parents education, crop yield, etc. have become predominant factors in making a discernable difference between high and low level of nutrition status among the respondents.
9 Structural transition in Karnataka Agriculture during post liberalization era, K. R. PATIL, 1G. R. MANJUNATHA ANDK. S. ADITYA Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore 560065, Karnataka, Department of Agricultural Statistics, BCKV, Mohanpur 741252 Nadia, West Bengal,
Cropping pattern connotes the crop-mix grown in a particular area in an agricultural year. The transitions in cropping pattern are usually brought by complex gamut of factors. The study on these changes is vital in adjusting research priorities accordingly. Time series met a data on area under various field crops in Karnataka state forms the data base for empirical analysis. Ratios such as location quotient and crop versatility index were used to assess the extent of transition. The results of the study revealed that the specialized crops in particular parts of the state with high magnitude of location quotient. Crop versatility index reflected that most of the traditional staple food crops have become more versatile in terminal period of the study. Based on the degree of versatility of the crop, development of desired infrastructural facilities needs to be taken.
10 Allelopathic action of Rauwolfia tetraphylla L. root extracts on gram (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, A. MANDAL, P. TARAI, S.K. KAUSHIK, A.C. MAHATA AND 1P. CHAKARBORTI Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal 1Department of Seed Science and Technology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal
Allelopathy refers to the advantageous or detrimental effects of one plant on another plant by liberating the chemicals from its components through leaching, root exudation, volatilization, residue decomposition and others in natural and agricultural systems. The present study has been made to appraise the allelopathic action of Rauwalfia tetraphylla L. touching to the alteration of germination, exaggeration of seedling and biochemical actions in gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.). Various concentrations of (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200mg ml-1) aqueous extracts were prepared from root of R. tetraphylla L. and germination studies were conducted. The medium concentrations (50mg ml-1 and 100mg ml-1) of root extracts stimulated the seed germination, growth and biochemical constituents (total sugar, protein, amino acid and DNA and RNA concentrations) of gram. In higher concentrations a more or less stagnant nature was observed in all the parameters after T4. A significant variation is found among all treatments considering seedling parameters where, seed treatment is always better than control. In biochemical observations, the view is more or less same where T4 (100mg ml-1) is indicating highest performance excepting fresh and dry weight. The enhanced action in occurrence of root extract can be supportive for early establishment of seedlings especially in water stress location. Therefore, the said treatment can be considered as an invigoration treatment under seed/crop production programme.
11 The potential of Ettawa goat manure and urine management to support the productive and sustainable farming, M. FERICHANI Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture University of Sebelas Maret (UNS) Central Java Province, Indonesia
This research was integrated with the empowerment programme namely IBM (Science and Technology for the People) which aimed to find the solid organic fertilizer (SOF) and liquid organic fertilizer (LOF) of ettawa goat to support the productive and sustainable farming.The programme was carried out in Yogyakarta Province during May to November, 2012 involving partners like KUBE Co-operative Business Association- Adi Jaya and KUBE Rizki Annisa in Sleman District as well as Institute of Joglo Minar Tani in Bantul District of Indonesia. The research which was integrated to the empowerment programme was carried out through serial process of training for corporate people; procurement of SOF and LOF production devices and materials; production process of SOF and LOF; demonstration in plots (demoplots) and laboratory test for fertilizers quality. The process and the results of the demoplots were recorded and were measured through economic approach to know the farm potentials. 20 demoplots for rice crops each of size 200 m2 while the vegetables were planted in the back yard and garden consisting of purple egg plant, green egg plant, tomato, chili, and dark mustard greens. Demoplots for rice crops were cultivated using local variety namely Menthik Susu through implementing method of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in pro-organic version while the vegetables were done in pure organic version. The laboratory test report for LOF created by partners contents N, P and K as well as the other essential elements such as Ca, Fe, Mn, and Mg. The demoplots results show that SOF and LOF made from ettawa goat manure and urine have a good potential for rice farming as depicted through B/C ratio of 12.44 higher than 5.83 of conventional system through the reduced use of synthetic fertilizers uses by 58.3%. Implementation to vegetable crops using self-produced SOF and LOF also shows considerable business feasibilities that B/C values of 33.28, 43.52, 40.00, 47.04 for purple egg crops, green egg crops, tomato and chili respectively.
12 Study on performance of twenty one guava cultivars in red and laterite soil of West Bengal under irrigated condition, S.N. GHOSH, 1S. ROY AND 1B. BERA Department of Fruits and Orchard Management Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal 1 MPS Farm, Dahijuri, Jhargram - 721504, Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal
An investigation was made on 21 guava cultivars viz., Allahabad Safed, Lucknow-49, Harijha, S 1, F 1, S 8, Apple colour, Red Fleshed, Behat Coconut, Chittidar, Baruipur, Seedless, Supreme, Banarasi, Arka Amulya, Arka Mridula, Khaja, Almond Iskbala, Kairala Seedlings, Patialo and Florida Seedlings under irrigation condition in laterite soil. Results of four consecutive years of study indicated that Banarasi cultivar produced higher average yield (73.7kg plant-1 year-1) followed by Allahabad Safeda, (71.6kg plant-1 year-1) and Apple colour (69.5kg plant-1 year-1. Fruit weight was maximum in Almond Iskbala followed by Red Fleshed and Apple Colour. Fruit quality in respect of TSS/acid ratio was the best in Banarasi followed by Khaja while maximum ascorbic acid content was in Supreme followed by Seedless. Considering the overall performance, Banarasi and Apple Colour cultivars of guava are recommended for cultivation in red and laterite zone of West Bengal.
13 Estimation of farm energy balances of small farm management: a socio-ecological and techno-managerial analysis, S. K. ACHARYA, S. BERA AND G. AHMAD Department of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal, India
Energy is the driving force in the ecology which changes its forms while transferring from one trophic level to another and from one component of ecosystem to another component i.e. in between animate and inmate forms of life. While transferring from one component of ecosystem there is loss of some energy which is termed as entropy in thermodynamics. Keeping this energy and the energy losses in view the present study Estimation of Farm Energy Balances of Small Farm Management: A Socio-ecological and Techno-managerial Analysis has been selected to study the energy balances i.e., consumption and production in crop enterprises as well as in households and its overall impact on social, economic, ecological spheres of ecosystem. Crop Energy Balance (y) is defined as the difference between the energy equivalents of feed taken by the cattle and the energy equivalents of the output from cattle in the form of dung and milk per day per cattle. The variable Crop Energy Balance (y) is the dependent variable being predicted by a set of 14 independent variables. Study was conducted at Saharpara village of Haringhata,in district Nadia of West Bengal. The respondents have been 50 by count and have been selected through both the purposive and random sampling approaches to ultimately derive and elicit their behavioural traits in the energy balances of social, economic, physical and ecological setup. The results show that following new factors, Farm Economy Index, Personal Capacity, Family Resources, Family Motivation have led to consciousness about the energy balances in social ecology and impact of these energy balances on the ecosystem as whole. The Multiple correlation results show Age (X1) has positive significant correlation with Crop Energy Balance (y) whereas the variables Education (X2), Homstead Land Size (X9) and Age (X1) have had significant impact on the predictant y. All these analytical outcomes can be replicated to other enterprises as well to calculate energy balances. A comparative study can be adopted to conclude whether agriculture or fishery or cattle or poultry enterprises can be comparable with each other or all these enterprises can well be complemented to develop a complex model for energy management, so as to attain a balanced energy consumption pattern.
14 Instability and forecasting using ARIMA model in area, production and productivity of onion in India, P. MISHRA, 1C SARKAR, VISHWAJITH K.P, B. S. DHEKALE AND P.K. SAHU Department of Agricultural Statistics Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Nadia, Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal 1Office of the ADA, Soil Survey, Silguri, Govt. of West Bengal
Onion is a bulbous spice crop which is produced and consumed largely in India as well as in the world. It has numerous medicinal uses for treating diseases. Amongst the onion producing countries in the world, India ranks second in area and production, the first being China. India being a second major onion producing country in the world has a productivity of 10.16 t ha-1 only (FAO 2008). Time Series data covering the period of 1978-2008 was used for the study. Among the parametric trend models cubic trend model is found to adequately delineate trends in area, production and productivity of onion. Onion showed high instability in period II in area, production and productivity. The study also focuses on forecasting the cultivated area and production of onion in India using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. The analyses forecast onion production for the year 2020 to be about 23.02 million tonnes. These projections will help information of good policies with respect to relative production, price structure as well as medicine frontier at least of onion in the country.
15 System productivity and soil health in relation to microbial population in organic rice-rice sequence, CH. S. KAR , D. K. BASTIA AND S. TRIPATHY Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, Odisha
Field experiments were conducted during 2011-2013 in Organic Block of Central Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with twelve treatments and three replications in kharif season and all the corresponding treatments were the same in summer season except green manuring with Sesbania aculeata. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam with pH 6.35, BD 1.58 t m-3, PD 2.65 t m-3, high in organic carbon (9.7 g kg-1) and medium in available N-P2O5-K2O (375.0, 34.49 and 221.25 kg ha-1, respectively). Microbial population was highly influenced by organic nutrient management and Biozyme formulations during the crop growing period. Maximum microbial population (Bacteria 1.1 x 107 and 1.08 x 107, Actinomycetes 9.6 x 106 and 9.3 x 106, Fungi 9.6 x 104 and 9.3 x 104 cfu g-1 of soil) was observed at 90 DAT of crop and decreased thereafter. The bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes population during crop growing period had strong positive linear relationship with crop yield (R2 = 0.82 and 0.85, 0.95 and 0.95 and, 0.92 and 0.91 in kharif and summer, respectively). Organic nutrient management and Biozyme formulations expressed conspicuous effect on microbial population which, in turn, resulted in maximum rice yield for treatment receiving Dhanicha + FYM + Vermicompost + BSP + BG + BPPL in kharif (5.09 t/ha) and corresponding treatment receiving FYM + Vermicompost + BSP + BG + BPPL in summer (4.95 t/ha). Soil status after system yield (NP2O5- K2O 358, 36, 229 kg ha-1 ; OC 12.0 g kg-1; pH 6.6; EC 0.115 dSm-1; BD and PD 1.54 and 2.63 t m-3) was very close to or improved from those of initial status of soil.
16 Effect of sulphur on seed yield and oil content in safflower, S.DEBNATH AND A.K.BASU Department of Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252 Nadia, West Bengal
The experiment was carried in District Seed Farm D Block, Kalyani, Nadia with four varieties of safflower and four different treatments in four replication in split-plot design. The four treatments were: application of sulphur @ 20,40 and 60kg sulphu. ha-1 along with control i.e., without application of sulphur. Among the treatments application of sulphur @ 20 kg.ha-1 and 40 kg.ha-1 was found most effective for increment of seed yield and oil yield respectively for safflower.
17 Morphologybased multivariate analysis of phenotypic diversity of landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) of Bankura district of West Bengal, A. K. SINHA AND PK MISHRA Department of Botany Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag-825 301, India
The morphological characterization of plant is the basic criteria in order to provide fundamental information for plant breeding programme. The main objective of the present work was to characterize 34 landraces of rice of Bankura District of West Bengal, based on 12 quantitative agro-morphological characters. Agro-morphological characters were analyzed using Multivariate statistical analysis. Multivariate analysis involves observation and analysis of more than one statistical variable at a time. Pearson correlation coefficient, The un- weighted variable pair group method of the average linkage cluster analysis (UPGMA), principal component analysis (PCA), were used to analyze the data obtained. This analysis helps to enabled pattern of variation of the germplasm of landraces of rice and identification of the major traits contributing to the diversity of landraces. Five cluster groups were obtained from the 12 agro-morphological characters using multivariate analysis. PCA showed the contribution of each characters to the classification of the rice landraces into different cluster groups. The first three principal components explained about 86.9% of the total variation among the 12 characters. The results of PCA suggested that characters such as leaf length, leaf width, panicle length and grain size (100 grain weight, length and width of grain and kernel) were the principal discriminatory characteristics of landraces of rice.
18 Conservation of agricultural biodiversity-an experience in the Chotonagpur plateau region, S. ADHIKARY Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit Biological Sciences Division Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108
The Agricultural farm of Indian Statistical Institute, Giridih, Chotonagpur Plateau region, is well maintaining the biodiversity of crops and soils. The present paper discussed the experience, policies adopted for conservation of biodiversity and results. Findings show that due to less effect of Green Revolution and World Trade Organization as well as contract farming in Jharkhand, a sustainable biodiversity is maintained in comparison to that of developed states of India. Regeneration of vast gravel land into fertile land and now sustained vegetation achieved adopting 20 years back aforestation program. Collection and identification have been done for a good no. of varieties of several crops practiced in Jharkhand and maintaining them since long period. Some traditional upland rice cultivars were identified as drought tolerant through drought susceptibility index. 40 germplasms of horsegram were collected from different farmers' age-old collections, tested the genetic variation at the seed storage protein level, grouped only into five broad groups. Under the rainfed farming system, cropping systems and cropping sequences had been developed to maintain crop biodiversity, land use and climatic ecosystems as well as production potential following traditional practices of this region. Numbers of wild species of the cultivated crops are found those could be used as genetic race in the breeding program.
19 Integrated nutrient management of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in Gangetic alluvial plains, A.PARIARI AND S. KHAN Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia, West Bengal
Six organic manures namely cowdung, neem cake, poultry mainure, phosphocompost and vermicompost were applied in different combinations with inorganicnitrogenous fertilizer (urea) at three levels (25%, 50%, and 75%). The growth parameters like plant height and number of branches per plant was found maximum with the combination of vermicompost and urea at 50%. Increase in inorganic nitrogen level (25, 50 and 75%) in the growing media flowering was delayed compared to all organic manures. The yield attributes including fruit yield was found maximum also with nitrogen received from vermicompost and urea at 50% level. However, all the treatments showed the enhanced results over control (without nitrogen). The qualitative aspects were increased with the application of neem cake compared to other inorganic sources.
20 Response of garlic to foliar application of some micronutrients, M. CHANCHAN, J. K. HORE AND S. GHANTI Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252,Nadia, West Bengal
The investigation was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal during 2009-11 to find out the effect of micronutrients on growth and yield of garlic cv. katki. Three concentrations of four micronutrients namely zinc sulphate (0.1, 0.25 and 0.50%), borax (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%), ferrous sulphate (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) and manganese sulphate (0.1, 0.25 and 0.50%) were applied as foliar spray at 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. Maximum leaf number (9.45), number of cloves (29.23), weight of bulb (27.18g) and projected yield (7.13 t/ha) were recorded with borax @ 0.2%. Plants under zinc sulphate @ 0.25% recorded maximum plant height (61.72 cm), number of roots (102.56), length of cloves (3.05 cm) and neck thickness (1.08 cm). Borax @ 0.2% was found most effective for yield improvement of garlic followed by zinc sulphate 0.25%.
21 Seasonal response of photosynthetic characteristics and productivity of young Darjeeling tea clone to organic and inorganic fertilization., R. KUMARAND 1B. BERA Darjeeling Tea Research and Development Centre, Tea Board, A.B. Path, Kurseong 734203, Darjeeling, West Bengal 1 Tea Board, 14, B.T.M. Sarani, Kolkata 700001
The physiological responses and yield of china-type high quality Darjeeling tea (Camellia sinensis L) clone T78 to organic and inorganic fertilization were investigated in the Darjeeling Hills during the different seasons of 2007 to 2010. Highest photosynthetic rate (PN) was observed with the application of 60: 30: 60 kg-ha basal through CAN, RP and MOP (T6), which was followed by farmyard manure (FYM) @ 5 tones + 30: 30: 60 kg-ha basal through Urea, RP and MOP (T3) but the lowest with the application of FYM @ 10 tones-ha (T2). The maximum value of Pn was recorded in T6 during autumn, giving 38.6 percent increase over the control (T1), whereas in rains the lowest increase over the control (13.7 percent) was recorded with 60: 30: 60 kg-ha basal through Urea, RP and MOP (T4). In general, higher PN coincided with higher ?L values. T6 recorded highest transpiration rate (E) than other treatments. E increases in most of the treatments during rain. In general, the decrease in stomatal conductance (gs) was more pronounced in moisture stress period. The maximum value of gs was recorded in autumn in T6. In all treatments, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) was highest in summer and higher in autumn and winter than rain. Chlorophyll content (Chl) was greater in fertilized plots. Chl was recorded highest during autumn and lowest in moisture stress period. T6 showed maximum Chl and T1 recorded lowest. A positive correlation between Chl content and Pn existed in the present study. Highest yield was recorded in T6 and increased 47 percent over T1. The relation between photosynthesis and yield in tea are discussed.
22 Predominance of weedy rice in different rice ecosystem under western zone of West Bengal, K. JANA AND G. K. MALLICK Rice Research Station, Govt. of West Bengal, Bankura 722 101, West Bengal, India
Survey for predominance of weedy rice in different rice ecosystem in Western zone of West Bengal was conducted by Rice Research Station (Govt. of West Bengal), Bankura, West Bengal, India during kharif season of 2010 and 2011. Survey works were done in the farmers fields of Purulia, Bankura and Paschim Medinipur districts under red and laterite zone of West Bengal, India. Weedy rice species were noticed in the framers fields during survey work, but population was low. It was observed that population of weedy rice was more in Bankura and Purulia districts as compared to Paschim Medinipur district. The yield loss of rice due to weedy rice infestation was negligible in Western zone of West Bengal. Removing weedy rices panicles before they set seeds after rice planting when weedy rice is taller than the rice crop is most important control measure.
23 Effect of integrated weed and nutrient management in greengram-riceonion cropping sequence on yield and nitrogen balance sheet, S. BERA AND R. K. GHOSH Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal
Field experiment was undertaken during 2010-2012 to evaluate the nutrient recycling and production potential of rice based cropping sequences. After kharif (rainy) rice, onion and greengram were grown during rabi (winter) and pre-kharif (premonsoon) season, respectively. The biomass of weeds were composted and incorporated into the soil. Significantly maximum system pooled yield (24.395t ha-1) was recorded in the treatment Parthenium and Calotropis leaf extract @ 5 % v/v at 1 DAS / DAT + HW at 21 DAS / DAT (W2) and it was statistically at par with farmer practice (23.780t ha-1). The system yield of the plots receiving W2 treatments were recorded 17.57 % higher than farmer practice. The maximum system yield was (25.679 t ha-1 pooled data) registered under 40 % recommended N + 20 % N through neemcake + 40 % N through weed compost + full PK (N6) which was found statistically at par with 50 % recommended N + 20 % N through neemcake + 30% N through weed compost + full PK (N5). The percentage increase in system yield in the plots receiving N6 and N5 was 25.00 % and 22.47%, respectively higher over that receiving 100 % recommended NPK (N1). Nitrogen balance was positive under all treatments of weed management ranging from 90.15 to 195.44kg ha-1 after completion of two cropping cycles. Only negative balance was recorded in case of N1 (-123.28kg ha-1). Maximum N balance was recorded in case of N6 (+335.20) which was followed by N5 (+253.26 kg ha-1), N4 (+198.40kg ha-1) and N3 (+132.45kg ha-1).
24 Evaluation of pest management modules in kharif rice, V. VISALAKSHMI, P. R. MOHANA RAO AND 1N. H. SATYANARAYNA Agricultural Research Station, Ragolu, Aricultural Research Station, Amadalavalasa Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Three modules were evaluated against conventional farmers practice to manage pest problems in rice at farmers field of Ragolu village, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh during kharif 2008 and2009.Module III comprising of application of carbofuran 3G@1kg a.i/ha in nursery, pheromone trap with 5mg lure @20 per hectare and field releases of Trichogramma chilonis @1,00,000 t ha-1 five times from 15 days after transplanting at ten days interval found good with low incidence of stem borer (3.26 to 6.78% dead hearts,5.56to7.40 % white ears and 5.61 to8.20% silver shoots)with highest grain yield of 5.89 t ha-1during2008and5.95tha-1during2009withcost benefit ratios of 1:2.38 and 1:3.77during 2008 and 2009 respectively.
25 Population dynamics and efficacy of some insecticides against aphid on okra, A. KONAR, KIRAN A. MORE AND 1S K DUTTA RAY Department of Agril. Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture 1Department of Fruits and Orchard management, Faculty of Horticulture Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur- 741252, Nadia, W.B
An experiment was conducted during two consecutive kharif season of 2010 and 2011 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal, India to study the population dynamics of aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) and efficacy of some insecticides against it on okra. The incidence of aphid was initiated during second week of July in both the years. Population of aphid was increased gradually to reach its peak during first week of September (39.28 aphids/3 leaves) when minimum and maximum temperature was 26.10C and 33.50C; minimum and maximum R.H. was 72.57% and 97.57%, respectively with 1.6 mm rainfall and persisted throughout the crop period with low incidence. Imidacloprid @ 30g a.i/ha was found most effective in reducing population of aphids and maximum net return was obtained from emamectin benzoate @ 18g a.i.ha-1, the cost benefit ratio was recorded from imidacloprid treated plots i.e. 1:12.16.
26 Identification of parameters for selection of superior brinjal genotypes under healthy and fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen.) infested conditions, B. N. PANJA, 1M. K. PANDIT, 1S. B. CHATTOPADHYAY, 2D.MAJUMDER, 3A.K. SAHOO, 3P.PAL AND 4A.K. SENAPATI Department of Plant Pathology, 1 Department of Vegetable Crops,2 Department of Agricultural Statistics, 3 Department of Agricultural Entomology, 4 Regional Research Station, Coastal Saline Zone, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal.
This investigation was carried out with fifteen brinjal genotypes during 2008-10 to examine the direct and indirect effects of different growth and yield characters on yield of healthy and Leucinodes orbonalis infested genotypes through path analysis. Observations on growth and yield attributing characters viz. plant height, stem girth, number of twigs plant-1, number of secondary branches, total number of twigs plant -1, number of leaves plant -1, length of leaf, leaf breadth, fruit length, fruit breadth, fruit stalk length, fruit stalk diameter, fruit volume, number of fruits plant -1 and fruit weight plant -1 were recorded for the study. Simple correlation studies of these parameters with yield under two conditions revealed that fruit number per plant had the highest significant positive correlation followed by fruit stalk length and fruit length in both the cases. Partitioning of correlation values through path analysis study showed that fruit stalk length and fruit length in both the cases exhibited direct significant positive and negative effect on fruit yield, respectively. It was evident from the results that fruit stalk length and fruit number per plant should be given priority when selection for the varietal improvement would be taken up even from both fields.
27 Field efficacy and economics of some insecticides against spotted pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer) of black gram, D. MANDAL, P. BHOWMIK, 1K. BARAL ANDM.L. CHATTERJEE Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 1Department of Plant Protection, Visva Bharati, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Sriniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal.
A field experiment was conducted during 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the efficacy of some insecticides against spotted pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer) of black gram. Insecticides evaluated for the purpose were azadirachtin1500 ppm @ 1.5 l ha-1, endosulfan35EC @ 300 g a.i. ha-1, triazophos40EC @ 250 g a.i. ha-1, thiamethoxam25WG @ 40 g a.i. ha-1, lambda cyhalothrin5EC @ 40 g a.i. ha-1, indoxacarb14.5SC @ 75 g a.i. ha-1, and imidacloprid17.8SL @ 30 g a.i. ha-1. Two round of spray of insecticides were given at fifteen days interval. The most effective insecticide evaluated against spotted pod borers was indoxacarb. Highest incremental cost benefit ratio was observed with triazophos40EC @ 250 g a.i ha-1, being 21.53.
28 Bio-efficacy of neonicotinoids against Aphis gossypii Glover of okra, A. GHOSAL, M. L. CHATTERJEE AND 1A. BHATTACHARYYA Department of Agricultural Entomology, 1Department of Agricultural Chemicals Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal
An experiment was conducted to observe the efficacy of some neonicotinoids against aphid of okra during pre- kharif season of 2010 and 2011 at Instructional Farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya. Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 50 g a.i. ha-1 was found as a most effective neonicotinoid insecticide against aphid. It recorded least aphid infestation and 84.54 % reduction of population over control. To control aphid population of okra the other two neonicotinoids viz., thiamethoxam 25WG @ 50 g a.i. ha-1 and acetamiprid 20SP @ 40 g a.i. ha-1 were also found at par with imidacloprid and showed better result than acephate 75WP and dimethoate 30EC. Considering incremental cost benefit ratio acetamiprid 20SP @ 40g a.i. ha-1 was found most economic over other neonicotinoids. None of the neonicotinoids have adverse effect on natural enemies of aphid in okra ecosystem.
29 Yield attributes and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by weed management practices in semi arid region, Y. KUMAR, R. SAXENA, K. C. GUPTA, V. D. FAGARIA AND R. SINGH Division of Agronomy Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (SKRAU) Durgapura, Jaipur, Rajasthan
Field experiment was conducted during three consecutive kharif seasons of 2008, 2009 and 2010 at the Research Farm of Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Jaipur in search of an effective and economic weed control tactics in groundnut through integration of post emergence herbicides. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @1kg a.i. ha-1 + 1 hand weeding + post emergence application of imazethapyr @ 50g a.i. ha-1 at 20 days after sowing produced higher pod yield (4147 kg ha-1) than other treatments. Haulm yield was highest in pendimethalin + 1 hand weeding at 45 days after sowing. Highest weed control efficiency (88.25%) was recorded with pendimethalin + one hand weeding at 45 DAS + imazethapyr @ 50g a.i. ha-1 at 20 DAS. The highest benefit:cost ratio (4.96) was obtained from the application of pendimethalin + one hand weeding at 45 DAS.
30 Influence of mechanical and chemical weed management practices on growth and yield of transplanted rice, M. D. SURVASE, S. M. NAWLAKHE, S.G. JADHAV, S. K. NAYAK AND Y. M. WAGHMARE Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Agriculture University Krishinagar-444104, Akola, Maharashtra
An experiment was conducted at the Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Nagpur during kharif season of 2010-2011. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with six treatments and four replications. The lowest weed dry matter and highest weed control efficiency were recorded with two hoeing and two weeding at 20 and 40 DAT. The treatment also recorded highest grain yield and straw yield of rice.
31 Regression analysis for biological yield and harvest index in rice and wheat crops under rice-wheat cropping system, V. GUPTA AND H. L. SHARMA Department of Mathematics and Statistics College of Agriculture, JNKVV Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
Using an experiment on integrated nutrient management in rice-wheat cropping system at Jabalpur (MP), a regression analysis for biological yield and harvest index of both the crops has been worked out to evaluate the contribution of various vegetative and reproductive attributes. Two years data on both the crops revealed that plant height, number of tillers at harvest, LAI, panicle length and grains per panicle are determinants for biological yield and harvest index.
32 Production and marketing strategy of seeds for developing countries, A. K. NANDI, B. DAS AND M. SABLE Department of Agricultural Economics Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur- 741252, Nadia, West Bengal
The productivity of major food grains had been increased during late sixties in the lower and middle Gangetic Zones due to the development of seed centered technology and it received huge momentum through the exploitation of ground water during mid-eighty onwards. The major thrust of the present study is to analyze the position and possibilities of seed industry in India and its sub-continent. The efficiency of seed and other inputs are now gradually decreasing and thereby production and productivity are also in stagnant or in downing trend. The study revealed that seed replacement rate of field crops in the lower Indo-Gangetic regions are still very low and it is 18-26 per cent and for vegetables extends up to 83-99 percent with a seed cost of maximum 10 percent of total cost except potato. Productivity in farm saved seeds is always lower than replaced seeds almost both for field and vegetables. The private seed production and replication units mainly concentrated their business on high value low volume vegetable crops. The study also examined the potentiality of seed production and distribution of high volume low value crops of food grains in local and regional basis as well as the relative merits and demerits of seed and grain production of paddy based on different levels of input intensity. The participatory system of seed production and distribution in local as well as for regional level would also helpful to the producer to get the seed in time. Under good governance, the private public partnership in seed sector have to be encouraged for the minimization of productivity gap in local basis, till the availability of genetic ally improved new seeds . Protection of farmers right has to be maintained in production and business system in developing countries. Under existing technological back up of present varieties, the Indian seed industry may capable to produce high quality seeds due to wide variability of agro ecological situations in the country.
33 Feasibility of growing intercrops with jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) grown for seed production in West Bengal, India, S. SARKAR AND B. MAJUMDAR Division of Crop Production Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres (ICAR) Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120, West Bengal
A field experiment was conducted for consecutive two years from 2007 to 2008 to study the feasibility of growing intercrops in the widely spaced seed crop of olitorius jute (cv. JRO 524) in Typic Ustochrept soil with neutral sandy-loam textured soil having medium fertility. Intercropping of black gram (Vigna mungo) for fodder in the widely spaced jute seed crop increased the jute seed equivalent yield by 31.3% (from 3.48 q to 4.57 q ha-1). Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) as intercrop in jute seed crop can also improve the JSEY by 30.5% (from 3.48 q to 4.54 q ha-1). Cowpea and green gram as intercrop in jute seed crop was also increased the JSEY by 15.8 and 15.2 %, respectively.
34 Conservation status of fin fish and shell fish in Haria beel in Bangladesh and prospect for utilizing the beel for conservation and production of fish, B. K. CHAKRABORTY, S. A. AZAD,A. SIDDIQA, K. M. MOINUL Department of Fisheries Dhaka, Bangladesh
Present status of aquatic biodiversity and the prospect for raising fish fingerlings in the Haria beel in Bangladesh has been presented. A total number of 84 aquatic species (71 wild fish, five prawn, one crab, four snail and three fresh water turtle) were identified in the beel during 2007 - 2010. About ten types of fishing methods were identified to be used by the fishers of the surveyed beel. Increasing pressure of illegal current jal (gill net), Kapuri jal (sein net) and FAD (Fish aggregating device) were detected as detrimental gear and killing method almost all type of species. Over a period of 3 years, total production of fish and allied species in the Haria beel was found to decrease from 178.605.50 to 115.984.12 t indicating 35.06% decline between 2007 and 2009. Due to increasing fishing pressure and global affect, commercially important 7 species were extinct, 15 species were critically endangered, 27 species were endangered, 27 species were vulnerable status, 4 species were in lower risk and 04 species were not threatened position from biodiversity view point. But in 2010, strict enforcement of fish Act-1950 in the beel resulted in reduces rate of use of gill net, sein net and FAD. Initiation of new technology for production of carp fingerlings in the Haria beel through community based co-management policy and enforcement of Fish Regulation Act-1950, helped to augment productivity of the recorded beel from115.984.12 to 184.323.49 t exhibiting 103.20% biomass enhancement. Two species bata (Labeo bata) and along (Rasbora elanga) were found to have reappeared in the beel and surrounding floodplains. Note: Beel = Seasonally flooded large water bodies and are used as crop land during dry season. Khal = A narrow channel connected between beel and river.
35 Yield and soil organic carbon sequestration under organic nutrient management in rice-rice system, D. K. BASTIA, S. TRIPATHY, T. BARIK, C. S. KAR, 1S. RAHA AND 1A. TRIPATHY Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture OUAT, Bhubaneswar-751003, Odisha 1 Biostadt India Limited, Worli-400018, Mumbai, Maharashtra
A field experiment was carried out at Bhubaneswar during 2008 - 2011. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam in texture with 6.0 pH. The bulk densities were 1.58 and 1.66 t m-3 and soil organic carbon were 5.2 and 4.0 g kg-1 of soil for 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depth, respectively. Rice-rice cropping system was taken for three consecutive years with eight organic nutrient management and biozyme application treatments in a Randomized Block Design. Grain and above-ground biomass yield increased linearly from first to third year in both the seasons. The pooled grain, straw and total biomass yields of the system were the highest (8.1, 9.0 and 18.0 t ha-1, respectively) with GM + FYM + vermicompost in split dose + biozyme granule and power plus in kharif and FYM + vermicompost in split dose + biozyme granule and power plus in summer and were at par with those of all other biozyme applied treatments. In soil, organic carbon concentration, total soil organic carbon stock and soil organic carbon sequestration rates were also significantly influenced by the organic nutrient management and biozyme application treatments.
36 Analysing and ensuring persuasive extension with respect to preventive innovation for sustainable agriculture, M. M. ADHIKARY, 1K. PRADHAN AND S. MISHRA Department of Agricultural Extension Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal 1Department of Agricultural Extension, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Coochbehar, West Bengal
In the changed agricultural scenario, as concerns about environmental protection, natural resource stewardship, and the India's ability to feed ever-growing populations continue to mount, the sustainability of agriculture and natural resources is emerging as a central theme among the public and policymakers alike. Increased environmental awareness and health consciousness promoted the scientists and planners to think and promote an alternate pathway of extension science for sustainable agriculture with protect ion to environment and human health, called per suas i v e e x t en s io n . Consequently, the present study was c o n d u c t e d with an aim to highlight the issues of persuasive extension and assess the knowledge practice gap associated with the preventive innovation in agriculture. Data collected from 100 respondents with the help of structured interview schedule followed by statistical analyses revealed that among the three groups of farmers (good, moderate, not so good) good farmers had more knowledge about preventive innovation due to their superior characteristics (more experience, publication reading habit, m ore land holding etc.) than other two groups of farmers, they also followed these practices related to preventive innovation.
37 Development of SSR markers in mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek using in silico methods, N. SINGH, 1H. SINGH, 2 P. NAGARAJAN Department of Biotechnology, Instrumentation and Environmental Science 1Department of Agril. Biochemistry, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal 2 Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, TNAU, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Nucleotide sequences available in public database provide a cost effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the nucleotide sequence database available in National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is utilized to identify and develop SSR markers in mungbean (Vigna radiata). A total of 803 genomic sequences, 829 EST sequences and 82 GSS sequences were downloaded from NCBI. Eight hundred and forty two SSRs from genomic sequences, 240 SSRs from EST sequences and 60 SSRs from GSS sequences were obtained using SSRIT tool. Primers pairs were successfully designed for 109 SSR motifs from genomic sequence, 110 SSR motifs from EST sequence and 25 SSR motifs from GSS sequences using Primer3 (http://frodo.wi.mit.edu) software. Fifteen SSR primers were finally characterized and validated in 24 mungbean and six urd bean accessions.
38 Performance of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and estimation of economic and optimum doses of nitrogen and phosphorus in red and laterite soils of West Bengal, A. CHAKRABORTY Regional Research Substation, Sekhampur Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Red and Laterite Zone, Birbhum, West Bengal
A field experiment was conducted at the Regional Research Substation, Sekhampur, Birbhum, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal during early summer of 2009 and 2010 to study the performance of sesamum grown with variable rates of N and P levels and to compute the optimum and economic levels of the applied nutrients. The treatments comprised of four levels each of N (0, 20, 40 and 80 kg ha-1) and P (0,10,20 and 40 kg ha-1) laid out in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Increasing the application rates of N and P enhanced the number of seeds/capsule, number of capsules/plant and thousand grains weight. The highest average mean seed yields were obtained with 80 kg ha-1N (953 kg ha-1) and 40 kg ha-1P (857 kg ha-1).The agronomic efficiencies were highest with lower application rates of N (16.3 kg kg-1 of N) and P (22.6 kg kg-1 of P). The relationship between the applied amounts of N and P with sesamum yield was defined by quadratic functions. The estimated optimum levels of N and P were 72 and 36 kg ha-1while the economic levels were 61 and 35 kg ha-1respectively.
39 Effect of organic farming on organic carbon and NPK status of soil in Northern Karnataka,India, G.R. MANJUNATHA, K.V. ASHALATHA, 1K. R. PATIL AND K.P.VISHWAJITH Department of Agrilcultural Statistics 1Department of Agrilcultural Economics UAS, Dharwad-580005, Karnataka
Increasing consciousness about environmental degradation as well as health hazards caused by inorganic farming and consumers preference to residue free food are the major concern that have led to the mounting interest in alternate forms of agriculture (Organic farming) worldwide. Hence, present study was conducted with the object to determine the effect of years of practicing organic farming on the status of various soil health indicators by using analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) in the selected Agro Climatic Zones of Northern Karnataka. Data for the analysis was elicited from organic farmers selected based on multistage purposive random sampling method. The study revealed the significant influence of years of practicing organic farming on various soil health indicators, signaled through highly significant F- ratio. Thus, it can be concluded that by practicing organic agriculture the soil health can be enhanced meanwhile environmental pollution can be reduced.
40 Estimation of perception on discontinuance to measure social entropy in a farm ecology: A global perspectives, S. K. ACHARYA AND N. K. SHARMA Department of Agricultural Extension Bidhan Chandra Krishi Visavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal
Social entropy is a serious problem in social system in India. Farmers are often and then imposed with the technology and it is creating resentment among them after adopting for some periods because of non suitability to their sustainable livelihood situation. Discontinuance of conventional practices is not new now a day. Often and then farmers are discontinuing the traditional technology to welcome new technology. When farmers desires are unmet, when they are fatigued with the old practices, it creates a kind of social entropy in a social system. Social entropy is a kind of disorder or chaos in social system which is visible by the negative cognitive behaviour of the farmers. Ex post facto design of research method was conducted in two villages namely Ghoragacha in West Bengal and Chiroura in Bihar. Marketing orientation (x26), Adoption leadership (x17), Family Education status(x3), Utilization of cosmopolite source of information(x28) and Economic motivation (x22) have been found to cause the discontinuance of the conventional farming practices. Coefficient of correlation, Stepwise regression analysis, path analysis was used for the analysis of data collected from 150 farmers and ultimately to understand the dictum of social entropy which are transforming our social ecology. Social entropy to social ecology, can address the social responsibility at the same time by sustaining the livelihood of the millions of famers in our country.
41 Effect of integrated nutrient management on available phosphorus influencing grain and straw yield of rice (cv. IR-36) in an Alfisol, LUNGMUANA, M. GHOSH AND P. K. PATRA Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidhyalaya Mohanpur -741252, Nadia, West Bengal
A field experiment was conducted during 2007 kharif season in a farmers field in the Red and Laterite zone of West Bengal to evaluate the effect of integrated use of fertilizer with organic amendments viz., rice straw, glyricidia leaves, farm yard manure and vermicompost, on transformation of phosphorus in the rice rhizosphere soil in relation to growth and yield of rice (cv. IR-36). Rhizosphere soil and plant samples collected from rice field during tillering, flowering and harvesting stages of rice were analyzed. Chemical fertilizers and vermicompost furnished the highest amount of available phosphorus in the rhizosphere and produced the highest rice grain yield.These parameters were found to be significantly and positively correlated. Simple regression analyses revealed that about 90% (R2=0.90**) of the variability in grain yield could be explained by the variability in available phosphorus.This experiment clearly brought out the beneficial role of organic amendment on the availability of phosphorus to rice crop particularly at the later stage of growth.
42 Effect of irrigation and mulching on growth, yield and quality of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.), B. N. RAO, 1A. K. JHA, 2 C. DEO, 3 S. KUMAR,4 S. S. ROY AND 1 S.V. NGACHAN Directorate of Oil Palm Research, Pedavaegi-534450, Andhra Pradesh 1 Division of Horticulture, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Barapani, Meghalaya 2Department of Horticulture, Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Uttar Pradesh 3 College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh 4 ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre, Imphal, Manipur
An experiment was undertaken to study the effect of irrigation and mulching on passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) variety Kaveri and Purple in the hilly terrace area of Manipur. Growth, fruit yield and quality of passion fruit could be improved with the application of irrigation during dry months (November to March) in Manipur. Although irrigation at 10 days interval gave higher growth, irrigation at 15 days interval recorded higher fruit yield in both the varieties. Grass mulch recorded significantly higher growth, yield and quality over poly mulch and no irrigation. Among the different treatments, Kaveri variety recorded significantly higher growth, yield and quality than Purple.
43 Changes in non-exchangeable K in an acid and the corresponding limed soil as affected by addition of nitrogenous and potassic fertilizers, R. DAS AND D. SAHA Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal
A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the changes in non-exchangeable K in a half limed, full limed as well as the corresponding unlimed soil. All three soils were treated with nitrogen (urea) and potassium (MOP) fertilizers either alone or in combination. Soils were maintained at 60% of the water holding capacity. The results showed that, irrespective of treatments, full limed soil recorded highest amount of non-exchangeable K over that of half limed as well as unlimed systems. Results further showed that irrespective of treatments, non-exchangeable K in unlimed acid soil increased up to 30th day then decreased on 60th day but again increased on 90th day of the incubation. However, limed soil did not show similar trend of results. Non-exchangeable K decreased up to 60th day in half limed soil and up to 30th day in full limed soil and then showed an increasing trend thereafter. Results further showed that during the 90 day period of incubation, nitrogenous and potassic fertilizer did not show any significant effect on non-exchangeable K content in soil
44 Yield stability in mulberry over different regions of Eastern and North-Eastern India, M. K. GHOSH, B. B. BINDROO, N. K. DAS AND M. K. SINGH Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute Berhampore -742101, West Bengal
The leaf yield performance of 10 mulberry varieties was tested through stability analysis for different crop seasons conducting experiment in seven test centers for 5 years of Eastern and North-Eastern zones of India e.g., Berhampore, Kalimpong, Muluk in West Bengal; Koraput in Orissa; Ranchi in Jharkhand; Jorhat in Assam and Imphal in Manipur over years and it significant genotype environment (GE) interaction was observed. Variance for deviation from regression (Sdi 2) of varieties C2017, RFS175 and Thalaghatapura did not differ significantly from zero. However, the bi values of only RFS175 out of these three is not significantly different from unity and may be considered to be a stable variety with moderate leaf yield. While C2017 having bi value significantly higher than unity is suitable for places like Berhampore, Jorhat and Imphal having positive environmental indices, Thalaghatapura having bi value significantly lower than unity is suitable for Koraput, Muluk, Ranchi and Kalimpong with negative environmental indices.
