1 The Change to Modernization and the Sustainable People in Maha Sarakham Province, Sitthiporn Soonthorn, Watcharin Suttisai, Sakphong Homhuan, and Annop Phothisuk
To investigate and exemplify formats onto modernization and sustainable of people in Maha Sarakham province in Thailand with a sample size of the three groups of age development, Havighurst’s thinking, and Snowball sampling of community acceptances data whereas the new buildings of two universities and the city hall were administered. Qualitative method with the In-depth of Interview and Observation techniques to formal and informal purposive samplings at the extra document and the fieldwork was used and described. The motorization of original people who used to live at the hill with a small village and relative living style, generousness activities, Buddhist and holy thing believable were changed after this location was destroyed and built of new buildings. The new communities were to improve and adapt of their behaviors to their economic, industrial, and business that they were sold of their assets onto the capitalist groups whose have been expanded on benefits cover this local area. Most of people are supported with a new community to their folk wisdoms for making new earn living with application of modern technology and product of enterprise community. In term of communities’ social, politic, and public administration, too fast of external communities’ social, lower communities’ organizational commitment and generousness, in the other hand, people who know about democracy system, good ergodic and identity to apply of their principal cast to their way of lifes were changed. Focused on their natural source and environment, the local style’s houses have been changed to the apartments or modern building styles or housing developments, globalizing processes are affected by business and work organizations, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environments; too less rice field, decreasing community forest and water head are destroyed, air and environmental pollutions’ problems increasingly, communities were changed to feeble, reforestation without planting. The changes to modernization and the sustainable people in Maha Sarakham province is taken the modern technology and made the original knowledge for applying their believable and unity homogeneously and strongly to their location with their conscious and supported participant of the way of life to changes of motorization parallel. Keywords: Change to Modernization, sustainable people, Maha Sarakham province
2 The Effect of Sleep Quantity on Performance of Students in Public Universities, Kenya, Raphael Mwiti Gikunda, Gilbert Odilla Abura, Lucy Kiriungi, Joyline Mugero Muchiri
The purpose of this study was to examine the subject in public universities. A total of 100 undergraduate students were involved in the study. The study used survey research design. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Data was analyzed with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics specifically frequencies and percentages, and inferential statistics particularly Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation were applied in data analysis. The study achieved a response rate of 92%. The results indicated that majority (54%) had a cumulative average of a B. The study also revealed a positive correlation between sleep quantity and academic performance with a coefficient of 0. 326 (at 0.01 significance level). The study concluded that lack of adequate sleep negatively affects the performance of students in public universities in Kenya. The main cause of insufficient sleep among university students was stress which resulted from family problems, inadequate pocket money and broken relationships. Therefore, public university students need to evaluate their experience of stress, learn and use effective stress management strategies to deal adequately with it. Keywords: Extracurricular activities, performance, public university, sleep quantity, stress
3 Female student-Male Teacher Sexual Relationship in Moshi Municipality, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Sexual advance points, reasons, reporting status and responsible teacher category, Bryson D. Kinyaduka and Joyce F. Kiwara
The purpose of this paper is to: identify sexual advance points; reasons for a male teacher approaching a female student; examine reporting status by a female student on her male teacher sexual advances and identify responsible teacher category. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design. The study used questionnaire to gather information required. It was found that sexual advances began in school offices, premises, along the road and in tuition centres. Teacher power, student need for favour, female student beauty and teacher’s lust were found to be main reasons for a male teacher approaching a female student. It was further found that most female students did not report the vice. Lastly, it was found that both mainstream school and private tutor teachers approached their female students. The study concludes that secondary schools are not immune from amorous relationship. The study recommends a formulation of student-teacher relationship policy among others. Keywords: Sexual relationship, Mainstream school teacher, Female student, Male teacher, Private tutor
4 Participatory spatial planning for reconciling human activities and conservation of Grevy’s Zebra (Equus grevyi) in Northern Kenya. A Case Study of Meibae Community Conservancy, Samburu, Daniel Letoiye