45 Genetic diversity for yield and its component traits in green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], S. S. GADAKH, A.M. DETHE, M.N. KATHALE AND N.S. KAHATE Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Latur M.A.U., Parbhani, Maharashtra
Genetic diversity analysis is a powerful tool in quantifying the degree of divergence between biological populations and to assess the relative contribution of different components of total divergence. The present investigation aimed to study the genetic divergence and clustering pattern of 50 genotypes of Green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) for selection of suitable parents that can be utilized in hybridization programme and to study the genetic parameters attributing to yield. The crosses of genotypes from cluster I, i.e. Kopergaon, Vaibhav, BM-4 and BM-2005-1 with those of genotypes BM-2003-2, PM-203- 18, AKM-9907 and AKM-08-01 belonging to cluster III and RVSM-11, PM-201-19, ML-1354, AKM-0603 belonging to cluster II has the highest intercluster distance and might produce high level of segregating population in regards to yield as well as earliness. Among the thirteen characters the protein content contributed maximum amount towards divergence. High heritability estimates coupled with high genetic advance was observed for harvest index and biological yield per plant resembling the action of additive genes in controlling these particular characters and selection would be rewarding for yield improvement.
46 A study on problems and constraints in production and marketing of fish in West Bengal, S. M. RAHAMAN, B. K. BERA AND 1G. S. ANANTH Department of Agricultural Economics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal 1University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560065, Karnataka
The present study has identified three major marketing channels which are of very short period. It is found that the price spread is highest in channel III amounting Rs. 24.07 per kg of fish followed by Rs.10.14 in channel II, while there is a price spread of only Rs. 4.05 per kg of fish in channel I as the farmers sell their catch directly to the consumers. This indicates a very normal situation with greater marketing efficiency. The major constraints faced in production and marketing of fishes are theft and pilferages, non availability of quality fish seeds, lack of government support both technically and financially, quarrel and litigations among the owners of the pond, poor adaptability of fish seed in new environment, non availability of quality fish seeds, , lack of government support, labour crisis, high degree of perishability of the product, cut throat competition, inconsistent supply of fish, lack of storage facility etc.
47 Agro-ecological characteristics of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in Azerbaijan, M. K. MUSAYEV Genetic Resources Institute Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences Azerbaijan
The results of sea-buckthorn breeding in Azerbaijan are discussed. Assessment of the main biomorphological and economical traits of local varieties of sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is given. Discusses the results of studying of resistance to salt stress and structural elements of productivity of the varieties and forms of sea buckthorn. The essential differences between varieties were determined.
48 Integrated nutrient management in aonla cv. A-7 in the red lateritic region of West Bengal, K. K. MANDAL, A. RAJAK, S. DEBNATH AND M. A. HASAN Department of Fruits and Orchard Management Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal
An experiment was carried out at the Regional Research Sub-Station Sekhampur of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India for two consecutive years during 2008-09 to 2009-10 on to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of aonla cv. NA-7. Observations on plant morphological characters and yield attributes were recorded at maturity of 3 years old aonla trees. The highest plant height (323.00cm) was recorded in trees supplied with 100: 25:150 g NPK + 10kg FYM+ 50g PSB plant-1. The highest number of branches was noted in 100:25:150 G NPK + 10KG FYM + 50G PSB plant-1 treatment (15.30) and the lowest number of branches could be noted against the 100:50:150 g NPK plant-1 treatment (9.53) consisting of exclusive application of inorganic fertilizers. The highest number of fruits was observed in 100:25:150 g NPK + 5kg vermicompost + 50g PSB plant-1 (73.17) which was closely followed by 100:25:150 g NPK + 10kg FYM + 50g PSB plant-1 treatment (72.73). The highest yield was recorded in 100:25:150 G NPK + 10KG FYM + 50G PSB plant-1 (1781.43 g plant-1) whereas lowest fruit yield was recorded in 100:50:150 g NPK plant-1 (831.96 g/plant). In general, the treatment comprising of integration of inorganics, organics and bio-fertilizers produced 50.92% more yield than the application of inorganic fertilizers only (100:50:150 g NPK plant-1treatment). It appears from the investigation that application of 100: 25:150 g NPK plant-1+ 10kg FYM+ 50g PSB plant-1and 100:25:150 g NPK + 10kg FYM + 50g PSB plant-1) treatments are beneficial for increasing vegetative growth as well as improving yield and yield attributing characters of aonla cv. NA-7 under red and lateritic region of West Bengal
49 In vitro regeneration in snake gourd (Tricosanthes anguina) from shoot apical meristem and young leaves, M. E. HAQUE, D. REZWANA, M. I. ISLAM, AND B. SIKDAR DNA and Chromosome Research Laboratory, Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh
Snake (Tricosanthes anguina) gourd is a popular vegetable and medicinal plant in Bangladesh. The present investigation was under taken for in vitro regeneration of snake gourd from shoot apical meristem and juvenile leaves in Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with various concentration and combination of BAP, 2,4-D, NAA, IBA and GA3. Among different concentrations, 1 mg l-1BAP was found for effective callus induction from shoot apical meristem and 2.5 mg l-1 2, 4- D + 0.5 mg l-1BAP from leaves. The highest result for shoot regeneration was observed from meristem derived calli using 1.5 mg l-1BAP + 0.2 mg l-1GA3 and 2.5 BAP + 0.2 mg l-1GA3 from leaves derived calli. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted well in strength MS with 0.5 mg l-1NAA and well rooted plantlets were successfully established in pot soil with 80% survival rate.
50 Altitude extension: an imperative to transfer of technology in North-East hill ecosystem, C. VICTORIA DEVI AND M. M. ADHIKARY Department of Agricultural Extension Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal
Extension education, by becoming a function for technology socialization, cant go without geographical references. With a change of altitude, the panorama of biology and sociology keeps transforming. What is happening since past and till today is a kind of blanket extension recommendations is being made to cover all geographical variations along and across the given hill ecosystem. In this paper and with this innovative approach, an empirical study has been conducted in the North East Hill Eco- system of India which is one of the hot spots of the World, for ultimately designing a both gross and subtle extension plan for desired changes in agriculture and social ecology of hill ecosystem. The altitude variances here are being associated with change in farming system, options of indigenous technology, culture, value and praxis, income and livelihood generation from a micro farming system. The altitude extension thus will add a new dimension of development instead of mere transfer of technology in North-East hill ecosystem.
51 Induced mutation- a tool for creation of genetic variability in rice (Oryza sativa L.), A. SHARMA AND S. K. SINGH Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221005, Uttar Pradesh
A. SHARMA AND S. K. SINGH Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221005, Uttar Pradesh
52 Farmers rights and its justification under Indian circumstance, Farmers rights and its justification under Indian circumstance
There is a certain level of acknowledgement worldwide that farmers are an important part of the economic, social and political fabric of society and require support. Article 7 of TRIPs agreement clearly emphasizes that the 'protection and enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights should be contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of the technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations. Considering the importance of farmers in the domestication, conservation, improvement and development of crops and its varieties the Government of India enacted the IPR on crop varieties- Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act, 2001. The Section 39 (1), (i)-(iv) of Chapter IV of PPV&FR Act defines the farmers' rights.
53 A study of livelihood generation status in Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in Tripura state: A socioeconomic and managerial analysis, D. DEBBARMA AND S. K. ACHARYA Department of Agricultural Extension Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal
A study was conducted on livelihood generation through Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in the state of Tripura collecting firsthand information from a total of seventy five respondents who are all enrolled under the scheme and it was found that different antecedent variables had different impact on the consequent variable, livelihood(as consequence variable). The fertility status has come up as the most significant variable in the entire study. Also the other variables like income from other sources, independency, number of animals, size of holding, income from agriculture of the respondents have got significant impact on livelihood level of the respondents. It implies that population growth remains unabated; all kinds of welfare projects for generation of livelihood and income shall help to generate desired impact.
54 Base-line survey for Tulaipanji rice production status in Uttar Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India, G. MONDAL, 1M. GHOSH, 1D. MAZUMDAR AND 1A. BISWAS Regional Research Station, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Majhian, South Dinajpur 1Faculty of Agricuture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal
Tulaipanji, a popular aromatic rice landrace, is mostly cultivated in Uttar Dinajpur district as well as in some parts of Dakshin Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India for hundreds of years. In order to better understanding of the present status of Tulaipanji rice in North Dinajpur district, specially the crop environment, cultivation practices, grain yield, milling recovery, marketing network, socio-economic impact, etc., a base-line survey was conducted with 102 randomly selected Tulaipanji farmers in 4 blocks (viz. Raiganj, Kaliaganj, Hemtabad and Itahar) through personal interview using structured and pre-tested schedule during 2009. Among them, 25.5, 72.5 and 2.0% farmers belonged to general, O.B.C and S.C. category, respectively and the respondents had average land of 0.22 ha under Tulaipanji cultivation in each year. About 71.0% farmers used their own seeds and started their sowing operations during July with the preparation of wet seedbed (81.7%). They transplanted their seedlings during the month of August (73.6%) following random method of planting with average seedling age of 26.6 days. The chi-square test revealed that Tulaipanji growers obtained average grain yield of 2.33 t/ha, with a range between 2.04 t/ha (Itahar) and 2.57 t/ha (Kaliaganj). They had to travel about 7.9 km for milling of paddy and 87.2% of them sold their rice in nearby markets.
55 Formation of dry matter yield in alfalfa, depending on the meteorological conditions, D. PETKOVA Institute of Agriculture and Seed Science Obraztsov Chiflik- 7007 Rousse, Bulgaria
Field trials with alfalfa were conducted during the period 1996 2012 under the meteorological conditions of Obraztsov chiflik, Rousse Bulgaria. The objective of the study was dry matter yield to be estimated in alfalfa depending on the age of the stand under the meteorological conditions of Northeastern Bulgaria. Dry matter yield of alfalfa, precipitation and temperature sums were determined during the period of vegetation of crop. Annual hydrothermal coefficients (HTCY) were calculated for estimation of moisture - providing also and HTC for vegetation (HTCV) and autumn-winter periods (HTCAW). Dry matter yield in alfalfa without irrigation under conditions of North-East Bulgaria for four years was 499.28 kg ha -1. It varied most strongly during the first and the fourth year of cultivation. The Hydro-Thermal Coefficient from January to December effects positively on yield, comparing with the precipitation and temperature sums.
56 Genetic parameters and association studies for important quantitative traits in advanced lines of Sambamahsuri derivatives, AWANEET KUMAR AND B. K. SENAPATI Department of Plant Breeding Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal
Thirty three lines of F5 progenies obtained from Sabita/Sambamahsuri derivatives were evaluated along with parents and three check varieties for 19 characters. Significant differences were observed for all the characters studied. Three lines possessed significantly higher grain yield than superior check variety. High estimates of PCV and GCV were recorded for grain yield per plant, panicle weight, number of panicles per plant, number of secondary branches per panicle, number of grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight and florets number per panicle. High heritability was observed for most of the characters viz. plant height, grain length, grain breadth, grain L/B ratio, kernel length, kernel breadth, days to 50 % flowering, fertility %, days to maturity, 1000 grain weight and kernel L/B ratio. High genetic advance was observed for florets number per panicle, plant height and number of grains per panicle. Genetic advance as percentage of mean was highest for grain yield per plant where as lowest was for days to maturity. High heritability coupled with high GA was recorded for plant height, days to 50% flowering, fertility %, days to maturity and 1000 grain weight. High heritability with low genetic advance was observed for grain length, grain breadth, grain L/B ratio, kernel length, kernel breadth and kernel L/B ratio. Grain yield per plant was significantly correlated with number of panicle per plant, panicle weight, number of secondary branches per panicle. Kernel length imparted the highest positive direct effect on grain yield followed by grain L/B ratio, grain breadth and fertility %.
57 Moisture related mechanical properties of drum-roasted cashew nut under compression loading, S. K. SWAIN AND 1J. P. GUPTA Instrumentation Cell, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 1Department of Farm Machinery and Power, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur- 741252, Nadia, West Bengal
Quasi-static compression tests were conducted to study the mechanical behavior of roasted cashew nuts at various moisture contents within the range of 6.75 percent to 13.52 percent and at varying loading rates of 5, 10 and 20 mm min-1. The direction of loading in all experiments under the present investigation was perpendicular to the concave and convex edges i.e. on its longitudinal axis along the natural line of cleavage, which is similar to the orientation followed for shelling in conventional manual hand beating method. The results have shown that under the three rates of loading and four levels of moisture contents the mechanical properties such as force for initial rupture, deformation, energy for rupture and modulus of elasticity followed quadratic relationship with moisture content. The results indicated that the force for rupture, deformation and energy for rupture increased up to the moisture content of 10.20 percent under the three rates of loading but the modulus of elasticity decreased under the similar conditions.
58 Resistance to ACCase and ALS inhibitors in Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum in the United States, R. A. SALAS, N. R. BURGOS, 1A. MAUROMOUSTAKOS, 2 R. B. LASSITER, 3 R. C. SCOTT AND 4 E. A. ALCOBER Weed Science Faculty, Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences University of Arkansas, 1366 W. Altheimer Drive, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA 1 Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Arkansas, AGRX 104, Fayetteville,USA 2 Dow Agro Sciences, Little Rock, AR72212, USA 3Extension Weed Specialist, University of Arkansas, PO Box 357, Lonoke, AR 72086, USA 4Visayas State University, Philippines
Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) is a major weed problem in wheat production. Being an obligate outcrossing species, it has a high propensity to evolve resistance to herbicides. This study was conducted to determine the level of resistance and resistance patterns of Italian ryegrass populations in the United States to ACCase- (diclofop and pinoxaden) and ALS (imazamox, mesosulfuron, and pyroxsulam) inhibitors. Dose-response bioassays were conducted on 47 populations from suspect herbicide-resistant fields in the southern United States (Arkansas, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina,Virginia), Kansas, and Washington collected between 2008 and 2011 from fields suspected of resistance to ALS inhibitors. Eighty-seven percent of the populations were resistant to diclofop. Eight of the diclofopresistant populations (25%) were also resistant to pinoxaden. Thirty-eight diclofop-resistant populations (81%) were resistant to at least one ALS inhibitor. Thirty-nine populations (83%) were resistant to mesosulfuron, 38 of which were also resistant to pyroxsulam. All mesosulfuron-resistant populations tested were cross-resistant to imazamox and pyroxsulam. Cross-resistance patterns to ALS inhibitors differed. Of 45 populations with resistance to ACCase or ALS inhibitors, 35 (78%) had multiple resistance to both modes of action. The majority of diclofop-resistant L. perenne populations can be controlled with pinoxaden, but widespread resistance to pinoxaden can evolve soon if it is intensively used. A comprehensive weed management approach prior to planting will be critical in managing L. perenne in wheat and preventing or delaying resistance evolution.
59 Influence of aril browning on biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), H. SINGH, 1N. SINGH, 2A. MARATHE AND J. UGALAT Department of Agril Biochemistry, 1 Department of Biotechnology, Instrumentation and Environmental science Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal 2 Division of Biochemistry, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa-100012, New Delhi
Aril browning (AB) is one of the major physiological problems of pomegranate, resulting in diminution of quality and commercial value of the fruits. The present study was taken up to investigate the biochemical changes in pulp and seed of aril browning affected fruit in comparison with healthy fruits. Biochemical studies revealed that AB affected aril had higher total sugars (84.45 mg g-1 fresh weight of tissue), reducing sugar (53.40 mg g-1 fresh weight of tissue), TSS (16.3%) and starch (194.96 mg g-1 of tissue dry weight) as compared to healthy aril. Whereas, protein content was lower in AB affected seeds (6.92 mg g-1 FW of tissue) as compared to healthy seeds (7.832 mg g-1 FW of tissue). There was a gradual decrease in anthocyanin (from 0.53 to 0.33 mg 100-1 g) and total phenol content (from 141.25 to 109.70 mg 100-1 g) with the increase in intensity of browning. AB affected seeds showed reduced activities of enzyme like amylase (7.36 mg maltose liberated h-1 g-1 of protein) and total dehydrogenase (1.44 ?A485 g-1 fresh weight of tissue), in contrast to this there was increased activity of enzyme polyphenol oxidase (0.0063 ?A412mg-1 protein min-1) as compared to seed of healthy aril.
60 Arylpyrrole acaro-insecticide chlorfenapyr-a tool for managing yellow thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks) of chilli, P. K. SARKAR, G. P. TIMSINA, H.VANLALDIKIAND S. CHAKRABORTY Department of Agricultural Entomology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia, West Bengal
Two most obnoxious invisible enemies of chilli include yellow mite or broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) and thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) in Indian sub-continent. Dry weather during crop growth period increases the intensity of infestation of thrips vis-a-vis global warming from January last fortnight onwards, favours the attack of yellow mite. These two types of agro-climatic parameters prevail during pre-monsoon months in eastern part of Indian sub-continent. Hence, both the species appear simultaneously in chilli. Damage intensity due to their attack may reach to the tune of 25-100 %. Under this context selectivity of chlorfenapyr 10SC , was evaluated for two consecutive years i.e. 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 in a farmers field (8.75m above msl) at Gangetic Alluvial plains of West Bengal@ 50, 75, 100 and 125 g a.i. ha-1 along with recommended check fenazaquin 10 EC (@ 100 g a.i. ha-1) and imidacloprid 17.8 SL (@ 20 g a.i). On the basis of post treatment on mite and thrips population, chlorfenapyr @ 100 and 125 g a.i. ha-1 were found to be most effective against the pests. There was significantly less infestation at both the stated concentration (100 and 125 g a.i. ha-1) up to 15 days after treatment. It was also found to be "moderately toxic" to beneficials in chilli including different coleopteran beetles. The molecule did not produce any phytotoxic symptom in chilli.
61 Biochemical and physiological characterization of corky tissue affected fruit of sapota (Manilkara achras (Mill) Fosberg) cv. Cricket Ball, J. UGALAT, 1C. HARADARI AND H. SINGH Department of Agricultural Biochemistry Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, West Bengal 2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru-560065, Karnataka
Corky tissue is a physiological disorder, affecting Cricket Ball variety of sapota to the tune of 35% or more, especially in the summer season. Very little work has been reported so far on the biochemistry of this disorder. In the present study an attempt was made to characterize the corky tissue affected fruit in biochemical and physiological view. Studies revealed that the percent of corky tissue incidence had a positive correlation with the number fruit per panicle and size of the fruit. Gibberellic acid treatment has reduced the incidence of corky tissue as compared to control and paclobutrazol treatment has increased the incidence of disorder. In corky tissue affected fruit pulp the reducing sugars, total soluble sugars content and enzyme activity like amylase were reduced and starch content was higher as compared to healthy fruit pulp, hence decreased activity of amylase might affected the conversion of starch into simple sugars. Total carbohydrate, proteins, fatty acids, mineral nutrients were comparatively less in case of affected fruits. This indicates that there was less mobilization of these biochemical parameters into the fruit and consequently affected the physiological development of the fruit and manifested as disorder.
62 Pathotype characterization of Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae isolates ofWest Bengal and evaluation of resistance genes of bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), S. DEBNATH, 1P. SATYA AND B. C. SAHA Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari -736165, Cooch Behar, West Bengal 1Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibre, Barrackpore, West Bengal
Bacterial blight is the second most important disease of rice. Hence characterization of the pathotype that causes bacterial blight and identification of resistance genes were attempted as a preliminary step towards identifying some resistant sources. In order to do that, six isolates collected from different parts of West Bengal were screened against near isogenic lines to identify variability in virulence. All the NILs were found to possess varying degree of susceptibility to resistance against all the isolates with significant differences in disease progress. The pyramided lines showed broad spectra of resistance against all the Xoo isolates and most durable resistant monogenes were xa5, xa13 and Xa21.
63 Radiation technology in agriculture, S. F. D'SOUZA
Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture is one of the most important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area especially in the development of new mutant crop varieties and food irradiation for enhancing food safety, reduce post harvest losses, enhance shelf life and as a quarantine measure for enabling international trade in food and agricultural commodities.
64 SRI A methodology for substantially raising rice productivity by using farmers improve thinking and practice with farmers available resources, R. K. GHOSH, S. SENTHARAGAI AND D. SHAMURAILATPAM
The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) shows promise for substantially raising rice productivity by using farmers improve thinking and practice with resources what farmers already have, besides offering increase soil & plant health, saving resources & lowering GHG emission. The on station field experiments (weed, nutrient & water management) were conducted at the Viswavidyalaya farm, Mohanpur during summer 2012 - 2014 in transplanted puddled paddy cv. IET 4786 following SRI methodology. In nutrient management the experiment was conducted with RBD replicated four times and with five treatments viz. N -100% NPK through inorganic fertilizers; N 25% organic N + 75% inorganic N + 100% PK through inorganic fertilizers; N - 1 2- 3 50% organic N + 50% inorganic N + 100% PK through inorganic fertilizers; N -75% organic N + 25% inorganic N + 100% PK 4 through inorganic fertilizers and N - 100 % N through organic + 100% PK through inorganic fertilizers. The field experiment on 5 water management was conducted with four treatments (2-3 cm water submergence in active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering only and rest period irrigation at hair crack stage (2-3 cm WS at AT, PI and F + HC), irrigation at hair crack stage (HC), 2-3 cm water submergence (2-3 cm WS) and Farmers practice with 3-5 cm water submergence (FP) following RBD replicated six times. There were six treatments on weed management [Weedy check (WC); two mechanical weeding at 15 and 40 DAT (2 MW); three mechanical weeding at 15,25 and 40 DAT (3 MW); hand weeding at 25 DAT + 2 ME (HW + MW); chemical Pretilachlor 50 EC @ 500 g ha-1 at 1 DAT + 2 MW (CC+ MW) and aqueous extracts of Pathenium, Calotropis and Tectona leaves @ 5 ml litre of water-1 + surfactant Tween 20 at 1 DAT + 2 MW (BC + MW)] and the experiment was laid out in RBD replicated four times. The results revealed that 75 % N as organic + 100% PK through inorganic fertilizers showed better paddy productivity in addition to more soil population of soil biota and nutrient availability. The most interesting result was that keeping PK as constant in 100 % N through organic sources, the insect and pathogenic pests infestation was reduced to the tune of 31.13 % fb 75 % N as organic (22.2 %), 50 % N as organic (15.5 %) and 25 % N as organic (4.46%) as compared to 100 % N through inorganic treatment. In water management experiment the results revealed that the total water used in this experiment was 6.88, 4.72, 8.06 and 10.23 million lit ha-1 against treatments 2-3 cm WS at AT, PI and F + HC, HC, 2-3 cm WS and FP, respectively. The corresponding figures for water saving in respect to FP were 32.78, 53.90 and 21.23 %. The grain yield data also revealed that 3750.00, 3347.22, 3027.78, and 3138.89 kg ha-1 were obtained against the treatments 2-3 cm WS at AT, PI and F +HC, HC, 2-3 cm WS and FP, respectively. Therefore, the water required for kg yield of rice were 1833.84, 1409.20, 2661.60 and 3259.40 litre, respectively. With a common 20.80 % O in all plots at 25 DAT in FP the average GHG CO , CO, N O and Methane emissions were 2 2 2 to the tune of 398 ppm, 0.97%, 17 and 40 kg ha-1 , respectively and the corresponding figures at 55 DAT were 399 ppm, 0.99%, 21 and 46 kg ha-1 but in SRI treatment 2-3 cm WS at AT, PI and F + HC these data were 394 ppm, 0.92%, and 16 and 25 kg ha-1 at 25 DAT while at 55 DAT the corresponding figures are 395ppm, 0.95%, 25 and 32 kg ha-1. In weed management experiment the BC + MW could be the best alternative of both HW + MW and CC + MW treatments by increasing the NPV (considering biological yield) 3.14 and 3.77 %, respectively and over the WC by 54.1 %. The experimental results were also verified at on farm locations of nine districts of West Bengal (Nadia, Howrah, Hooghly, Burdwan, Birbhum, Purba and Paschim Medinipur, and North and South 24 parganas) during summer 2013 and 2014. An average of 8.0 - 15.5% more paddy grain yield was also observed over the traditional transplanted rice (TTR) . In Conclusion more organic nutrient application with BC + MW at 15 and 40 DAT weed management and 2-3 cm WS at AT, PI
65 Cryopreservation technology for conservation of selected vegetative propagules, U. R. SINNIAH, 1S. GANTAIT AND 2S. PERIASAMY
Cryopreservation is the science of freezing biological materials and their subsequent storage at very low temperature in liquid nitrogen (-196C). At such low temperature, metabolic rates are low or completely halted. Recently the need to conserve plant materials has increased tremendously due to extinction. Plants that produce orthodox seeds can be easily stored in the form of desiccated seeds at low temperature being the most convenient method to preserve plant germplasm. However, it is not applicable to crops that do not produce seed (e.g. bananas) or with recalcitrant or intermediate seed. In addition cryopreservation is now recognized as a powerful tool for the preservation of the unique genomic constitution of cultivars, tissue cultured lines and hybrids such as orchids. Various protocols, ranging from conventional slow freezing to the more modern vitrification based protocols have been established and utilized for various plant materials. To date there is still only limited number of plants whereby cryoconservation is readily used mainly because the techniques need to beadapted for each species. Therefore, continued efforts are needed in cryopreservation techniques to develop protocols for a wider range of plants. Conservation of plant germplasm has moved forward from the more costly slow cooling to vitrification based strategies. For effective adoption of the technique, simple reliable method with high regeneration ability has to be established. Our research in various plants has shown selection of plant material to be one of the most important steps in obtaining successful cryopreservation. In addition, different vitrification protocol can influence the success rate as well. This paper will highlight the importance of explant selection and the importance of method selection for successful cryopreservation using some selected crops.
66 Influence of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.), J. K. HORE, S. GHANTI AND M. CHANCHAN
The experiment was carried out at Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, BCKV during the rabi (winter) season of two consecutive years i.e. 2009-10 and 2010-11. In both the years, big to medium size cloves cv. Katki were planted during middle of October, in 2.0 m x 1.5 m plots, at 20 x 15 cm spacing accommodating 100 plants per plot. The experiment with four levels of sulphur (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) and five levels of nitrogen (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1) was laid out in split plot design with 3 replications assigning sulphur levels in main plot and nitrogen levels in sub-plots.The maximum plant height (76.16 cm), leaf number (11.96), equatorial diameter (3.92 cm), and number of cloves per bulb (34.27) were observed with S N . But the plants 60 250 grown under S N interaction recorded widest leaf (1.52 cm), maximum polar diameter (3.67 cm), weight of bulb (33.68 g), yield 60 200 per plot (3.00 kg per 3m2), projected yield (7.50 t ha-1), maximum net return (Rs. 1,48,038/-) and B : C ratio (1.92). The minimum plant height (50.72 cm), leaf number (7.32), weight of bulb (19.15 g), projected yield (4.23 t/ha), net return (Rs. 52,736/-) and B:C ratio (0.71) were observed under S N treatment. From yield maximization and B:C ratio point of view 60 kg S ha-1 and 200 kg N 0 50 ha-1 was found best when applied with 125 kg P O and 150 kg K O ha-1.
67 Fish production in Manipur- an economic analysis, S. Z. DEVI , 1N. R. SINGH, 2N. ANANDKUMAR SINGH AND LAXMI TH.
Thepresent study was carried out in Manipur state to study the cost and returns of fish production under different farm categories and to find out the constraints of fish production. For this purpose, multistage random sampling procedure was adopted for the selection of the ultimate unit of samples. The data was collected from 100 selected fish farmers of Imphal-west district of Manipur during the period 2010-11. The fish farmers were classified into two categories i.e. category I (e 1hectare) and category II ( 1hectare) according to their allocation of area under fish farming. The study revealed that overall the average cost of fish production per hectare was Rs 99107.9. Comparatively higher per hectare cost was observed in category I, Rs 109902.32 followed by category II, Rs 93036.04. .The total fixed investments per hectare have been highest on category II (small farms), followed by category I (large farms). On an overall average, Net Income per hectare was observed as Rs 27940.77. Comparatively, higher per hectare Net Income was observed in category II Rs 36963.96 followed by category I Rs 18917.58. The Benefit-Cost ratio has been found profitable in both the farm categories, it being higher in category II (1.4) than category I (1.17). The lack of training facilities relating to new technology, non-availability of good quality fingerlings, lack of storage facilities, financial problems and price fluctuation are some of the major constraints faced by the fish farmers.
68 Sustaining productivity in boro (winter) season using minimal water through dry direct seeding of rice, M. M. RAHMAN AND M. M. MASOOD
The sustainability of rice productivity in Bangladesh is likely to face major threat due to water shortage during boro (winter season). The conventional transplanted boro rice requires huge amount of irrigation water due to wastage of various means. It is an imperative task that water saving production technology is needed to replace the conventional system for sustaining boro rice production in the country ensuring food security. Keeping with this in view, a field experiment was conducted during two consecutive boro seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 on two rice varieties viz. V - BRRI dhan28 and V - BRRI dhan29 in farmers 1 2 field under three different systems viz. T - puddle transplanted conventional irrigated, T - puddle transplanted alternate wetting 1 2 and drying irrigated and T - dry direct seeded systems at four locations of Bangladesh viz. Sundarban in Sadar of Dinajpur, 3 Norkona in Modhupur of Tangail, Narandia in Purbadhala of Netrokona and Bijoynagar in Godagari of Rajshahi, respectively. At each location, the experiment used a split-plot design with four disperse location allocating systems in the main plot and variety as sub-plot.The result revealed that the rice yield and economic return for both the varieties were highest in dry direct seeded system. The number of irrigation required for puddle transplanted conventional system were 14-19, while those for dry direct seeded field and puddle transplanted alternate wetting and drying fields were 6-9 and 11-15, respectively. The puddle transplanted alternate wetting and drying field and dry direct seeded fields used about 24% and 58% less irrigation water than the puddle transplanted conventional irrigated field. The study concluded that dry direct seeding could be practiced for boro rice cultivation to get higher yield using 58% less irrigation water.
69 Forms and distribution of potassium in some soils of Hooghly district of West Bengal, M. C. KUNDU, G. C. HAZRA, P. K. BISWAS, S. MONDAL AND G. K. GHOSH
Potassium, the third major nutrient, exists in soil in different forms and these forms are in a state of quasi-equilibrium with each other. These different forms of potassium and their relationship with various soil properties were studied in seventeen representative soils spreading over seventeen blocks of the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Soils were in general medium in texture and slightly acidic to neutral in reaction. The organic carbon content of the soils varied from 5.54 to 12.5 g kg-1 in surface soils, being higher than the values for sub-surface soils. The distribution of the different forms of the K in these soils, i.e., available, water soluble, exchangeable, non-exchangeable, total and lattice forms ranged from 86.9 to 132.4 mg kg-1, 15.4 to 48.2 mg kg-1, 68.9 to 80.9 mg kg-1, 658.9 to 764.5 mg kg-1, 15579.2 to 17250.2 mg kg-1 and 14801.3 to 16361.0 mg kg-1 respectively, for surface soil and 98.5 to 135.6 mg kg-1, 21.5 to 49.1 mg kg-1, 72.9 to 92.2 mg kg-1, 701.0 to 789.9 mg kg-1, 15753.5 to 17303.2 mg kg-1 and 14951.3 to 16378.4 mg kg-1 respectively, for sub-surface soil. Correlation study showed that the various forms of K were positively and significantly correlated amongst themselves and with CEC, clay and silt content of the soils and negatively correlated with sand content of the studied soil.
70 Sustainable system intensification of sesamum (Sesamum indicum) through legume intercropping in sandy loam tract of Kerala, J. S. BINDHU, S. K. RAJ AND L. GIRIJADEVI
Onattukara sandy loam tract an important agro ecological zone spread over the Karunagapally taluk of Kollam and Karthikapally and Mavelikara taluks of Alappuzha districts of Kerala. The soils are highly permeable, acidic in reaction and are extremely deficient in all the major plant nutrients. Sesamum is mainly grown in Kerala as a sole crop in the summer rice fallows of Onattukara tract. The crop grows in this tract utilizing the residual moisture available in rice fields. The establishment of the crop is often poor resulting in low productivity. Hence an experiment was laid out to find out the suitability of raising pulses as an inter crop in Sesamum and to find out the nutrient status and residual effect of the intercropping. The experiment was laid out in Randomised Block Design with 9 treatments viz Sesamum sole (T ), black gram sole (T ), green gram sole (T ), Sesamum + 1 2 3 Blackgram (1:1) (T ), Sesamum + black gram (2:1) ( T ), Sesamum + black gram (3:1) (T ), Sesamum + green gram (1:1) (T ), 4 5 6 7 Sesamum + green gram (2:1) (T ), Sesamum + green gram (3:1) (T ) with 4 replication. Sesamum being a soil exhausting crop, the 8 9 inclusion of leguminous crops like black gram and green gram may benefit the companion crop through current nitrogen transfer and to the rice crop through the residual effect. The soil test data after the experiment indicated a significant positive build up of nitrogen and phosphorus in all plots except in plots of sole crop of Sesamum. Among intercropping system, Sesamum + Blackgram in 1:1 ratio gave highest monetary returns and biological efficiencies. The results indicated that legume association with Sesamum could increase the total productivity in addition to the enrichment of soil fertility. Thus, in summer rice fallows instead of growing sole crop of Sesamum, intercropping of Sesamum with black gram in 1:1 proportion can be recommended as an economically viable, biologically suitable and sustainable intercropping system.
71 Physico-chemical properties of sapota (Manilkara achras(Mill) Fosb.) fruits coated with corn starch, K. DEY, A. GHOSH, N. BHOWMICK, 1A. GHOSH
To study the effect of corn starch on storage life and quality of sapota fruits, an experiment was conducted during 2014 at Department of Pomology and Post-Harvest Technology, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Coochbehar, West Bengal. The fruits were dipped on different concentrations of corn starch solutions and stored at ambient storage for assessing the different physical and bio-chemical parameters. The effectiveness of the treatments in extending fruit shelf life was evaluated by recording physiological loss in weight and other horticultural traits like colour change, length, breadth, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, phenol content and ascorbic acid content. Fruits coated with 2.5% corn starch showed delay in disease occurrence and physiological loss compare to other treatments.
72 Agro-techniques for increasing yield potential of potato (Solanum tuberosum) under drip irrigation, C. K. CHANDRAKAR, G.K. SHRIVASTAVA, S. K. DWIVEDI AND NIVEDITA
An experiment was conducted during winter season 2010-11 and 2011-12. The soil of experimental site was clay loam in texture, neutral in soil reaction. The climate of the region is sub humid with an average annual rainfall of 1200-1400 mm. Results revealed that minimum total weed density and total weed dry weight was found under drip irrigation (100% of Open pan evaporation) at all stages during both the years and on mean basis, yield attributes and total tuber yield of potato crop was significantly maximum under drip irrigation (125% of Open pan evaporation) as compared to furrow irrigation. The herbicide Metribuzin (500 g a.i. ha- 1PE) proved better among other weed management practices recorded minimum total weed density and total weed dry weight was found at all stages and the maximum yield attributes and total tuber yield of potato crop. Application of 75% N inorganic fertilizer + 25 % N organic (Poultry manure) + PSB + Azotobactor was found non significant to weed control while produced significantly highest yield attributes and total tuber yield.
73 Impact of GDD and HTU on dry matter accumulation in mungbean sown under different dates in the sub-humid tropical environment of Eastern India, L. TZUDIR, 1P. S. BERA, 1S. BASU, 1R. NATH AND 2P. K. CHAKRABORTY
A field experiment was conducted in the summer seasons of 2010 and 2011 on four mungbean varieties (V - Pant Mung - 5, V - 1 2 Bireswar, V - RMG - 62 and V - Sukumar) sown on three different dates (D - 15th February, D - 1st March and D - 15th March) at 3 4 1 2 3 the University research farm BCKV. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design where the sowing dates and the varieties were considered as main plot and sub plot treatments respectively. The objective of this experiment was to study the thermal regime of mungbean crop and its impact on total dry matter accumulation. Both the cumulative maximum and minimum temperature increased with the delay in sowing and varietal differences were prominent during bud emergence and pod emergence phases which might have played a crucial role in the yield of the crop. The thermal use efficiency for dry matter production increased with the delay in sowing. The mean TUE was almost similar for D and D sowings in both the years. Among 2 3 the four varieties, the total HTU requirement and mean TUE was highest in case of V irrespective of the date of sowing and the 1 year of observation.
74 Long-term temperature analysis and its future projection during post-monsoon and winter season in the alluvial, red laterite and costal region of West Bengal, P. K. CHAKRABORTY, M. DUTTA AND L. DAS
Nine IMD stations (Alipore, Krishnagar, Sagar Island, Midnapore, Berhampore, Bankura, Contai, Shantiniketan, Haldia), distributed randomly in alluvial, red-laterite and coastal regions of West Bengal, were selected for studying the temperature change. First five stations have database of 105 years, sixth, seventh and eighth stations have database of 45years and the ninth station has the database of 15 years during the period of 1901-2005. Six GCMs simulations wore used for the purpose of model validation and future temperature change for the year 2050. First five stations showed drastic rise of temperature ranging from 1.24-3.67 C in 105 years in the post-monsoon season whereas the stations in the red laterite zone recorded a nominal change of temperature ranging from 0.26-0.980C during 1961-1990. The winter seasons showed the similar warming trend (0.75-2.810C in 105years) alike post monsoon in the first five stations. Abrupt warming (~0.05-3.03C) was recorded in last 15 years in the remaining four stations. All GCM models showed a rise of post-monsoon temperature by 0.8-1.8 C indicating slightly under estimate the observed warming whereas the winter warming is well simulated by GCMs as 1.4-2.4C. Irrespective of these two seasons, future temperature may rise by 1.4-1.80C with reference to 1961-90 at end of 2050. This temperature may rise have an important effect on growth and productivity of crops sown during October-March.
75 Impact of climatic parameters on milk production in murrah buffaloes, S.S. KAMBLE, B.R. BHISE AND D.S. CHAUHAN
The impact of climatic parameters on milk production in Murrah buffaloes were investigated using monthly milk production record of 379 lactations of Murrah buffaloes in Dairy Farm, College of Agriculture, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani during the years from 1985-2009. Correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to investigate various sources of variation for milk yield. The calving of Murrah buffaloes were not equally distributed in all seasons of the year. However the maximum number of calving occurred in winter season (44.59 per cent) followed by rainy season (31.40 per cent) and summer season (24.01 per cent). The influence of environmental factors on peak milk yield was significant (P< 0.01). It was observed that peak milk yield was highest (7.801 + 0.16 lit.) among the buffaloes calved during winter season as compared to rainy (7.35 + 0.14 lit.) and summer season (6.51 + 0.12 lit.).The influences of season of calving on lactation milk yield and lactation length were also significant. The highest milk yield and lactation length were also significant. The highest milk yield (1257.15 + 29.55 lit.) and longer lactation length (310.65 + 2.25 days) were observed among buffaloes calved during winter season. The buffaloes calved during winter, rainy and summer season had lactation yield of 1257.15 + 29.55 lit., 1088.00 + 18.41 lit. and 982.42 + 15.56 lit., respectively. It was also observed that buffaloes calved during winter season had longest lactation length (310.65 + 2.25 days). On the other hand rainy and summer calved buffaloes showed shorter lactation length (301.52 + 1.97 days) and (293.12 + 2.35 days) respectively.
76 Standardization of recipe for preparation of guava jelly bar, V. S. KUCHI, R. GUPTA, R. GUPTA AND S. TAMANG
Firm ripe guava fruits of Lucknow-49 harvested from college farm were used for the study. Jelly bar of 2 cm x 7 cm pieces were made and packed in LDPE and laminated aluminium foil pouches. Storage study was conducted in ambient and refrigerated conditions for two months. Among different treatment combinations, the recipe with 50 % sugar, 0.3% citric acid and 0.5 % pectin added to pulp extract recorded highest organoleptic score. Physico-chemical characteristics like total sugars and TSS increased while acidity, pectin content, ascorbic acid, and organoleptic scores decreased in the jelly bar stored in ambient condition while the changes are negligible for the jelly bar in refrigerated storage. Jelly bar packed in laminated aluminium foil and stored in refrigerated condition has better quality till consumption.
77 Genetic control and character association estimates of yield and yoeld attributing traits in some mungbean genotypes, E. B. KHAIMICHHO, L. HIJAM, K. K. SARKAR AND S. MUKHERJEE
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the genetic variability and character association on 27 genotypes of greengram (Vigna radiata L.) at Instructional Farm Jaguli, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya during 2012 and 2013.The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with two replications. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all the eleven characters which provides enough scope for significant improvement of the traits through selection. Marginal difference between GCV and PCV was observed predicting least environmental influence. High heritability accompanied by high genetic advance was observed for seed yield plant -1 followed by 100 seed weight, number of branches plant - 1 and number of pods plant -1 indicating importance of additive gene effects which may facilitate the adoption of simple breeding strategies to obtain desirable changes with respect to these characters. Seed yield plant-1 had shown significant positive correlation with number of pods plant-1,100 seed weight and positive correlation with pod width, protein content which also exerted positive direct effect on yield.
78 Farmers participatory quality seed production of field crops-A case study, B. ROY
Seed is the most important input to harvest a good crop. The potential yield of crop depends on the quality of the seed used for cultivation of crop. Use of quality seeds alone can enhance the crop productivity by 15-25%. One of the main reasons for low productivity of crops is unavailability of reliable quality seeds in the local markets. To enhance productivity, seed should be of high quality, which will express full potential yield of the genotype under favourable cultivation environments. Therefore, there is urgent need to establish quality seed sources at least for major crops of northern part of West Bengal. Considering the importance of quality seeds of crops, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya started Farmers Participatory Seed Production Programme since 2006. Initially, leading farmers were selected for seed production in two villages, namely Kharikabari (Unishbisha, Mathabhanga-2) and Petlanepra (Chotosalbari, Sitalkuchi) of Cooch Behar district. First two years (2006 and 2007), the farmers were trained on seed production technologies of major field crops of northern part of West Bengal. The farmers of Sitalkutchi and Unishbisha who involved in seed production under the guidance of UBKV were brought under one umbrella forming a Self Help Group - Suphala Beej Swanirbhar Gosthi in June 2008, and registered under District Rural Development Cell, Cooch Behar in 2008. The SBSG is producing Certified and Foundation seeds of different varieties of rice, potato, pulses and mustard. The seed is being registered and certified by the West Bengal Seed Certification Agency on satisfaction of the quality of the produced seeds. The SHG sell the seeds in the brand name of Shyamali. The quantity of Certified Seeds production in the 2010-11 of rice and potato were 53 t and 75 t, respectively and subsequently the quantum of rice seed production increased to 186.0 t in Kharif-2011. Local farmers of Sitalkuchi and Mathabhanga blocks of Cooch Behar district get certified seeds of major field crops, particularly rice at reasonable price through this Farmers Participatory Seed Production programme of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya.
79 Modeling and forecasting of tea production in West Bengal, B. S. DHEKALE, P. K. SAHU, K.P. VISHWAJITH, P. MISHRA AND MD NOMAN
Tea production in West Bengal is playing great role not only in world tea market but also in contributing substantially to Indian economy and in employment generation. Taking all these into consideration the present study attempts to analyze the growth and trend behavior of tea production scenario in West Bengal. Using time series data on tea production parameters and factors of production, the study attempts to model and forecast the future production behavior of tea in West Bengal. In this endeavour, a new method in formulating weather and other factor indices have been developed using direct effects from path coefficient analysis. Comparison of methods indicates that the newly developed method has outperformed some of the existing methods in literature. The study identified relative humidity and fertilizer consumption as the significant contributors in tea production. Using ARIMA models, in association with factors of production the study forecasts tea production of 318992 thousand kg from 120345 hectare of plantation with average productivity of around 2625 kg-1/ha in West Bengal during 2020.
80 Genetic diversity of wheat genotypes based on principal component analysis in Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal, BHANUPRIYA, B. DAS, N.H. SATYANARAYANA, S. MUKHERJEE AND K. K. SARKAR
The present investigation was planned to assess genetic diversity for yield, yield contributing traits and quality traits in forty nine germplasm of bread wheat along with 4 checks and two triticale variety collected from DWR, Karnal were evaluated in randomized block design with two replication in Nadia district of West Bengal during rabi season in two consecutive years 2010- 2011 and 2011-2012. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that five components (PC1 to PC5) accounted for about 75 % of the total variation among traits in bread wheat cultivars. Out of total principal components retained PC1, PC2 and PC3 with values of 25.9%, 17.1% and 13.3% respectively contributed more to the total variation. The first principal component had high positive loading for 9 characters out of 16 viz. weight of grains spike-1, number of grains spike-1, number of spikelets spike-1, spike length, plant height, days to heading, days to flowering, grain protein content and yield plant-1 which contributed more to the diversity. The result of present study could be exploited in planning and execution of future breeding programme in wheat.
81 Character association, genetic variability and component analysis in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench)], H. V. KALPANDE, S. K. CHAVAN, A.W. MORE, V. S. PATIL AND P. B. UNCHE
To assess the extent of genetic variability and heritability of 12 genotypes and 4 standard checks of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), the present experiment was conducted. The observations were recorded for 7 quantitative traits. The phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) was greater than genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) for most of the characters studied indicating influence of the environmental effect on the characters. But the GCV values were close to PCV values for the characters like days to fifty per cent flowering, days to physiological maturity and grain yield, indicating very little effect of environment on the genotype, on the phenotypic expression for these traits. The genotypes under study showed high heritability for days to 50% flowering. High heritability combined with high genetic advance (as per cent of mean) was observed for grain yield, total biomass, days to 50% flowering, green cane weight. The correlation analysis indicating the days to 50% flowering. Days to physiological maturity showed significant positive association with plant height at 50% flowering and plant height at physiological maturity, while significant negative association was observed for grain yield.
82 Evaluation of pre-released bold seeded lentil varieties for growth and yield potentiality in the Gangetic plains of West Bengal, M. K. KUNDU, S. MAJI, S. BASU, R. NATH AND P. K. CHAKRABORTY
A study was conducted for two consecutive year (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) to assess the performances of sixteen pre-released and two standard varieties of bold seeded lentil for their growth and productivity potential. Germination of seed required 4 to 7 days. The duration of germination to branch initiation phase was 11 to 13 days; flower initiation required 32 to 57 days, in first year and 29 to 36 days in the second year. Significant differences were observed in plant height, nodule number, dry matter accumulation, yield and yield attributes of the crop. The dry matter accumulation was better in the second year. The seed yield was maximum in PL-129 in both the year. The second year yield was lower than the first year, as it was exposed to higher temperature during the reproductive phase of the crop. The maximum productivity of lentil would be archived when the maximum and minimum temperature during 100% flowering ranged from 24.6 to 28.6 and 10.1 to 10.9C respectively.
83 Influence of pre-harvest spray of growth regulators on the quality and shelf life of baby corn during storage at room temperature, V. SUDHA VANI AND 1K. RAVI KUMAR
Pre harvest spray of growth regulators on the quality and shelf life of baby corn was studied. All the growth regulators extended shelf life for 2 days at room temperature. Among the growth regulators tried, pre-harvest spray of GA 40 ppm followed by cycocel 3 1000 ppm was proved to be promising in reducing the PLW (Physiological Loss in weight), spoilage per cent, better retention of TSS, reducing sugars, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid and crude protein content.
84 Estimating the correlates of employment and income generation through bamboo enterprise in Tripura, S. K. ACHARYA, M. GUPTA AND A. BISWAS
A study was carried out to assess the correlates of employment and income generation through bamboo enterprise in Tripura. Here, 96 respondents were selected randomly from the Hezamara block of Tripura; total numbers of predictor variables were 19. The study revealed that the predictor variables namely family size, land under agricultural crop, land under bamboo, annual income before bamboo, energy consumption, cost incurred in bamboo cultivation had recorded significant association with employment and wage generation from bamboo enterprise. The variables like age, family size, land under agricultural crop, cropping intensity, land under bamboo, material possessed, energy consumption, cost incurred in bamboo cultivation, had been retained in the step down regression to imply that these variables were extremely important to these causal variables to interpret the reason and spectrum of variance of the consequent variable in its behavior and performance. It has been found that the variable family size has exerted the highest direct effect and routed highest indirect effect, the variable land under bamboo has been exerted the highest indirect effect, to characterize the man-days and wages generation from bamboo enterprise. From the cross loading of the canonical covariates, it can be inferred that, while the entire Y set of variable are in interactive relationship, the three left side variables i.e. man-days generated from bamboo enterprise and wages generated from bamboo enterprise have respondent and dovetailed some of the X set of variable.
85 Estimation of variability for grain yield, quality and some agronomic traits in bread wheat and triticale, S. DIYALI, BHANUPRIYA, S. MUKHERJEE, K. K. SARKAR AND S. K. MUKHOPADHAYAY
The investigation was carried out to study the genetic variability of quantitative traits and their contribution towards seed yield that may be used as criteria for yield improvement in wheat. The experiment was conducted with forty nine genotypes including two triticale in Nadia district of West Bengal during rabi season in two consecutive years 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 following RBD design with two replications. A wide spectrum of variability for all the characters except days to maturity within the genotypes were evident which could provide scope for improvement on the characters following selection and most of the characters like plant height, days to heading, days to flowering, 1000 grain weight, number of grains spike-1 and yield plant-1 were associated with high heritability along with high genetic advance which suggested that the characters are predominantly controlled by additive gene effect and direct selection on the basis of phenotypic data may response positively to desired direction.
86 Empowering the rural people through entrepreneurship development and management, K. PRADHAN AND P. TALUKDAR
In the realm of appropriate entrepreneurship development and management, the present study has undertaken to analyse the Entrepreneurship Development and Management Index (EDMI) and the relation of the same with the socio- psychological, sociopersonal and communication related determinants associated with the enterprise. The present study was conducted in three villages under Cooch Behar-II block in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal. Purposive as well as multistage sampling and random sampling procedures were followed for the selection of the respondents. The Entrepreneurship Development and Management Index (EDMI) is considered as the consequent variable for the study and the sixteen other variables were considered as antecedent variables for the study. The data were collected with the help of structured interview schedule through personal interview method. The collected data were processed into statistical analyses like coefficient of correlation, multiple regression and factor analysis. The variables annual income, land holding, material possession, house type, adoption leadership, management orientation, risk orientation, social participation, cosmopolitenes and mass media exposure are positively and significantly associated with the Entrepreneurship Development and Management Index of the entrepreneurs. The variables annual income, management orientation and risk orientation are contributing positively and significantly in case of characterising the Entrepreneurship Development and Management Index (EDMI) of the entrepreneurs. The R2 value being 0.554, it is to infer that the sixteen predictor variables put together have explained 55.40% variation embedded with the predicted variable EDMI. The five factors namely economic and social competency, family and farm interaction, educational exposure, capacity orientation and personal trait are identified which reflect the conglomeration of predictor variables in explaining the variations embedded with the Entrepreneurship Development and Management Index (EDMI).
87 Importance of biodiversity of fruit crops and their wild relatives for food and nutritional security in Azerbaijan, M. MUSAYEV, 1Z. AKPAROV AND 2T. HUSEYNOVA
The Azerbaijan Republic considered being primary or secondary center of origin, domestication and diversity of many indigenous varieties of folk selection of fruit crops and their crop wild relatives (CWRs). The wild relatives of major fruits and nuts like grapevine, apple, pear, quince, medlar, pomegranate, fig, cherry, apricot, almond, hazelnut, walnut, chestnut, pistachio and others are presented along with many genera of the flora of Azerbaijan. The activity of Genetic Resources Institute (GRI) of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Science (ANAS) is collections, reproduction, studies, documentation and conservation of the gene pool of local resources of landraces of fruit plants, including their crop wild relatives (CWRs). The CWRs in Azerbaijan are conserved in protected areas and botanical gardens, as well as ex-situ and on-farm conservation in field collections of the National Genebank. Despite broad utilization of native varieties in the conventional agriculture the traditions of usage of crop wild relatives for food, food additives or environmental purposes still kept among populations like fresh fruit consumption, as a row material for processing and making of traditional food (Doshab, Behmez, Narsharab, Nardancha, Achta, Lavashana and others), including in a food chain as a feed for domestic animals, initial materials for breeding. Except fruit utilization the wild relatives are operate as rootstocks and for live fences; they are honey, decorative and medical plants, suitable for making anti-erosion and wind-brake line plantations, forest garden construction. For the purpose of collecting aboriginal varieties and their wild relatives of fruit crops a number of expeditions were organized in different regions of our Republic, their areal was determined, biological-agricultural traits of collected varieties and forms were evaluated. Collected materials were maintained in the national gene bank enriching the collections. Therefore, conservation of plant genetic diversity, selection, evaluation and protection are of high importance nowadays. It is expected that increasing public awareness of CWR by publication and events, will enhance protection and conservation of important species for further utilization.
88 Time series modeling and forecasting of pulses production in India , VISHWAJITH K.P, B S DHEKALE, P K SAHU, P MISHRA AND MD NOMAN
Pulses are known as poor mans meat as these are comparatively cheaper sources of protein in balancing human diet. In a populous developing country like India, production of pulses play pivotal role in nutritional security of the country. Production of pulses depends on many production factors like rainfall, fertilizer etc. and also on area under crops and its productivity. Analysis of production behaviour, modelling and forecasting of production taking all these factors in to consideration play vital role in human nutritional security. In this paper attempt has been made to analyse and forecast the production scenario of pulses in major pulses growing states of India. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) methodology has been used to model and forecast the behaviour of pulses production with and without inclusion of the above factors of production. In most of the cases, inclusion of the factors of production in the model outperformed the simple ARIMA modelling. To take care of conditional variances, use of Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH) models are found in literature; the method has also been used in this study. From the forecasted value it is clear that among the Indian states, Madhya Pradesh has to play a major role in augmenting pulses production in India with its estimated share of 3661 thousand tons out of all India production of 14360 thousand tons in 2015. Comparative analysis reveals that uniform superiority of neither the ARIMA model nor the GARCH could be established in modeling and forecasting the production behavior of pulses in India.
89 Genetic divergence, variability and character association in landraces of blackgram (Vigna Mungo [L.] Hepper) from Odisha., K. K. PANIGRAHI, 1A. MOHANTY AND B. BAISAKH
Beside rich biodiversity, Odisha is having a potential source of indigenous gene pool of several crops. In Odisha land races of blackgram are sources of valuable genes which provide tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, hence characterization and evaluation of such local germplasm may provides useful materials for breeding of good varieties. A throughout knowledge of existing genetic variation and degree of association among yield and yield contributing traits are essential for developing high yielding genotypes in blackgram. In this present investigation yield plant-1 contributed maximum towards divergence. The genotypes belonging to different clusters are havingshowed maximum divergence for different characters and may be successfully utilized in hybridization programmes to get desirable transgressive segregants. It is assumed that maximum amount of heterosis will be manifested in cross combinations involving the parents belonging to most divergent clusters with wide inter cluster distance.
90 Factors contributing towards adoption of aromatic rice production technology in Nadia district of West Bengal, D. ROY AND A. K. BANDYOPADHYAY
Scented or aromatic rice is natures gift to the Indian sub-continent and human kind at large. Compare to other classes of rice, aromatic rice is highly demanded and get better premium price in global market due to its pleasant aroma, superfine long slender grains with delicate curvature, remarkable linear elongation and excellent flaky soft texture on cooking. The concerned two agricultural university of West Bengal (Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya and Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya) have introduced the high yielding varieties of aromatic rice to the farming community with modern package of practices for betterment and popularization of aromatic rice through different Central and State sponsored projects. Accordingly farmers are showing very kin interest about the cultivation of aromatic rice and most of the farmers have already adopted the different varieties of aromatic rice. Keeping in view the vast potential and importance of aromatic rice cultivation to the states revenue in the broader sense and the impact of practice on improving the social life of the farmer, the study was under taken. The main objective of the study was to estimate the factors contributing towards the adoption of aromatic rice production technology. Two blocks from Nadia district of West Bengal were purposively selected for this study. The work was conducted with the dependent variable adoption behaviour and 22 independent variables categorised in three different factors viz socio-economic factors, sociopsychological factors and extension communication factors. For the study 150 respondents were selected purposively for interview in the year 2013. Data were collected through well structured interview schedule and analyzed by co-efficient of correlation and multiple regression analysis. Family type, family size, education, area under aromatic rice cultivation, land, farm power, material possession, annual income, attitude towards aromatic rice cultivation, knowledge level, market orientation, risk orientation, economic motivation, innovation proneness, personal cosmopolite were positively significant with the adoption behaviour of aromatic rice growers. From Regression analysis, the R2 value indicates that all the casual variables put together could explain 72.10% variation in the consequent variable. Natural hazards are found to be the greatest problem perceived by the respondents.
91 Performance and profitability study of different mango based intercropping systems in Easternghat high land zone of Odisha, S. C. SWAIN
An intercropping experiment comprising of nine treatements such as mango ginger, turmeric, tomato, cowpea, frenchbean, ragi, niger, upland paddy and control (without intercrop) was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications to assess the effect of various intercrops on the performance of mango in the rainfed uplands of Odisha. The results of the study revealed that the mango + guava +cowpea intercropping system exhibited better performance which has been reflected in the form of plant height, girth, canopy area, fruit weight and fruit yield of mango closely followed by mango + guava + frenchbean system. The mango plants, under study, however, did not exhibit any kind of variation in quality parameters in fruits. The leguminous intercrops, cowpea and frenchbean, were the most effective crop because of their desirable impact on improvement of nutrient status of soil and plant of mango orchard. Highest LER was obtained with mango + guava +cowpea intercropping system (4.17) followed by mango + guava + frenchbean. The highest benefit, cost ratio (2.02) was recorded in the mango + guava + cowpea intercropping systems, which was almost similar to that of mango + guava + turmeric, mango + guava + frenchbean and mango + guava + tomato .
92 Performance of pummelo germplasm in new alluvial zone of West Bengal, D. ROY, S. KUNDU, B. GHOSH, P. DUTTA AND R. PAL
Pummelo (Citrus maxima Merill.) is one of the major monoembryonic species of citrus. It is easily grown in inferior, marginal and backyard orchard. Pummelo is considered as an excellent tree for waste land development in arid and semi-arid region. The fruit is a fat, sodium and cholesterol free and this makes a very good source for dieters. It is also a good source of vitamin C and calories. The nutritional value of 100 g edible portion consists of 25 58 calories, 84.82 94.1 g moisture, 0.5 0.74 g protein, 0.2 1.56 g fat, 6.3 12.4 g carbohydrates, 0.3 0.82 g fiber, 0.5 0.86 g ash, 21 30 mg calcium, 20 27 mg phosphorus, 0.3 0.5 kg iron, 20 IU vitamin A, 0.04 0.07 mg thiamine, 0.02 mg riboflavin, 0.3 mg niacin and 30 43 mg ascorbic acid (Morton, 1987). In spite of tremendous potentiality for commercial exploitation, pummelo plants are yet to be given due importance in India. The cultivation and improvement of pummelo did not receive any attention so far. It is mostly grown in homestead gardens in many parts of India. No standard variety of pummelo is found except Nagpur Chakotra (Rajput and Haribabu, 2004). However, the diverse eco-geographical distribution in India and the occurrence of spontaneous mutation and natural hybridization have given rise to a wide range of variability in pummelo. West Bengal is also endowed with extremely diverse populations of pummelo in her diverse agro- ecological zones and altitudes.
93 Impact of agro-meteorological indices on growth and productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Eastern India, S. MAJI, 1M. BHOWMICK, S. BASU, 1P. CHAKRABORTY, 2S. JENA, 3S.K. DUTTA, R. NATH, P. BANDYOPADHYAY AND 1P. K. CHAKRABORTY
A two year experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (Variety: Kufri Jyoti). The crop was planted on five dates, starting from 15th November at an interval of seven days with two N doses (N - 200 kg ha-1 and N - 150 kg ha-1) in a split plot design with four replications at District Seed Farm, BCKV to study the 1 2 impact of thermal environment on the growth and productivity of potato. The 15th November planted crop recorded the highest total growing day degree Celsius (GDD) in both the years and it gradually decreased with the delay in planting. 54.8 and 33.0% variation in total dry matter could be attributed to the variation in GDD under two N doses respectively. The yield of the crop significantly reduced with the increment in heliothermal unit beyond 9000 day degree Celsius hour. The mean thermal use efficiency didnt follow a definite trend
94 Investigations on nitrous oxide emissions from organic rice fields as influenced by atmospheric factors, B. KAR, S. KARMAKAR, 1G. SAHA AND R. BHATTACHARYA
The increasing demand of the growing population requires enhancement in the production of rice. This has a direct bearing on the global environment since the rice cultivation is one of the major contributors to the nitrous oxide (N O) emissions. As the rice 2 cultivation is intensified with the current practices and technologies, the nitrous oxide fluxes from paddy fields will substantially rise. Improved high yielding rice varieties together with efficient cultivation techniques will certainly contribute to the curtailment of the nitrous oxide emission. The effect of organic-fertilization on rice yield and their relationships with nitrous oxide fluxes as influenced by various weather factors was investigated taking various treatment as two dates of transplanting, two different aged seedlings for a most promising variety of Oryza sativa L. (Satabdi) under irrigated and rainfed condition. Trace gas fluxes from the soil were measured fortnightly throughout the entire growth period using a closed chamber method. Experimental results showed that N O emission rate was highest for rainfed rice fields than irrigated ones especially after 30 and 60 days of 2 transplanting. Canopy temperature and ambient temperature significantly affect the N O emission rate. In case of irrigated 2 system a positive correlation exists in between ambient temperature and N O emission after 30 and 60 DAT (R2= 0.98 and 0.31 2 respectively) but for rainfed condition the correlation was 0.45 and 0.33 only after 30 and 75 days after transplanting respectively. Another significant correlation was found in between canopy temperature and N O emission from both water 2 treatments as R2 = 0.35 and 0.38 for irrigated fields (30 and 60DAT respectively) and as R2 = 0.38 and 0.57 for rainfed fields (30 and 60 DAT respectively). These two climatic factors also affect the productivity of rice. Same trend of association was observed between N O emission potentiality and yield of rice where R2= 0.46 ( rainfed) and 0.17 ( irrigated) during 30DAT. So it is 2 concluded that during organic rice cultivation atmospheric parameters plays pivotal role in N O emission from rice field followed 2 by productivity of rice.
95 Status of diversify of medicinal plants in floodplain basin of northern Bangladesh, B. K. CHAKRABORTY
Status of macrophyte diversity of floodplain basin, under Netrokona and Sunamgonj haor basin of Bangladesh was conducted and a total number of 30 species of aquatic weeds were identified from the surveyed area. These macrophytes provide medicinal importance of direct human benefit and shelter to the periphyton and other aquatic insects, and act as a source of feed to the fish. Due to increasing pressure of agriculture, aquaculture and global affect, important 01 species were extinct, 04 species were endangered, 05 species were vulnerable status, 09 species were in lower risk and 11 species were not threatened position from biodiversity view point. Initiation of new technology for growth of aquatic weeds in the floodplain through community based comanagement policy, would be helped to expand growth level in the survey area.
96 A review on endangered medicinal plants of India and their conservation , S. SHARMA AND R. THOKCHOM
India has a very rich plant biodiversity, many of which are medicinally useful. The rich resource is disappearing at an alarming rate as a result of over-exploitation. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. An ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass propagation through plant tissue culture strategy. Tissue culture technology is potent and has opened extensive areas of research for biodiversity conservation. Plant in vitro regeneration is a biotechnological tool that offers a tremendous potential solution for the propagation of endangered and superior genotypes of medicinal plants which could be released to their natural habitat or cultivated on a large scale for the pharmaceutical product of interest. Tissue culture protocols have been developed for a wide range of medicinal plants, which includes endangered, rare and threatened plant species. Some of these endangered medicinal plants are Saussaurea lappa, Picorrhiza kurroa, Ginkgo biloba, Swertia chirata, Gymnema sylvestre, Tinospora cordifolia, Salaca oblonga, Holostemma, Celastrus paniculata, Oroxylum indicum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Tylophora indica, Bacopa monnieri, Rauwolfia serpentina. The conventional means of propagation takes a long time for multiplication and also clonal non uniform. Conventionally, there are two methods of conservation: in situ and ex situ conservation, both are complementary to each other. In situ methods allow conservation to occur with ongoing natural evolutionary processes ex situ conservation via in vitro propagation also acts as a viable alternative for increase and conservation of populations of existing bioresources in the wild and to meet the commercial requirements. A review highlighting various in vitro protocols developed for selected rare and threatened plant species of India has been done to highlight the significance of ex situ conservation in cases where regeneration through conventional methods is difficult to undertake and species are left with low population in the wild. Thus in vitro cell and tissue culture methodology is envisaged as a mean for germplasm conservation to ensure the survival of endangered plant species, rapid mass propagation for large scale re-vegetation and for genetic manipulation studies.
97 Determinants of small rubber growers adoption behaviour in Dhalai district of Tripura, K. REANG, A. BISWAS, S. K. ACHARYA AND B. R. MARAK
Rubber farming has been the main stay of continuous income generation of poor tribal jhumiasof hilly state in Tripura over the several years since it was introduced. Owing to suitability of climatic condition, the state has emerges as one of the largest rubber producer in the country along with changes in the adoption of cultivation technology. The present study was undertaken in three villages of Manu block, Dhalai district, Tripura to ascertain some associates variables of the rubber growers adoption behavior. The results indicate that the socio-economic variables like age, education, homestead land, own land and area under rubber cultivation had become the predominant factors in adopting the recommended technology packages among the respondents.
98 Influence of concentration and mode of application of different growth regulators on dendrobium hybrid Thongchai Gold, D. BARMAN, 1T. USHA BHARATHI, H. POKHREL, 2S. K. NAIK AND R. P. MEDHI
An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of concentration and mode of application of different growth regulators on growth and yield of Dendrobium hybrid Thongchai Gold in subtropical cool climate zone. Various concentrations of GA 3 and BA were applied as foliar spray and drenching mode. GA 100 ppm in combination with BA 100 ppm followed by GA 200 ppm 3 3 increased the plant height (31.63 cm), number of shoots per plant (5.17), cane girth (1.71 cm), number of leaves per cane (8.21), internodal length (3.19 cm), spike girth (0.45 cm), number of flowers per spike (12.63) and number of spikes per cane (2.80). The spike length (29.38 cm) was noticed highest in GA 50 ppm and rachis length (19.66 cm) was observed highest in GA 200 ppm. 3 3 Growth regulators and mode of applications also influenced nutrient content (NPK) of plants. Among the mode of applications, media drenching with the different growth regulator treatment was found to be best for the Dendrobium orchids.
99 Green house gas emission potentiality of wheat as influenced by microclimate and ambient sunshine under varied climatic conditions, S. KARMAKAR, G. SAHA, 1R. BHATTACHARYA AND 2B. KAR
Nitrous oxide (N O) emissions from winter wheat field were measured using closed chamber technique during 2012-2013 and 2 2013-2014 at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya farm (22o572 N latitude, 88o202 E longitude). Experiment was conducted taking two winter wheat varieties (K0307 and KRL-288) with two dates of sowing (15th November and 30th November) and two nutritional traits (100% inorganic and 50% organic + 50% Inorganic). The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of crop eco- climate and sunshine hours on nitrous oxide emission rate from wheat field. Experimental results showed that canopy temperature and sunshine hours directly affect N O efflux at different phenophases of wheat under different treatment 2 combinations. Whereas during active vegetative stage variety-K0307 responded positive relation for N O emission with canopy 2 temperature and sunshine hours. But for both nutritional approaches similar response was observed during active vegetative stage as well as advance reproductive stage. Results imply that 1st sowing with K0307 and 100% inorganic and 50% organic + 50% inorganic fertilization had some effective responses towards microclimatic variation as well as ambient sunshine hours. Moreover, wheat productivity had some association with N O emission rate.
100 Submergence tolerance of some modern rice cultivars at seedling and vegetative stages, A L RANAWAKE, U G S AMARASINGHE AND S G J N SENANAYAKE
Twenty five Sri Lankan modern rice cultivars were screened for submergence tolerance at seedling and vegetative stages. An experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka during May to September, 2011 according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replicates and each replicate contained 20 plants to evaluate submergence tolerance of the rice cultivars were evaluated in two growth stages; seedling stage and vegetative stage. At seedling stage, germinated seedlings were grown for 2 weeks at normal growth conditions and 5-day, 9- day and 14-day complete submergence stresses were given in separate experiments. Plants were allowed two-week-recovery period after each submergence stress. Plant height was recorded just before and after submergence stress, just after submergence stress and just after recovery period. Plant survival percentage was recorded after the recovery period. The experiment was repeated using 6 week old plants for vegetative stage. Among tested rice cultivars 100%, 32% and 24% of rice cultivars survived at 5-day, 9-day and 14-day submergence periods respectively at the seedling stage while 64%, 28% and 16% of rice cultivars survived at 5-day, 9-day and 14-day submergence periods respectively at vegetative stage. According to the Duncans multiple range test at 14-day complete submergence, Bg 379/2 was the best tolerant cultivar among the tested cultivars at both seedling stage (20% survival rate) and vegetative stage (17.5% survival rate). All the survived rice cultivars were elongated (100%) under 14-day submergence stress at both seedling and vegetative stages compared to that of control plants. Some survived rice cultivars reduced the plant height at 5-day and 9-day complete submergence stresses at both seedling and vegetative stages compared to that of control plants but none of the cultivars reduced the plant height at 14-day complete submergence stress compared to that of control plants was able to survive. There was a correlation between height gain during submergence stress and survival percentage of rice cultivars which depends on both growth stage and submerged period. The correlation between elongation ability of rice cultivars under control condition and under stress condition was also depends on the growth stage and the submergence period.
101 Productivity and nutrient uptake of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) towards different levels of irrigation and sulphur, U. GIRI, MD. HEDAYETULLAH, A. SAHA, 2M. K. NANDA AND 1P. BANDYOPADHYAY
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of levels of irrigation and sulphur on nutrient uptake (N, P, K and S) from sandy-loam soil, residual soil nutrient status, consumptive water use (CU), water use efficiency (WUE), yield attributes as well as yield of summer groundnut during two consecutive years of 2009 and 2010 at the University research farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal. The experiment composed of 24 treatment combinations (8 irrigation considered as main plot and 3 level of sulphur as sub-plot) in a split plot design replicated thrice. The study revealed that both irrigation and sulphur levels significantly influenced yield attributing characteristics, the pod yield (t ha-1) and nutrient uptake from the soil. Highest values were exhibited when sulphur received the crop @ 15 kg ha-1 (S ). The highest CU (639.04 mm), and 2 WUE (6.16 kg ha-1 mm-1) were recorded under three irrigations applied at flowering, pegging and pod filling stage (I ) followed by 8 two irrigations at pegging and pod filling stage (I ), respectively. The residual soil fertility status (N, P, K and S) was not 7 significantly influenced by irrigation as well as sulphur levels except the residual sulphur status of the soil. The maximum S status of the soil was recorded under no irrigation condition (I ) combined with sulphur applied @ 30 kg ha-1 (S ), three irrigations 1 3 applied at flowering, pegging and pod filling stage (I ) combined with sulphur applied @ 0 kg ha-1 (S ) was recorded the minimum 8 1 S fertility status of the soil.
102 Carbon sequestration opportunities in organic agriculture, D. K. BASTIA, S. TRIPATHY AND S. PRADHAN
At the present time, soil carbon sequestration is of paramount importance to address the imminent threat of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide, which is looming large on the very survival and existence of the biome. The quantum of all carbon everywhere in the globe is same and fixed. It exists to the tune of 800 Pg in the atmosphere, 1700 Pg in terrestrial and 38000 Pg in aquatic ecosystem. Even though, the terrestrial carbon stock is quite meagre in comparision to aquatic carbon stock, yet it warrants attention because it is readily amenable to anthropogenic manipulations and potentially respond to modifications and management. The potential for carbon sequestration in crop-based agriculture globally is 20-30 Pg carbon, whereas, that of India is 0.039-0.049 Pg carbon y-1 or about 47% of current annual fossil fuel emission. The quantity of soil organic carbon (SOC) that will be stored in an ecosystem depends on quantity and quality of organic matter returned to the soil matrix, ability of soil to retain organic carbon and abiotic influences of both temperature and precipitation. Hence, organic agriculture holds added promise to sequester and enhance the SOC pool.
103 Effect of bio-fertilizers on physico-chemical qualities and leaf mineral composition of guava grown in alluvial zone of West Bengal, P. DUTTA, S. KUNDU, F. K. BAURI, H. TALANG AND 1D. MAJUMDER
An investigation was carried out to study the effect of bio-fertilizers on physico-chemical qualities and leaf mineral composition of guava cv. L-49 grown in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal, India during 2010-12. The experiment was conducted at the Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri in RCBD considering eight treatments with three replications. Among different treatments Azospirillum + Azotobacter + VAM was most effective in improving the fruit quality followed by Azotobacter + VAM. This treatment also resulted maximum content of leaf minerals (N, P and K). It may be concluded that bio-fertilizer combination Azospirillum + Azotobacter + VAM can be applied for quality fruit production of guava in New Alluvial Zone.
104 Impact of improvised production technology for rapeseed-mustard in West Bengal, A. DUTTA
Rapeseed mustard is one of the important crops under oilseed scenario in India. Likewise in West Bengal it is also one of the major oilseed crop which contributing 53% of total oilseed production of the state. One of the major constraints is low productivity of this crop due to non adoption of recommended package of practices and situation-specific improved varieties by most of the growers. The ex-post-facto analysis of secondary data pertaining to front line demonstrations (FLDs) in rapeseed-mustard conducted under Integrated scheme on Oilseeds, Pulses, Oilpalm and Maize (ISOPOM) revealed 22.7% yield advantage by adoption of improved varieties may be possible. The other components viz. adoption of right method and time of sowing, seed treatment, application of sulphur and boron, integrated fertilizer and irrigation management, integrated pest and disease management showed 38.5,32.1,26.1, 23.4, 38.8 and 18.6% respectively yield advantage were exhibited over farmers practice. Popularization of these proven technologies to the rapeseed- mustard growers will help them to get higher economic returns with sustainable production system of the state.
105 Improvement of lathyrus productivity through seed priming and foliar nutrition under rice-utera system, M. K. BHOWMICK, M. C. DHARA, 1B. DUARY, 1P. K. BISWAS AND 2P. BHATTACHARYYA
The present investigation was undertaken at Pulses and Oilseeds Research Sub-station, Beldanga, Murshidabad, West Bengal for two consecutive rabi seasons to evaluate different levels of seed priming (no soaking, water soaking, 2% KH PO solution and 2 4 sprouted seeds) along with varying levels of foliar nutrition (no spray, water spray, 2% urea spray, 2% DAP spray and 2% KCl spray) using lathyrus variety Ratan (BioL 212). It was found that use of sprouted seeds significantly recorded the highest seed yield (1021.77 kg ha-1). Next in order was seed soaking in 2% KH PO solution (964.67 kg ha-1). Among foliar treatments, 2% urea 2 4 spray could significantly produce the highest seed yield (1040.00 kg ha-1) and was closely followed by 2% DAP spray (983.75 kg ha-1). The study indicated that sowing of either sprouted or 2% KH PO soaked seeds followed by foliar spray of 2% urea or 2% 2 4 DAP solution (twice) at pre-flowering stage and 10 days thereafter proved to be effective in improving growth and productivity of lathyrus in rice-utera system.
106 Studies on seed germination and seedling growth of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Coorg Honey Dew as influenced by media and chemicals, R. KUMAWAT, S. MAJI, GOVIND AND D. C. MEENA
Papaya is one of the most important fruit crops belongs to family Caricaceae grown in tropical to subtropical areas all over the world. It is normally propagated by seeds which show wide variability in germination and seedling growth. The present experiment was carried out to find out the role of media and bio-regulators on seed germination and seedling growth of papaya. The bio-regulator GA , borax and thiourea were applied along with media mixture i.e. soil, compost, cocopeat and river sand. The 3 experiment comprised with three media [M - Soil + compost + cocopeat (1:1:1), M Soil + compost + river sand (1:1:1) and M 1 2 3 soil + cocopeat + riversand (1:1:1)], three bio-regulators and chemicals [C - GA - 150ppm, C - Borax - 0.5% and C - Thiourea 1 3 2 3 2000 ppm) and their combinations with 16 treatments. The experimental treatments were laid down in factorial CRD with three replications. The seeds were sown in poly bags filled with respective media and treated with respective bio-regulators. The results showed that the application of treatment M C [Soil + compost + cocopeat (1:1:1) + GA - 150ppm] was found superior for early 1 1 3 as well as higher germination percentage, better shoot growth, better growth of tap root, secondary root production and chlorophyll content in seedlings of papaya cv. Coorge Honey Dew under drier tracts of sub tropical area of Lucknow.
107 Potentiality of landraces of rice in crop improvement programme in New Alluvial Soil of West Bengal, A. CHAKRAVORTY, 1A. GHOSH AND P. D. GHOSH
In West Bengal, it is most promising to tender early maturing high yielding varieties of rice since they can fulfil their life cycle successfully within short period of persisting cool temperature. The objective of this present investigation was to identify these high yielding early maturing genotypes of rice having quality characters and higher performance in grain yield. A study was conducted during kharif season 2010-12 at Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Krishnagar, Nadia, West Bengal to evaluate some promising traditional rice germplasms and to identify the suitable cultivars for early days (D) to maturity with high grain yield. Cultivars Machkata, Laldhula and Kalamkathi (white) showed high grain yield. Cultivars showing early maturity (112-120 days) were Netaisal (116D), Dhuri (116.5D), Kalamkathi (white) (117.5D), Jhuli (119D), Baidjhulur (120D) and Dhuladhan (120.5D). The superior variety which showed early maturity was Kalamkathi (white). Maximum cultivars had sweet fragrance except Laldhula and Malliksal which were with strong fragrance. Cultivars which showed extra long slender grain (> 7.5mm grain length and >3.0 grain length/breadth ratio) were Machkata, Laldhula, Kalamkathi (white), Badshabhog, Behalsal, Mallicksal, Netaisal, Kalma, Lalhusri and Annada.
108 Production potential realization and quality enhancement of mung bean through integrated nutrient management, N. C. BANIK AND K. SENGUPTA
A field experiment was conducted during summer and autumn seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya to evaluate production potential and quality enhancement of mung bean through integrated nutrient management. Application of sulphur along with recommended dose of NPK and farm compost increased yield of mung bean. Highest seed yield was obtained from single super phosphate added treatments followed by phospho-gypsum @ 30 kg S ha-1 along with recommended dose of NPK. Treatment receiving different doses of farm compost gave satisfactory yield and was in increasing trend in terms of seed yield and the treatments were at par with the treatments having higher doses of sulphur or phosphogypsum. Application of sulphur along with recommended dose of NPK increased the nitrogenase activity and leghaemoglobin content in nodules, but nitrogenase activity and leghaemoglobin content in nodules were more in treatments receiving farm compost. The seed protein content increased by 8.1-11.4% by application of sulphur @ 10-30 kg ha-1 along with NPK over the treatment where no sulphur was added. Application of farm compost @ 4-8 t ha-1 increased the seed protein content of mung bean by 6.5-9.0% over the fertilized control treatment.
109 Nitrogen availability and uptake as influenced by time of application and N sources in semi-dry rice (Oryza sativa), S. K. RAJ, J. S. BINDHU AND L. GIRIJADEVI
Nitrogen uptake and N availability at different phenological stages of semi-dry rice was studied in a field experiment with time of N application as main plot treatment and sources of N as subplot treatments for two consecutive rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 respectively in sub-split plot design. Results revealed that time of N application and sources of N had profound influence on the soil available N status and N uptake at different stages of crop growth. Available N in the soil increased up-to panicle initiation stage and then started declining as the growth advanced. The available N status was the highest with application of N in 4 equal splits at 5-10 days after emergence (DAE), 20-25 DAE, 40-45 DAE and 60-65 DAE. Among the sources, neem cake blended urea maintained high available N status in the soil at all phenological stages compared to other slow release forms of urea. Prilled urea maintained lower N status in the soil during both the years of study. Time of N application greatly influence the N uptake in semi dry rice. On an average, the N uptake was 28.3, 40.6, 55.3 and 81.7 kg ha-1 at 60, 75, 90 DAE and at harvest respectively. The treatment received half the portion of N at 20-25 DAE recorded the lowest uptake. With regard to different N source, neem cake blended urea recorded the highest uptake and prilled urea recorded the lowest uptake at all the phenological stages. The better uptake of N with minimum N losses and optimum N supply throughout the crop stage resulted in better growth and yield attributes. The highest grain yield was recorded in neem cake blended urea applied in four equal splits (3752 and 3872 kg ha-1) during first and second year respectively. The study conclusively proved that physical blending of urea in four equal splits from 5-10 DAE to 60-65 DAE enhanced the N availability, N uptake and productivity in semi dry rice.
110 Process standardization for rice bran stabilization and its' nutritive value, T. B. BAGCHI, 1T. ADAK AND 2 K. CHATTOPADHYAY
Considering the nutritional importance of rice bran (RB), a study was undertaken to observe the effect of various treatments on stability of RB and to identify the method which would safely preserve the bran for at least six months. The RB samples from the organically grown aromatic rice cultivar Ketakijoha were processed immediately after milling for stabilization. The rice bran samples were subjected to eight treatments including hot air oven heating, micro wave heating and ethanol to study their effect on RB stability. Different parameters including rancidity of rice bran oil and its' nutritive values were determined on zero, 30 days and 180 days of storage at room temperature (32C) after applying these treatments. Near Infra Red spectrometer was used to determine crude fiber and ash content. Micro wave heating (900W) for 2.5 min was found to be best among the treatments as it provided higher stability in respect of antioxidant activity, -oryzanol, crude oil and total protein content. The rancidity indicators like free fatty acids accumulation, peroxide value, moisture content and pH value changed only marginally during the storage period. The ash and crude fiber content of rice bran remained nearly constant in the treated samples whereas the control sample became completely rancid, discoloured with formation of clumps and emitted unpleasant odour which increased during the study period.