Wide-ranging wildlife species in Northern Kenya have been facing immense pressure due to intensification of human activities in their natural habitats. This pressure has resulted in the decline of these species populations. Successful conservation should therefore address both species numbers and their habitat. This paper reports on a study of human activities and Grevy’s zebra habitat use in Northern Kenya, a case study of Meibae Community Conservancy. Participatory mapping, community workshops, Geographic Information System (GIS), ground truthing and use of global positioning system (GPS) radio collars were used to identify all human activities in the area and ecological areas important to Grevy’s zebra. The community-drawn maps were digitized; the resulting map was overlaid with the other layers of data collected by radio collars and ground truthing to compare with these parameters. In this example human activities are so intensive, that, nearly all the Grevy’s zebra habitats were converted into settlement areas. In addition most of these important ecological zones have been highly degraded by repeated human activities. Regression analysis was run and showed 85% negative correlation between Grevy’s zebra movement and human settlement. Analyses presented here are not only significant to species conservation, but are important in informing land use planning for sustainable biodiversity conservation and also restoring both species numbers and their habitat. For sustainable wildlife conservation in Northern Kenya, establishment of community owned conservancies, strengthening community benefits and developing sound land use planning will minimize human/wildlife conflict. This community-driven framework will also reconcile the existence of all parties. By doing this it will improve community livelihoods and instill a sense of ownership of wildlife and other natural resources. Keywords: Grevy’s Zebra, Habitat, Participatory Mapping, GIS, Settlements, Livestock.
5 Evaluation of an EAP Textbook: English for the Students of Dentistry, Barzegar Kazem and Hemmati Fatemeh
This paper evaluated the ESD textbook (English for the Students of Dentistry) using McDonough and Shaw’s (2003) internal and external evaluation model and the ACTEFL Evaluation Checklist to examine its appropriacy for the target situation. The researcher has reviewed and presented sixteen evaluation models produced by various applied linguists. The external and internal evaluation of the textbook showed that it cannot be used as the core materials for the ESD course in its present format and state. Also, based on standards of the ACTEFL Evaluation Checklist, the textbook scored 33 out of 100 points indicating that it does not observe the features of an acceptable material for the target situation. Some useful recommendations are presented for adapting and improving this textbook to meet the required criteria. The weak and strong points of the textbook are discussed in details. Keywords: Textbook, Materials: EAP, ESD, Internal Evaluation, External Evaluation, The ACTEFL Evaluation Checklist, Dentistry, Iran.
6 Assessment of ethical concerns among practicing librarians in Nigeria, Glory Onoyeyan, Lawrence Ajayi, Odunola Adesina and Itunu A. Bamidele
This study assessed ethical concerns faced by practicing librarians in federal, state and private universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Questionnaire was the tool used for data collection. The study population consisted of the 50 professional librarians from Federal University of Agriculture (FUNAAB), Abeokuta, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye and Babcock Unviersity, Ilishan-Remo. The respondents consisted a total of the 50 practicing librarians from the three selected universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 50 questionnaires were administered on all the respondents and 44 questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed given a response rate of 88%. A descriptive statistical method was used to analyze the data displayed in tables and percentages. Findings from the study shows that intellectual property rights issues are the highest ethical issue confronting librarians. The study also shows that abusing confidential information and using official position for personal advantage are perceived as high unethical behaviour among librarians. The study also reveals that a majority of librarians do not have a copy of the Librarians’ Registration Council of Nigeria Code of Ethics. Based on the findings, recommendations were proffered. Keywords: Professional ethics, Librarians, Ethical dilemma, Code of ethics, Ogun State, Nigeria
7 Utilitarian evaluation of the National Open University of Nigeria, Peter James Kpolovie and Isaac Esezi Obilor
This study employed Utilitarian Evaluation Design and Discrepancy Evaluation Model, which are the most suitable in educational programme evaluation, to evaluate the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) from its commencement of admission in 2003 to 2013. The study covered headquarters and all the 49 Study Centres of NOUN throughout the six geopolitical regions in Nigeria. A sample of 902 was drawn from students of NOUN, and staff of NOUN, National Universities Commission and conventional Federal Universities in Nigeria. A highly valid Utilitarian Evaluation Questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.86 was developed for data collection. The research questions were answered using measures of central tendency, and the hypotheses were tested with One-Way Analysis of Variance and independent samples t-test at 0.05 alpha. Results indicated that though NOUN has been partially implemented as defined with aspects of the objectives achieved; great disparity exists between the expected and actual outcomes; and that NOUN is significantly inadequate in addressing the ‘higher education for all in need’ intervention for which it was established. It was recommended among others that funding of NOUN be increased, more Study Centres established, and a National Open and Distance Education Commission be established to supervise, monitor and regulate the NOUN. Keywords: Utilitarian evaluation design, Summative evaluation model, National Open University of Nigeria, Higher education, Open and Distance learning, Life-long learning.