111 Studies on variability, heritability, genetic advance and path analysis in some indigenous Aman rice (Oryza sativa L.), R. KETAN AND G. SARKAR
A wide range of variability was observed for nineteen quantitative characters in 26 indigenous aman rice cultivars. Five genotypes viz., Sabita, Kamini, Kumorogor, Sadakamisoru and Narkelchari were superior in grain yield per plant and grain L/B ratio simultaneously. The magnitude of PCV was higher than the corresponding GCV for all the characters. High heritability was observed days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, 1000 grain weight, panicle length, florets number per panicle, kernel length and kernel L/B ratio. Number of grains per panicle recorded the highest genetic advance followed by floret number per panicle, plant height and number of secondary branches. High heritability in conjunction with high genetic advance was registered for plant height, days to 50 per cent flowering and number of secondary branches. High heritability with low genetic advance was observed for panicle length, panicle weight, kernel length and kernel L/B ratio. Grain yield per plant was significantly correlated with number of secondary branches per panicle at phenotypic lavel while panicle weight, florets number per panicle, number of grains per panicle and fertility percentage at genotypic and phenotypic level. The florets number per panicle imparted the highest positive direct effect on grain yield per plant.
112 Improving yield and quality of banana cv. Martaman (Musa AAB, Silk) through micronutrient and growth regulator application, F. K. BAURI, A. DE, 1D. K. MISRA, 2B. BANDYOPADHYAY, S. DEBNATH , S. K. SARKAR AND P. AVANI
An experiment was conducted with eight treatments to study the effect of micronutrient and growth regulators for yield and quality in banana cv. Martaman (Musa AAB, Silk) during 2011-2012. The treatments were, T Borax (0.1%), T - KH PO (0.5%), T - 1 2 2 4 3 KNO (0.5%), T - K SO (0.5%), T - GA (30 ppm), T 2,4-D (30 ppm), T Dehanding and T Control (water spray). 3 4 2 4 5 3 6 7 8 Micronutrient and growth regulator have got significant influence over yield and fruit quality. Maximum increase in bunch weight (17.72kg), yield (44.30t/ha), number of hands (8.88), number of finger per bunch (133.66) and finger length (13.45cm) was recorded by KH PO (0.5%) application. With regard to physicochemical characters of fingers, Borax (0.1%) showed maximum 2 4 influence for total soluble solids (26.72 oBrix), total sugar (14.57 %) and sugar: acid ratio (45.53). The maximum vitamin C content (8.60 mg/100g pulp), shelf life (6.40 days) and benefit: cost (1.48) was recorded by the treatment of 2, 4-D (30 ppm).The same treatment was also found to be next most influencing treatment in increasing bunch weight, yield, hands number and finger length after KH PO (0.5%) . It may be concluded that the application of 2,4-D @ 30 ppm was effective in modifying the finger 2 4 characters thereby improving the yield, fruit quality and B: C ratio of banana cv. Martaman.
113 Effect of irrigation regimes and seed soaking techniques on root growth and yield of rice, T. GANGARANI DEVI, A. ZAMAN AND 1S.K. PATRA
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation regimes and seed soaking techniques on root growth and yield of rice at Regional Research Station, Gayeshpur, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya during boro season of 2011 and 2012. The treatment consisted of three irrigation regimes in main plots viz., I : IW/CPE =1.0, I : IW/CPE =1.5 and I : IW/CPE = 2.0 and 1 2 3 four treatments on soaking techniques in sub plots viz., P : Sprouted seeds, P : Dry seeds, P : Soaking seeds overnight (12 hrs) and 1 2 3 P : Soaking seeds overnight (12 hrs) followed by shade drying. The field experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three 4 replications. Statistically analysed data revealed that scheduling of irrigation at IW/CPE ratio of 2.0 produced higher root length, root weight and root volume and consequently the highest grain and straw yield than any other treatment tried. And among the different seed soaking techniques tested, higher root length, root weight and root volume was recorded at sprouted seeds which led to higher grain and straw yield. Gross return, net return and B: C ratio was found to be highest when scheduling of irrigation was done at IW/CPE ratio of 2 coupled with sprouted seeds.
114 Study of rainfall variability for efficient crop planning - a case study, M. GHOSH, B. C. PATRA AND D. MAZUMDAR1
Daily rainfall data of 12 years (1981-1992) recorded at Regional Research Sub-station, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raghunathpur (23036N, 86042E, 169 m), Purulia, West Bengal, India were analysed for determining annual, seasonal, monthly and weekly rainfall averages of the region, which were compared with corresponding values of the current period of 5 years (2003-2007). Mean annual rainfall was 1156.0 mm, of which July recorded highest rainfall (313.3 mm) and January lowest rainfall (1.8 mm). Mean rainfall for pre-kharif, kharif and rabi season were 106.6 mm (9.22%), 1010.7 mm (87.43%) and 38.7 mm (3.35%), respectively. The changes in rainfall pattern between two periods of 1981-1992 and 2003-2007 were very little during pre kharif (-1.7%) and kharif (+1.0%) seasons, but moderate during rabi season (-22.7%). Mean week of onset and withdrawal of south-west monsoon were 24th (11-17 June) standard meteorological week (SMW) and 40th SMW (1-7 October) and average length of rainy season was 18 weeks (126 days) with a variation between 15 and 24 weeks. Mid season drought was likely to occur during 33rd-34th SMW and terminal droughts during 37-40th SMWs at
115 Impact of integrated nutrient management on performance of rice under system of rice intensification (SRI), L. TZUDIR AND 1R.K. GHOSH
Field experiment was conducted during season 2008-09 on up-medium land situation at C Block (Incheck) Farm, Kalyani, BCKV to study the effect of combination of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on rice production using SRI technology. The experimental results revealed that the best result was obtained with application of 75% N (Enrich Adhar) + 25% N (Urea) + PK and consequently an increase in grain yield by 27.63%, 28.98% and 20.94% was observed over full NPK (60:30:30), 75% N (urea) + PK and farmers practice treated plots respectively. The corresponding increases in straw yields were 23.38 24.4 and 17.73% respectively. Organic sources of plant nutrient also showed positive effect on other yield attributes such as panicle length, tiller number and filled grains per panicle. The effect of different treatments on availability of soil nutrients also showed that application of integrated plant nutrients showed better results and application of 75% N (Enrich Adhar) + 25% N (urea) + PK resulted in highest nitrogen percentage, available phosphorus and potassium respectively, while the lowest was from sole application of NPK through inorganic nutrient sources.
116 Anatomical and morphological characteristics of nine jute genotypes, V. KUMAR, P. K. SINGH, A. S. DUDHANE, D. K. DE AND P. SATYA
In the present investigation eight genotypes of C. olitorious L. (OMU-09, OMU-42, OMU-43 OEX-16, OIM-45, JRO-204, JRO- 524, JRO-8432), and one genotype of C. capsularis L. (Fanduk) were included to evaluate their morphological and anatomical characteristics. Mean performance of six different morphological and nine different anatomical characters at 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAS of the crop revealed plant height, basal diameter and inter-node length increased sharply between 30 and 60 days age and slowly between the latter two growth stages; mid-diameter and top diameter reduced between 30 and 60 days and increased between the latter two growth stages; number of nodes increased steadily all along. Fibre anatomical characters revealed that total bark diameter and difference between fibre wedge tip and outer bark layer increase sharply between 30 and 60 days; average length and width of fibre cell wedge, number of fibre cell block at base and at middle increased linearly all along up to 120 days age of the crop. Number of fibre cell in each block increased sharply between 30 and 60 days and slowly between the latter two stages. All the plant morphological and fibre anatomical characters exhibited high variation at different growth stages. The anatomical characters may be considered as an easy and effective method for screening genotypes without destructive sampling within a short period.
117 Impact of improved backyard production system on livelihood empowerment, G. MULA, 1P. S. PATRA, S. C. SARKER, 2B. PARAMANIK AND 2P. PANDA
The study was attempted to assess the impact of viable backyard based technological interventions on rural livelihood empowerment to the farmers of four selected disadvantaged districts, viz. Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur, Malda and Murshidabad of West Bengal as a part of National Agricultural Innovation Project. The participatory and personal interview methods were followed to collect the information. The performance of the technological interventions was studied by following Before-After design. The results showed positive change in favour of livelihood empowerment. The vermicomposting technology showed net annual return to the tune of more than ` 9000.00. The small multi-tier horticulture technology meets the needs of the households nutritional requirement (99.24% per capita increase of vegetable consumption) and also increases the annual income up to 4 times. The performance improvement in case backyard production of goatery, poultry and duckery also helps in improving and sustaining the livelihood status of the beneficiaries. Increase of annual income to the tune of 130.59% from goatery, 88.17% from poultry and duckery holds good for sustaining the livelihood of landless people in the project area. The aquatic niche is managed through the technologies like extensive composite fishery, air breathing fish culture in unutilized derelict ditches and pond dyke based intensive small horticulture cum fodder cultivation led to 46.39% av. increase in fish yield, 62.11% av. increase in annual egg productivity. Briefly, improved backyard production system found to be a distinctive action oriented rural development strategy in view of social and economic aspects.
118 Invasive weeds and climate change: past, present and future, P. C. BHOWMIK
The invasive species is of global importance. It is recognized as one of the leading threats to biodiversity and imposes tremendous costs on agriculture, fisheries, wetlands, forestry, natural areas, and other human enterprises, including human health. The nature and distribution of invasive species has no geographical boundaries. The invasive plants (native, non-native, or alien) tend to have many similar biological attributes/traits relating to high reproduction and stress tolerance. These traits include germination of seeds without complicated requirements, rapid seedling growth, vegetative and sexual reproduction at early stage, aggressive spread by runners or rhizomes, diverse dispersal mechanisms, and the ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Invasive species have been identified as the second biggest threat to biological diversity after habitat destruction. Will invasive weeds make ecological adaptation with climate change? What impacts do these plants may have in agriculture, health and the environment?
119 Bioefficacy studies of chlorimuron ethyl 25% WP in transplanted rice and its effect on soil microflora in inceptisol of West Bengal, R. DAS, R. K. GHOSH, S. BERA AND R. PODDAR
A field experiment was conducted at Kalyani 'C' Block Farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya during kharif seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14 to study the bioefficacy of Chlorimuron Ethyl 25% WP on transplanted rice cv. Shatabdi (IET 4786) in Inceptisol of West Bengal. Chlorimuron Ethyl 25% WP from @ 3.0 - 12.0 g.a.i. ha1 recorded better weed control efficiency and twice hand weeding recorded the highest grain yield . However, Chlorimuron Ethyl 25% WP@ 6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 g.a.i. ha1 and Kloben @ 6g a.i. ha-1 were statistically at par with each other. There were no significant variations on the microbial population of the soil in the rhizospere region of the transplanted rice due to the application of testing herbicide chlorimuron ethyl 25% WP.
120 Persistence behaviour of tetraconazole in watermelon, A. KUNDU, S. MUKHERJEE, 1B. GHOSH, A. GOON, 2S. ROY, 1K. CHAKRABARTI AND A. BHATTACHARYYA
A field study was conducted to observe the persistence behavior of tetraconazole on watermelon, at University Research Farm, Mondouri, Nadia, West Bengal season the season of 2013. The commercial formulation oftetraconazole (DOMARK 3.8 % EW w/w) was applied at the rate of 40 ga.i.ha-1 (recommended dose i.e. T ) and 80 g a.i. ha-1 (double the recommended dose i.e. T ) 1 2 along with untreated control. The average recovery of tetraconazole was100.3% in plant and 97 % in fruit matrix.The calculated half-life (t ) value of tetrazonazole ranged 1.36 1.55 days. No residue of the fungicide was found in the watermelon fruit 1/2 samples at harvest. This study revealed that watermelon fruit may safely be recommended for human consumption.
121 Diversity of nematodes in Antarctica under changing climatic conditions, V. V. GANTAIT
Antarctica covers an area of about 14 million Km2, more or less double the size of Australia and equal to China and India combined together. The continent broadly represents three distinct climatic regions: the sub-Antarctic, maritime and continental Antarctica with the sub-Antarctic being the most favourable and continental Antarctica is being the most hostile environments. The long-term isolation and harsh climatic condition of Antarctica is reflected by the low number of nematode species as well as a high degree of endemism. Historical glaciations events and the current spatial isolation of habitable soils have led to a very patchy distribution of nematode communities and no apparent overlap in nematode species between maritime and continental Antarctica. The gentler climate in maritime Antarctica causes highest nematode diversities there rather than continental Antarctica. In recent years, rapid, albeit complex changes in local climate have been observed in Antarctica, particularly in the Antarctic Peninsula with substantial impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Nematode communities in Antarctica are directly as well as indirectly affected by the climate changes. Climate warming causes lower environmental stress, increases the duration of metabolic activity, growth rates and shorten life cycles; through these combined influences increase population sizes. Increasing temperatures may alter species composition and favourable opportunistic nematode species. A warmer and wetter climate increases the area of vegetated soil and plant species diversity. The range expansion and increased plant species diversity will provide a greater area of more favourable habitats for nematodes. Although there have been few empirical studies on the effect of climate changes on nematode communities in Antarctica, large-scale coordinated efforts to explore climate change impacts on such communities would give better information.
122 Weedy rice invasion in rice fields of India and management options, C. T. ABRAHAM AND N. JOSE
Weedy rice are complex of Oryza morphotypes widely distributed in the commercial rice fields in more than 50 countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, especially in areas where farmers have switched to direct seeding due to labour shortage and high cost. Wild and weedy forms of different species coming under the genus Oryza are also known as wild rice, red rice, padi angin, windy rice, air rice, varinellu, wild rice etc. Southeast Asia has been identified as the centre of origin of rice and many wild and weedy relatives are present in different rice growing areas of this region. Indian weedy rice is identified as Oryza sativa f. spontanea which belongs to the indica group. They are major threat to irrigated rice production systems in Southeast Asian countries because of their great adaptability to emerge at low temperature and from deep soil or water depths. Weedy rice is problematic, especially in Asian rice bowls. The spread of wild rice takes place in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Wild and weedy forms are problematic in Eastern India (Eastern U. P., Bihar, Orissa, Manipur, and West Bengal) and Southern India (Kerala). In North Western states like Punjab and Haryana, weedy rice is rarely seen. Heavy infestation of weedy rice in rice fields during the recent years is forcing farmers to abandon the crop due to huge reduction in crop yield (around 40-70 per cent) depending on the severity of infestation (5-15 or even more mature weedy plants per square meter). Genetic and morphological similarity of weedy rice to the cultivated species makes it difficult to control and chemical methods alone are unlikely to be effective.Origin and spread of weedy riceCultivated rice is included in the genus Oryza of the grass family (Poaceae). This genus includes two cultivated species (Asian rice - Oryza s ativa, and African rice - O. glaberrima) and more than 20 wild species with ten different genome types, i.e., AA, BB, CC, BBCC, CCDD, EE, FF, GG, JJHH, and JJKK. The wild relatives of rice with different genome types usually have significant reproductive isolation, making them unlikely to hybridize under natural conditions. The AA genome weedy and wild relatives are highly compatible sexually with cultivated rice. Their interspecific F hybrids could form complete chromosome pairing in meiosis and have relatively high pollen 1 and seed fertility to produce viable offspring. It is widely hypothesized that weedy rice has a variety of origin.Weedy plants are adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. The spread is generally favoured by the planting of commercial rice seeds that contain grains of the weed. The spread of weedy rice is likely to be accomplished by several means, including water, cattle, farm machinery, and as contaminants of new varieties. Disk cultivation also helped to move the seeds downward to the 3 - 15 cm soil layer resulting in serious infestations and difficulties in control.
123 Diversity of migratory nematode endoparasites of banana, K. ROY, 1S. ROY, 1S. SARKAR, 1A. RATHOD AND A. PRAMANIK
A roving survey was conducted on banana (Musa sp.) at Nadia and North 24-Parganas district of West Bengal and Vellayani areas of Thiruvanathapuram, Kerala, India during 2013-2014. Sixty seven soil and root samples (200cc) were collected from the banana fields for the study. Diversity of rhizospheric nematodes associated with banana revealed prevalence of 17 species of phytoparasitic nematodes, 3 species of predatory nematodes (Mylonchulus, Iotonchus and Ironus) and huge number of saprozoic nematodes. At Haringhata block of Nadia district Pratylenchus crenatus and P. coffeae were recorded as important migratory endoparasitic nematode pests of banana. Occurrence of P. crenatus is probably the first record of their existence on banana in West Bengal. Here, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Hoplolaimus indicus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Tylenchorhynchus mashhoodi, Criconemoides onoensis, Aphilenchus avenae and Xiphinema insigne were also recorded from the crop rhizosphere. Meloidogyne spp. and Rotylenchulus reniformis were also found as most abundant endoparasites of banana at Habra-II block of North 24-Parganas. Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus, and Pratylenchus coffeae were recorded as abundant migratory nematode endoparasites of banana from Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Among those H. multicinctus was found most numerous in soil. Observation of different banana cultivars for the diversity of nematode fauna indicated that Musa (AAB) cv. Pisang Bale, Ney Poovan (AB) and CO-I (AAB) supported very low population of root knot nematodes. While, Ney Poovan (AB), Karpooravelli (ABB), Booditha Bontha Bothisa (CT), Gross Michel (AAA) and Red banana (AAA) supported very low population of P. coffeae. None of the cultivars of banana at the Mondouri farm under AICRP on Fruits, BCKV showed the existence of R. similis and H. multicinctus. Detailed morphometric and morphological informations on P. coffeae, P. crenatus, H. multicinctus, and R. similis, have been documented.
124 Degradation dynamics of clomazone in paddy field, A. BHATTACHARYYA, 1B. GHOSH, S. P. DAS AND 1A. BHATTACHARYYA
To find out the persistence feature of Clomazone (50 EC), recently introduced in India was applied in paddy field, 3-5 days after transplantation of paddy. The study was conducted at BCKV farm, Mohanpur, Nadia during August to November, 2012. Clomazone 50 % EC was applied on paddy @ 1000 ml/ha and 2000 ml/ha along with untreated control. Cropped soil and plant samples were extracted separately with ethyl acetate: acetone (8:2 v/v) and subsequently the extract were cleaned up by using PSA, C & GCB. Then the extract was filtered and analysed in GC-MS/MS. The recovery percentage was ranged between 86-95% 18 with LOQ 20 ngg-1 for all matrices. Following first order kinetics, the half-life of clomazone was found in ranges 0.91-1.13 days for cropped soil and 2.04 days for paddy plant respectively. From this study it was proved beyond doubt that Clomazone may not create any residual toxicity problem.
125 Weed management in rice soybean intercropping system under rainfed condition of Marathwada region of Maharshtra, K. T. JADHAV, 1V. P. SURYWANSHI AND 2U. N. ALA
A field experiment was conducted in medium black soil with slightly alkaline in reaction in 2011, 2012 and 2013 at Upland Paddy Research Scheme, Research farm, VNMKV, Parbhani (Maharashtra). Rice variety Parag was sown with 30 cm row spacing and 60 kg seed rate ha-1. Soybean variety MAUS-71 was sown as intercrop with the seed rate of 75 kg ha-1 as per the treatments. Experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. In main plot four weed control methods and in sub-plots five intercropping treatments were followed. Soil was low in nitrogen, ferrous and zinc; medium in phosphorous and rich in potash. Rainfall during experimental period was 636 mm, 678 mm, 1134 mm in cropping season during 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Significantly highest rice grain equivalent yield, gross monitory return, net monitory return was observed with pendimethalin @ 0.75 kgha-1 followed by one hand weeding at 25 days after sowing over rest of the weed management practices, however, it was at par with two hand weedings at 20 and 45 days after sowing for rice grain equivalent yield and gross monitory return in all the three years. Moreover, pendimethalin @ 0.75 kgha-1 followed by one hand weeding at 25 days after sowing recorded lowest weed dry matter and highest weed control efficiency in 2011-12, 12-13 and 13-14. In pooled analysis, pendimethalin @ 0.75 kgha-1 followed by hand weeding at 25 DAS recorded highest rice grain equivalent yield. Significantly highest rice grain equivalent yield, gross monitory return, net monitory return was observed with rice + soybean intercropping at the ratio of 3:2 over rest of the intercrop treatments in all the three years. Significantly highest rice grain equivalent yield was obtained with rice + soybean intercropping with the ratio of 3:2 in pooled results.Amongst various interactions, highest rice grain equivalent yield was obtained with pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg ha-1followed by one hand weeding at 25 days after sowing for rice + soybean intercropping at the ratio of 3:2 over rest of the interactions of weed management and intercropping of rice + soybean in all three years and pooled analysis.
126 Residual fate and persistence behaviour of a mixed herbicide formulation (pyroxsulam 4.5% OD + sulfosulfuron 75% WDG) in wheat plant and field soil, B. GHOSH, 1A. BHATTACHARYYA, 2S. MUKHERJEE, S. DAS AND 1A BHATTACHARYYA
To find out the persistence behavior of a mixed herbicide formulation Pyroxsulam 4.5% oil dispersion (OD) and Sulfosulfuron 75% water dispersible granules (WDG), a supervised field study was conducted in B.C.K.V. experimental farm, Mohanpur, West Bengal during 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. The mixed herbicide formulation was applied @ 18 g and 36 g a.i. ha-1 along with untreated control and was analyzed by LC-MS/MS in MRM mode. The method includes extraction with acetonitrile for Pyroxsulam and ethyl acetate for Sulfosulfuron separately followed by clean up using dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) with PSA ,GCB (only for plant) and activated MgSO4. The ethyl acetate extract was evaporated under a nitrogen evaporator and reconstituted with acetonitrile. The average recovery percentage of Pyroxsulam and Sulfosulfuron was 87.67% and 85.07% for wheat plant, 88.87% and 87.40% for wheat straw, 85.67% and 90.80% for wheat grain and 86.27% and 86.00% for field soil respectively. Following 1st order kinetics, the half-life of Pyroxsulam and Sulfosulfuron was found in the range of 1.51-1.67 days and 1.68-2.95 on wheat plant and 1.95-2.84 days and 2.89-3.58 on field soil irrespective of dose and season. No residue of Pyroxsulam and Sulfosulfuron was detected in harvest samples of wheat straw, grain and field soil.
127 Persistence behaviour of a mixed formulation (florasulam 10% + halauxifen methyl 10.4% WG) in wheat, S. MUKHERJEE, 3 A. GOON, 2 B. GHOSH, A. KUNDU, K. CHAKRABARTI, 1 S. ROY AND 1A. BHATTACHARYYA
The persistence behaviour of Florasulam and halauxifen-methyl were investigated at BCKV Experimental Farm, Mohanpur, West Bengal during two consecutive season of 2012-13 and 2013-14. Extraction of the herbicides was performed with acetonitrile followed by d-SEP clean up with PSA, GCB (for plant sample) and florisil. The residue of florasulam and halauxifen-methyl were quantified by Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The half-life of florasulam was found in the range of 1.1-1.4 days and 2.1-2.5 days for wheat plant and soil respectively. The half-life of haluxifen methyl was in the range of 1.0-1.2 days for wheat plant and 1.8-2.1 days for soil. No residue of florasulam and haluxifen-methyl was detected in harvest samples of wheat grain, straw and soil. It seems from this study that, application of the mixed formulation will not pose any residual toxicity problem when applied at recommended dose.
128 Studies on weed infestation of some agricultural fields at Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, G. GADDEYYA AND P. K. RATNA KUMAR
A systematic field study was conducted in crop fields such as food crops, pulses, vegetable crops, oil crops and commercial crops at Visakhapatnam District. A total of 120 weed species belonging to 40 families were carefully studied and recorded. The weed species were grouped as sedges, grasses and broad laved weeds. The weed species belonging to the family Asteraceae (12 species) and Fabaceae (12 species) were more dominant fallowed by Euphorbiaceae (11 species), Amaranthaceae (10 species) and Poaceae (7 species), respectively. The species of Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus difformis, Cyperus iria, Cyperus diffuses, Echinochloa colona and Echinochloa crusgalli were recorded as more common and dominant weeds in all cereals crops and broad leaved weeds belonging to Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Amaranthaceae were recorded in vegetable and other field crops.
129 Seasonal incidence of Epilachna beetle (Henosepilachna septima Dieke) in relation to weather parameters on pointed gourd (Tricosanthes dioica Roxb.), TUSHAR M. GHULE, L. LAISHANA DEVI AND S. JHA
The experiment was carried out at the 'Incheck farm', 'C' Block, BCKV, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal during two consecutive years i.e. 2010-11 and 2011-12 from the month of November to June to study the incidence pattern of Henosepilachna septima (Dieke) in relation to weather parameters on pointed gourd. The insect occurred persistently throughout entire crop seasons of all the two years of study. During 2010-11, peak grub and adults was recorded during the first and last week of April, 2011 respectively with highest leaf damage of 24% encountered during first week of April, 2011. During 2011-12, peak grub and adults recorded during last week of March, 2012 and third week of April, 2012 respectively with 27% leaf damage during third week of April, 2012. Abiotic factors found to be responsible for certain changes on incidence such as, temperature (both maximum and minimum) and relative humidity which had significant association with incidence of epilachna beetle on pointed gourd.
130 Effect of different herbicides used in transplanted rice on weed management in rice-lathyrus cropping system, B. PRAMANICK, P. S. BERA, C. K. KUNDU, P. BANDOPADHYAY AND K. BRAHMACHARI
A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of different herbicides used in transplanted rice on weed management in ricelathyrus cropping system at Central Research Farm (New Alluvial Zone), Gayeshpur, Nadia, West Bengal (23N latitude, 89 E longitude). The experimental results revealed that Imazosulfuron 10% SC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 applied at 5 days after transplanting (DAT) effectively controlled most of the rice weeds, exhibiting no phytotoxicity symptoms to the rice crop and increased both grain and straw yields vis--vis benefit : cost ratio. This treatment shows no statistical divergence with hand weeding twice. Similar trend of observations were documented in the succeeding crop of the sequence lathyrus. So, the findings of the experiment provide us with a great opportunity of using new herbicides with very low doses to cope up with the labour crisis and minimize the cost of cultivation, therefore, maximizing benefit cost ratio.
131 Biotechnological approach: an option for integrated weed management in crop production, C. CHINNUSAMY
Crops made resistant to herbicides by biotechnology are being widely adopted in various parts of the world. From the genesis of commercialization in 1996 to 2011, herbicide tolerance has consistently been the dominant trait. Those containing transgenes that impart resistance to post-emergence, non-selective herbicides such as glyphosate and glufosinate will have the major impact. These products allow the farmer to more effectively use reduced or no-tillage cultural practices, eliminate use of some of the more environmentally suspect herbicides and use fewer herbicides to manage nearly the entire spectrum of weed species. In some cases, non-selective herbicides used with herbicide resistant crops reduce plant pathogen problems because of the chemicals toxicity to certain microbes. Herbicide tolerant crops can be produced by either insertion of a foreign gene (transgene) from another organism into a crop, or by regenerating herbicide tolerant mutants from existing crop germplasm.Biotech crops reached 160 million hectares, up 12 million hectares on 8% growth, from 2010 and 94 fold increase in hectarage from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 160 million hectares in 2011, makes biotech crops the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. The inclusion of several transgenes in a single hybrid or variety commonly referred as stacked genes or stacked traits. For example, some corn and cotton hybrids have been genetically engineered to contain two transgenes, one for insect tolerance and another for herbicide tolerance (e.g., Bt/glyphosate, or Bt/glufosinate). Furthermore, some corn hybrids have three traits, two for herbicide tolerance and one for insect tolerance (e.g., Liberty, Clearfield, and Bt). Stacked traits occupied ~25% of the global 160 million hectares. From the genesis of commercialization in 1996 to 2011, herbicide tolerance has consistently been the dominant trait. In 2011, herbicide tolerance deployed in soybean, maize, canola, cotton, sugar beet and alfalfa, occupied 59% or 93.9 million hectares of the global biotech area of 160 million hectares. In 2011, the stacked double and triple traits occupied a larger area (42.2 million hectares, or 26% of global biotech crop area) than insect resistant varieties (23.9 million hectares) at 15%. The stacked genes were the fastest growing trait group between 2010 and 2011 at 31% growth, compared with 5% for herbicide tolerance and 10% for insect resistance. Over the past few years, several herbicide resistant crops (HRCs), both transgenic and non-transgenic, have become available in many countries for commercial cultivation. But in India, the technology of herbicide tolerant crops is in initial stage of field evaluation. Efforts have been made to evaluate and consolidate the agronomic management and advantages of herbicide tolerant transgenic crops.
132 Fate and behaviour of azoxystrobin in chilli by using liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy, S. GHOSH, 1S. MUKHARJEE, 2A. BHATTACHARYYA, A. BHATTACHARYYA AND S. ROY
A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method for analysis of residual azoxystrobin in chilli was developed in present work. Azoxystrobin is generally a systemic fungicide applied in chilli to control anthracnose and powdery mildew diseases. The method was based on extraction with 1:1 ethyl acetate: 10% aq. NaCl solution, clean-up by PSA, GCB and florisil, evaporated in N evaporator, followed by volume make up with Acetonitrile and analysed by LC/MS-MS in multiple reaction 2 monitoring (MRM) mode. Recoveries from fortified samples were found in the range from 90% to 92%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 ppm. The half life value of azoxystrobin in chilli was determined as 0.73 to 0.80 days
133 Weed control methods in direct seeded rice under medium land condition, R. R. UPASANI AND S. BARLA
A field experiment was conducted at Agronomical Research Farm of Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi with objective to find out the efficacy of herbicides for controlling weeds in direct seeded rice under medium land situation laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The experimental plot was dominated among narrow weeds comprising Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinocloa colona, Echinocloa crusgali, Paspalam indicum and Panicum crusgali, among broad leaved Ludvigia parviflora,Sphellanthus acmella, Commelina benghalensis, Eclipta alba and Marsillia quadrifolia, among sedges- Cyperus iria, Fimbristlis milliaceae, Kyllinga sp. and Cyperus difformis. Pooled yield attributes and yield data of two years revealed that application of Pyrazosulfuron 25 g ha-1 3-7 DAS being at par with pretilachlor S 50% 750 g ha-1 0-5 DAS cyhalofopbutyl 10% 90 g ha-1 25-30 DAS, fenoxaprop 9.3% 30 DAS 60 g ha-1, azimsulfuron 50 DF 35 g ha-1 35 DAS, fenoxaprop 60 g + ethoxysulfuron 15 g ha-1 25 30 DAS, oxysulfuron 23.5 EC 300 g + 2,4-D 80% 500 g ha-1 and two hand weeding at 20 and 40 days after sowing recorded 7.6, 15.7. 19.02 and 93.17% significantly higher grain yield and 11.43, 29.76, 38.48 and 90.00 % higher straw yield as compared to cyahalofopbutyl 10 % 90 g ha-1 25-30 DAS + Almix 25-30 DAS 20 g ha-1, fenoxaprop 9.3 % 60 g ha-1 + Almix 20g g ha-1 25-30 DAS, bisparibac sodium 10% 25 g ha-1 25 DAS and weedy check respectively. Application of pyrazosulfuron 25 g ha-1 3-7 DAS and pretilachlor S 50% 750 g ha-1 0-5 DAS recorded maximum net return (Rs. 3216 g ha-1) and B:C ratio (3.7) compared to rest of the treatments.
134 On probability models for describing population dynamics of major insect pests under rice-potato-okra cropping system, M. KARALE AND H. L. SHARMA
In the present investigation, trends in population dynamics of major insect pests under rice-potato-okra cropping system have been studied through probability models. Among the major insect pests climbing cutworms were observed on rice, whiteflies and jassids on potato and whiteflies, aphids and jassids on okra. The data have been taken from an experiment which was conducted by the staff of department of Agronomy during kharif, Rabi and summer season 2006-07 at the Krishi Nagar farm, Adhartal JNKVV, Jabalpur, following randomized complete block design (RCBD) with varying number of treatments under each crop. The variety pusa basmati was taken for rice, kufri jawahar for potato and ladies finger for summer okra. The occurrences of the insects were grouped in the form of frequency distribution according to the number of plants. The Poisson distribution is found to be adequate for describing the pattern of climbing cutworms on rice, whiteflies and jassids on potato and aphids on okra. In addition to these, Polya-Aeppli distribution is well fitted for the number of whiteflies and jassids on okra. These distributions may be used for forecasting of the losses in these crops due to major insect pests considered here.
135 Studies on management of foliar diseases in onion (Allium cepa L.), P. TRIPATHY, D. PATEL, B. B. SAHOO, A. PRIYADARSHINI, S. K. DAS AND D. K. DASH
For commercial cultivation of onion, both thrips and foliar diseases play the key role in reducing the bulb yield and quality of produce. Among the various foliar diseases affecting leaves and bulbs, purple blotch incited by Alterrinari porri, while thrips among the insects are the most devastating & prevalent in many parts of India including Odisha. This is more important due to change in climatic conditions during the growing season. The study on management of foliar diseases in onion conduced during rabi season of 2010-11 and 2011-12 revealed significant variations among the treatments with respect to disease incidence, disease severity, thrips populations and bulb yield (marketable & total yield). Significantly minimum disease incidence (74.26 % and 68.17 %), severity (54.25 % and 31.25 %), thrips plant-1 (33.50 and 17.79) , marketable bulb yield (19.58 tha-1 and 13.75 tha-1 ) as well as total bulb yield (27.95 tha-1 and 24.88 tha-1) was recorded with spray schedule of mancozeb @ 0.25% + methomyl @ 0.8g litre-1, tricyclazole @ 0.1% + carbosulfan @ 2 ml litre-1 to be and hexaconazole @0.1% + profenofos 1ml litre-1 at 30, 45 and 60 dat (t ) during 2010-11 and 2011-12, respectively. The next best recommendation was application of mancozeb @ 0.25% + 4 methomyl @ 0.8g litre-1, propiconazole @ 0.1% + carbosulfan @ 2 ml litre-1 and copper oxychloride @0.25 % + profenofos 1mll-1 at 30, 45 and 60 dat (t ) in onion. Thus, it may be concluded that in onion combined application of insecticides and fungicides not 3 only reduces the incidence of foliar disease and thrips infestation but also increases bulb yield instead of their sole application.
136 Integration of chemical and cultural methods for weed management in kharif groundnut, H. PATRO, 1M. A. ALIM, 2S. S. NANDA AND 3A. K. BEHURA
A field experiment was conducted to study the integrated weed management in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for consecutive three kharif seasons in 2010, 2011 and 2012 at Breeder Seed Production Farm of Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar with 7 weed management treatments in four replications. Weed free check (two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS and manually uprooting of weeds at 60 DAS) was found more effective to control weeds in groundnut and recorded lowest weed density, weed dry matter , weed index and highest weed control efficiency. It was also recorded significantly highest growth and yield attributes in groundnut over all the other treatments viz. number of pods plant-1, shelling per cent and pod yield. Pre- emergence application of pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1 kg. a.i. ha-1 + one HW at 45 DAS alone or in combination with post emergence application of quizalofopethyl 5 EC @ 50 g. a.i ha-1 at 20 DAS was found next superior treatment after weed free check in respect of all weed and crop parameters. Though weed-free check recorded significantly highest gross returns and net returns, which was 39,535/ha and 16,962/ha, respectively.Highest B:C ratio (1.84) was recorded in treatment having pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1 kg. a.i ha-1 + one HW at 45 DAS in combination with post emergence application of quizalofopethyl 5 EC @ 50 g. a.i ha-1 at 20 DAS which was found most economically feasible weed management practice for groundnut.
137 Suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in gladiolus by using rhizobacterial strains, Z. SALMA, 1S. S. SINDHU AND 2V. P. AHLAWAT
Gladiolus is an important commercial flower crop fetching high returns in national and international markets. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli is a serious disease which has become a limiting factor in its production. With an objective to have a biological control over this biotic stress, an experiment was conducted during 2012 and 2013 at Department of Microbiology, CCSHAU, Hisar to evaluate certain rhizobacterial strains for suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in gladiolus. Twenty five rhizobacterial strains were tested under dual technique for antifungal activity against fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli. Two Pseudomonas strains HWM13and HCS2 as well as two Bacillus strains RSD8 and NNY19 caused maximum inhibition of the pathogen. Under pot house conditions, single inoculation of HCS2 showed increased plant height (66.7 cm) and superior floral attributes over control. Coinoculation of HCS2 with pathogen resulted in complete suppression of disease with no symptoms of wilting. Thus, Pseudomonas strain HCS2 could be further tested under field conditions for the suppression of Fusarium wilt in gladiolus.
138 Analytical method, validation and degradation kinetics of Fluroxypyr- Meptyl in onion using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, S. MUKHERJEE, 1S. MUKHERJEE, 1A. KUNDU, 2G. K. DAS AND 1A. BHATTACHARYYA
A simple, fast and inexpensive analytical method was developed and validated for screening of Fluroxypyr-Meptyl, a selective post-emergent systemic broadleaf herbicide in onion (plant leaf, bulb) and soil using GC-MS/MS. The method comprised of extraction with ethyl acetate using matrix solid phase dispersion method followed by column chromatographic and dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup and quantified in GC-MS/MS. The method was validated in concentration ranging from 0.02-0.1 ?g g-1. The recovery of Fluroxypyr-Meptyl in onion (all substrates) and soil was ranging from 88-98% at different levels of analytes with RSD (HorRat< 0.51) of 8-15%. The global uncertainty was calculated at 0.02 ?g g-1. In order to evaluate in safety use in India and degradation kinetics, a field study was conducted following the validated method.
139 Performance of wheat genotypes under different row spacing in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal, A. KALPANA, P. PRUSTY AND S. K. MUKHOPADHYAY
West Bengal is not a traditional wheat growing state in India. However, at present wheat has become a staple food crop next to rice and its consumption is gradually increasing because of changing in food habit and economic prosperity. In spite of a wide range of adoptability, little attention has been paid towards wheat production and maximization of yield potential of this crop in West Bengal and its share to national production is less than 1%. Productivity of 2.8 t ha-1 is also far below the national average of 3.14 t ha-1 (Anon., 2013). Since wheat is a major cereal crop and population is gradually increasing with time, increasing its production and acreage should be given top priority in order to achieve food and nutritional security in the state. However, success of any crop production depends on the use of appropriate and selectivity of location-specific genotype/variety of high yield potential, and additionally improved cultural practices is an imperative part, may not be ignored.
140 Studies on seed viability of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.), N. GURUNG, 1G. S. K. SWAMY, S. K. SARKAR, S. O. BHUTIA AND K. C. BHUTIA
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), a native of tropical America (Brazil), belonging to the family Passifloraceae is a high value and export oriented crop. It is grown mostly in tropical and sub-tropical part of the world. South America is currently the largest producer of passion fruit worldwide (Sema and Maiti, 2009). In India it is cultivated in few pockets in the Nilgiris, Wynad, Kodaikanal, Coorg and Malabar in the South and North East states like Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya.
141 Performance of baby corn (Zea mays L.) under the influence of in situ green manuring and phosphorus in acid soil of Meghalaya, I. KAR AND 1V. RAM
Baby corn (Zea mays L.) is dehusked maize ear harvested within 2-3 days of silking, i.e. prior to fertilization. Being a short duration crop, it fits easily in an intensive cropping system. Depending upon the agro climatic conditions, 3 to 4 crops of baby corn can be taken up in a year with good profit and in addition to baby corn; it provides palatable green fodder to cattle. Baby corn crop, owing to its more profitability than grain maize, may be helpful in raising the income of the farmers of the North East region. Phosphorus is an essential element required for the growth of plants. It is an integral part of nucleic acid and plays a fundamental role in metabolism of fats, protein and starch. Despite its wide distribution in nature, P is a limited resource for plant growth and its low availability is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils (Redel et al., 2011). P fixation is the most limiting factor in acid soil particularly in the North Eastern region of India and P fertilizers are required to sustain optimum crop yields. Green manure has the ability to utilize the inaccessible fraction of phosphorus and make it available for crops. It is an important tool to improve soil fertility by enhancing organic carbon, nitrogen and other nutrients in available form in soil and lead to sustainable crop production (Fageria, 2007). The combined use of green manure with inorganic source of P fertilizer will increase the availability of phosphorus due to dissolution of sparingly soluble P sources and reduced P retention (Bah et al., 2006). Hence the present investigation was carried out to study the combined effect of green manure and phosphorus on the performance of baby corn.
142 Response of oat (Avena sativa l.) on quality and economics to nitrogen and phosphorus levels under North Gujarat agro-climatic conditions, R. K. JAT, A. G. PATEL, A. SHVIRAN, A. L. BIJARNIA AND VANIKA BHUNWAL
Livestock population is the largest in the India, comprising 182.50 million cattle may be cow, 61.30 million buffaloes, 76.65 million goats, 41.30 million sheeps, 10.0 million pigs and 3.04 million other animals. The integrated efforts even could not improve the declining trend in per capita availability of milk from 263 g during 2011 because most of our animals are either low producer or under malnutrition and about 55.05 and 41.95 percent of the total cows and buffaloes respectively, remain dry and infertile. In India, about 6.91 million hectares of land which contributes about 4.4 per cent of the total cultivated area are under fodder crops cultivation. Out of which only 1.02 million hectares of land is irrigated. In Gujarat state, total animal population is about 18.44 million and their optimum fodder requirement is 42.2 million tonnes, whereas only 20.0 million tonnes of fodder is made available in normal year.
143 Performance of dill germplasm as intercrop and mono-crop in the Gangetic plains of West Bengal, N. CHATTOPADHYAY, 1A. BHATTACHARJYA AND 2J. K. HORE
Dill (Anethum sowa) is a spice crop belongs to the family Apiaceae. Its young aromatic foliage is used in culinary and the essential oil derives from its seed having antioxidant and medicinal properties (Rajeswari et al., 2006). Dill is mainly cultivated in winter in Northern Indian plain. Dill is a new introduction in West Bengal. Therefore, the choice of a suitable cultivar/germplasms is of paramount importance for successful cultivation of this crop. Tezpat (Cinnamomum tamala) is an evergreen aromatic tree. Leaves are generally used for flavoring meats, sausages and sauces. Leaves contain essential oil. Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Ispreng) is a condiment of Rutaceae family used in South India culinary preparations, mainly to increase the flavor and taste of the food. It is also used as a remedy in rheumatism, leprosy, epilepsy, piles, diarrohea, fever, worms. It is laxative, analgesic, astringent, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, improves brain and cures eye disease
144 Nitrogen response of promising rice entries under rainfed shallow lowland of red and laterite zone of West Bengal, India, K. JANA
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cereals crop and grown across the world. Rice is life: It is an important and prominent slogan since the International year of rice in 2004. Most of the peoples of the world depend on rice for their secured livelihood and a way of life. It is the staple food for more than 65 per cent of the people and provides employment and livelihood to 70 per cent of the Indians. There is a need to enhance the productivity of the rice to meet the growing demand under conditions of declining quantity and quality of land (Raju, 2013). Nitrogen is a key nutrient in promoting the plant growth and determining the yield level of rice. Recovery of applied nitrogen in rice is very low owing to various losses. Optimization of applied nitrogen at critical growth stages, coinciding with the period of efficient utilization is essential to meet the nitrogen requirement of crop throughout the growing season (Pandey et al., 2002). Nitrogen management is an important aspect for obtaining good yield of rice. Optimum dose and schedule of fertilizer application is necessary to achieve higher yields, minimize lodging and damage from insect pests (DRR, 2013). Nutrition is the critical input in yield realization of rice under rainfed shallow lowland situation as availability of required nutrients is low-medium in red and lateritic areas of West Bengal.
145 Nutrient optimization on growth and productivity of rice in the red and lateritic belt of West Bengal , T. SHANKAR, G. C. MALIK, M. BANERJEE,A. GHOSH
Rice is the most important and extensively cultivated food crop, which provides half of the daily food for one of every three persons on the earth. In Asia alone, more than two billion people obtain 60 to 70 per cent of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. The major rice growing areas are West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Jharkhand and Tamil Nadu. Rice production in India is an important factor for food security. However, little is known about the sustainability of the current production systems, particularly systems with triple cropping under minimum practice. Among the various cropping systems, rice based cropping systems are the predominant systems in India.
146 Effects of cropping sequence and weed management on density and vertical distribution of weed seeds in alluvial soil, P. ADHIKARY AND R. K. GHOSH
An important part of crop weed ecology is the weed seed bank as it is the most important source of annual weeds in cropping systems are establishing each year from seeds and therefore represents a significant point in the weed life cycle for control. Because of such germination-delaying factors as the dormancy-non dormancy continuum, seeds of annual species can persist in soil for years, resulting in a reservoir of viable seeds of various ages from which future generations develop (Albrechta and Auerswald, 2009). Understanding the dynamics of weed seed banks is an essential first step in improving weed management plans. By understanding how long seeds remain viable in the seed bank and how those seeds are related to the aboveground weed community, a producer could tailor weed management programs to increase efficiency and efficacy. A package of practice of crop cultivation is to manage weeds toward lowering their total numbers and the numbers of seeds deposited in the soil seed bank (Lamour and Lambertus, 2007). Management practices also alter distribution of weed seeds vertically within the soil profile (Buhler, 1995), which can affect loss of seeds from the seed bank by influencing seed germination, decay, and herbivory. Weed management practices such as hand weeding, mechanical weeding (wheel hoeing), herbicides use and inter row cultivation influencing weed seed density and distribution in the crop field.
147 Arsenic contamination in ground water: an environmental issue, S. K. SANYAL
Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring element in the earths crust and is found throughout the environment. Increased As concentration in groundwater is generally associated with geogenic sources (Nordstrom, 2002; Smedly and Kinniburgh, 2002; Chakraborti et al. 2010; Sanyal, 2013) and has positive interaction with soil minerals (Kima et al. 2012). Of late, groundwater contamination in the Bengal delta basin of the Indian sub-tropics and Bangladesh, bound by the rivers Ganga and Padma, is of great concern to the world since the latter affects the soil-plant-animal/ human systems.
148 Effect of homa organic farming practices on biochemical properties in soil and soybean (Glycine max), KUMARI NAMRATA, P.W. BASARKAR1, M. SRINIVASA2
A field experiment was conducted with eight treatments exposed to Homa atmosphere replicated during kharif season to study the biochemical efficacy of Homa Organic Farming in soybean crop (JS 335) by creating Homa atmosphere. The conventional control (CC) and control without Homa (CWH) were maintained 1 km away. A common basal treatment of cow dung (CD) and cow urine (CW) was given to seeds of Homa treatment. Agnihotra Homa (AH) at sunrise and sunset and Om Tryambakam Homa (OTH) performed for 3-4 h daily yielded smoke and ash were used for seed treatment and for furrow application and Biosol was used for soil and foliar application. Treatment T (Seed treatment with OTH ash, fresh CD and CW + furrow application of OTH 3 ash) was significantly superior over control in case of nodule count and nodule dry weight. The macro and micro nutrients increased in Treatment T (Seed treatment with AH ash, fresh CW and CW + furrow application of AH ash), T , T (Seed treatment 2 3 4 with AH ash + fresh CW and CW + soil application of Biosol) and T (Seed treatment with OTH ash, fresh CW and CW + soil 5 application of Biosol) was recorded. Soil Zn content and dehydrogenase activity increased over control with treatment T and T . 2 4 Total protein and oil content increased on HT and activities of -amylase and invertase in soy seeds on soil application of Biosol were superior. Homa smoke, ashes and Biosol thus show promise to the farming community to produce crops with good returns.
149 Growth, yield and advantages of green gram-sesame intercropping under different moisture regimes in new alluvial zone of West Bengal, A. M. PUSTE, T. K. MANDAL, S. K. GUNRI, T. S. DEVI1 AND B. R. PRAMANIK2
A field experiment was conducted at the university research farm during two consecutive summer seasons on the growth, yield and intercropping advantages of green gram (Vigna radiata Wilczek.) - sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under different moisture regimes in new alluvial zone of West Bengal. Experiment was laid out in split-plot design, viz. three levels of irrigation [I - no 0 irrigation, I - one irrigation at 30 DAS (days after sowing) and I - two irrigations at 30 and 50 DAS] as main plot and seven 1 2 cropping systems, comprised of sole and intercropping of inoculated (with Rhizobium) and uninoculated green gram with sesame sown in lines at 25 cm apart maintained at 2:2 and 3:3 row ratio [C - C ], considered as sub-plot treatments. Result reveals that 1 7 growth, yield attributes and yield of both the crops were influenced significantly by the levels of irrigation in most cases, and maximum seed yield of both green gram (0.836 t ha1) and sesame (0.536 t ha1) was exhibited with two irrigations applied at 30 and 50 DAS. Among the sole and intercropping systems, highest seed yield of sesame (0.673 t ha-1) and green gram (1.094 t ha1) was obtained when these were sown as sole with Rhizobium inoculation of green gram. Moreover, highest and lowest grain yield was obtained from the combination of 3:3 row ratio of inoculated green gram (0.708 t ha1) + sesame (0.478 t ha1) and 2:2 uninoculated green gram (0.567 t ha1) + sesame (0.411 t ha1), respectively. Among the different intercropping systems, green gram with Rhizobium inoculation + sesame maintained in row arrangement of 3:3 ratio exhibited greater advantages of competitive functions of intercropping like aggresivity, 0.12; relative crowding coefficient, 5.22; land equivalent ratio, 1.36 and monetary advantages, INR 9,982 ha1, respectively than those of other cropping systems.
150 Biodiversity and breeding of grapes : a study in Azerbaijan, MIRZA MUSAYEV
A detailed investigation about the biodiversity and breeding of grapes was undertaken at Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan is a rich source of plant genetic resources due to diverse soil and climatic condition. Vine growing is one of the most ancient and widely adopted culture to support the economic life of the people. Different information indicated that the history of cultured vine growing in Azerbaijan has at least 7 millenium. Scientist and tresearchers indicated that centre of origin of grape in Azerbaijan and Southern Caucasus. Wild grape [V. Vinifera L. Subsq. sylvestris (C.C. Gmel) Hegi] spreads on the teritory of Azerbaijan from 12m below sea level to 200m above sea level. There are two kinds of wild grape: Typica negr (with hair)and Aberrans negr (hairless). At present more than 600 lacal and introduced grape varieties are spread in Azerbaijan, of which more than 100 varieties are threatened. White, red, black and pink coloured table, technical and universal grape varieties are cultivated. Wide variation in duration for maturity ( 120 to more than 171 days) was observed among the types. Plartid DNA sequence variation study revealed presence of three polymorphic sites in DNA: on in tra H psp A intergenic region and two in rpl 16 intron area. The varieties were divided into four different haplotypes: AAA, ATT, GTA and ATA. Some resistant varieties against mildew, oidinm and grey rot diseases identified. Salt and drought tolerant varieties also reported. Most of the local threatened varieties are conserved for utilizing them in future improvement programme.
151 Productivity of soils amended with different organic manures and tillage practices in rice-wheat system, A. SINGH, 2S. KUMAR, 1Y. V. SINGH AND A. BHATIA
A field experiment was conducted with rice-wheat cropping system at IARI, New Delhi for two Kharif (rainy) and Rabi (winter) seasons during 2006-08. The main plots comprised two tillage treatments viz. puddled and non-puddled in rice and conventional tillage and no-tillage in wheat. The sub-plots included seven fertilizer treatments including recommended doses of urea (120 kg N ha-1), urea + FYM, urea + green manure (GM), urea + municipal solid waste (MSW) compost. Results showed that the growth and yield of rice and wheat were higher under puddled/ conventional tillage condition compared to non-puddled/ no-tillage conditions. Application of organic matter with recommended dose of mineral fertilizer gave the higher plant growth, yield attributes, grain and straw yield compared to other treatments.
152 Effect of limited irrigation on growth and yield of rice varieties in a typic Haplustalf soil of Red and Laterite zone of West Bengal, M. GHOSH, P. K. PATRA AND 1C. BHATTACHARYYA
A field experiment was conducted to explore the potentiality of growing rice varieties under limited supply of irrigation water. Seven varieties of rice under 5 water management practices were evaluated in the farmers field at Jhargram. Water management practices exerted significant influence on height, grain and straw yield and the highest grain yield (3.38 t ha-1) was recorded under continuously flooded water regime (CF). Limited supply of irrigation water at different stages of growth decreased grain yield ranging from 27.5 to 43.5% compared to that in CF.Rice genotypes exhibited differential response to water management practices. Though UPLRi -7 produced the highest grain yield (4.39 t ha-1) under CF, under limited water supply IR -36 was still the best variety producing the highest average grain yield (3.31 t ha-1).The present research work pointed out that without ensuring adequate supply of irrigation water rice cultivation during boro season may not be profitable in the Red and Laterite zone of West Bengal.
153 Influence of foliar application of boron and zinc on growth, yield and bulb quality of onion (Allium cepa L.), D. MANNA, T. K. MAITY AND A. GHOSAL1
A study was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal during rabi season (November- April) of 2010 and 2011. The main aim of the experiment was to enhance the production of onion through assessing the effect of different levels of boron and zinc. The experiment consisting of 4 levels of boron (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 %) and 4 levels of zinc (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 %) were applied as foliar spraying. Application of 0.5% boron significantly increased the growth (plant height, 63.93cm and number of leaf per plant, 7.25), yield (30.74 t ha-1) and quality (Total soluble solids, 13.45B and pyruvic acid 5.94 ?mol.g-1) of onion. Among various levels of zinc 0.5% exhibited the best growth (plant height, 67.25cm and number of leaf per plant, 7.75), yield (33.34 t ha-1) and quality (Total soluble solids, 14.57 0B and pyruvic acid, 5.86 ?molg-1) attributes of onion.
154 On-farm assessment of direct-seeded rice production system under central Punjab conditions, A. S. SIDHU, R. KOONER AND A. VERMA
The field experiments were conducted at farmers fields at nine different locations in district Ludhiana and Rupnagar of central Punjab during kharif 2012. Puddled Transplanted Rice (PTR) and Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) production systems were compared in respect of weed infestation, grain yield and economics. The results revealed that plant height, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, number of empty grains per panicle and test weight of two systems was not significantly affected. Average Plant population/m2 was significantly more in DSR (24.0) than PTR (19.2). Number of effective tillers which are the major determinants of grain yield were significantly higher in puddled transplanted rice (272.9/m2) than direct seeded rice (263.3/ m2). Significantly higher grain yield (55.56 q/ha) was observed with Puddled Transplanted Rice (PTR) than Direct Seeded Rice (53.72 q/ha) when averaged over 9 locations. The population of weeds at 30 days after sowing was significantly more in DSR (24.3/m2) than PTR (13.8/m2). The average net returns under PTR (47.71 X 103 Rs/ha) were higher than DSR (47.08 X 103 Rs/ha) but benefit cost ratio was significantly more in DSR plots.
155 Studies on effect of interval of basin watering in ber cv. Banarasi Karka through farmers acceptable approach, S. N. GHOSH, 1B. BERA AND 1S. ROY
An investigation was made to find out the effect of interval of watering on control of fruit drop and to improve the yield in ber cv. Banarasi Karka cultivar of ber grown in laterite soil. There were six treatments which included as application of basin watering @ 60 litres/plant, applied at 15, 20, 25, 30 days (at two different dates )interval and no watering (control). Tree basin was mulched with grasses in all the treatments including control. The result of two years of investigation revealed that basin watering @ 60 liters /plant at 20 days interval started from 20th October and continued upto 5th January resulted in highest fruit retention (42%) which consequently resulted in highest fruit yield of 14.6 kg/plant as against 6.2 kg1/plant in control. Maximum in fruit weight, pulp percentage and ascorbic acid content in fruit were also significantly noted from plants, watered at 20 days interval.
156 Effect of organic amendments on microbial population and enzyme activities of soil, P. KUMARI, G. K. MATHANKER, B. SHARMA1 AND B. R. MAURYA
The organic sources FYM, sludge, poultry manure, fresh cow dung and leaves & twigs of Lantana camera have potential as soil amendments and can augment microbial population and enzyme activities. Sludge has the maximum capacity to increase population of fungi (21cfu104 /g soil) and actinomycetes (30cfu105/ g soil) both at 45 DAI followed by FYM. FYM exibits their potential to raise bacterial population (47 cfu106 /g soil) at 45 DAI. Sludge follows FYM in regards to bacterial population. FYM elaborates maximum dehydrogenase activity (24g TPF g-1 soil day -1) at 45 DAI followed by fresh cow dung. Sludge induces maximum urease activities (364 g urea hydrolyzed g-1 soil h-1) at 45 DAI. So far as phosphatase activity is concerned, it shows maximum under poultry manure (49mmol p-nitrophenol g-1 soil h-1) at 30 DAI followed closely by fresh cow dung (48mmol p- nitrophenol g-1 soil h-1 also at 30 DAI).
157 Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield, nutrient uptake and economics of rapeseed (Brassica campestris var. yellow sarson) in terai region of West Bengal, B. DE, B. DAS1 B. DAS2 AND A. C. SINHA
A field experiment was conducted in the experimental farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal during 2007, 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on yield, uptake and economics of Rapeseed (Brassica campestris var. yellow sarson). Based on pooled data treatment T (50% RDF + FYM @ 2.5 t ha-1 + VC 11 @1.25 t ha-1 + NC @ 1.25 t ha-1 + PM @ 1.25 t ha-1) recorded highest grain yield of 13.48 q ha-1 which was statistically at par with T (T + Neemcake @ 2.5 t ha-1) and T (T + Vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1) (13.40 q ha-1). However, T (100 % RDF+ Borax @ 10.0 Kg 9 1 8 1 1 ha-1) fetched highest B: C ratio.
158 Evaluation and characterisation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm, B. P. SUDRIK, M. K. GHODKE, V. S. PATIL, S. K. CHAVAN1 AND N. B. KESALE
One hundred and ten accession of sunflower germplasm were characterized on the basis of qualitative trait and were evaluated for yield and yield components to study the variability for different quantitative traits. Highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for seed yield plant-1 (56.5% and 57.0%) and 100-seed weight (25.6% and 27.7%) respectively. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean were recorded for seed yield plant-1 (98.1% and 115.3%) and number of leaves plant-1 (93.9%, 38.2%) followed by leaf lamina length, leaf lamina width, plant height, 100-seed weight, petiole length, and head diameter. Qualitative traits also showed wide variation among the accessions
159 Efficacy of Kappaphycus and Gracilaria sap on growth and yield improvement of sesame in new alluvial soil, B. PRAMANICK, K. BRAHMACHARI1 AND A. GHOSH1
A field experiment was conducted during pre-kharif season of 2012 and 2013 with the focal objectives of studying the efficacy of seaweed saps derived from two marine algae viz. Kappaphycus and Gracilaria on growth and yield improvement of sesame , nutrient uptake by the crop and monetary advantage. The foliar spray was performed thrice at different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0% v/v) of seaweed extracts. Such application of seaweed extracts significantly enhanced the growth and yield parameters. The highest seed yield was evidenced with the combined applications of 15% Kappaphykus sap and 75% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and this treatment was closely followed by the application of 15% Gracilaria sap along with 75% RDF. The maximum net monetary return (`28650) and benefit: cost ratio (1.99) were documented with this treatment. Nutrient uptake (N, P and K) was also increased with seaweed extract applications.
160 Combining ability and its relationship with gene action in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], Combining ability and its relationship with gene action in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]
An experiment was carried out with twelve parental lines of okra viz. Larm -1, IC -282280, IC 282337, IC -128891, IC -111527, EC 329380, IC 282279, VRO -5, IC 329422, IC 18537, Hisar Unnat and IC 43132 along with 66 F hybrids based on half- 1 diallel cross excluding reciprocals to the study of combining ability of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] with respect to seventeen characters, at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agriculture Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. This place is situated in South East part of Varanasi city at 2515' North latitude and 8303' East longitudes at an elevation of 129.23 m above the mean sea level. The area is characterized by humid subtropical climate with extreme hot weather in summer and cold in winter. The average annual rainfall is about 1110 mm. The major portion of precipitation (about 85 to 90%) is received during July to September. All parental lines and F combinations were grown in Randomized Block Design 1 (RBD) with three replications during rainy season, 2012. The mean square due to gca and sca were significant for all seventeen characters under study indicating the importance of both additive and non-additive genetic components for the characters under study. None of parents were good general combiner for all characters whereas, Hisar Unnat, IC- 128891 and VRO-5 showed significant gca for yield, earliness and different pod characters respectively, which signifies their suitability to be used for further breeding and crop improvement programme. Among the crosses, Larm -1 x IC -111527, IC - 282280 IC -111527 and IC -282280 x EC 329380 were most promising combinations for earliness and other desirable characters including yield per plant. The results indicated the importance of heterosis breeding for effective utilization of non-additive genetic variance in okra.
161 Effect of bio-inoculants on the performance of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.), S. ISLAM, R. CHATTERJEE AND S. DATTA
162 Effect of different pre-treatments on quality of banana powder, A. K. SAHOO, A. M. SONKAMBLE AND S. R. PATIL
An experimental study was performed to determine the effect of different pre-treatments on quality of banana powder. Basrai banana powder was prepared from mature unripe fruits collected from local market of Akola, Maharashtra. Different pretreatments like hot water treatment, potassium metabisulphite (0.5% and 1%) and combination of hot water and potassium metabisulphite treatment were imparted to banana slices before preparing powder. Physico chemical observations like moisture, pH, TSS, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, total sugar and non-reducing sugar of the powder were recorded and the data obtained was analyzed using FCRD design. The pre-treatment 1% potassium metabisulphite for 5 min showed best result in respect of different quality parameter.
163 Economics of production and marketing of cabbage in Bankura district of West Bengal, S. DE AND S M. RAHAMAN
The economics of cabbage production and price spread in marketing of cabbage was under taken during the year 2010-11, while primary data was collected from three villages namely Ola, Nikunjipur and Pingrui of Onda block in Bankura district of West Bengal. Three major marketing channels were identified in direct sale of cabbage that are of very short period. The price spread was estimated to be Rs. 2.69 / kg of cabbage in channel III followed by Rs.1.66 in channel II and only Rs. 1.18 per kg of cabbage in channel I, which indicates a very normal situation with greater marketing efficiency.
164 Efficacy of organic manures on growth, yield and biomolecules of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), DUSHYANT, S. MAJI, S. KUMAR, A. K. MAURYA AND K. R. MEENA
Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) a perennial herb belonging to family Asteraceae is important for its leaves which are used as non caloric sweetner and also in many therapeutic applications including diabetes. The present investigation was carried out during 2012-13 to study the effect of organic nutrition on growth and yield of stevia cv. Meethi. Vermicompost (V.C) -250g, bone meal (B.M.)- 120g and neem cake (N.C.)- 100g were applied as sole and in combination. The experiment comprised ten treatments [T :Control; T : V.C. (100%); T :N.C. (100%); T :B.M. (100%); T :V.C.+N.C. 75:25); T :V.C.+N.C.(50:50); 0 1 2 3 4 5 T :N.C.+B.M.(75:25); T :V.C.+B.M.(50:50); T :V.C.+B.M (75:25); T :N.C.+B.M.(50:50)] each replicated thrice and followed 6 7 8 9 the randomized block design. The study revealed that organic manures were much more effective for Stevia when they were applied in combination rather than sole application. Under the study, combined application of vermicompost and bone meal at 75:25 ratio showed the maximum height of plant (49.99cm), highest number of suckers per plant (3.52), maximum number of leaves (89.87 plant-1) as well as maximum fresh (26.55g) and dry (7.52g) weight of leaves among the all treatments.
165 Promotion of short duration rice variety Gotra Bidhan-1 (IET 17430) through frontline demonstrations in terai region of West Bengal, B. MITRA, S. MOOKHERJEE AND S. BISWAS
Rice is a main crop in the terai region of West Bengal, India where it grows extensively under rainfed condition during monsoon months. The participatory approaches revealed the real problem associated with rice cultivation and it has been found that the farmers of this geographic regions are in urgent need of a short duration high yielding rice variety in lieu of the traditional long duration variety MTU-7029 to catch the rabi season in time. Considering the factual need of the farming community, the front line demonstration has been planned by the KVK and FLDs were conducted in an area of 56.53 hectares involving 306 farmers in eleven adopted villages of the KVK across five different blocks of Coochbehar district. It was revealed that the yield of newly introduced rice variety Gotra Bidhan-1(G-B-1) increased successively over the years in demonstration plots and with little increase in cost of cultivation under demonstration a higher return was achieved. The technology gap, ranging between 14.0-7.0 q ha-1 with an average of 10.83 q ha-1, reflected the farmers cooperation in carrying out the demonstrations with encouraging results. The extension gap increased slightly during the successive years (8.50 to 9.00 during 2010-11 and 9.00 to 11.50 during 2011-12). The successive decreased value of technology index reflected the feasibility of the variety in farmers field.
166 Evaluation of traditional rice cultivars of Sri Lanka for some yield components and grain yield in Yala and Maha seasons, A. L. RANAWAKE AND U. G. S. AMARASINGHE
One hundred Sri Lankan traditional rice cultivars were evaluated in two consecutive seasons of 2011/2012 Maha and 2012 Yala seasons for yield and yield components. Analysis of data through ANOVA and mean separation using SAS statistical software reveals that in Maha season, 73 cultivars recorded higher plant height, eight cultivars showed more, number of tillers plant-1, 43 cultivars had more number of fertile tillersplant-1 fertility percentage was more in twenty nine cultivars and yield per plant-1 was high for thirty five cultivars.Number of productive tillers per plant and fertility percentage remained unchanged for 36 and 60 cultivars respectively in two seasons. Forty four cultivars showed higher yield per plant-1 in Yala season than at Maha season while thirty two cultivars remained more or less same in their regards. According to DMRT groupings, all the parameters of cultivar Hondarawala, Karayal I, Dewaredderi, Kotathavalu II, Kokuvellai, Karayal III, Karabewa, Muthumanikam, Induru Karayal, Dik wee 328, Maha Murunga Badulla, Kaharamana and Jamis wee I changed significantly at two seasons. Among them cultivar Hondarawala, Kotathavalu II, Kokuvellai, Karayal III, Karabewa, Muthumanikam, Dik wee 328 and Jamis wee I increased all the parameters in Maha season compared to those of in Yala season. Interestingly, the days to maturity of these cultivars were around four months. The best rice cultivars can be selected based on the performances of them in Yala and Maha seasons.
167 Effect of rhizome treatment on growth and yield of turmeric, J.K. HORE, N. CHATTOPADHYAY, M.K. SAMANTA1, D. MURMU AND S. GHANTI
The experiment was conducted at teaching farm, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, W.B. during 2009 and 2010, to assess the efficacy of different chemicals on growth and yield of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cv. Suguna. Five chemicals namely GA (50, 100 and 200 ppm), Ethrel (25, 50 and 100 ppm), KH PO (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0%), KNO (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0%) and 3 2 4 3 Thiourea (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0%) were included in this investigation. The experiment was laid out in RBD with three replications. Rhizomes (30-35 g) were soaked in different chemicals for two hours and water soaked rhizomes for same duration was treated as control. The plot size was 3 x 1 m and treated rhizomes were planted at 25 x 25 cm spacing. The FYM @ 20 tonnes per ha along with NPK @ 150:60:150 kg/ha-1 was applied uniformly to all the treatments. Crop was mulched immediately after planting with paddy straw @ 10 t ha-1. Maximum plant height (184.16 cm), leaf number (22.78) and tiller number (3.28) were noticed in plants raised from thiourea 0.5%, KNO 0.25% and thiourea 0.25% at 180 days after planting. Rhizomes treated with KH PO 0.5% 3 2 4 produced significantly higher maximum clump weight (346.28 g), yield per plot (14.97 kg/ 3 sq. m) and projected yield (34.37 t ha-1) as compared to control 258.34g, 10.62 kg/3m2 and 26.55 t ha-1 respectively. The other promising treatments with respect to yield were GA 200 ppm (14.35 kg/ 3 sq. m) and KNO 0.25% (13.75 kg/ 3 sq. m).
168 Productivity of direct seeded rice in relation to different dates of sowing and varieties in Central Punjab, U. S. WALIA, S. S. WALIA, A. S. SIDHU AND S. NAYYAR
Field experiments were conducted during kharif season of 2007 and 2008 at Research Farm of the Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana and University Seed Farm (USF), Ladhowal to find out suitable varieties and most favorable sowing time for direct seeded rice under Punjab conditions. Experimental results revealed that grain yield of PR 115 variety was equivalent to PR 116 at PAU research Farm and to PAU 201 variety of rice at USF, Ladhowal. Maximum grain yield (60.53 q/ha) was obtained with recommended practice of puddling and transplanting 28 days old seedlings which was statistically at par with direct sowing of rice on the day of nursery sowing (55.01 q/ha) and direct sowing 7 days after nursery sowing (47.40 q/ha) at Research Farm, PAU, Ludhiana. At USF, Ladhowal highest grain yield was recorded with recommended puddled transplanting treatment (54.58 q/ha), which remained statistically at par with direct sowing of rice on the day of nursery sowing (53.45 q/ha) but was significantly superior to the yields obtained with other treatments.
169 Assessment and analysis of socio-economic correlates for characterizing the overall performance of handicraft enterprises in Assam, M. M. ADHIKARY, K. PRADHAN1 AND R. SAHARIA
The concept of entrepreneurship development is becoming global phenomenon today not only because of industrial growth and business ventures but also a solution of unemployment and for the socio-economic prosperity of the community. In case of handicraft, craft form is a significant sector in India, not only because of their intrinsic cultural and aesthetic value but also because of their promising potential for economic development. An entrepreneurship development process is a judicious blend of management and risk orientation process for profit maximization. The present study was conducted at Pub Nalbari block of Nalbari district and Balipara block of Sonitpur district under the state Assam with respondents selected randomly. For the growth of any enterprise efficient management plays a key role. This management includes planning, production and market management. The study revealed that majority of the handicraft entrepreneurs efficiently managing their enterprise for profit maximization and experience, increased income, education and use of skill hired labour played a crucial role in entrepreneurship management, quality product and minimizes the risk and ultimately improves the performance of the enterprise.
170 Effect of herbicidal weed control measures for enhancing sugarcane yield, quality and weed control efficiency in West Bengal, K. BANERJEE, B. RAY PRAMANIK1 AND A. M. PUSTE2
A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive spring seasons of 2011 and 2012 at the Sugarcane Research Station, Bethuadahari (Nadia) to asses the various herbicidal weed control measures to enhance sugarcane yield, quality and weed control efficiency in West Bengal. The pooled data of both the years revealed that among the different weed control treatments, application of herbicide metribuzine @ 1.25 kg ai ha1 (PE) + Almix 20 g ha-1 at 75 DAP exhibited the maximum control of weeds and effectively lowered the weed density, weed dry matter accumulation as well as obtained higher weed control efficiency. The highest brix (20.33%), sucrose (17.16%), CCS (11.59%), CCS (9.49 t ha1) and cane yield (82.39 t ha1) were recorded with this treatment also. However, this result was statistically at par with the treatment receiving hoeing and weeding at 30, 60 and 90 DAP (days after planting). The highest net return of INR 1,05,390.00 ha1 and B : C ratio of 2.63 were recoded under the application of metribuzine @ 1.25 kg ai ha1 (PE) + Almix @ 20 g ha1 at 75 DAP, which was closely followed by those of three hoeing and weeding (net return of INR 99,519.00 ha1 and B : C ratio of 2.49).
171 Impact of paddy cultivation systems on insect pest incidence, V. VISALAKSHMI, P. RAMA MOHANA RAO AND 1N. HARI SATYANARAYANA
Field experiments were conducted during rabi 2008-09 and 2009-10 at Agricultural Research Station, Ragolu, Srikakulam district in Andhra Pradesh to assess the comparative incidence of insect pests in two different systems of rice cultivation i.e., System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and in conventional transplanting method. Incidence of yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker)) was recorded at tillering stage and at reproductive stage whereas, incidence of gallmidge (Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason)) was recorded only at tillering stage. Stem borer incidence was low in SRI method (6.1% dead hearts and 7.2% white ears) compared to conventional method of cultivation (15.6% DH and 11.9% WE). The same trend continued in case of gall midge too with 4.1% silver shoots in SRI method against 7.1% in conventional method. In the conventional transplanting method gallmidge incidence was low in MTU1010 (6.4%) where as stem borer incidence at vegetative (15.1%) and reproductive stage (11.1) was low in hybrid. Yield increase to the tune of 1.3% and 11.88% were recorded in SRI over conventional transplanting method during rabi 2008 and 2009 respectively in hybrid Arize 6444 and MTU1010 variety. Yield increase in case of SRI method was more in MTU1010 during rabi 2008 (11.73%) where as it was more in hybrid during rabi 2009 (17.3%). Highest cost benefit ratio was observed in SRI method with hybrid Arize 6444 during 2008 (1:1.70) and 2009 (1:1.72).
172 Monitoring of brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) through pheromone traps and the impact of abiotic factors on trap catch, U. S NAYAK, 1K. BARAL, A. KHUNTIA AND L. K RATH
Activity of brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB), Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee was studied from the pheromone trap catches during summer 2010 and 2011 in Keonjhar district of Odisha. The pest was first appeared during 3rd standard meteorological week (SMW) in both the years of investigation and then registered an upward trend with two distinct peaks during the month of March-April and May. The correlation studies between abiotic factors and pheromone trapped male population of BSFB revealed a significant positive correlation with temperature (maximum, minimum and average) and negative correlation with relative humidity (both morning and afternoon). Rainfall did not influence the trap catch significantly. The extent of variation in trapped adult population male population due to the multiple interactions of abiotic factors was 82.4 % during 2010 and 56.3 % during 2011; among the abiotic factors, temperatures and relative humidity had key role in adult population fluctuation.
173 Efficacy of ammonium salt of Glyphosate 71% SG on weed management in cotton and its influence on soil micro-flora, R. PODDAR, S. BERA1, R. K. GHOSH AND D. PAL
A field trail was conducted during the pre-kharif season of 2011 and 2012 Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal to evaluate the weed management practices through ammonium salt of Glyphosate 71% SG and its influence on soil micro-flora in cotton. The application of Glyphosate 71% SG on inter row in cotton @ 3.5 l ha-1 recorded better weed control efficiency in comparison to its lower dose though the result showed at par results with hand weeding (at earlier stages), applications of Glyphosate 41% SL @ 3 l ha-1 and Paraquat dichloride 24%SL @ 2.5 l ha-1 increased the yield of cotton under irrigated condition. Initially after application herbicides with different doses reduced the microflora population significantly but after the degradation it increased microflora (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) population considerably.
174 Effect of agri-horti systems and weed management practices on density and biomass of weeds in mungbean in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, P. KUMAR1 AND M. K. SINGH
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of two agri-horti systems and weed management practices on density and biomass of different weeds in mungbean in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Custard apple agri-horti system recorded higher density and biomass grasses, sedges and broad leaved weeds. Weed management treatments significantly affected growth and biomass of grasses, sedges and broad leaved weeds. One hand weeding (20 DAS) recorded significantly lowest grasses, sedges and broad leaved weeds followed by imazethapyr at 125 g.ha1 and pendimethalin at 1000 g.ha1, however significantly maximum grasses, sedges and broad leaved weeds were recorded under weedy check.
175 Studies on fruit drop dynamics of mango cv. Amrapali and influence of intercropping and fertilizer on fruit retention., D. BEHERA, P. S. MUNSI1 AND P. C.LENKA
The present investigation was conducted in the Govt. Progeny Orchard of Directorate of Horticulture, Govt. of Odisha during the years 2007 to 2009. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with seven treatments and three replications. It is revealed that percentage of fruit drop was recorded maximum in ginger with application of biofertilizers during mustard stage to pea stage and minimum in turmeric with application of biofertilizers. Also minimum fruit drop was recorded between marble stage to final retention of fruits in case of turmeric. Maximum number of panicles, length of panicles, and breadth of panicles were recorded intercropping with ginger with application of biofertilizers. The final number of fruit per panicle (2.8) was recorded highest in turmeric with application of biofertilizers and minimum (1.5) in control. The number of fruit set per plant was also influenced by biofertilizers application and maximum was recorded in turmeric with application of biofertilizers (35.7) followed by pineapple (33.2) with application of biofertilizers and minimum in control.
176 Efficacy of different herbicides against weed flora in Onion (Allium cepa. Lindeman), R. PANSE, 1A. GUPTA, 2P. K. JAIN, 3D. S. SASODE AND 3S. SHARMA
Field experiments were carried out at Vegetable Research Farm, JNKVV, Jabalpur during three consecutive years 2009-12 to find out the efficacy of different herbicides in onion crop. The dominant weed flora recorded over Chenopodium album, Melilotusalbus, Eragrostis cillansis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Anagallis arvensisL., Cyperus rotundus and Sperogula arvensis. Among the various treatments, the application of Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC before planting + Quizalofop ethyl 5 % EC at 30 days after transplanting recorded highest weed control efficiency and higher marketable bulb yield with cost benefit ratio.
177 Evaluation of promising potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars under West Bengal condition, K. K. PANIGRAHI, K. K. SARKAR1 AND A. KONAR2
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family of flowering plants. It originated and was first domesticated in the Andes Mountains of South America (Birhman and Kaul ,1989). In the present scenario of demographic shifts and climate change, quantum increase of production for resourcepoor populations is an urgent priority. Farmers, especially those in developing countries like India needs to produce profitable and healthy crops and at the same time reduce their dependence on costly harmful pesticides. In West Bengal potato is one of the leading crop. So it is important to obtain best quality potato genotypes under West Bengal condition to increase yield per unit area. The present investigation was conducted for evaluation of potato genotypes showing excellence with respect to some visually observable morphological characters and biometrical characters concerned with yield. There were some easily observable morphological variations present within the genotypes with respect to stem pigmentation and tuber character for identification of desirable genotypes with markers characters, which may provide useful guidance in effective selection in the course of breeding works.
178 Yield and yield attributing parameters of organically cultivated mungbean as influenced by PGPR and organic manures, I. DAS, A. K. PRADHAN AND A. P. SINGH1
Indiscriminate use of synthetic chemicals and the problems arising from them forced all concerned to think about the alternative means. Organic manures such as farmyard manure, compost, vermicompost, biofertilisers etc. can be used at least as supplement, if not as substitute. Among the components of organic farming cited above, biofertilizers (Rhizobium for legumes, Azotobacter for non legume crops, Azolla for low land paddy) are very important as they are ready to use live formulates of beneficial microorganisms which on application to seed, root or soil mobilize the availability of nutrients by their biological activity in particular and help build up the micro flora and in turn the soil health in general. Root colonizing bacteria (rhizobacteria), which exert beneficial effects on plant development, have been defined as Plant Growth Plant Rhizobacteria (PGPR). Mungbean, being a leguminous crop fixes 31-85 kg N ha-1. Rhizobium which supplies about 20-40 kg N ha-1, can be considered as a complementary or supplementary source of plant nutrient. Roy and Hore ( 2012) demonstrated highes soil fertility build up with organic manure microbial inoculants combination compared to inorganic nutrient. Inoculation of Rhizobium to mungbean enhances nodulation, nitrogen fixation and grain yield. Yield increase from 10 to 37 per cent following inoculation has been reported in mungbean (Mortan et al., 1982).
179 Agronomic evaluation of scented rice (Oryza sativa L) under different planting patterns, D. THAWAIT, S. KAR AND A. K. PATEL
Rice is life to a majority of people in Asia. The cultivation of rice represents both a way of life and a means to livelihood. India is second largest producer after china and has an area of over 42.2 million hectares and production of 104.32 million tonnes with productivity of 2372 kg ha-1. (Anon. 2012). It is accounts for about 42 per cent of total food grain production and 55 per cent of cereal production in the country. The major portion of rice area is devoted to the coarse and medium slender rice varieties. However, very less area ( 20% of the total rice area) has been given to the fine and scented rice. Rice quality is the major factor from consumer as well as marketing point of view. Aromatic rice which has stronger aroma and good quality than ordinary rice has more demand in different countries of the world (Bajpai and Singh, 2010). In India, supply of fine and fine scented rice is very less; therefore its market is comparatively high. Most of the fine and fine scented traditional varieties are tall, low productive, low input responsive, long duration and susceptible towards the insect, pest and diseases. Due to this, farmers are unable to make their cultivation a profitable enterprise in this region. It is therefore important to achieve high yield with good quality from scented rice varieties through proper agronomic manipulation. The main objective of this experiment is to improve the yield of scented rice by manipulation of planting spacing and number of seedlings per hill.
180 Response of boron on different wheat genotypes under late sown condition, A. B. MANDAL, H. M. THAPA, D. PAL1 AND A. MANNA2
In West Bengal wheat growing climate is widely different than other states where the duration is about 140 150 days. In West Bengal winter persist not more than 100 110 days generally. Thus, an ideal climate required for optimum wheat crop is meager in the state. More over wheat is grown generally after the harvest of aman rice resulting delay in sowing (late sown condition). Besides wheat crop is affected to sudden rise in temperature resulting initiation of reproductive phase. During grain developmental phase the temperature exceeds 35C. this reduces grain size and grain filling which ultimately results substantial loss in wheat yield. No studies have been made on incomplete grain filling (sterility) as well as effect of boron application on grain filling under new alluvial soil zone. Therefore, the present studies have been made on the above object in addition to nitrogen concentration of whole plant.