8 Apology strategies and gender: A Pragmatic study of apology speech acts in Urdu language, Aamir Majeed and Dr. Fauzia Janjua
In this paper it has been tried to study apology speech acts in Urdu with the special reference to the gender. How different genders express apologies in different situations, is the main focus of this paper. The data is collected through an open questionnaire from the students of National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad in 2010. The questionnaire consists of ten social situations and in each situation the respondent has committed an offence to someone and is asked to apologize with that person. The offence affected persons belong to different social backgrounds and have different relations with the respondents from more formal to more informal. There is also the difference between the age of the respondent and his/her interlocutors and also in the degree of offence committed. Keeping in mind the time limits, 25 students (15 males and 10 females) were chosen for the data collection. Data has been analyzed with the help of the model proposed in the project of Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Pattens which was initiated in 1982 by Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (Blum-Kulka et al., 1989). The findings reveal that girls seemed to be more conscious about their face wants and they used less dangerous strategies even with their friends and siblings more than the boys. However while apologizing in formal settings both adopted similar types of strategies. Keywords: Apology Speech Acts, CCSARP, Positive/Negative Face Wants, Formulaic Strategies, Social Distance, Social Dominance
9 Role of Social Media on Development, Akashraj D. P. and Pushpa C. O
Development cannot happen in isolation whether it may be in micro or macro level. So there is a need for a strong tool to connect people instantly so that the knowledge transfer is never ending and instant. Media for development uses to convey messages on issues such as health care, poverty reduction, good governance, environmental protection and community development, socio-economic and cultural development. Today the world is becoming a small place to live in and share knowledge, ideas and passing over valuable culture to the next generation, all the above said things is possible through social networking and media. Every aspect in the society has positive and negative externalities so we need to see how these negative externalities can be balanced and surpassed through positive externalities to reach development in all dimensions. For the study, survey was conducted with 100 samples as primary data. Keywords: Development, Social Network, Externalities, Culture, Media
10 Need base education and madrassa system: A comprehensive analysis of mainstream schools of thought in Pakistan, Syed Usman Shah, Syed Waqas Ali Kausar and Abdulwahid Sial
Madrassa is considered to be the main symbol of Muslim identity and culture. It is often said that the nations which forget their culture, are destined to perish. Today, the Madrassa does not hold that place in our society, which it should have. The education system followed in Madrassa does not seem to be effective and need based. It is not modern enough to interpret Islamic principles in the contemporary context. The sect-specific Islamic curricula of Madrassa without any integration with sciences, arts, humanities etc, segregate it from any other need based educational system followed all over the globe. The purpose of the study is to identify the effectiveness of the madras education, difference among the various schools of thought in the term of effectiveness and what are the main factors which contribute in effectiveness of madras education. The effectiveness of Madrassa education was estimated from a sample of 146 respondents, comprising teachers, students and parents. The data was collected through questionnaires with Likert Scale and focused group meetings. Measurement of data normality Skewness, Kurtosis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests were used which result shows that data is normal and allow proceeding for the further investigation. One sample T-test was used to identify that various schools of thought are effective in imparting contemporary modern and need based education to its students which result shows that all schools of thoughts are ineffective. Measurement of Difference among the various schools of thought Anova was used which result shows that