181 Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of banana (Musa spp.) variety Grand Naine, J. LENKA AND P. C. LENKA
Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the important fruit crop of the tropics. The fruits are rich source of carbohydrate and energy. It is grown over 130 countries across the world in an area of 10.1mha and producing 121.85 mt of banana. India is the largest producer of banana contributing 27% of world production (FAO, 2009). In India total area under banana cultivation is 0.796 mha with production of 28.4 mt & productivity is 35.7 mt ha-1. In Orissa total area under banana cultivation is 27486ha with production is around 0.429 mt and productivity is 19.88 mt/ha-1 (Anon, 2012). The consumption pattern of banana is increasing day by day due to its nutritional value and high economic return. Higher productivity in banana is possible through quality planting material, proper nutritional management and other cultural practices.
182 Study of correlation among various characters of different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) germplasm, S. DATTA, 1R. DAS, D. SINGH, 1U. THAPA AND 1A. R. MANDAL
Besides its significance to human food security, potato is also a crop with fascinating genetic traits and cultural history (Swaminathan, 1999). The presentday cultivated potatoes (tetraploid; 2n=4x=48) in most part of the world represent S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena, although their numerous diploid (2n=2x=24) relatives are still under cultivation in and around its primary and secondary centre of origin in South America. Genetic variability has been considered to be the basis of plant breeding (Simmonds, 1962). So, genetic variability in any crop is the essential prerequisite for initiation of breeding work. Potato being the vegetative propagated crop, clonal selection is the important breeding method and for executing the effective selection programmes association between different characters is a pre-requisite. Complex polygenic traits e.g. tuber yield in potatoes can be improved through indirect selection for close component traits (Killick, 1977). Therefore, study of correlation coefficient among various desirable characters is one of the most important aspects for any breeding programme to elucidate the degree of favourable or unfavourable association between different useful characters. Given this back drop, the present investigation was undertaken to assess correlation among different agronomical and economically important traits of thirty five potato genotypes.
183 Response of rabi sweet corn to plant geometry and fertilizer, R. K. MATHUKIA, R. P. CHOUDHARY, A. SHIVRAN AND N. BHOSALE
Specialty corns (viz., sweet corn, pop corn, baby corn, high-oil corn etc.) assume tremendous market potential not only in India but also in the international market. These specialty corns with their high market value are perfectly suitable to peri-urban agriculture. Thus they promise higher income to maize growers. Out of the various specialty corns, sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata Sturt) has a big market potential. It is a hybridized variety of maize specifically bred to increase the sugar content( Anand et al., 2013).
184 Microbial respiration of novel biomixtures used for biopurifications system, S. MUKHERJEE, W. TAPPE, D. HOFFMANN, S. KOEPPCHEN, U. DISKO, L. WEIHERMUELLER, 1P. BURAUEL AND H. VEREECKEN
To overcome the problem of on farm point sources of pollution stemming from improper handling, spillages and leakages during filling and cleaning of spraying equipments, environmental friendly and low cost technology filter systems are under development. Biochar and digestate mixtures with two types of soil (sandy and silt loam) had been used as a biofilter test material for a respiration study instead of conventional soil, peat and straw mixtures. The results show that digestate is an easily available C-source leading to highest release of CO -C compared to all other biomixtures used in the present experiment. It was found that 2 with the addition of even a small amount (1 % W/W) of biochar there is a profound suppression in the CO -C release.
185 Effect of gypsum and lime on seed yield parameters of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), A. GHOSH, V. J. SINGH, G. SRIHIMA, 1P. SAHOO AND S. K. CHAKRABORTI
An investigation was carried out to study the effects of application of gypsum and lime (lime sludge) to seed crop of groundnut variety TAG-24 on seed yield parameters. The study consisted of 12 treatment combination T as control, T NPK+ Gypsum @ 50 1 2 kg ha-1 (100% basal), T NPK+ Gypsum @100 kg ha-1 (100% basal), T NPK + Gypsum @150 kg ha-1 (100% basal), T NPK+ 3 4 5 Gypsum @ 50 kg ha-1 (50 % basal + 50 % top dressing), T NPK + Gypsum @ 100 kg ha-1 (50 % basal + 50 % top dressing), T 6 7 NPK + Gypsum @ 150kg ha-1 (50 % basal + 50 % top dressing), T NPK + Gypsum @ 50 kg ha-1 (75% basal + 25 top dressing), T 8 9 NPK + Gypsum @ 100 kg ha-1 (75% basal + 25 % top dressing), T NPK + Gypsum @ 150 kg ha-1 (75% basal + 25 % top 10 dressing), T NPK + Lime @ 100% LR (basal) and T NPK + Lime @ 20% LR (basal) + Gypsum 50 kg ha-1 (100% top dressing). 11 12 The crop was evaluated in term of Plant height, Number of branches, Days of first flowering, Harvesting maturity, number of pegs/plant, Number of effective pegs, Number of matured pods, Number of immature pods, pod weight, Shelling percentage, Number of seed/ pod, Weight of 100 seed (g), Pod yield/ plant (g), Pod yield/ha and Number of seed/kg. Result of the investigation revealed that the plant height, number of pods per plants, 100-pod weight, pod yield per plant, shelling percentage and 100-seed weight were significantly increased in T and T respectively.
186 Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation, organic manure and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], P. SIDHYA, M. K. PANDIT, S. BAIRAGI AND 1M. M. SHYAMAL
In the present experiment the influence of Bio-fertilizer, organic manure and inorganic fertilizers individually and in combination on okra cv. VRO-6 were tested in a randomized block design with 8 treatments and 3 replications during summer-rainy season of 2009-2010. Mycorrhizal application promoted the growth and yield of okra in as all mycorrhizal combinations produced better results than sole organic manure and inorganic fertilizers. Results revealed that the combined application of mycorrhiza + 50% organic manure + 50% inorganic fertilizer or mycorrhiza + 75% organic manure +25% inorganic fertilizer produced the highest fruit yield (13.67 t/ha) and its attributes and other morphological characters under study all the treatments. Sole mycorrhizal application did not produce any better results unless it was combined with organic manure and inorganic fertilizers.
187 Analysis of marketing efficiency of water chestnut (Trapa natansL.) in 24 Parganas (North) of West Bengal, A. K. MAITI AND S. KUNDU
Water chestnut (Trapa natans) is one of the most important and popular minor aquatic fruit crops grown in India. It is mainly grown in the tropical and sub-tropical regions as submersed plant community. It is also grown in the soft nutrient freshwater wetlands, lakes, ponds and streams. In India, it is most commonly used as edible nuts. The kernel of water chestnut contains a large amount of protein (up to 20%), starch (52%), tannins (9.4%), fat (up to 1%), sugar (3%), minerals, etc. It is most popular and aquatic fruit crop and can easily be grown in neglected and marshy areas, where the other fruit plants cannot be grown successfully. But because of faulty marketing system, the production and technological improvement has not gain momentum. Its marketing system is not organized. Nadia and 24-Parganas (North) are two districts where water chestnut is cultivated in a large scale and the study is restricted to 24-Parganas (North) district of West Bengal and data relates to the agricultural year 2011-12. The study is mainly focused on to identify the marketing channels involved in the marketing of water chestnut and to analyse the price spread of water chestnut and marketing efficiency. Farmer Secondary Wholesaler Retailer Consumer is found to be more dominant as 38% of the produce of the sample area are enrooted through this channel. In Barrackpur-1block, channel-I is found to be most efficient channel (marketing efficiency-1.92) and in Rajarhat-1 block, channel-III is most efficient channel (marketing efficiency-2.01). Efficiency of marketing channels varies from block to block. Profits reaped by the traders determine the efficiency of the marketing channel.
188 Growth dimensions of Karnataka economy in post liberalization period, K K R PATIL, 1MANJUNATHA G. R AND 1VISHWAJITH K. P
Karnatakas economy is composed of agriculture, manufacturing and service sectors in different combinations. For Economic growth, identification of key sector/factor is crucial and accordingly investment has to be made in such sector /factor rather than overall investment on all the sectors /factors which is called as hirshmanian unbalanced growth concept. Factor analysis was used to identify crucial dimension influencing economy during the post liberalization period (base period from 1997-2001 and terminal period from 2002-2006). The major dimensions identified in the base period are Technology lead Irrigated Agriculture, Services and Manufacturing, Farm Management and Savings and Market Potential. In terminal period the dimensions extracted were Technology lead rainfed agriculture, Services and Manufacturing, Marginalized agriculture and Irrigated agriculture. The change in the dimension was observed within the decade. Technology led rainfed agriculture is identified as the key factor in the terminal period which is the main source of stable staple food in Karnataka. Hence necessary action should be taken towards dissemination, adoption of technology pertinent to rainfed agriculture through effective extension system.
189 Effect of planting date and integrated nutrient management on the production potential of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon Mill.) under polyhouse condition, A. SINGH, P. K. JAIN, H. L. SHARMA AND Y. SINGH
An experiment was conducted to assess the different date of planting viz; September 15 (D1), September 30 (D2) and October 15 (D3) and different sources of organic and inorganic fertilizers. The result revealed that the growth parameters and yield attributing traits were significantly influenced by different planting dates and sources of nutrients. Planting on September 15 (D1) recorded the highest plant height (254.95 cm),number of leaves per plant (33.47), fruits per plant (80.39), fruit length (6.75 cm), fruit girth (5.53 cm), mean fruit weight (124.26 g), yield per plant (10.39 kg),yield per plot (42.44 kg) and TSS (5.55 B) content over later date of planting. The plants treated with 50% RDF +10 t ha FYM + 5 t ha poultry manure + biofertilizer showed maximum number of leaves per plant (36.88), fruits per plant (74.69), fruit length (6.85 cm), mean fruit weight (134.33 g), yield per plant (10.77 kg), yield per plot (38.90 kg) and ascorbic acid content (40.02 mg/100g) over treatment having 100% RDF alone. Among interaction the plants planted on 15th September along with 50% RDF +10 t haFYM + 5 t haPoultry manure + biofertilizer resulted better yield and quality traits.
190 Effect of bio-agents and polymer on yield and quality of chickpea seed (Cicer arietinum L.), A. K. CHAURASIA, V. J. SINGH, S. GAMPALA AND P. K. RAI
The present study was carried out atSam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad during rabi season 2011-12 to know the effect of bioagent and polymer on seed yield and seed quality of chickpea. The experiment consisted of seven treatments T : Control, T : Rhizobium @ 30 g kg1 seed, T : Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 30 g kg seed, T : Bacillus subtilis 0 1 2 3 @ 30 g kg1 seed, T :Trichodermaviridae@ 10 g kg1 seed, T : VAM @ 15 kg/ha, T : Polymer@1.5 g kg1 seed. The bioagents and 4 5 6 polymer for chickpea variety were evaluated following 11 quantitative characters viz., Days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, biological yield per plant, seed index, seed yield per plant and seed yield quintal per hectare and 6 qualitative characters viz., protein content, germination %, root length, shoot length, seedling length and seedling dry weight . The present investigation revealed that the treatment T (Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 30 g kg1) seed was found to be 2 significant superior in yield on the basis of mean performance of the seed yield per plant and seed yield quintal per hectare. High protein content and germination per cent were also recorded in treatment T . Thus with the present study it can be concluded 2 thatthe T is the best treatment for chickpea variety on basis of seed yield and seed quality.
191 Stability analysis for yield and related traits in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids grown under different moisture regimes in terai region of West Bengal, A. SARKAR
A study was undertaken with eight maize hybrids in three different environments, characterized by having different moisture regime with different irrigation scheduling, in the experimental farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya located under terai region of West Bengal to assess the extent of genetic variability of the different hybrids and to analyse the stability performance for yield and other yield related traits. There existed substantial variation in the mean performance of all the genotypes over environments for most of the characters and for yield r under moisture regime-1 was the rich environment and the two other were poor . But for plant height, number of tassel branches, ears per plant and width of ear the g x e (linear) and pooled deviation were both significant indicating differential performance of genotypes under diverse moisture regimes environments and with varying reaction norms and they were positively and significantly correlated with the yield. Hence selection may be made for related traits under poor environments (stress) and then for yield under rich environments and under optimum conditions with emphasis on the related traits. The hybrids Deccan and 900-M-Gold had the negative phenotypic stability with high deviation from linearity while the hybrid KMH-3712 showed negative deviations from linearity with a low but positive phenotypic stability for grain yield. Ganga Safed and Pinnacle could be recommended for the rich environments as better yielding ones but none of the hybrids were found to be stable over all the environments. That moisture regime during crop growth is an important factor is thus found to be an important factor in this region for the studied genotypes as found in similar such studies.
192 Changing pattern of plant height in rice cultivars with increased fertilizer, A. L. RANAWAKE
One hundred rice cultivars with plant height range from 70 cm -150 cm was used to study the changing pattern of plant height with fertilizer application. A field experiment was carried out during 2011-2012 Maha season and 2012 Yala season at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka. Germinated seeds were planted in rows with 15 cm X 20 cm spacing. Four plots were arranged and plots were separated from bunds to prevent mixing of fertilizer. Four fertilizer levels were provided to separated plots as no fertilizer, half of the recommended dose (x RD), recommended dose (RD: Urea 50 kg ha1, TSP 62.5 kg ha1, MOP 50 kg ha1) and doubled the recommended dose (x 2 RD). Experiment was conducted with four replications according to the randomized complete block design and each replicate consisted of three lines. Twenty plants were included in to each line. Data were collected on plant height (cm) at maturity stage. Rice cultivars were grouped according to plant height at no fertilizer level: 70-79 cm, 80-89 cm, 90-99 cm, 100- 119 cm 139-149 cm, >150 cm etc. Changing pattern of plat height in different plant-height groups at different fertilizer levels was plotted. It was found that at shorter plant height groups (70-119 cm), plants increased the height with increased fertilizer while in 120-129 cm plant-height group, changing pattern of plant height was nearly in normal distribution. However the changing pattern of plant height in all the other plant height groups (> 130 cm) was sigmoid. It can be concluded that the elongation pattern of leaves or culms of rice plants with increased fertilizer depends on the initial plant height of rice cultivars at no fertilizer level.
193 Impact of microfinance on SHG members: a socio-economic analysis in Burdwan district of West Bengal, India, S. MUKHARJEE, 1D. C. PRADHAN, 2S. HALDAR, 3S. K. M. RAHAMAN AND 4SOWMYASHREE B. V.
An investigation was carried out to study the Impact of micro-finance on SHG members in Burdwan district in West Bengal during 2011-12. A sample of 60 SHGs members were chosen from two villages viz. Gopal Nagar (village-1) nearer to block head quarter and the Rosui Khondo (village-2) farthest from the block head through SRSWOR method. The microfinance through SHGs helped the members in capital formation activities in livestock and poultry raring, agriculture, irrigation structure, educating their childrens, etc. The on farm employment generating has been escalated while, women participation in income generation activities are greatest impact. On an average, the SHGs members households earned Rs. 39327 and Rs. 26683 respectively in village-1 and village-2. The t statistics of average total income showed that members in village-1 could generate significantly higher income than village-2 as they could access the district head quarter very frequently. The Kendalls W test showed that members from both the villages unanimously accepted that the benefits from micro-credit (SHG model) and were highly satisfied.
194 A study on economic viability of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) cultivation by organic system of farming, A. JHA CHAKRABORTY, A. K. NANDI AND B. K. BERA
The study based on primary data collected from Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal reveals that tomato produced by organic system of farming requires an investment of Rs. 37884.45 per ha which is estimated to be 9.17 % higher than that produced by conventional (applying chemical and organic inputs) system of farming. But the total return realized from organic tomato is found to be 5.84 % below conventional average. Cost of production is estimated to be Rs.172 and Rs.155.31 q-1 in the same order. Higher prime cost of cultivation coupled with lower physical yield accounting 9.08 % have rendered the organic growers to obtain 28.19% lower net return per ha compared to its counter parts in conventional system. The return-cost ratios are also observed to be less in the former (1.67) than the later (1.93). Relatively greater expenditures on organic manures and fertilizers, human labours and other components including seeds, irrigation etc measuring 10.05, 10.84 and 5.47 % respectively are responsible for higher prime cost of cultivation in organic farms in comparison to conventionally managed farms. Higher premium prices deserved by organic products for its beneficial impacts on human health, soil fertility and environment along with input subsidy as in the case of chemical fertilizers is necessary to offset the loss arising out of the lower physical yield and higher prime cost of organic tomato production and also to make it economically viable over conventionally grown tomato.
195 Forecasting groundnut production of India using nonlinear growth models, S. PAL AND 1D. MAZUMDAR
Groundnut is one of the major sources of edible oil in India. Around one-fourth of countrys total edible oil is produced from groundnut. This paper deals with a critical study of groundnut production of India with a non-linear approach. Different nonlinear growth models viz. Monomolecular, Logistic and Gompertz models have been employed for modeling of Indias total groundnut production during the period 1950-51 to 2011-12. The parameters of these models were estimated using Gauss- Newton algorithm. It was observed that Monomolecular and Logistic models performed better followed by Gompertz for this dataset based on various goodness of fit criteria viz. Coefficient of determination (R2), Mean absolute error (MAE), Root mean square Error (RMSE) and Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Finally, Indias total groundnut production for 2014-15 to 2019-20 has been forecasted by using the Monomolecular and Logistic models
196 Studies on effect of altitude and environment on physiological activities and yield of Darjeeling tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plantation, R. KUMAR, J. S. BISEN, M. CHOUBEY, M. SINGH AND 1B. BERA
An investigation was conducted at DTRDC experimental farm (mid elevation) and Sungma Tea Estate (High elevation), Darjeeling during 2012 to 2013 to study the effect of photosynthetic activities on Darjeeling tea clonal cultivars of hybrids China- type and old china tea bush. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of clone T78, AV2, B157 and Old china cultivation was 11.23, 11.07, 10.26 and 9.63 ? molm-2s-1 at mid elevation (DTRDC, experimental farm) and clone T78, AV2, B157 and Old china cultivation was 10.57, 10.13, 9.41 and 8.41 ? molm-2s-1 respectively at high elevation from the top of canopy (0- 10 cm). Among the clones, T78 and B157 showed lower rate of transpiration (E) than clone, AV2 and old china cultivation at both elevation of Darjeeling hill. Water use efficiency (WUE) of clone T78 was higher as compared to clone, B157, AV2 and old china cultivation. Among the clones, AV2 and Old china bush showed lower rate of leaf water potential ( ) than clone, T78 and B157 at both L elevation of Darjeeling hill. Maximum Leaf area Index (LAI) was recorded in from the mid elevation than high elevation in the canopy depth 0-10cm. Clone AV2 was recorded lowest leaf area index in mid elevation than high elevation. Leaf area index (LAI) has a positive correlation with yield. In all treatments, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) was highest in the canopy depth 0-10cm. Highest annual tea yield was 729.26 Kg ha-1 recorded in T78 clone at mid elevation than high elevation and varied with clone.
197 Black Bengal goat farming: an important component for integrated farming system, N. K. TUDU, K. K. GOSWAMI AND 1N. GHOSH
The present work was done in two blocks viz., Haringhata and Hanshkhali blocks of Nadia district of West Bengal during January, 2011 to December, 2013 where Front Line Demonstration on Black Bengal goats of Nadia KVK, BCKV is being initiated for study on Black Bengal goat farming: an important component for integrated farming system. The goat farming is much popular amongst the ST (48.5%), followed by SC (29.5%) and General Caste (18.5%), whereas only 4.5% of goat farmers belong to OBC. 8.5% farm women keeping buck was able to earn on an average Rs. 3960.00 per year through servicing the does @ Rs. 20.00 per service. Total distribution of types of birth of Black Bengal goats were 35.82% singlet, 47.59% twins and 16.57% triplets in 1st year, 30.63% singlet, 58.38 twins and 10.98% triplets in 2nd year and 40.41% singlet, 54.58% twins and 5% triplets in 3rd year. The body weight was statistically significant (pd 0.05) between the male and female at birth, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and 12 months age of Black Bengal goats. Male goats were significantly (pd 0.05) heavier than their female counterparts at all the age groups of Black Bengal goats studied viz., at birth and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age and also in all types of birth viz., singlet, twins and triplets.
198 Varietal evaluation of chilli in the saline belt of West Bengal, P. K. KARAK, 1A. PARIARI AND C. KARAK
Ten number of chilli cultivars were evaluated on the basis of their vegetative growth, flowering behaviour, fruit yield and quality in the saline belt for consecutive two years during 2008-10. The experiment was designed in Randomised Block Design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. Seedlings were spaced at 60 x 45 cm and grown with recommended cultural practices for saline belt of West Bengal. Result showed that in this agro-climatic situation, cv. Beladanga performed the best than others in both the years in relation to most of the characters like highest number of flowers and fruits per plant and highest projected yield of green and dry chilli. Regarding qualitative parameters, maximum capsaicin and ascorbic acid content in the fruit was also obtained in this cultivar. The cultivation of cv. Beladanga in this agroclimatic condition was also found most economical considering the Benefit: Cost ratio (4.03).
199 Genetic divergence studies for fibre yield traits in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa l.) In terai zone of West Bengal, N. HARI SATYANARAYANA, 1S. MUKHERJEE, 2S. ROY, BHANU PRIYA, K. K. SARKAR AND 1P. BANDHOPADHYAY
Sixty genotypes of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were evaluated for fibre yield and its contributing characters during Kharif, 2013 for eleven characters and genotypes were grouped into seven clusters. Grouping of genotypes into different clusters was not related to their geographic origin. The genotypes from different geographic locations were grouped into one cluster while genotypes of the same geographic origin showed genetic diversity. Cluster I was the largest containing 34 genotypes followed by Cluster II (fifteen), Cluster III (four), Cluster IV, V and VI with two genotypes each and mono-genotype Cluster VII. The highest inter cluster distance was observed between Cluster VI and VII followed by Cluster VI and IV and Cluster VI and I. Fibre yield per plant (42.54%) followed by dry stick weight per plant (22.48%) and petiole length (9.21%) have contributed maximum percent of contribution towards divergence. Cluster VII which consists of a single genotype has high cluster mean values for most of the characters while Cluster VI has lowest cluster mean values for most of the characters. Based on per se performance of genetic diversity and cluster means, genotypes belonging to Cluster I, IV, VI and VII may be chosen for crossing programme for roselle crop improvement.
200 Fruit diversity in the coastal homesteads of Bangladesh, C. R. SARKER, M. ROBBANI, 1M. A. RAHIM, AND 2T. M. T. IQBAL
A survey was conducted during October 2011 September 2012 at 189 homesteads of seven upazillas of Patuakhali coast of Bangladesh to study the species diversity, species richness and relative prevalence of fruit species therein. From the survey, it was clear that the species diversity was higher for some major fruits: mango (0.923), banana (improved) (0.989), pineapple (0.987), coconut (0.901) and papaya (0.921). But of the minor fruits, velvet apple was highest (0.994) while wax jambu was least (0.517). In terms of species richness, there were 57 species and out of those, all (100%) species, 9 (66.0%) were major and 48 (33.94%) were minor, and also 36 were common in each upazilla. It was noted further that mango was in 100% homesteads in 5, jackfruit in 100% homesteads in 4, pineapple in 100% homesteads in 1, coconut in 100% homesteads in 5, guava in 100% homesteads in 6, pummelo in 100% homesteads in 2 and velvet apple in 100% homesteads in 1 upazilla. Again, mango was in 99.47, banana (improved) in 93.12, jackfruit in 96.83, coconut in 98.94, guava in 98.94 and velvet apple in 91.53% homesteads too. Again, in terms of relative prevalence, among the 57 species, 36 were common at all upazillas, the relative prevalence of the most prevalent species, i.e. mango, banana (improved), velvet apple, coconut, jackfruit, papaya and guava were very high while less common species, i.e. papaya, pineapple, palmyra palm, banana (seeded), pummelo, lime, river ebony and monkey jack were low.
201 Effect of irrigation and sulphur on growth, yield and water use of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in New Alluvial zone of West Bengal, A. M. PUSTE, 1B. RAY PRAMANIK, K. JANA, S. ROY AND 2T. SUNANDA DEVI
Field study was undertaken at the University Research Farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India (23.5N, 89E and 9.75 m above MSL) during two consecutive summer seasons (pre-kharif) to study the effect of irrigation on the basis of soil moisture tension (SMT) and sulphur fertilization on growth, yield, consumptive use (CU) and water use efficiency (WUE) of sesame var. Rama and also to optimize the sulphur application to sesame under New Alluvial zone of West Bengal. The experiment was planned in a split-plot design keeping four levels of irrigation on the basis of SMT [I - without 0 irrigation or control, I - irrigated at 0.35 atm (atmospheric tension), I - irrigated at 0.55 atm and I - irrigated at 0.75 atm) as 1 2 3 main plot and four levels of sulphur (S - without sulphur or control, S - 20, S - 40 and S - 80 kg S ha1] as sub plot treatments, 0 1 2 3 respectively. The experimental results revealed that vegetative growth and yield attributing characteristics of sesame were significantly influenced with irrigation at different SMT and sulphur fertilization. Among different levels of SMT, higher vegetative growth (plant height, number of branches per plant and dry matter production) were observed with irrigation at 0.35 atm. tension but maximum yield components (no. of capsules plant-1, no. of seeds capsule-1 and 1000 seed weight), seed yield, oil content and oil yield were exhibited with irrigation applied at 0.55 atm. tension. Higher values of growth characters, yield components and ultimately seed and oil yields of sesame were obtained with 40 kg S ha-1. Maximum oil content was recorded with 60 kg S ha-1, though it did not differ significantly with the former one. CU was maximum (282.50 mm) when irrigation was done maintaining at 0.35 atm. tension and it was decreased with increase in SMT level. WUE was the highest (4.16 kg ha-1 mm-1 of water use) when irrigation was given at 0.55 atm. tension. For seed yield, the response of per kg of sulphur application was found to be quadratic in nature and maximum response (7.06 kg seeds per kg of S application) at the sulphur level of 20 kg ha-1 and decreased with the increase in S level but the optimum level was found at 29.89 kg ha-1. From the study it may be concluded that irrigation at 0.55 atm. tension along with 40 kg level of S ha-1 gave the higher economic return than that of other treatments because of the favourable effect of these treatments on the growth and yield attributes and other parameters of sesame in the new alluvial zone of West Bengal.
202 Performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars and estimation of economic optimum doses of phosphorus in an Alfisol of West Bengal, S. DAS, R. NATH AND 1A. CHAKRABORTY1
Harnessing maximum yield through varietal preference and adequate nutrition is the key to agricultural production systems. Field experiment was conducted at the AB -Block Farm, BCKV, West Bengal for two consecutive rabi seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14 to evaluate three chickpea cultivars (Anuradha, PUSA-1003 and DCP-92-3) for their performance under varied P O levels(0, 20, 40, 60, 80 kg P O ha-1) and to estimate the economic optimum level of for seed yield. The trials were laid 2 5 2 5 out in a split-plot design with the cultivars allotted to main plots and P2O5 levels in sub-plots. The highest mean dry matter accumulation per plant of 0.96 ,1.42 ,4.26 and 11.21 g in root, leaves, stem and pod occurred in the DCP -92-3 cultivar. The contribution of pods to total dry matter production (TDM), respectively was 63.2% in the DCP-92-3 cultivar. The mean higher dry matter (18.4 g plant-1) and seed yield (1425 kg ha-1),were obtained with 80 kg P O ha-1. The agronomic efficiency declined with the 2 5 increase in P O levels. By using the developed function relationship (Y=964.5+13.13x-0.093x2) i.e. quadratic, between seed 2 5 yield of chickpea and applied levels of P O the estimated optimum and economic doses of P O were 70.6 and 66.46 kgha-1 2 5 2 5 respectively. The response at economic optimum dose of P O was 6.67 kg seed yield per kg P O applied.
203 Effect of irrigation scheduling and weed management practices on performance of lowland transplanted rice, G. SATYANARAYANA REDDY AND P. BANDYOPADHYAY
Field experiment was conducted using split-plot design during boro season of 2012-13 and 2013-14, to study the influence of different irrigation scheduling and weed management practices on growth, yield and water use efficiency of lowland transplanted rice. The experimental results revealed that among the irrigation regimes, continuous submergence of 52 (I1) gave the significantly higher growth and yield attributing characters resulted in maximum grain yield 6471 kg ha-1 with low water use efficiency 5.0 kg ha-1 mm-1 (pooled of 2 yrs). Continuous saturation treatment (I5) gives just 7.82% less grain yield with high water use efficiency 13.7 kg ha-1 mm-1 (pooled of 2 yrs) than the I1 treatment. Whereas among the weed management practices, weed-free check followed by W3-Pretilachlor 50% EC on 1 DAT + hand weeding on 40 DAT, W5-Hand weeding twice on 20 and 40 DAT and W4-Bispyribac sodium 10% SC on 20 DAT + hand weeding on 40 DAT gave significantly higher growth, yield attributing characters and yield with high water use efficiency.
204 Effect of crop geometry on yield and quality of seed and essential oil of dill (Anethum sowa), A. BHATTACHARJYA, 1N. CHATTOPADHYAY, J. K. HORE AND W. SIDDIQUI
Dill has been identified as an important spice crop having tremendous medicinal properties and has ubiquitous use in many types of industries like essential oils, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, perfumery etc. There is entire scope to work on standardize yield and quality attributing character of dill. Following the objective of optimizing plant spacing to optimize the yield of quality seeds and essential oil, the present investigation was made out with the variety SSK, sown at nine different spacing viz. 60x15cm, 60x20cm, 60x25cm, 45x15cm, 45x20cm, 45x25cm, 30x15cm, 30x20cm and 30x25cm. The maximum plant height was observed with 30x15cm, whereas higher number of branches was found with 60x25cm. The spacing 45x20 cm yielded plant with highest umbels plant1 (139.84), umbelletes umbel (35.98), flowers umbel (716.65) and seed setting percentage (93.56). The highest production of seed (698.56kg ha-1), essential oil (6.21%) and B:C ratio (1.81:1) was also found superior with the same spacing. The results from the investigation revealed that the spacing 45x20cm promotes the penetration of required sunlight inside the crop canopy and also encourages a crop competition which ends with a sustainable yield of seed and essential oil with higher return.
205 Exploring the feasibility of arecanut based farming systems in augmenting farm economy- a case study in Karnataka, India, K. P.VISHWAJITH, P. K. SAHU, B. S. DHEKALE, MD NOMAN AND P. MISHRA
Arecanut is one of the important cash crop in India by virtue of its own merits. Any enterprise which has got potentiality for employment of human resources and which can contribute in Indian economy through substantial foreign exchanges is of much importance. Keeping in mind the resource limitation scenario vis--vis judicious utilization of resource, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify not only the best cropping system but also the best farming system for arecanut growers in Thirthahalli, Karnataka, India. Analysis of primary informations from 48 arecanut growers reveals that by a large arecanut based cropping system could be grouped into sole arecanut, arecanut banana, arecanut - coco and arecanut spices groups. Among this arecanut spices cropping system has better monetary advantage over the others. Moreover, among the arecanut spices combination, arecanut pepper by far is the best one. Discriminant analysis identifies the importance of different parameters like area, labour cost, fertilizer cost etc. are the major contributing parameters in differentiating the farmers among the groups. The probability of correct classification which as high as 0.85. Among the arecanut based farming system, inclusion of poultry enterprise has raised benefit cost ratio from 2.20 (sole arecanut) to 2.72. From the study it also appears that arecanut pepper - poultry may be good options in augmenting farm income of the arecanut growers.
206 Influence of sulphur fertilization on nutrient uptake of onion (Allium cepa L.), R. PRADHAN, A. K. PATTNAIK, P. TRIPATHY, K. MALLIKARJUNARAO, B. B. SAHOO AND J. LENKA
Field experimentation conducted to examine the nutrient uptake in onion due to application of sulphur(S) was conducted at OUAT and found that application of sulphur(S) @ 45 kg ha-1 as gypsum significantly produced maximum bulb yield of 251.10 q ha- 1 followed by S @ 30 kg ha-1 as gypsum (226.07 q ha-1).Significantly maximum uptake of N, P, K, S (14.84, 0.66, 10.08 and 0.85 kg ha-1, respectively) was observed by S @ 45 kg ha-1 as elemental sulphur followed by @30 and 45 kg ha-1 as gypsum. The results on nutrient uptake by bulbs indicated maximum of 74.66, 7.08, 35.62 & 9.02 kg ha-1 NPKS by application of S @ 45 kg ha-1 followed by 30 kg ha-1 as gypsum. Similar trend was also observed for total nutrient uptake. Thus, it may be concluded that application of S @ 30 or 45 kg ha-1 in the form of gypsum not only increases the bulb yield but also higher uptake of nutrients in onion.
207 Effect of bulb splitting on tuber production of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Prajwal in the plains of West Bengal, A. K. PAL, K. DEBBARMA AND D. JANA
To study the methods of bulb production of tuberose cv. Prajwal, an experiment was conducted at the Horticultural Research Farm, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya during the year 2009 2011 with five bulb size of tuberose - Whole bulb, bulb, 1/4th bulb, 1/6th bulb and 1/8th bulb. Each bulb size (treatment) was replicated four times in Randomized Block Design. Planting was done in April 2009, at a spacing of 30 cm X 30 cm. Highest number of bulbs per clump (large, medium and small) per plot was recorded in whole bulb (4.22, 9 and 30.33 nos.) followed by bulb (3.44, 6.77 and 15.33 nos.) and maximum weight of bulbs per clump (large, medium, small) was produced by whole bulb (192.44, 95.33, 55.55) followed by bulb (185.22, 92.50, 34.99). The maximum (Size) diameter of bulbs per clump(large, medium and small) was produced by whole bulb (4.32cm, 1.86 cm, 0.92 cm) followed by bulb (4.27 cm, 1.64 cm, 0.92 cm). Dry matter percentage of bulb was highest in whole bulb (35.72%) followed by bulb (35.51%). The interpretation of the analyzed data reveals that whole bulb and bulb performed comparatively better than other bulb sizes in respect to good quality bulb production. Therefore along with the whole bulbs farmers can use the bulb size with a portion of the disc plate intact for propagation and bulb production of Prajwal under the Gangetic plains of West Bengal.
208 Allelopathic effects of root exudates of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) on growth of field crops, M. AMEENA, V. L. GEETHAKUMARI AND S. GEORGE
Purple nutsedge, (Cyperus rotundus L.), a native of India is a pernicious perennial weed in many crops in more than 90 tropical and subtropical countries and is ranked as one of world's worst weeds. It asserts allelopathic effects on crop plants through inhibition of germination, growth or metabolism. Under field conditions, the deleterious effect of weeds may be facilitated by exudates, leachates from decomposing residues and residues incorporated to the growing medium. In the present study, laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic influence of nutsedge root exudates collected at different growth stages of the weed viz. sprouting, tuberisation, flowering and dormant tuber formation on seedling growth of rice, cowpea, sesamum, okra and brinjal. Exudates were collected at different growth stages of the weed and their effect on germination percentage, radicle length, plumule length and dry matter production and the vigour index (VI) of important field crops were observed to assess the effect of exudates. The nutsedge root exudates collected at sprouting stage inhibited the germination and growth of all the crop seeds tested which would be due to the release of some inhibitory chemicals from nutsedge tubers into the medium during the process of sprouting. However, the exudates collected at later stages did not elicit any response on growth characters of crop seeds. Significant reduction in vigour index was observed in sesamum and okra indicating that nutsedge inhibits the growth of associated crops by the production of inhibitory substances as root exudates. However, such an inhibitory effect on the development of plumule and radicle was not observed in rice, cowpea and brinjal. The tuber extracts of nutsedge as identified by HPLC technique revealed the presence of phenolic compounds viz.p-hydroxy benzoic acid, gentisic acid, caffeic acid, o-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. The results from our study suggest that compounds from Cyperusrotundus especially after flowering can serve as lead molecules for the synthesis of bioherbicides.
209 Resource management in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) for yield maximization under rainfed conditions, K. C. GUPTA AND R. SAXENA
Field experiments was conducted for three consecutive kharif seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013 at Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur to study the effect of resource management in cowpea for yield maximization under rainfed conditions. Results of three years pooled data revealed that foliar application of urea either @ 1% or @ 2% and mulching @ 3 t ha-1 at 25-30 DAS of crop significantly increased yield attributes (pods plant-1, seeds pod-1 and seed index) and seed yield of cowpea. Foliar application of 2% urea recorded maximum values of yield attributes, seed yield, net returns ( ha-1) and B:C ratio. The significant increase in pods plant-1, seeds pod-1 and seed index due to foliar application of 2% urea were 7.64 and 16.34, 4.38 and 9.30 and 5.23 and 6.23 per cent respectively over normal planting and control. Further, the maximum value of pooled grain yield (9.26 q ha-1), net returns ( 21892 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.77) were recorded under foliar application of 2 % urea while the least were observed under control (5.47 q ha-1, 9299 ha-1 and 0.85).
210 Optimizing seedling age of promising rice genotypes in rainfed environment, B. KARMAKAR AND 1M. A. R. SARKAR
To determine optimum seedling age and characterize the effect of seedling age on the performance of the rice genotypes, the experiment was conducted during wet season of 2010 and 2011 at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Regional Station, Rajshahi. Strip plot design was followed with 3 replications, placing treatments (seedling age such as 14, 21, 28 and 35-d old) in vertical plots and genotypes (BRRI dhan56, BRRI dhan57, IR83377-B-B-93-3, IRRI123, IR83381-B-B-6-1 and Binadhan-7) in horizontal plots. Seedling age had strong significant effect on yield, yield components and agronomic parameters. Transplanting of 14-d old seedlings gave the highest grain yield that was at par with 21-d old seedling, however, significantly higher than 28 and 35-d old seedlings. Mean grain yield were increased by 21.9, 20.5 and 12.2% in transplanting of 14, 21 and 28-d old seedlings over 35-d old seedlings. Reversely, yield declined by 1.7, 11.2 and 21.9% in 21, 28 and 35-d old seedlings over 14-d old seedlings, across the cropping years and genotypes. Across the seedling ages, the genotype IR83377-B-B093-3 produced the highest mean grain yield (4.88 t ha-1) which was at par with IRRI 123 (4.82 t ha-1) and the lowest was in BRRI dhan57 (3.73 t ha-1). Interaction between genotypes and seedling ages showed that BRRI dhan56, BRRI dhan57 and IR83381-B-B-6-1 produced higher yield from 14 to 21-d old seedlings while Binadhan-7 gave at par yield from 14 to 28-d old seedling. In contrast, grain yield of IR83377-B-B- 93-3 and IRRI 123 was statistically similar throughout the seedling age from 14 to 35-d old. Days to flowering and maturity increased 12 to 14 days from 14 to 35-d old seedlings. Spikelet sterility also increased by 18 to 23.1% from 14 to 35-d old seedlings. In contrast, Plant height, tillers and panicles m-2, grains panicle-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield and total above ground biomass were declined with increased seedling age.
211 Effect of metsulfuron-methyl against broad leaf weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori and Paol.), R. K. SINGH, S. K. VERMA*, S. K. PRASAD AND 1S. B. SINGH
An experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2008-09 and 2009-10 at the Research Farm of Department of Agronomy, BHU, Varanasi. The experimental field was infested with Rumex dentatus, Chenopodium album, Melilotus spp and Lathyrus aphaca among broad leaf weed during both years of study. Post emergence application of metsulfuron-methyl 20% WG@ 4 g ha-1 + 0.2% surfactant significantly reduced broad leaf weed population and total weed dry weight with highest wheat yield over other herbicidal treatments during both years. There was no phytotoxicity symptoms on crops. Weed control efficiency and harvest index was higher under metsulfuron-methyl 20% WG, 5 g ha-1 + 0.2% surfactant during both the years. The evaluation of weed dry weight and weed control efficiency of the different treatments and the regression of yield on it revealed that reduction in grain yield could be 8.05 kg ha-1 for weed dry weight and 1% increase in the weed control efficiency increased the grain yield by 13.27 kg ha-1, respectively.
212 IPM modules of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in Gangetic alluvial plains of West Bengal, P. K. SARKAR, G. P.TIMSINA , P. RAI AND S. CHAKRABARTI
Chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood), aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks) and fruit borer ( Heliothes armigera Hubner) are major sucking and chewing pests of chilli in Indian sub-continent inflicting yield loss up to 75 % or more. Now-a-days, IPM has been attaining immense importance in the agricultural scenario of India and abroad. Hence formulation of a sustainable IPM module was felt necessary under West Bengal, like other crops in India, where vegetable cultivation is done mostly by the small and marginal farmers. Different IPM modules were attempted of which , module: I (M-I) comprised of organics and safer insecticide and was found to be the most effective module against sucking pest complex (aphids, thrips, mites) vis-a-vis chilli fruit borer, and the prevailing natural enemies (Amblyseius ovalis., Spiders, Chielomenes sexmacculata, Coccinella septempunctata and Stethorus gilvifrons) in chilli eco-system were moderately safe (average 8.45% mortality) . Yield of green chilli was higher (5.13 q-1ha) in M-I (marigold trap crop, vermicompost 2.5 tha-1 + neem cake 250 kg-1ha (devoid of recommended dose of fertilizers, i.e RDF) superimposed with sequential application of insecticides like neemazal TS @ 2 ml l-1 (5 WAT), diafenthiuron @ 1g/l (8 WAT), flubendiamide @ 0.2 ml l-1 (11 WAT) and neemazal T.S.@ 2.5 ml l-1 at 14 WAT) followed by M II (5.04 ha-1) (marigold trap crop+ neemcake 500 kg-1ha + vermicompost 1.25 t ha-1 + without RDF) superimposed with sprays of NSKE @ 5%(5 WAT), abamectin @ 0.75 ml l-1 (8 WAT), spinosyn @ 0.3 ml l-1 (11 WAT) and NPV @250 LE per hectare (14 WAT) and M III (neemcake 125 kg-1ha + vermicompost 625 kg-1ha at transplanting (TP) and at 50 DAT (50% N and 100% PK) superimposed with sprays of nimbecidine @ 5 ml l-1 (2 WAT), NSKE @ 5% (5 WAT), nimbicidine @ 5 ml l-1 (7 WAT), NSKE @ 5% (11WAT) . In M III, the natural enemies were totally undisturbed even their population was found to be increased in time hours. Further, highest B:C (benefit:cost) ratio was recorded in M-III followed by M-IV: (cent per cent RDF+ recommended plant protection (RPP) followed by application two rounds of emamectin benzoate (@ 0.3 ml/l) (2WAT) and propargite (2.5 ml/l) (5 WAT) + carbaryl (4 g l-1) (7, 11 WAT) + M-I. Hence, M-III in comparison with M-I and M-II seemed to be a quite promising strategy (yield of green chilli:4.91ha1) as it did not require any insecticidal interference keeping natural enemy eco-system undisturbed.
213 Isothiocyanate levels in relation to population of Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) in radish as affected by sowing dates and spacing, SUDHAVANI V., VIJI C. P., LAVANYA A. AND SYAMSUNDAR REDDY P.
Isothiocyanate is a crucifer specific volatile which plays an important role in plant defence as attractants and deterrents. Field Experiment was conducted at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Venkataramannagudem, West Godavari (Dist.) during the period from October, 2010 to January, 2011 to study the effect of sowing dates (1st October, 15th October, 1st November and 15th November) and spacings (45 x 10 cm, 45 x 20 cm and 45 x 30 cm) on the level of isothiocyanate content, its influence on the pest population and root yield of radish cv. Pusa Chetki. The study revealed that population of Lipaphis erysimi appeared in 3rd or 4th week after sowing (WAS) and increased with crop maturity. Highest aphid population was recorded in 8 WAS (16.2 aphids leaf-1) in closely planted late sown crop. Isothiocyanate concentration increased with delay in sowing and decreased with increase in spacing. Highest isothiocyanate concentration was recorded in closely spaced late sown crop (20.00 mg100g). Highest yield was recorded in D S (closely spaced crop and 1st October sowing) (13.88 t ha-1) which had high isothiocyanate content (12.50 mg 1 1 g-100) and harboured more aphids. Even though aphid population is more in closer spacing, root yield of radish was high since more number of plants was recorded per unit area.
214 Assessment of performance of different fungicides to control late blight disease of potato in farmers field of Hooghly district, N. MUDI, K. BARUI, N. GAYEN, S. H. ANSARY AND A. CHOWDHURY
Potato is the most profitable crop of Hooghly district, determining the livelihood of most of the farmers of the district. Many years, the farmers face havoc loss due to severe infestation of late blight disease of potato caused by Phytophthora infestans which results drastic reduction of production. Though there are several effective fungicides available in the market to manage the disease, but due to not having the proper knowledge about the mode of action and proper spray schedule of different fungicides many of the farmers were unable to manage this disease when it appears in epiphytotic form. After surveying a good number of farmers and realizing the significance of controlling the devastating disease for the sustainability of potato production and ensuring the more profit, Hooghly Krishi Vigyan Kendra conducted a field experiments as On Farm Trial mode for two years during 2008-09 and 2009-10 in farmers field of Hooghly district of West Bengal, India during Rabi season to assess the performance of different fungicides to control late blight disease of potato. Details of technologies assessment/refinement includes, spray of Copper Oxychlorides @ 4g l-1 starting from 30 DAP alternating with Metalaxyl-Mancozeb @ 2.5g l-1 at 10-15 days intervals, seed treatment with Mancozeb @ 2g kg-1 of seed and spray of Mancozeb @ 2g l-1 starting from 30 DAP alternating with Cymoxanil-Mancozeb 3g l-1 at 10-15 days intervals, Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 5g kg-1 of seed and spray of Mancozeb @ 2g l-1 starting from 30 DAP alternating with Dimethomorph @ 1g l-1 + Mancozeb 2g l-1 at 10-15 days intervals along with Farmers Practice i.e. spray with Mancozeb @ 2.5gl-1 starting from onset at 10 days intervals. It has been observed that during both the years of experimental period TO-II (seed treatment with Mancozeb @ 2g kg-1 of seed and spray with Mancozeb @ 2g l-1 starting from 30 DAP alternating with Cymoxanil-Mancozeb 3g l-1 at 10-15 days intervals) was found as the best treatment because it was most effective to prevent and manage the late blight disease of potato than any other treatments resulting lowest disease severity, highest yield, highest net return, and highest incremental C:B ratio of 16.78 %, 32.35 t ha-1, Rs. 65,375.00 and 16.94 respectively.
215 Growth and yield of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) under different weed management, S. BARLA, R. R. UPASANI AND A. N. PURAN
A field experiment was conducted at Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi during kharif season of 2012 and 2013 to study the efficacy of different weed control methods on weed dynamics and productivity of turmeric. The treatments comprised of integrated application of herbicides along with hoeing and straw mulch including weed free and weedy control. The results of pooled data revealed that application of metribuzin 0.7 kg ha-1 fb. by two hoeing being similar to weed free recorded reduced grassy and sedges weed at 30 DAP whereas, application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 fb. two hoeing and application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 fb. straw mulch 10 t ha-1 fb. one hand weeding were similar with weed free at 60 DAP. Application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 fb. two hoeing similar to weed free recorded reduced total weed density and weed dry matter accumulation at 30 and 60 DAS. Application of metribuzin 0.7 kg ha-1 fb. by two hoeing recorded maximum yield (24.66 t ha-1) consequently higher gross return (616519 RS. ha-1) similar to metribuzin 0.7 kg ha-1 fb. straw mulch 10 t ha-1 fb. one HW, pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 fb. two hoeing, pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 fb. straw mulch 10 t ha-1 fb. one HW, atrazine 0.75 kg ha-1 fb. straw mulch 10 t ha-1 fb. one HW. Application of metribuzin 0.7 kg ha-1 fb. by two hoeing recorded 44.89 % and 134.86% higher yield than weed free and weedy check, respectively. Significantly maximum net return (504319 RS. ha-1) and B:C ratio (4.45) was recorded with application of Metribuzin 0.7 kg ha-1 fb. by two hoeing.
216 Residual fate and dissipation behaviour of Hexythiazox in brinjal, S. MAJUMDER, 1B. GHOSH, S. ROY AND A. BHATTACHARYYA
A one season supervised multi location field trial of Hexythiazox on brinjal was conducted under Indian climatic condition. The Hexythiazox formulation (Maiden 5.45 EC) was applied @ 25 ga.i. ha-1 and 50 g a.i ha-1 along with untreated control. The samples were extracted and cleaned up using modified QuEChERS method and quantified by GC-ECD. The LOD & LOQ of Hexythiazox was 0.01 ug1g and 0.03 ug1g respectively. The average recovery of Hexythiazox was found in the range of 84-92 % for brinjal fruit and 86-90% for field soil. Dissipation of Hexythiazox followed first order kinetics and the half life values of Hexythiazox were in the range of 1.42 to 2.32 days. No residue was detected in field soil. The pre harvest interval of Hexythiazox in brinjal was calculated and found in the range of 3-5 days irrespective of dose and location.
217 Survey and detection of the diseases of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in Assam, J. TALUKDAR, A. K. SAIKIA AND 1P. BORAH
Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) a chilli pepper formerly recognized as the worldss hottest chilli by Guinness book of World Records (Bosland and Baral, 2007). It is extensively grown in North Eastern region of India, predominantly in the states of Assam, Nagaland and Manipur. Field surveys were carried out in Bhut Jolokia growing district of Assam (Sivasagar, Jorhat, Golaghat). Among the diseases 10 per cent showed fungal infection, 3 per cent showed bacterial infection and 60 per cent showed viral infection. Five fungal diseases on Bhut Jolokia, Anthacnose / Fruit rot caused by Colletotrichum capsici, Die- back caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Stem rot and wilt caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Collar Rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani, leaf spot caused by Corynespora cassicola were identified. Bacterial wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum was observed on Bhut Jolokia at later stages of crop growth. The average virus disease incidence after 15-20 days after transplanting in the farmers field ranged from 8 to 78%. Four different viruses were identified based on symptomatology, transmission, host range and serological assays. These diseases were identified as Mosaic caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Leaf and Stem necrosis disease caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) and leaf curl disease caused by Chilli leaf curl virus (ChLCV). CMV, PVY and TSWV were easily transmitted by grafting and by sap inoculation to Bhut Jolokia . However, ChLCV is transmitted by grafting. Sap inoculation failed to produce any symptom. The presence of PVY, CMV and TSWV were confirmed using DAS-ELISA. The highest incidence of PVY (87.50 per cent) followed by CMV (75.00 per cent) and TSWV (62.50 per cent) were recorded in Golaghat district. Lowest infection was recorded at Sivasagar district for all the four viruses. However ChLCV incidence was low in the surveyed field.
218 Effect of weeding regime and integrated nutrient management on yield contributing characters and yield of BRRI dhan49, S. M. M. ISLAM, S. K. PAUL AND M. A. R. SARKAR
A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Bangladesh during Aman season of 2013 to find out the effect of weeding regime and integrated nutrient management on the yield of transplaned Aman rice (cv. BRRI dhan49). The experiment comprised with five weeding regimes viz. control (no weeding), one weeding at 15 DAT, two weedings at 15 and 30 DAT, three weedings at 15, 30 and 45 DAT and application of herbicide (Pyrazosulfuran-ethyl 10 WP) @ 150 g ha-1 and five nutrient management viz. BRRI recommended chemical fertilizers (171-83- 100-100-10 kg ha-1 of Urea-TSP-MoP-Gypsum-Zn, respectively), cowdung at 10 t ha-1, poultry manure at 5 t ha-1, 50% BRRI recommended chemical fertilizers + cowdung at 5 t ha-1 and 50% BRRI recommended chemical fertilizers + poultry manure at 2.5 t ha-1. The highest yield contributing characters and the highest grain yield (5.50 t ha-1) was obtained from the interaction between three weedings at 15, 30 and 45 DAT and 50% BRRI recommended chemical fertilizers+ poultry manure at 2.5 t ha-1 whereas the lowest grain yield (3.10 t ha-1) was found from the interaction between no weeding and cowdung at 10 t ha-1. The highest benefit:cost ratio (2.4) was obtained from the combined effect of three weedings at 15, 30 and 45 DAT with 50% BRRI recommended fertilizers + poultry manure at 2.5 t ha-1.
219 Evaluation of strawberry cultivars in the foothills of Nagaland, Y. Y. JAMI, A. SARKAR AND C. S. MAITI
Evaluation of strawberry cultivars in the foothills of Nagaland was carried out at Horticultural Experimental Farm, SASRD, Nagaland University. Ten strawberry cultivars viz. Ofra, Fairfox, Elista, Blackmore, Doglas, Sasta, Shimla Delicious, Belrubi, Chandler and Sweet Charlie were planted early October during 2009-10 to study the performance of growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and quality attributes of fruits under shade net (50%) house. The variety Sweet Charlie showed the maximum number of flowers (35.07) and fruit set (33.73) per plant which was followed by Chandler with 34.80 and 32.93 respectively. The maximum fruit weight (7.77g) and yield (262.00g per plant) were recorded with the variety Sweet Charlie followed by Ofra with 6.97g and 207.37g and Chandler with 6.14g and 202.18g per plant respectively. The highest TSS (13.700B) content of fruit was obtained in Sweet Charlie followed by Ofra (13.620B) and Belrubi (13.000B). And the highest total sugar (7.37%), ascorbic acid (97.03mg/100g juice) and the lowest acidity (0.86%) was found in cv. Ofra under standard cultivation practices.
220 Drum seeded: an improved technology in rice production system, K. PHANI KUMAR AND A. K. RAJU
Transplanting of rice seedlings is a highly labour intensive and expensive operation that can be replaced by direct seeding which reduces labour needs by more than 20 per cent in terms of working hours required. With this aim, an initiation was undertaken by District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology Centre (DAATTC), Eluru, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh with a lead to promote direct sowing by drum seeder methodology instead of conventional system of transplanting among rice farming community. This was implemented following need based different extension methods (transfer of technology, ToT) in the areas. In this programme, 15 farmers were selected from 15 villages covering 12 mandals of West Godavari district in rabi season for direct rice seed sowing using drum seeder. Sensitization programmes like demonstrations and guidance to the farming community, exposure visits, field days, supply of various inputs, publications etc. were emphasized and wide publicity is being given through electronic and print media for easy understanding to the farming communities of West Godavari District. Results showed that there was an average yield increase to the tune of ` 243.0 kg ha-1 in direct sowing using drum seeder over conventional method of transplanting in the field. The cost involved for cultivation was reduced by ` 11,708.00 ha-1 and gross returns was increased by ` 2,965.00 ha-1 thereby increasing the net income by ` 14,673.00 ha-1 by direct sowing. Moreover, the cost-benefit ratio was significantly higher in direct sowing (2.9) than in transplanted rice (2.2). The number of tillers as well as number of effective tillers per unit area was also significantly higher in direct sown plots which resulted in higher yields compared to transplanted rice.
221 Integrated micronutrient spray on yield assessment of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in Nadia district of West Bengal, K. C. BHUTIA, S. BHANDARI, R. CHATTERJEE, S. O. BHUTIA AND N. GURUNG
Black cumin (Nigella sativa) is an annual flowering plant, native to Iran and other parts of South West Asia, belonging to the family Ranunculaceae. It is a promising aromatic and medicinal herb found in dry temperate regions and has recently domesticated from its wild habitat. Micronutrients may play an important role, as cofactor, in activation of several enzymes such as those involved in photosynthesis. This would reflect increasing the accumulation of carbohydrates in cells. The present investigation has been carried out at HRS. Mondouri, BCKV, during 2013-2014, to find out the effect of integrated micronutrient spray on yield of black cumin. Four micronutrients namely iron, copper, zinc and boron were included in this investigation. Iron in the form of ferrous sulphate (FeSO , 7H O) @ 0.5%; copper in the form of copper sulphate (CuSO ,7H O) @ 0.2%; zinc in the 4 2 4 2 form of zinc sulphate (ZnSO , 7H O) @ 0.5%; and boron in the form of borax (Na B O ) @ 0.2%. Combination of four 4 2 2 4 7 micronutrients also included. They applied as foliar spray either once or twice. There were altogether 11 treatments including control (water spray). First and second spraying were done at 45 and 60 days after sowing. All experimental plots received a uniform dose of FYM @ 20 tonnes ha-1, 40 kg N, 40 kg P O and 45 kg K Oin the form of urea, single super phosphate and muriate 2 5 2 of potash. FYM and full dose of dose of fertilizer were applied as basal. The observations were recorded on five randomly selected plants from each plot on different growth and yield parameters. The observations regarding the plant height was recorded at 75 and 105 days after sowing (DAS). The number of primary and secondary branches was recorded at 75 DAS. Yield per hectare was calculated on plot yield basis after deducting 20% area utilized for channel, ridges etc. Data recorded on different parameters of black cumin were analyzed statistically to express the result. Among different treatments the double spray of borax 0.2% recorded maximum plant height (90.73 cm) at 105 days after sowing, maximum number of secondary branches (27.61) at 75 DAS and 1000 seed weight (3.02 g) as compared to 76.72 cm, 20.86 and 2.36 g under control. Double spray of ferrous sulphate produced maximum number of primary branches (7.20) against 6.45 number of branch under control. The plants under double spray of zinc sulphate 0.5% caused higher nodal length (7.53 cm) as compared to (5.53 cm) nodal length under control. The single spray of zinc sulphate 0.5% recorded maximum plot yield (171.09 g) and projected yield (760.44 kg ha-1) as compared to plot yield (141.93 g and 630.81 kg). The next best treatment in respect of projected yield was double spray of ferrous sulphate 0.5% and double spray of borax 0.2%.From yield maximization point of view the most effective treatment was zinc sulphate @ 0.5% as single spray followed by ferrous sulphate @ 0.5% as compared to double spray and borax @ 0.2% as single spray under alluvial plains of West Bengal for black cumin production.
222 Potential of weed seedbank dynamics and economic feasibility of weed management practices in rabi fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), B. S. GOHIL, R. K. MATHUKIA, V. K. DOBARIYA AND S. K. CHHODAVADIA
An experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2011-12 at Junagadh to find out most suitable and economically viable method of weed control in rabi fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). The dominant weed species observed were Cyperus rotundus L., Chenopodium album L., Digera arvensis Forsk and Asphodelus tenuifolius L. Cav. Results revealed that besides weed free treatment, significantly higher plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of umbels plant-1, number of seeds umbellate-1, test weight, seed weight per plant, and seed and stover yields of fennel were recorded with pre-emergence (PRE) application of pendimethalin at 0.90 kg ha-1 + post-emergence (POE) application of fenoxaprop-ethyl at 75 g ha-1 at 45 DAS which was at par with PRE application of pendimethalin at 0.90 kg/ha + hand weeding (HW) at 45 DAS and HW twice at 15 and 45 DAS. These treatments also recorded lower weed density and dry weight of weeds along with highest net returns (Rs 81993 and Rs 81442 ha-1) and B:C ratio owing to lower weed index and higher weed control efficiency. However, the highest depletion of weed seedbank was observed with PRE application of pendimethalin at 0.90 kg ha-1 + HW at 45 DAS.
223 Effect of chemicals on weed control in spray chrysanthemum, L. TRIPATHY, S.K DASH, D.K DASH. AND S. MURMU
An experiment was conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 at All India Coordinated Research Project on Floriculture at Chiplima, Sambalpur, Odisha. Ten treatments with four pre-emergence chemicals in different concentrations were administered to spray chrysanthemum cultivar Flirt in three replications per treatment The data collected was pooled over for two years .The result depicted that the treatments varied significantly with respect to weed count per square meter, fresh weight of weeds and dry weight of weeds. Pendimethalin 1.00 kg a.i.ha-1was found to be most effective in controlling weed growth as compared to other treatments and Pendimethalin 0.75 kg a.i.ha-1was at par with Pendimethalin 1.00 kg a.i.ha-1.The growth parameters like plant height, plant spread, number of sprays per plant, weight of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plant did not vary significantly with the treatments which suggest that the chemicals have no effect on the plants and can be used for controlling weeds in spray chrysanthemum.
224 Evaluation of fungicides against alternaria blight disease of rapeseed-mustard in West Bengal, R. DAS
Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard caused by the fungus Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. is an economically important disease and occurs regularly during the winter season in West Bengal with an average loss in yield of about 47%. Therefore to manage this detrimental disease, an experiment was conducted during the winter season of 2013-14 at the Pulses and Oilseeds Research Station, Berhampore, Murshidabad, West Bengal. Different treatments namely, seed treatment with Metalaxyl 35% @ 6 g Kg-1 seed followed by one or two foliar spray of six different fungicides viz. Mancozeb 75% WP, Metalaxyl 8%+ Mancozeb 64% WP, Hexaconazole 25 EC, Difenconazole 25 EC, Propiconazole 25 EC and Trifloxystrobin 25% + Tebuconazole 50% ready mix compound were tested against the disease. All the fungicides are significantly effective in reducing disease severity and increasing seed yield. However, the lowest disease severity (9.6 % on leaf and 14.3 % on pod) and highest increase of seed yield (74.02 %) with maximum increase of test weight (16.30 %) were recorded from seed treatment with Metalaxyl 35% (6 g Kg-1 seed) followed by first spray of Mancozeb 75% WP (0.25%) and second spray of Trifloxystrobin 25%+ Tebuconazole 50% (0.1%).
225 MTUEfficacy of herbicides on weed management in wet season transplanted rice, K. CHARAN TEJA, B. DUARY AND M. K. BHOWMIK
A field experiment was conducted during the kharif (wet) season of 2013 at farmer's field of village Benuria, Sriniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal with rice variety 'Swarna' (MTU 7029) to study the effect of bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor and other herbicides on weed growth and productivity of wet season transplanted rice. The experiment comprising of twelve treatments was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. From the experimental findings it revealed that rice was infested with the three categories of weeds viz. grassy, broadleaved and sedges. Cynodon dactylon, among the grasses; Fimbristylis miliacea, among the sedges and Ludwigia parviflora, among the broadleaved weeds were predominant throughout the cropping period. The experimental field was dominated by broadleaved weeds. Among the herbicides application of bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 60+600 g ha-1 at 3 DAT registered the lower number as well as dry weight of grassy, broadleaved, sedge and total weeds at 45 DAT but it was at par with bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 90 + 900 and 120 +1200 g ha-1 at 3 DAT. Metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl (Almix) + azimsulfuron at 4+35 g ha-1 at 15 DAT was also quite effective in controlling broad spectrum weeds. Lower values of weed density, total weed dry weight and weed index, higher values yield attributes and yield of rice, weed control efficiency, net return as well as return per rupee invested were registered with application of bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 60 + 600 g ha-1 at 3 DAT and metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron- ethyl (Almix) + azimsulfuron at 4+35 g ha-1 at 15 DAT. The loss of grain yield of rice due to weed infestation was to the tune of 40%. Application of bensulfuron-methyl 0.6%+ pretilachlor 6% at 60+600 g ha-1 at 3 DAT or metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron- ethyl (Almix) + azimsulfuron at 4 + 35 g ha-1 at 15 DAT appeared to be the most promising for managing weeds, obtaining higher yield and net return of transplanted kharif (wet) rice in the lateritic belt of West Bengal.
226 Effect of crop establishment and weed control methods on productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.), D. HASSAN AND R. R. UPASANI
A field experiment was conducted at agronomical research farm of Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi during rainy season of 2009 with the objective to find out the effect of establishment and weed control method on weed dynamics, growth and productivity of rice under wet land situation. The treatment comprised of 4 methods of crop establishment i.e. transplant, SRI, drum seeded and broadcast in main plot and 4 methods of weed control pyrazosulfuron 0.02 kg ha-1 PE + mechanical weeding at 25 DAS or DAT, weeding by cono weeder at 25 DAS or DAT, hand weeding at 25 and 40 DAS or DAT, and weedy check in sub plot. The result revealed that among establishment and weed control methods, transplant and application of pyrazosulfuron 0.20 kg ha-1 + one mechanical weeding at 25 DAS or DAT were most productive. Application of pyrazosulfuron 0.20 kg ha-1 + one mechanical weeding at 25 DAS or DAT in transplanted or drum seeded or broadcasted rice was most effective in suppressing weed population and weed dry matter accumulation thereby producing higher rice grain yield compared to other weed control methods.
227 Biology, ecology, distribution and current status of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier, P. C. BHOWMIK AND 1R. S. CHANDRAN
Introduced from Europe for its unique appearance, Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (giant hogweed) is becoming increasingly prevalent across North America especially in the Northwestern and Northeastern States of the United States and Canada. Currently it is found along riverbanks, roadsides, waste places, and abundant lands. It is a member of the carrot family, Umbelliferae (Apiaceae). It is a biennial or a monocarpic short-lived perennial. It generally flowers in its third year of growth. It resembles different plant species during different stages of its life cycle and is often mistakenly planted as an ornamental due to the attractive flower heads it produces. Heracleum mantegazzianum is closely related to Heracleum lanatum Michx. (cow parsnip). It poses a threat to natural ecosystems and is also a weed in agricultural and urban areas. This species represents an increasing public health hazard. The plant exudes a clear watery sap which contains furanocoumarins. Contact with H. mantegazzianum can cause photophotodermatitis, a serious skin inflammation caused by UV photo-activation, resulting in severe burns to the affected areas and severe blistering. Control measures must be taken in order to prevent its further infestations. The perennial nature of H. mantegazzianum and toxicity of the plant sap limits mechanical control options. Chemical control options include postemergence application of growth regulator herbicides, glyphosate or trichlopyr, although limited information on its control is available. Ability to identify this weed and understand its biology will aid successful management efforts. Public education to dissuade gardeners from planting this attractive but noxious plant in their gardens is also necessary. This species should be watched carefully for its future infestation and subsequent spread as an invasive weed in agricultural and urban areas.
228 Importance of indigenous knowledge of Adivasi fishers communities on production biology of Monopterous cuchia and its effect on their livelihood in northern Bangladesh., B. K. CHAKRABORTY, S. A. AZADI AND B. BORMON
Cuchia (Monopterous cuchia), a delicious, nutritious and favorite fish for Adivasi and South Asian countries people was abundant throughout the Bangladesh. At present this fish is scarcely found in the open water system. The study was conducted in Kokraduba beel surrounding two Adivasi fishers villages Chitolia and Shampur; district Mymensingh to collect information about ecosystem health of Kokraduba beel, habitat, food and feeding habit and reproductive biology of cuchia (M. cuchia) by interviewing Adivasi fishers indigenous technological knowledge (ITK). Both primary and secondary data were collected by direct interviews to the Advasi respondents, Department of Fisheries and websites. According to the ITK method of Adivasi fishers, total production of the Kokraduba beel was recorded 14395.0 kg and 13208.0 kg between the year 2012 and 2013 respectively. About 8.25% production was decreased from 2012 to 2013. According to (78.57-88.01)% fishers blocked water flow and shallow depth of the beel, expansion of agriculture and aquaculture, use of chemicals, fertilizer and pesticide, infrastructure development and fishing pressure in breeding season were main causes for destruction of natural habitats and reducing production of M. cuchia in Kokraduba beel. Three fishing methods viz. physical (by hand picking), line and traps (bair) were identified in the survey area among which traps catches relatively undersized M. cuchia. According to the ITK method, food and feeding habit, identifying characteristics of male and female, breeding behavior, fecundity and larvae development, mother care, cannibalism were identified and 64.24% Adivasi fishers recognized that breeding period of M. cuchia was April to mid July. Updated Adivasis ITK method with science based knowledge on habitat, food and feeding habit, reproductive biology, management of hatchlings, fry and fingerling production, in alternative income generating activities (AIGAs) and developed value chain; will be a new horizon to develop ecosystem health and production of M. cuchia in the Kukraduba beel through community based co-management aspect.
229 Conjoint application of biofertilizer and phosphorous levels on growth, nodulation, nutrient uptake and productivity of lentil [Lens culinaris Medikus] in red and lateritic soils of West Bengal, P. K. BISWAS, 1M. K. BHOWMICK, M.C. KUNDU, S. MONDAL AND G.K. GHOSH
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal to study the effect of biofertilizers [Untreated control, Rhizobium, PSB (phosphate solubilizing bacteria) and Rhizobium + PSB] and phosphorous levels (0, 30, 45 and 60 kg P O ha-1) on growth, 2 5 nodulation, productivity and nutrient content of lentil in red and lateritic soils of West Bengal. The results showed that the application of 60 kg P O ha-1 being at par with 45 kg ha-1 recorded the maximum plant height (38.5 cm) at harvest, dry matter 2 5 accumulation (125.47gm-3), seed yield (703.4 kg ha-1), stalk yield (1392.6 kg ha-1) and uptake of N (32.87 and 24.99 kg ha-1 in stalk and grain, respectively), P (6.61 and 4.77 kg ha-1 in stalk and grain, respectively) and K (15.71 and 7.49 kg ha-1 in stalk and grain, respectively) at harvest. Among seed inoculation treatments, Rhizobium + PSB produced significantly taller plants (40.0 cm), maximum dry matter accumulation (114.78 g m-3), seed yield (709.10 kg ha-1) and stalk yield (1363.30 kg ha-1), harvest index 33.99% and uptake of N (82.51kg ha-1) and P (19.33 kgha-1) at harvest than other biofertilizers treatments. Combined effect of 60 kg ha-1P O + Rhizobium +PSB produced significantly higher grain yield (1024.30 kg ha-1) and phosphorous uptake by grain 2 5 (5.32kg ha-1) than other combinations except 45 kg P O kg ha-1+ Rhizobium +PSB. Yield advantages were obtained due to 45 Kg 2 5 P O ha-1 + PSB (10.52, 17.48 and 9.89%), 45 kg P O + Rhizobium + PSB (20.31, 27.88 and 19.62%), 60 kg P O + PSB (26.59, 2 5 2 5 2 5 34.56 and 25.87 %) and 60 Kg P O + PSB + Rhizobium (27.70, 35.74 and 26.97%) as against only seed inoculation with PSB 2 5 (802.1 kg ha-1), only Rhizobium (754.6 kg ha-1) and only 30 kg P O ha-1 (806.7 kg ha-1), respectively.
230 Integrated effect of irrigation methods and nutrient management practices on yield and water use efficiency of papaya (Carica papaya L.), B. R. NAYAK, N. PANIGRAHY AND A. K. DASH
An experiment was conducted at the Regional Research Technology and Transfer Station, Chiplima, Sambalpur during 2009, 2010 and 2011 to study the response of papaya to different irrigation methods and nutrient management practices. The experiment was comprised with three irrigation methods (I - Drip irrigation, I - Basin irrigation with straw mulch and I - Basin 1 2 3 irrigation without straw mulch) in the main plots and three levels of nutrients management practices such as N - 100% inorganic 1 source ( RDF-100:80:120g of N:P O :K O plant-1 year-1), N - 100% organic source (FYM 15.0 t ha-1 + vermicompost 5.0 t ha-1 + 2 5 2 2 neemcake 0.5 t ha-1) and N -integrated nutrient management (75% inorganic source + 25% organic source) in the sub-plots with 3 four replications in a split plot design. Pooled analysis of three yearsdata indicated that basin irrigation with straw mulch (I ) 2 recorded highest fruit yield of 23.17 t ha 1 with water requirement of 205.43cm and water use efficiency of 112.78 kg ha-cm-1. Integrated nutrient management practice comprised of 75% inorganic source + 25% organic source (N ) recorded the highest 3 fruit yield of 22.31t ha-1. The basin irrigation with straw mulch and exploitation of integrated nutrient tactics comprised of 75% inorganic+25% organic source produced maximum papaya fruit yield of 24.32 t ha-1 due to better soil health.
231 Economics of lentil cultivation in Nadia district of West Bengal, S. CHATTERJEE, J. RAY, 1R. NATH, 1S. K. GUNRI, 2T. BISWAS AND 3A. SARKER
The diversification of cereal based production systems, adding legumes to the mix, is a strategy that boost nutritional and food security, improve incomes and livelihoods in rural communities of West Bengal. Lentil is one of the most nutritious cool season pulse crop in West Bengal. Lentil productivity in West Bengal is higher (762 kg ha-1) compared to all India average (697 kg ha-1). The economic analysis of lentil production along with identification of constraints in its way has been studied. The study was based on the data for the year 2012-13. Simple tabular analysis was carried out for calculating inputs and materials used, cost of cultivation, gross return, net return and benefit - cost ratio. Crop performance was studied through composite index score. The Garrets ranking technique was used to identify and prioritize the constraints of lentil production. Results revealed that average cost of production was 22479/- ha-1and average gross and net return were in the tune of 42640/- and 20161/- ha-1and benefit cost ratio was 2.00 respectively. The main constraints were non availability of quality lentil seeds in time, lack of soil testing facilities, high price of seeds, lack of processing units and storage facilities disease and pest incidence and lack of credit facilities etc.
232 Response of green gram to foliar application of nutrients and brassinolide, K. SENGUPTA AND D. TAMANG
A field experiment was carried out in the Farm of BCKV, West Bengal (22095N, 88050E) during the summer season of 2010 and 2011 on sandy-loam alluvial soil (Inceptisol), neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.2) having 0.65% organic carbon, 0.08% total N, 27.54 kg ha-1 available P O and 135.15 kg ha-1 available K O, to find out the effect of foliar application of nutrients and Brassinolide on 2 5 2 yield of green gram crop. The crop was fertilized with a common dose of N-P O -K O at 20-40-40 kg ha-1 and grown with only one 2 5 2 pre-sowing irrigation. The variety Bireshwar was used for this experiment, carried out in RBD with 8 treatments and 3 replications. From the results it was found that foliar application of nutrients (urea and DAP) and Brassinolide had a significant influence on growth and yield of the crop. The growth in terms of plant height, LAI and dry matter accumulation per unit area were significantly higher in the treatments where the plants got nutrients and Brassinolide. Foliar fertilization had significant effect on the main yield component, i.e., number of pods per plant; though, other yield components were statistically at par. The highest seed yield was obtained in the treatment where the crop was sprayed with Brassinolide, 0.25 ppm at 25 DAS and 45 DAS followed by the treatments where the crop was sprayed with DAP (2% solution) at 25 and 45 DAS and Urea (2% solution) at 25 and 45 DAS.Thus, it may be concluded that foliar application of nutrients and Brassinolide had a distinct effect to increase the yield of green gram crop.
233 Effect of salt concentration on the quality of sauerkraut, P. K. THAKUR AND J. KABIR
Investigation was carried out to assess the effect of salt concentration on the quality of sauerkraut prepared from mature cabbage head. To prepare the sauerkraut, cabbage sample were chopped in small pieces and mixed with different salt concentrations i.e., 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 % and allowed to ferment at ambient condition. Acidity of sauerkraut was increased with increase in fermentation period reaching maximum at 21 days after fermentation, which thereafter decreased in all the salt treated samples except with 2% salt concentration where maximum acidity was recorded on 28 days. The sample with 2.5% salt treatment obtained desirable acidity of around 2.0% on 21 days of fermentation. Further, sauerkraut with 2.5% salt possessed maximum lactic acid, ascorbic acid content, desirable pH and TSS as compared to other salt concentrations. It also rated the highest score of overall sensory quality.
234 Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Pusa Madhvi, R. YADAV, D. H. DWIVEDI, GOVIND AND S. MAJI
A field experiment was carried out to assess the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of onion cv. Pusa Madhvi at Horticultural Research Farm, Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. India during the year 2013-14. 10 treatments [RDF as control, FYM, Vermicompost, PSB, Azotobacter, Azosprillium, and combination with nitrogen, phosphorus and potash] were applied with three replications and laid out under Randomized Block Design. The results showed that the maximum plant height (74.32 cm), bulb diameter (4.60 cm), neck thickness (1.06 cm), bulb length (4.39 cm) and number of leaves (9.88) per plant were recorded under treatment T - RDF (50%) + 10 Vermicompost (50%) at 90 (DAT). Whereas, the maximum leaf length (62.23 cm) was observed in the treatment T (Azotobacter @ 5 100%). Although, the treatment T showed the maximum bulb weight (175.67 g) but the maximum yield (283 q ha1) and TSS 5 (12.30 0B) were recorded in T . Thus, it can be concluded that treatment T i.e. application of RDF (50%) + Vermicompost (50%) 10 10 was suitable for better growth and higher production of onion cv. Pusa Madhvi under Lucknow condition having high soil pH of 8.2.
235 Flower production index using principal component analysis, MANOJ KUMAR, A. MAJUMDER, G. R. MANJUNATHA AND 1K. SANJEEV
An indicator is a quantitative or a qualitative measure of serially observed facts that can locate relative positions in a particular area. Indicators are useful for determining trends and drawing conclusions for particular issues in policy analysis. They can also be helpful in making policy and in monitoring performance. When several indicators are compiled into a single index using a specific technique, then a composite indicator is formed. The composite indicator measures multi-dimensional concepts, which cannot be explained by a single indicator. Here, Flower Production Index (FPI) has been constructed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for 18 districts of West Bengal, India. In present study, the indicators like production of Rose (PR), Production of Gladiolus (PG), Production of Marigold (PM) and production of seasonal flower (PSF) have been taken. This methodology for constructing composite index can also be used in multidimensional scaling.
236 Yield performance and nutrient uptake of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) as influenced by integrated nutrient management, P. PATI AND P. K. MAHAPATRA
Field experiment was conducted at the Central Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar (Odisha) during the consecutive two rabi seasons of 2010 and 2011 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on yield performance and nutrient uptake of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss]. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block design, consisting eleven treatments viz., T - RDF (N : P O : K O @ 60 : 30 : 30 kg ha-1), T - RDF + S (40 kg ha-1), T - RDF 1 2 5 2 2 3 + B (1 kg ha-1), T - RDF + lime (0.2 LR), T - RDF + Zn-EDTA (0.5 kg ha-1 as foliar spray), T - 75% RDF, T - 75% RDF + FYM (5 t 4 5 6 7 ha-1), T - 75% RDF + FYM (5 t ha-1) + S (40 kg ha-1), T - 75% RDF + FYM (5 t ha-1) + B (1 kg ha-1), T -75% RDF + FYM (5 t ha-1) + 8 9 10 lime (0.2 LR), T - 75% RDF + FYM (5 t ha-1) + Zn-EDTA (0.5 kg ha-1as foliar spray), respectively replicated thrice. The soil was 11 loamy sand in texture with pH 5.5, low in organic carbon and nitrogen, high in phosphorus and medium in potash. The results reveal that the treatment (T ), which received 75 % RDF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + lime (0.2 LR) produced maximum number of effective 10 siliqua (226 plant-1), longest siliqua (4.4 cm), seeds siliqua-1(14.1), 1000 seed weight (4.35 g), highest seed and stover yield (1423 and 2759 kg ha-1), respectively. Reduction of 25% fertilizer from the recommended dose (RDF) produced minimum yield of 973 kg ha-1which was 8% less than RDF. The treatment (T ) also absorbed 72 kg N, 13 kg P, 34 kg K, 17 kg S, 124 g B, 163 g Zn and 42 kg 10 Ca ha-1. So sound agronomic and environmentally acceptable integrated nutrient management practices are essential to achieve a reduction in fertilizer derived environmental risk while increasing the net return and crop productivity through nutrient use efficiency.
237 Effect of different doses of gamma rays on survivability and rooting ability in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.), R. SADHUKHAN1, K. SWATHI, D. SARMAH AND T. MANDAL
Mutation breeding plays a major role to create genetic variation in crop plants. Chrysanthemum is one among them where it has been exploited many a times to generate variation. Generally rooted cuttings are used for irradiation treatment. The present study was aimed to know the response of unrooted cuttings to gamma radiation. Stock plants of three varieties BC-8-05, Winter Queen and Bidhan Shova of Chrysanthemum were subjected to different levels of gamma irradiation 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Grays to study the rooting potential. Number of roots, as well as root length increased significantly in several cases at 10 Grays in comparison to control. But further increase in dose reduced the length and also resulted in poor morphological appearance. Increase in radiation doses also resulted in delayed root initiation period and survival percentage. Pronounced intervarietal difference in respect of LD values was found and it was higher in case of unrooted cuttings as compared to the rooted cuttings. 50 Unrooted cuttings of Winter Queen recorded highest LD (20.1 Grays), whereas it was found to be lowest in case of rooted 50 cuttings of Bidhan Shova (10.2 Grays).
238 Modification in biochemical actions of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed under variable storage situation, A. PATHAK, A. C. MAHATA, S. SEN, 1A. MONDAL AND P. CHAKRABORTI
The biochemical action accompanying seed storability of wheat seed (cv. C306) was very much controlled through the approach of variable storing devices. The treatment outcome was prominent at later stages, accelerating a declining trend of biochemical reaction interrelated to seed quality or protecting storability. Considering diverse quality linking parameters, the inhibitory effect on waning nature provided the highest peak in PC (plastic container) followed by PP (40 micron plastic packet) where EP (earthen pot) retained uniformity mostly with the normal (brown paper packet), sometimes with PN (brown paper packet+ naphthalene ball @ 5 g kg-1 seed). The 90 days storage was the turning point for lowering the biochemical activity in normal seed, representing in Electrical conductivity and in -amylase enzyme activity under variable imbibing stages though a significant discrepancy was observed in application of treatments. In action of peroxidase, a noticeable drop was started after 135 days of storage which was alike to total carbohydrate content. As a result, PC (plastic container) and PP (40 micron plastic packet) can be utilized for wheat seed storing to conserve the storability.
239 Influence of tillage and maize based cropping practices on productivity, profitability and soil fertility in uplands of Odisha, P. RAY, P. K. ROUL, T. R. MOHANTY, K. N. MISHRA, S. DASH, A. DASH AND K.C. SAHOO
A field experiment was conducted at Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station (Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology), Kendujhar to study the effect of tillage and cropping practices on yield, economics and soil fertility status in maize based cropping systems during the rainy seasons of 2011 and post rainy season of 2011-12. Maize grown with cowpea under minimum tillage recorded 50.1 q ha-1 of grain yield which was comparable to sole maize grown under conventional tillage (52.1q ha-1). Growth of cowpea inter-cropped with maize under conventional tillage was invariably superior to minimum tillage. Maize + cowpea grown under minimum tillage followed by toria as cover crop produced maize equivalent yield of 99.08 q ha-1 which was at par with maize + cowpea under conventional tillage followed by toria as cover crop (101.33 q ha-1). Maize + cowpea intercropping system either under conventional tillage or under minimum tillage was superior to growing sole maize under either tillage situations. Toria as post rainy season cover crop performed better than horsegram or no cover crop with respect to economic parameters. There was improvement in soil physico- chemical parameters viz.,BD. pH, organic carbon, available N,P and K by minimum tillage and cover cropping, irrespective of growing maize or maize+cowpea.