there is significant difference occur among these schools of thought in all dimensions. Regression was used to identify the predictors which are contributing in effectives of Madrassa which result shows that all independent variables like pedagogy, Openness, Regulation and Curriculum have potential contribution in effectiveness. The education of Madrassa students, who are mostly from lower social strata, is kept limited to religion and they can only be employed in religious sectors. This tendency, not only creates a social divide on the basis of poverty but also on the basis of approach / thinking. Reforms in the educational system of Madrassa are needed by including scientific and non-theological subjects in curricula and improving the existing pedagogical practices. These also need to establish Madrassa boards in conjunction with existing boards of educations so that Madrassa students can also adopt a more productive course by accessing the mainstream professions. Keywords: Madrassa Education in Pakistan, Need Base Education
11 Study of Nida’s (formal and dynamic equivalence) and Newmark’s (semantic and communicative translation) translating theories on two short stories, Shabnam Shakernia
This study aimed to investigate the use of Nida’s formal and dynamic equivalence and Newmark’s Semantic and communicative translation on two short stories. The present study aimed to investigate which of these approaches are the main focuses of the translators in the translations of the two short stories. In order to systematically conduct the study, two short stories with their corresponding Persian translations were analyzed. The findings obtained from the analysis show that the readability of the translation especially in short stories is more important than preserving the original wording. Moreover, the findings manifest that these translations are also tried to have naturalness. Keywords: Formal and dynamic equivalence, Semantic and communicative translations, Stories, Translators, Naturalness
12 Synchronous of ICT and E-Learning in Yemen: Impact and Usability, Dr. Gamal Ahmed Ahmed Abdullah Alawi
This paper concentrates on the information and communication technology tools and e-learning channels to qualify pre-service and in-service teachers. It offers a good correlation between ICT, e-learning and their usability on learning. The research with 200 participants’ curriers out and establishes a model using AMOS program which can explain 91% of learning with good model fit. This model can infer the effect of ICT, E-Learning on learning in Yemen. The subjects make use of different elements with multiple techniques such as multimedia, Internet and Intranet in full time and multi-tasks such searching, browsing, downloading (audio, video and appropriate software), copying, listening and watching associate text, audio and video respectively. It encourages teachers to use chat room for more discussion in the category of online co-operative learning and finally report their information in different styles on www. Keywords: ICT, E-learning, Usability, Information, Technology, Teachers
13 System of Montessori Education Vs Kindergarten System of Education, Abdul Ghaffar Tahir, Asghar Abbas, Dr. Asad Abbas Rizvi, Ghayoor Ahmad Ghazali and Saira Saleem
Early childhood education is considered as back bone in any education system traditionally there are two types of early childhood education in the world. These are Montessori and Kindergarten system of education. This study entitled “Montessori and Kindergarten System of Education” focused on investigating difference between two systems. The objectives of study were to compare the both system in terms of philosophy, objectives, contents, teaching methodology, evaluation system. It was a document analysis. The study concluded that early childhood education is most important part of primary schooling years. Learning and development of child in pre schooling years is faster than the adolescence age. Both systems play the role to promote the pre-school education. Montessori system is more scientific more practical than the kindergarten system of Education. Kindergarten system of Education focuses on inner side training learning and betterment of children. Both systems promote the pre-schools education on activity base learning and help the children to show better performance in learning and development in future education. Keywords: Early childhood education, Montessori System of Education, Kindergarten System of Education
14 Empowerment of women through Stree Shakti programme in Mysore, Akashraj D. P.
There are a variety of understandings of the term empowerment due to its widespread usage. If empowerment is looked upon in terms of ability to make choices: to be disempowered therefore, implies to be denied choice. The notion of empowerment is that it is inescapably bound up with the condition of disempowerment and refers to the processes by which those who have been denied the ability to make choices acquire such ability. Thus, there could be statistical swells indicating improvements in indicators of gender equality, but unless the intervening process involved women as agents of that change, one cannot term it as ‘empowerment’. People who exercise a great deal of choice in their lives may be very powerful, but they are not empowered, because they were never disempowered in the first place. Empowerment cannot be defined in terms of specific activities or end results because it involves a process whereby women can freely analyze, develop and voice their needs and interests, without them being pre-defined, or imposed from above. The assumption that planners can identify women’s needs; runs against empowerment objectives. Here we come to know the economic and social condition of women who are under the stree-shakti programme, to identify the working of stree Shakti programme and what is the impact of stree Shakti programme on its members. By the use of questionnaires and sampling techniques, the primary data is collected for data analysis. Here we are discussing about the empowerment of women through stree shakti programmes in Mysore district .Primary data has been taken into consideration to analyze the impact of stree shakti progamme on the beneficiaries. Keywords: Empowerment, Stree shakti Programme, Gender, Socio-economic e welfare, Group A and Group B
15 Assessing the impact of the quality improvement in primary schools programme on teachers and school communities in the northern sector of Ghana, Seniwoliba A. J
Aristotle a renowned educationist once said that "those who want to teach must cease not learning." This quotation is quite relevant for the implementation of the Quality Improvement in the Primary Schools (QUIPS) programme. This sterns from the fact that a lot of barriers were identified from the education reforms in 1987 stretching from poor education systems, inadequate trained teachers, lack of infrastructure and equipment, outdated and worn out textbooks poverty and hunger in the sub-Sahara Africa which Ghana is included. The study seeks to assess the impact of the QUIPS programme in terms of teacher performance and pupils’ progress, types of interventions of the QUIPS programme, school environment and lessons learnt from the QUIPS programme for policy formulation. This cannot be achieved without a comprehensive layout of how the data would be gathered. The study focused on the fifth group of selected schools dubbed ‘Cohort V schools’ found in five districts of the three northern regions. The districts include; Lawra, Builsa, Savelugu/Nanton, West Mamprusi and Bole. Five schools were selected from each district summing up to twenty-five schools for the implementation of the programme. The study population was all teaching staff and Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) Executives in the twenty-five school communities. Questionnaire, structured interviews and general observations were used during School-Based in-service Training programmes in the various school communities and reviewed activity reports from the communities. Microsoft Access, Excel Word packages 2007 version were used to enter the data and made analysis. One major finding was that pupils cannot be expected to make appreciable gains within a two-year intervention period in the absence of accelerated programmes in literacy and numeracy. Pupils throughout Ghana were performing far below development expectations in English reading and mathematics. Two years of CRS/QUIPS interventions was simply not enough time to remedy this deficiency. Though there has been an increase in community advocacy for and contribution for quality basic education, the coverage was limited. The study therefore recommends that communities should be involved in school health; feeding, water and sanitation and introduce income-generating activities as an entry point for adult literacy. When they are well established, they would then be able to take good care of their wards. Keywords: quality education, school communities, programme, reforms, barriers, CRS/QUIPS
16 Examining the role of motivation on employee performance in the public sector in Ghana, Seniwoliba A. J. and Nchorbuno A. D.