240 Utilization of animal energy for post harvest operations in rotary mode, S. K. SWAIN, A. K. DASH, A. K. MOHAPATRA, D. BEHERA AND B. K. BEHERA
The small and marginal farmers in many parts of the state of Odisha still depend upon the animal energy for accomplishment of agricultural operations because of small and fragmented land holding as well as poor socio-economic status. Of late, the maintenance cost of a pair of bullocks proves to be a burden on these farmers with increase in labour cost. A study on use of animal energy for two post harvest operations such as paddy threshing and chaff cutting with rotary gear system was made to increase the annual use of the bullocks so as to reduce the owning cost of bullocks.The results on operation of thresher indicated that the average output of the thresher was 143.23 q h-1 with mean threshing efficiency of 93.12%. The mean draft was 420 N which was 6.9 % of the bodyweight of the bullocks indicating that the bullocks were underutilized as far as power utilization is concerned. The results on operation of chaff cutter through bullock operated rotary unit indicated that the mean draft requirement was 250 N varying from 275 to 216 N which was 4.1 % equivalent to the bodyweight. The average output was found to be 69.43 kg h-1. The power output was observed to be 0.207 kW. The cost of operation of the thresher and chaff cutter in rotary mode suggests that rotary unit is not economical compared to threshing and chaff cutting if operated by electrical power source but surely it will increase the utilization of animal which otherwise would have been sitting idle and can save time in threshing compared to traditional bullock treading.
241 A study on livelihood of agricultural household in Burdwan district of West Bengal, A. KONAR AND G. DEY
The study has been conducted in two villages belonging to Galsi-1 and Kanksa blocks of Burdwan district in West Bengal. Villages, blocks and district have been purposively selected. Out of 218 agricultural households 50 have been selected by the technique of Simple Random sampling Without Replacement (SRSWOR). The study has been carried out with the objectives of finding source wise annual level of income and estimating extent of livelihood security of agricultural households. Data have been collected on area under various crops, source wise income, and family living expenditure for various components of livelihood security. The reference year of the study is 2011-12. The study reveals that the largest portion of income is earned from wage labour in marginal size class. In small and semi-medium size classes the largest share of income comes from crop production. Highest percentage of male is occupied in crop production in all the size classes. Most of the female are occupied in wage labour. Across all the size classes expenditure on food commodities of agricultural households is less than the estimated expenditure for balanced diet as recommended by National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) under the aegis of ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research). In the cases of procurement of other goods and services concerned to livelihood of people expenditures of agricultural households are considerably higher than estimated expenditures based on NSS data related to rural West Bengal. But annual income of all individual size classes of agricultural households is higher than their annual expenditures. In spite of this, it is not affordable for the agricultural households in marginal size class to maintain their food security unless they curtail expenditures on other necessity goods and services. But it is not a problem for other size classes of agricultural households.
242 Growth and yield of ginger lily (Hedychium spicatum buch) as influenced by spacing, M. SUMARJIT SINGH, D. NONGMAITHEM AND 1S. SHARMILA DEVI
A field experiment was conducted at Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur during 2010 and 2011 to study the effect of spacing on the growth and yield of Hedychium spicatum, a valuable medicinal plant in temperate regions. Treatments comprised of four plant spacing: 30 20 cm, 30 30 cm, 30 40 cm and 40 40cm. Results showed that values on growth of H.spicatum were found to be highest in widest spacing of 40 40 cm (14.16 t ha-1). Yield of the crop was higher even in 30 40cm spacing (13.46 t ha-1) than the closer spaced distance 30 20 cm and 30 30 cm which gave 10.39 and 12.54 t ha-1 respectively. Though the number of rhizomes per unit area in closest spacing, 30 20 cm (32.61) outnumbered that of rhizomes per unit area in widest spacing, 40 40 cm (14.33), yield was observed to be highest in 40 40cm spacing which may be due to highest number of tillers plant-1 (3.41) and fresh weight of rhizomes plant-1 (109.61g) compared to lowest number of tillers plant-1 (2.54) and fresh weight of rhizomes plant-1 (68.08 g) in 30 20 cm spacing.
243 Productivity and profitability of greengram (Vigna radiata l.) as influenced by rice crop establishment and nutrient management practices in ricegreengram cropping system, T. R. MOHANTY, 1P. K. ROUL, 2S. K. MAITY AND 3A NAYAK
A field experiment was conducted in North Central Plateau Zone of Odisha to evaluate the residual effect of three rice establishment methods (SRI, drum seeding and conventional transplanting) and three nutrient management practices [RDF (80:40:40 N: P O5: K O kg ha-1), 50% R.D.F. + 50% R.D.F. through organic sources (based on nitrogen requirement) i.e. INM 2 2 and 100% RDF through organic management (OM)] and direct effect of three nutrient management practices viz. RDF (20:40:40 N: P O : K O kg ha-1), 50% RDF + biofertlizer (BF) and no fertilizer on performance of greengram in a rice-greengram cropping 2 5 2 system during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 201011. The design was split plot in kharif and split-split plot in rabi with treatments replicated thrice. Methods of rice establishment did not influence the performance of subsequent greengram. OM in rice being at par with INM exhibited the highest yield (852 kg ha-1), net return (Rs. 23554 ha-1) and return Rs.-1 invested (2.56). 50% RDF + BF application to greengram increased seed yield (930 kg ha-1) by 10.7 and 64.9% over RDF and no fertilizer, respectively. It also recorded the highest nutrient uptake and harvest index, net return (Rs.26980 ha-1) and return Rs.-1 invested (2.80).
244 Mat-stick cultivation an economic activity for providing additional livelihood in Paschim Midnapore district of West Bengal, A. K. MAITI AND 1S. DE
Mat-stick, a non-conventional perennial crop, has the potentiality to augment the income and provide gainful employment of rural mass of India. The study thus examines the income potentiality of cultivation of mat-stick in Paschim Midinipur district of West Bengal. The findings of this study clearly advocate the cultivation of this crop. Benefit-cost ratio is worked to be 1.60, which is higher than any competing crop combinations. The wage bill clearly indicates the opportunity to absorb human labour. The only limiting factor, which restricts the allocation of area under this crop, is higher cost of cultivation.
245 Effect of corn starch coating on storage life and quality of Assam lemon (Citrus limon Burn.), A. GHOSH, K. DEY, AND N. BHOWMICK
Lemon is one of the important citrus fruit. It is extremely sensitive to post harvest losses during storage. In this experiment cron starch coating of different concentration (1%, 2%, 3%, 4% , 5% and 6%) were used to study the storage life and post-harvest quality of Assam lemon fruits. The effect of this coating in fruits on total soluble solid, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing sugar, juice content, physiological loss in weight, length, breadth and colour was assessed during storage. Among various treatments, coating with 4% corn starch was found very effective in maintaining higher TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing sugar, juice content, length, breadth and lower physiological loss in weight compared to control. This treatment retained natural light-green colour up to 12 days of storage, which was acceptable to consumers.
246 Soil organic carbon health and yield sustainability under organically managed rice-rice sequence, S. PRADHAN, D. K. BASTIA AND S. TRIPATHY
A field experiment was carried out at Bhubaneswar during 2008-14. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam in texture with 6.0 pH. The values of bulk density and soil organic carbon contents in 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil depth, respectively, were 1.58 and 1.66 tm-3 and 5.2 and 4.0 g kg-1. Rice-rice sequence was taken for six consecutive years with seven organic nutrient management treatments in randomized block design. Organic nutrient management exerted significant effect on soil organic carbon status and sustainable yield index. The observed soil organic carbon stock was maximum in treatment receiving dhanicha+ FYM+vermicompost (46.29 t ha-1) and highest rate of sequestration was also observed in the same treatment (4.00 t ha-1 year-1). Maximum average grain yield & (4.47 and 4.26 t ha1) and highest SYI (Sustainable Yield Index) was witnessed in the same treatment in kharif (0.78) and summer (0.77) seasons respectively.
247 Genotypic and phenotypic variability and correlation studies in gladiolus, S. PATTANAIK, A. PAUL AND P. C. LENKA
The genetic variability and characters association of different quality parameters were studied in 29 gladiolus genotypes grown in a two year field experiments. High and moderate to high GCV and PCV were recorded for almost all the characters under study emphasizing the existence of variation in the population. High estimates of heritability coupled with high and moderate to high genetic gain (expressed as per cent of mean) for corm weight, spike weight, number of corms plant-1, number of spikes bulb-1, and number of spikesm-2 indicate the predominance of additive gene action for the expression of these characters, and therefore, these are more reliable for effective selection. The results of PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance reveal that selection for corm weight, spike weight, number of corms per plant, number of spikesbulb-1 and number of spikes m-2 would be effective for improvement of spike yield and corm yield whereas selection for rachis length and floret diameter would be effective for improving flowering attributes. Correlation at genotypic and phenotypic levels showed similar trend but genotypic correlation was of higher magnitude than phenotypic correlation in most of the cases indicating the association between the characters is mainly due to the genotype. The results of correlation coefficient reveal that for yield improvement through selection, much emphasis should be given on the characters like spike yield, corm yield, plant height, spike length, days to spike initiation and days to floret initiation.
248 Socio-economic profile and problems of mud-crab farmers of South 24-Parganas, West Bengal: an explorative study, S. S. DANA, A. GHOSH AND 1U. K. BANDYOPADHYAY
Aquaculture of the mud crab has been practised for the past 100 years in China and for the past 30 years throughout Asia. Almost all crab aquaculture production relies on wild-caught stock, as larval rearing has not yet reached a commercially viable level for stocking into aquaculture farms. Crab meat is virtually cent per cent fat-free, rich in protein and offers no carbohydrates. According to dieticians, crab meat fits in perfectly with the new dietary guidelines, which suggest high-protein foods that are lean and either low-fat or fat free. In India aquaculture has emerged as an important farming activity transforming aquaculture from a traditional livelihood-support rural activity to a profit oriented production system. It could be able to improve the livelihood of the fishers as well as ensuring nutritional security. Keeping in view the facts the present study was designed with the following specific objectives, i.e., to study the socio-economic profile of the crab farmers, to study the present status of the crab farmers and to study the constraints encountered in crab farming. The present study was conducted in randomly selected three villages of Gosaba block in South 24-Parganas district of West Bengal as it has the highest crab farmer concentration. Three villages from the Lahiripur Gram Panchayat area of Gosaba block were selected by simple random sampling technique. A total of 120 crab farmers were listed out from the said locale and out of them, 60 crab farmer, those who are presently involved in crab farming were selected for this study. The findings of the study showed that 84% of respondents belonged to rural areas and their age varied from 17-60 years, in which majority (46.67 %) were in middle aged (26-50 years) category. Out of the total number of respondents, 70% were male and rest 30% female. Majority of the respondents were having the educational qualification up to high school level. 68.33 % respondents belonged to Scheduled Caste followed by General category and Scheduled Tribe. Majority (81.67%) of the respondents were having land access to less than 10 cottah and owned medium sized (4-8 Katha) water bodies. About 58.33 % of respondents belonged to Above Poverty Level (APL) category followed by 41.67 % Below Poverty Level (BPL) category. Most of the respondents (93.33%) preferred their fellow friends as a reliable source of information, followed by Radio (88.33%), Relatives (78.33%) and Fishery Extension Officers (FEOs) (35%). Majority of the respondents (61.67%) practised intensive crab culture technique and 83.33 % preferred the November-February duration as an ideal time for crab farming with seeds collected from the wild (68.33%) i.e. from swamps and derelict water bodies. It was conspicuous from the present study that majority of the respondents used trash Puntias sp. as supplementary feed. As far as the disease outbreak in crab farming was concerned, 35% of respondents reported that crabs suffered from ulcer on carapace and necrosis of appendages and they used lime and KMnO to get 4 rid of these diseases. Lack of crab seeds emerged as prime constraint followed by marketing problem, transport problem, credit problem and problems related to diseases.
249 Analysing the factors contributing towards technological gap of scientific rice cultivation in west Garo Hills district of Meghalaya, B. R. MARAK AND A. K. BANDYOPADHYAY
The study was undertaken in Tikirkilla block and Selsella block of West Garo Hills district, Meghalaya, during April 2012 to June 2012, to identify and measure the technological gap in scientific rice cultivation, and to determine the different factors influencing farmers technological gap in scientific rice cultivation. Purposive and simple random sampling methods were followed to select the respondents in the study area. Total hundred respondents were selected to represent the sample for the study. The data were collected with the help of semi- structured interview schedule through personal interview method. The collected data were processed into the statistical tools like frequency, percentage, ranking, correlation and regression analyses. The outcome of the study reported that variables namely education, family size, material possession, market orientation and personal localite had shown the significant regressional effect on technological gap. Further, the study highlighted that 87 per cent of the farmers in the area of study had medium technological gap and 13 per cent of the farmers had low technological gap in the recommended package of practices in rice cultivation.
250 Soil physical fertility and performance of potato crop as affected by integration of organic and inorganic fertilizers in new alluvial soil of West Bengal, A. DEY, S. DASGUPTA, S. BHATTARCHARYA1, A. K. CHAITANYA, S. PATI AND B. PAL
A field experiment was conducted for the consecutive two years (2011-12 and 2012-13) to study the effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizers on different soil physical properties for surface (0-15 cm) as well as sub-surface (15-30 cm) layers in an intensely cultivated new alluvial soil, taxonomically classified as Typic Hapludalf of West Bengal. The effect of different levels and combinations of organics viz. crop residue, bio-fertilizer, FYM alone and in combination with chemical fertilizers viz., 0, 50, 100 and 150% of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) were tested. Addition of inorganic fertilizers along with organic manure, crop residue, and bio-fertilizers increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content, water holding capacity (WHC), capillary and noncapillary pore space and aggregate stability indices of the soil while reducing bulk density in both 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. SOC content was strongly correlated with bulk density, WHC and structural co-efficient of the studied soil. The mean effect of different organic treatments on improvement of soil physical properties is nearly similar in treatments with 50% organics + 50% inorganic (INM). Thus, we can conclude that integrated use of a balanced inorganic fertilizer with organics i.e. organic manure-crop residue-bio fertilizer helps to maintain a good soil physical environment which is better for achieving higher crop productivity under potato based intensive cropping systems.
251 Studies on preparation of acid lime squash, J. N. PAPADE, P. M. CHANDAN, AND A. K. SAHOO
The experiment was carried out during the year 2012-13 at Post Harvest Technology Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Post Graduate Institute Dr. PanjabraoDeshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. Fully matured and uniform sized fruits of PDKV lime and seedless lime i.e. PDKV lime (V ) and seedless lime (V ) were procured from All India Co-ordinate Research Project on Citrus, 1 2 Dr. PDKV, Akola and the squash was prepared by mixing of different amounts of lime juice and sugar as per treatments, Juice 25% + 400B Sugar + 350 ppm KMS (T ), Juice 25% + 420B Sugar + 350 ppm KMS (T ), Juice 25% + 450B Sugar + 350 ppm KMS (T ), 1 2 3 Juice 25% + 400B Sugar + 350 ppm Sodium benzoate(T ), Juice 25% + 420B Sugar + 350 ppm Sodium benzoate (T ), Juice 25% + 4 5 450B Sugar + 350 ppm Sodium benzoate (T ), Control- Juice 25% + 450B Sugar (T ). Then the squash was treated with 6 7 preservative KMS or Sodium benzoate at 350ppm concentration. The observations in respect to chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of lime squash was recorded periodically at an interval of 20 days upto 80 days and the data obtained was analyzed using FCRD design. A gradual increase in TSS, reducing sugar and total sugars content of the acid lime squash was observed on advancement of storage period irrespective to varieties and treatments used However, titratable acidity content, non-reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content of squash were found to decrease with the advancement of storage period. The acid lime squash prepared from variety seedless lime was found to be acceptable up to 60th days of storage in respect to sensory qualities whereas acid lime squash prepared from variety PDKV lime was found to be acceptable 80th days of storage period. So the treatment combination V T was concluded as the best treatment all variety and treatment combination.
252 Rural livelihood system in Manipur with special reference to cultivation of king chilli, L. MALANGMEIH, G. DEY AND S.SAGOLSEM
This study was undertaken to examine role of king to the livelihood of the rural households in Manipur especially in terms of income and employment. Random Sampling without Replacement method was followed for the purpose of the study to get the ultimate unit of samples. Data was collected from fifty chilli growers thus selected from two blocks of the Tamenglong district during the agricultural year 2013-14. The study area was well endowed with both human capitals and land capitals. Highly diversified livelihood systems were observed in both hills and plains with the Simpson diversity index of 0.82 and minimum of 0.50 in plains and 0.54 in hills. Agricultural and allied group of activities provided 62.08 per cent of employment in terms of man days in hills and 50.50 per cent in plains and 50.64 per cent and 49.35 per cent of family annual income in hills and plains respectively. King chilli shared 53 per cent of agriculture income and 27 per cent of annual family income in hills and 43.9 per cent of agriculture income and 22 per cent of annual family income in plains. Lack of improved method of cultivation and crop management was found to be the most important constraints faced by the farmers followed by lack of extension services improper or lack of processing and storage facilities and susceptibility of the crop to various pests and diseases infestations and lack of control measures, problems in marketing and unpredictable climatic condition leading to price and income instability.
253 Evaluation of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) hybrids for vegetative parameters and nut yield, K. SETHI, P. C. LENKA AND S. K. TRIPATHY
The field experiment was carried out under All India Coordinated Research Project on Cashew of OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India during 2011 and 2012 in ten years old cashew plantations to evaluate the cashew hybrids on the basis of vegetative growth and nut yield. The experiment was laid out by adopting Augmented Statistical Design with 60 hybrids, 8 parents and 3 check varieties. The analysis of results based on adjusted mean and values on vegetative growth parameters and nut yield showed significant variations. Considering the overall vegetative growth parameters as well as nut yield the present study concluded that the hybrids such as A-71, B-27, D-19, G-8 and H-6 may be promising for commercial cultivation. The study also revealed that both KBN and VTH-711/4 were identified as better male parent for hybridization programme in cashew.
254 Hydraulic conductivity and its relationship with other properties of soil in cultivated land., A. HALDER, S. K. DE AND P. K. TARAFDAR
A study was undertaken at farmers field at Khatra block in Bankura district of West Bengal to investigate the effect of hydraulic conductivity of the cultivated soil under different cropping sequence with soil properties and develop schematic model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity under different soil factors. Soil sample were collected from cultivated farmer field under six cropping sequences like: (i) rice-fallow, (ii) rice-mustard -fallow, (iii) ricepotato -fallow, (iv) rice-vegetable-fallow, (v) ricerice- fallow (vi) groundnut -rice-fallow. Bulk density decreases 11.8%, 5.14%, 2.20%, 1.47%, 1.46% and 0.73% respectively under different cropping sequences than the fallow plots and also increase with the soil depth; porosity and water holding capacity, hydraulic conductivity, electrical conductivity, organic carbon also increases under different cropping sequences than the fallow plots and also decreases with the soil depth. Highest coefficient of correlation between Hydraulic conductivity (HC) and water holding capacity (r=0.40**) has been observed and negative correlation was found in silt and clay. The multiple regression model was developed by six important soil factors that is sand, organic carbon (OC), bulk density (BD), water holding capacity (WHC), porosity and silt fraction for predicting hydraulic conductivity of the cultivable soil under different sequences.
255 Studies on incidence pattern of banana pseudo stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis Oliv) under Gangetic tracts of West Bengal, D. BISWAS, A. BANERJEE AND B. BANDYOPADHYAY
Keeping in view of the growing economic importance of banana pseudostem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis Oliv.) and dearth of detailed information regarding seasonality of the pest, the present investigation has been conducted to study the incidence pattern of this pest on cv. Martaman (AAB) and Kanchkel (ABB) in farmers plots at different locations of Nadia district, West Bengal during 2007-08. The field investigation revealed that the pest infestation appeared and established in 8 months old plants where the planting was completed within September, 2006. The trend of incidence pattern of O. longicollis shows that it remains active throughout the year on both the cultivars. Initial infestation was 3.63% on cv. Martaman and 2.14% on cv. Kanchkel at 23rd standard week i.e. during June, 2007. The infestation has been recorded highest at 26th standard week i.e. during June, 2008 in both the cultivars but, the degree of damage has been recorded higher on cv. Martaman (17.56%) as compared to cv. Kanchkel (10.43%) indicating that cv. Kanchkel is less susceptible to O. longicollis than cv. Martaman. The results from correlation studies on the influence of meteorological parameters showed that incidence of O. longicollis was positively correlated with maximum and minimum temperature and minimum relative humidity in case of cv. Martaman whereas a positive correlation of maximum and minimum temperature of this pest on cv. Kanchkel has been recorded.
256 Integrated weed management in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) under dry temperate climate of western Himalayas, A. KUMAR, S. MANUJA, J. SINGH AND D. R. CHAUDHARY
A field experiment was conducted at Highland Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, Kukumseri (Himachal Pradesh) during 2010 and 2011 to develop weed management practice for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) under dry temperate conditions of western Himalayas. Application of pendimethalin @1.5 kg ai ha-1 and fluchloralin @ 1.0 kg ai ha-1 being equally effective gave maximum control of weed by lowering the weed density, weed dry matter accumulation and thereby recording higher weed control efficiency of 97.5 and 98.5%, respectively. However treatment two hand weedings at 30 and 60 DAT was also statistically at par with these above treatments giving weed control efficiency of 97.8%.These three treatments were also statistically at par with each other for average fruit weight, number of fruits per plant with corresponding fruit yield of 21.80, 21.08 and 23.23 t ha-1, respectively .The highest net return of INR 3, 82,196 ha-1 and B: C ratio of 4.63 was obtained with treatment two hand weeding(30 and 60 DAT) which was followed by application of pendimethalin @1.5 kg ai ha-1(net return INR 3, 75,153 and B:C ratio 5.01).
257 Influence of herbicides on yield and economics of Kharif sunflower, V. P. SURYAVANSHI, S. B. SURYAWANSHI AND 1K. T. JADHAV
A field experiment was conducted during 2012 and 2013 at Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.) to study the effect of different pre (PE) and post-emergence (POE) herbicides on yield and economics of sunflower in vertisols. Though the highest head diameter (17.5 and 15.9 cm), seed yield per plant (35.23 and 25.08 g), 100 seed weight (5.69 and 5.53 g) and seed yield (1710 kg ha-1) were observed in weed free situation, but these parameters were found statistically at par with the application of Pendimethalin 38.7 CS @ 0.75 kg a.i. ha-1 (PE) + one hoeing at 30 DAS followed by hand weeding at 40 DAS and application of Pendimethalin 38.7 CS @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 (PE) + Quizalofop Ethyl 5% EC @ 37.5 g a.i. ha-1 or Propaquizofop 10% EC @ 62 g a.i. ha-1 or Fenoxoprop Ethyl 9.3% w/w@ 37.5 g a.i. ha-1 at 20 DAS (POE). The highest Net Monetary Return ( 38262 ha-1) and BC ratio (2.89) were recorded with the application Pendimethalin 38.7 CS @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 (PE) + Quizalofop Ethyl 5% EC @ 37.5 g a.i. ha-1 at 20 DAS (POE). Among different chemical weed control methods lowest dry weed weight (12 and 83 g/m2), Weed Index (2.1 and 0.8) and highest Weed Control Efficiency (90 and 87 %) and Crop Resistance Index (10.2) were observed with the application Pendimethalin 38.7 CS @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 (PE) + Quizalofop Ethyl 5% EC @ 37.5 g a.i. ha-1 at 20 DAS (POE). The application of Quizalofop Ethyl 5% EC @ 37.5 g a.i. ha-1 + Chlorimuron Ethyl 25 % wp @ 9 g a.i. ha-1 at 20 DAS (POE) has shown phytotoxicity effect on sunflower crop resulting stunted and reduced growth. In 0-10 scale phytotoxicity of this treatment was rated as 2-3 (20-30%).
258 Evaluation of Imazethapyr 10% SL for controlling weeds of groundnut in new alluvial soil of West Bengal, S. KAR, R. KUNDU1, K. BRAHMACHARI AND P. S. BERA
Weed infestation in the field crops is one of the major problems faced by the farmers in crop cultivation. Slow growth habit of legumes during early crop growth stages encourages rapid growth of weeds and leads to severe crop-weed competition which finally reduce the crop yield. An experiment was executed during kharif seasons of 2011 and 2012 at Chandamari Village (2257N, 8820E) of Nadia district of West Bengal to study the effect of Imazethapyr in controlling the predominant weeds in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eight different treatments replicated thrice. Pod as well as haulm yield of groundnut was found to be the highest where hand weeding was practiced at an interval of 20 and 40 DAS (T ) and it was at par with the treatment T (Imazethapyr 10% SL @ 125 g a.i. ha-1) for pod yield and T and T 7 3 3 2 (Imazethapyr 10% SL @ 100 g a.i. ha-1) for pod and haulm yield. Though the maximum suppression of targeted weed density vis-- vis weed biomass was obtained with the T (Imazethapyr 10% SL @ 150 g a.i. ha-1), it showed delayed maturity due to bit 4 phytotoxicity on groundnut.
259 Weed management in field pea (Pisum sativum L.), R. K. MATHUKIA, P. V. GADHIYA AND D. M. PANARA
An experiment was conducted at Junagarh Agricultural University, Gujarat to judge the profitability and suitability of different weed management in field pea under clay soil. Experiments with 12 different treatment combination indicates that depend upon the availability of labour, profitability of rabi field pea could be achieved through 2 hand weeding and intercultural operation at 20 and 40 days after sowing. The study also reveals that application of pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg ha-1 or oxyfluorofe @ 0.18 kg ha-1 also suitable for the purpose.
260 Eco-friendly weed management for sustainable crop production-A review, S. BAHADUR, S. K.VERMA, S. K. PRASAD, A. J. MADANE, 1S. P. MAURYA, GAURAV,V.K. VERMA AND S. K.SIHAG
Ecological weed management differs from traditional weed management in several ways. Ecological weed management strategy is to integrate the options and tools, rather than on specific control practices which are available to make the crops and cropping system unfavorable for weeds and to minimize the impact of any weed that survive. Maintaining appropriate crop rotation with legume and non-legume crops, and growing of cover crop helps to suppress weeds by smothering and allelopathic effects. Growing competitive cultivars, modifying in sowing and planting techniques, changing sowing and planting time, mulching with organic residues, green and brown manuring and the adoption of reduced or zero tillage makes an inappropriate environment for weed seed germinations and their growth. It also stores a higher amount of organic matter by reducing the mineralization rates and subsequently decreases energy consumption and carbon oxide emission. Herbicide use has been a valuable asset for modern agriculture; however, prudent use of chemicals for weed control is essential to fulfilling the goals of sustainable crop production, by reducing detrimental environmental impact, and delaying herbicide resistance development. Further development and testing of alternative weed management practices that can be utilized along with herbicide applications must be pursued in order to make the practice sustainable and successful.
261 Standardizing agro techniques of organic rice for ecofriendly production, L. GIRIJA DEVI, M. S. MURUGESH AND V. L. GEETHAKUMARI
An experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Vellayani during the year 2012 to standardize the nutrient schedule and weed management techniques for organic rice with its economic feasibility. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with four replications. The study revealed the superiority of closer spacing (1515 cm) on grain and straw yield. The stale seed bed technique and hand weeding were at par with respect to grain yield. The grain and straw yield were the higher with one third RDN as FYM, one third as vermicompost and one third as vermicompost and one third as neem cake + 2 kg Azospirillum + 2 kg P solubilizing bacteria ha-1, and statistically at par with soil test based application (half as vermicompost and half as neem cake). Stale seed bed technique and closer spacing effectively controlled the weeds. The weed biomass was lower with FYM 1 t + green leaf manure 1 t+ dual culture of Azolla + 2 kg Azospirillum + 2 kg P solubilizing bacteria + 1 kg PGPR (mix 1) ha-1 and FYM 5 t+ 800 kg oil cakes ha-1 (half basal + half top dressing at active tillering stage). The comparison between organic and conventional methods showed significant difference at all the crop growth stages with the least weed biomass in organic over conventional.
262 Study on importance of floricultural crops and aesthetic components in determining designs of landscape gardens, S. C. DHANG AND N. MUDI
Design of landscape gardens are created by plotting different parameters which are in one hand made through floricultural crops and others remain directly as aesthetic components made by other than flower crops in a stretch of land. Efforts were made to study the importance of these components while one should considered before going to design a landscape garden. Hence, 42 gardens from different districts of West Bengal were purposively selected and 20 parameters were standardized (by asking questionnaire and after consulting with several expert and professional in this arena). Floricultural components were herbaceous border and shrubbery border. Aesthetic components were different garden features. Components like focal point, colour arrangement and cost involvement were produced through mingling effect of flower crops and aesthetic components. In most of the gardens herbaceous border and shrubbery border were just maintained revealing 38.1% and 52.4% of the total gardens respectively. Most of the designer preferred to install garden features more than six in number reporting 61.9% of total gardens. It was reported that gardens consisting of one focal point were most acceptable. Foliage arrangement (50% of total gardens) as a garden component was followed in every where whether the garden was situated in drier tracts or hilly areas or in plains. Cost of establishment of a garden was a determining factor for designing a garden. Cost of establishment (upto Rupees 10 lakhs) of a garden was recorded maximum (7.1% of total gardens) in the year of 2008 (some gardens were not completed yet).
263 Performance of some coconut cultivars and hybrids in alluvial plains of West Bengal, D. K. GHOSH AND A. BANDOPADHYAY
Coconut has a long productive period hence, selection of quality materials are of utmost important for increasing the productivity in coconut garden can be increased by improving the genetic potential. An evaluation trial was done under AICRP on Palms at Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal to evaluate the performance of seven cultivars of coconut namely - Philipines Ordinary, Laccadive Ordinary, Andaman Ordinary, Laccadive Micro, S S Green, East Coast Tall, West Coast Tall and three hybrids namely COD x WCT, WCT x COD and MYD x WCT during 2004 and 2005.The materials were supplied from CPCRI and planted in 1986 spaced at 7.5 x 7.5 m. in RBD with 3 replication and 4 plants for each treatment. It was observed that the bunch production was maximum in hybrid COD x WCT (9.4 palm-1) followed by Philippines Ordinary (8.4 palm-1). The nut yield per palm was recorded maximum (105.2 palm-1) in Laccadive Micro followed by 92.6 palm-1 in COD x WCT. The copra yield was highest in COD x WCT (9.3 kg) followed by Laccadive Ordinary (9.2 kg ). The hybrid CODXWCT (Chandrasankara), Lacadive Ordinary, Lacadive Micro and Philipines Ordinary performed better than the other cultivar or hybrids in West Bengal.
264 Effect of girdling and defoliation on physical properties of litchi fruit, N. S. KHALKHO, P. HORO AND K. K. JHA
A field experiment was conducted during 2011-12 to delineate the role of current and stored assimilates on fruit growth of litchi. The experiment included of twelve treatments. The level of days was 3 viz. 30 days after fruit set(DAFS), 40 DAFS and 50 DAFS, level of girdling were 2 viz. girdling and no girdling and the level of leaf removal were 2 viz. leaf removal and no leaf removal. The results revealed that with regard to physical fruit properties, the maximum fruit weight (25.03g), bunch weight (351.02g) was observed in the treatment of girdling with no leaf removal of 40 DAFS. The seed-pulp ratio found least (0.14) at the stage of girdling with no leaf removal at 40 DAFS. The size of the fruit was also good (3.18cm) with treatment of girdling and no leaf removal of Litchi plant. The maximum juice percentage of about 71.04% was found in the treatment of girdling. There is positive effect of girdling in fruit drop. The minimum fruit drop was recorded in the treatment girdling with no leaf removal condition.
265 Performance of promising hybrids of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss) under varying levels of nitrogen and row spacing, P. S. SANDHU, S. S. MAHAL AND V. SARDANA
A field experiment was conducted during the winter (rabi) season at the research farm of Punjab Agricultural University. Treatments consisted of two hybrids (PMH 128 and 145) and one variety RLC1 (check), three nitrogen levels (N , N , N kg ha-1) 100 125 150 and two row spacings (30 and 45 cm) evaluated in a split plot design. RLC 1 (check) registered significantly higher seed yield (17.68 q ha-1) than PMH 145 (14.70 q ha-1) and was statistically at par with PMH 128 (16.60 q ha-1). Among the three doses of nitrogen, 150 kg ha-1 of N application produced highest seed yield (17.09 q ha-1) which was statistically at par with 125 kg ha-1of N (16.74 q ha-1), however, significantly higher than 100 kg ha-1 of N (15.14 q ha-1). Among the two row spacing, seed yield was significantly higher in 30 cm 17.01 q ha-1as compared to 45 cm. Quality parameters (palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid) were found to be highest in RLC1 (check). Higher erucic acid content was observed in PMH 128 and PMH 145 as compared to RLC1 (check).
266 Improving beneficial microflora population in soils of predominant crop sequences through Parthenium utilization, A. K. DOLAI, R. K. GHOSH, 1M. K. BHOWMICK AND 2P. K. GHOSH
Congress grass (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is rapidly spreading in many countries around the world. The weed has become a serious threat to nature as well as managed ecosystems. An experiment was conducted during summer, kharif and rabi seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 at the Viswavidyalaya C Block Farm, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal to determine the suitability of Parthenium utilization either as green manure or as mulch along with recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) in improving crop productivity and soil health rather than eradication or control of the weed. The results revealed that either green manuring or mulching of Parthenium @ 5 t ha-1 along with recommended dose of NPK would have the ability for enhancing productivity potentials of important crop sequences by improving soil microflora status possibly due to addition of weed biomass which resulted in better aeration and improved soil physical condition.
267 Effect of different levels fertilizer and micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of soybean, R. N. SHINDE, P. N. KARANJIKAR AND D. N. GOKHALE
The field experiment was conducted at Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Latur during kharif, 2011 to study the effect of fertilizer levels and micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of soybean. Application of 100 per cent RDF (F ) 3 recorded significantly higher growth, yield and quality contributing characters followed by application of 75 per cent RDF (F ) 2 and 50 per cent RDF (F ).Application of Zinc (M ) recorded significantly higher growth, yield, and quality contributing 1 3 characters followed by Boron (M ) and Fe (M ). Application of 100 per cent RDF produced significantly higher seed yield (2972 1 2 kg ha-1) than 50 per cent RDF (1986 kg ha-1) and 75 per cent RDF (2527 kg ha-1) and Zn application @ 10 kg ha-1 (2668 kg ha-1) produced significantly higher seed yield than Fe @ 10 kg ha-1 (2290 kg ha-1) but was found to be at par with B @ 2 kg ha-1. In case of oil yield, 100 per cent RDF (608 kg ha-1) recorded significantly higher oil yield than other treatments. In case of micronutrients Zn application @ 10 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher oil yield (556 kg ha-1) than Fe application @ 10 kg ha-1 (475kg ha-1), but it was at par with the B application @ 2 kg ha-1 (513 kg ha-1).
268 Effect of pre-harvest chemical treatments and mulching on marketability of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Amrapali, L. P. BHUSAN, C. PANDA AND A. K. DASH
Ten-year-old mango plants cv. Amrapali with uniform vigor and size were given seven treatments comprising of black LDPE mulching 100 micron thickness (during September) and pre-harvest chemical spray of CaCl at 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0%, Ca(NO ) at 2 3 2 4.0%, borax at 1.0% in combination with mulching and control (water spray without mulching) at 30 days before the anticipated date of harvest. It was revealed that spraying of 1.0% borax along with black LDPE mulching exhibited highest fruit weight (262.56g) followed by (248.67g) in CaCl at 2.0% with mulching. On 12th day of storage the maximum fruit marketability 2 (90.58%), minimum fruit decay (8.55%), minimum physiological loss of weight (15.13%) was recorded in treatment black LDPE mulching+borax at 1.0%. Therefore, the use of black LDPE mulching with borax at 1.0% spray is found to improve fruit size significantly, whereas CaCl at 2.0% with mulching is found effective for improving fruit marketability, reducing decay 2 percentage and reducing physiological loss in weight of the fruit during storage in Amrapali.
269 Examination of system productivity and profitability of baby corn based vegetable intercropping systems, S. ADHIKARY, M. K. PANDIT , A. V. V. KOUNDINYA, S. BAIRAGI AND A. DAS
The experiment was conducted in lower Gangetic alluvial zone of India at district seed farm (A-B Block), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal during autumn-winter season, 2012 and 2013. Experiment was conducted with the objectives to study the system productivity, profitability and interpretation of different intercropping systems of baby corn and vegetables. Baby corn was taken as the base crop and it was intercropped with vegetables such as tomato, chilli, brinjal and pea.Significantly highest baby corn equivalent yield (BEY) was exhibited by baby corn + pea (115 q ha-1) followed by baby corn + brinjal (110.5 q ha-1), baby corn + tomato (108.5 q ha-1) however, baby corn + chilli (91.4 q ha-1) was decreased in respect of sole baby corn (103.3 q ha-1). All the intercrop treatments recorded land equivalent ratio (LER) more than 1 and highest LER was observed for baby corn + pea (1.52) intercropping system. Highest benefit cost ratio (B:C) was observed in baby corn + pea (3.66) intercropping followed by baby corn + brinjal (2.78), baby corn + tomato (2.62) and baby corn + chilli (2.40). Highest monetary advantage index (MAI) was found for baby corn + pea (30753.4) intercropping system stating that it was the most profitable among all the intercropping treatments.In respect of relative crowding co-efficient (RCC),total K values ranged from t 2.87-13.47 suggesting yield advantage through intercropping. Positive aggressivity values of baby corn (A ) were showing that b baby corn dominated the vegetable intercrops. Higher CR values (4.65-10.65) than CR (0.1-0.22) pointed out the higher b v competitive ability of the baby corn for resources than vegetable intercrops. From this study it was found that baby corn based vegetable intercropping systems were productive and profitable than sole cropping of baby corn and among all the intercropping treatments baby corn + pea intercropping system was established as the most productive and profitable than other systems.
270 White rot of Centella asiatica and two weeds in West Bengal, India, B. MONDAL AND 1D. C. KHATUA
White rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is first time recorded on Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Gnaphalium polycaulon Pers. and Nasturtium indicum (L.) DC in a homestead garden in West Bengal. In 2013, January death and drying of this Centella asiatica plant in patches was noted in a homestead garden at Kalyani, West Bengal. In morning hour, white mycelial growth was found on the petiole of some plants in the green patch. With advancement of the disease, more and more plants were affected, which became covered with mycelial growth of the pathogen. After 4-7 days the affected plants died. Gnaphalium polycaulon and Nasturtium indicum growing with Centella asiatica were infected by the same disease. Water soaked lesion appeared on the petiole or main stem of Gnaphalium polycaulon and flower stalk of Nasturtium indicum. Prominent mycelial growth developed on such lesions. The affected plants died in due course.
271 Screening of finger millet varieties against major insect pests at Odisha, A. SASMAL
An experiment was conducted to study the insect pest population in finger millet crop and presence of beneficial insects at the Centre for Pulse Research, Berhampur, OUAT, Odisha under All India Coordinated Small Millet Improvement Project during Kharif, 2013 which included 32 number of Initial Varietal Trials entries and one local check. The results indicated that the infestation due to grasshoppers ranged from 0 to 4.6%, due to aphids ranged from 0 to 7.4% and infestation of panicles varied from 1.4% to 12.4%, and due to stem borer infestation the percentage of Dead Heart was noted 0 to 20.1% in different entries. Among different types of naturally available beneficial fauna in ragi, the spiders and coccinellids are predominant one.
272 Effect of weed management practices on growth and yield attributes of aerobic rice, J. G. PRASUNA AND J. RAMMOHAN
A field experiment with 11 treatment combination was carried out during 2013 at the Agronomy Farm of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaiakal, Puducherry to examine the effect of different weed management practice on growth and yield attributes of aerobic rice. Among the different weed management practices, the result indicates that weed free or pretilachlor plus @0.75Kg ha-1 or pendimethalin 1.00 Kg ha-1 found to be best option for both growth and yield of rice. The study also advocated for chemical weed control under the labour scarcity situations. The combination of pre and post emergent herbicides application is recommended.
273 Effect of herbicides and cultural practices on nutrient uptake by chickpea and weed, P. O. BHUTADA AND V. M. BHALE
Chickpea is one of the important and most commonly using pulse crop in the world. Just like other pulse crops, yield of chickpea, nutrient, resources may be drastically reduced by weed infestation. The objective of the study was to study the relative efficacy of herbicides and cultural practices on nutrient uptake by Chickpea and weed. The maximum nutrient uptake by chickpea was found in 2H at 15 and 30 DAS + HW at 40 DAS (T ) followed by T , T , T , and T . The uptake of highest nutrients was found in treatments 10 8 4 9 5 T followed by T , which may be due to lowest weed count. treatment T show high gross monetary return, net return and B: C ratio 10 8 10 due to best weed control high Fertilizer use efficiency.