Motivation is crucial for organizations to function; without motivation employees will not put up their best and the company’s performance would be less efficient. The situation is even more serious in developing countries where working conditions are unattractive. The upper west region is also bedevilled with low level of education, poor infrastructure and poor road network and for that matter northern Ghana has been the concern of many people, especially of northern exaction. The reasons for this situation are partly due to the slow progress in the development of the north. It is in view of this that this study seeks to assess the role of motivation on employee performance in the public sector with particular reference to employees of the University for Development Studies (UDS) at its Wa Campus in the Upper West Region. The case-study approach was adopted for the study with both qualitative and quantitative techniques such as stratified sampling and accidental sampling techniques were employed. Key informant interviews and questionnaires were the methods of data collection for the study and SPSS software was used to analyze data collected from the field. The study found that, motivation packages for the staff of UDS Wa Campus were inadequate. This was evident in the non-availability of residential accommodation and transport for staff. Though senior members enjoy professional allowance, book and research allowance, free medical care, off-campus allowance and entertainment allowance they complained that the amount involved was insufficient. However, on the part senior and junior staff, it is only free medical care they benefit from. Monetary rewards and a conducive-working environment were the preferred form of motivation for workers revealed by the study. The effects of poor motivation on work performance on the Wa Campus were absenteeism, low output and high labour turnover. The study therefore, recommends that management should liaise with GETFUND and other donor agencies such as Habitant International to build residential accommodation for staff and institute end of year awards ceremonies to motivate staff. Keywords: Motivation, employee work performance, human resources, work environment, incentives
17 School environments inventory in primary education in Thailand, Toansakul Santiboon
Focusing on this research investigated students’ perceptions of their school learning climates of the educational basic school compared to their perceptions of their actual school (My School) and preferred school (My Dream School) learning climates in Udon Thani educational basic areas. Associations between these perceptions and students’ attitudes toward their school learning climates were also determined. The school climates relationships with their students enhancing the school learning climates’ attitudes in the schools were assessed. Using the standard learning environment instruments and adapted version of the 25-item My School Inventory (MSI), adapted from the original My Class Inventory (MCI) (Fisher and Fraser, 1998) was administrated. Students’ attitudes were assessed with the Test of School-Related Attitudes (TOSRA). This questionnaire was translated into the Thai language and the school climates measured that can be used at the educational basic school was validated on a sample of 825 pupils in 40 primary schools at the grade 6 level in the office of the basic educational service Udon Thani through out in 4 areas. Statistically significant differences were found between the students’ perceptions of their schools and their dream school climates. Outcomes of this study indicate that the school climates were high on MCI factors such as Cohesiveness, Attentiveness, Expansion, Application, and Satisfaction. Associations between students’ perceptions of their school climates with their attitudes to their schools also were found. The multiple correlations were significant for the Actual or My School Form of the MCI and shows that for the TOSRA, 42% of the variance in student’s attitude to their schools was attributable to their perceptions. To be provided in suggestions for comparing the dream and the actual schools with students’ perceptions are the based on this finding. Keywords: School, Environment, Education, Learning, Climates, MCI
18 Teacher motivation and job satisfaction in senior high schools in the Tamale metropolis of Ghana, Seniwoliba A. J.
Undoubtedly the most precious asset of every society or organization is its human resource. For human capital to spawn appreciable impact on the socio-economic development, investment in education, training, learning, health and nutrition of people are essential. This reality implies that teachers occupy a central role in the social and economic development of their societies. Despite this role, knowledge about what motivate and satisfy teachers within the education industry is limited. This study therefore, sought to contribute to the sketchy knowledge about the underlying factors that are important to teachers, those that motivate and satisfy them and those that cause them to leave the teaching profession. To investigate the concerns therefore, a sample size of 178 respondents from seven (7) Public Senior High Schools in the Tamale Metropolis were interviewed using self administered questionnaires reaching 143 males and 35 female teachers. The main finding of the study is that salary, working conditions, incentives, medical allowance, security, recognition, achievement, growth, students' indiscipline, school policy and status were found to be the ten most important factors of motivation to teachers that could enhance, retain or cause them to leave. There was also the general perception of inequity among teachers when they compare themselves with their colleagues with the same qualifications, experience and responsibilities in non-teaching organizations and therefore feel unfairly treated as professional teachers. They were equally dissatisfied with their pay compared to their inputs (skills, ability, and work load) as espoused by Adams’ equity theory of motivation. The paper recommends that participatory management decision making processes should be adopted to help resolve the issues emanating from the research particularly relating to the “intrinsic” de-motivating factors which could be addressed by the top management of most Senior High schools. Keywords: Ghana, Human capital, Motivation, Job-satisfaction, Education, Teaching profession, Senior High School
19 The relationship between performance and year of enrolment at an architecture school, Kumasi, Ghana, Essel Charles and Koranteng Christian
Performance can be related to factors such as learning styles, students’ background, tutors years of experience, and number of contact hours. Due to the complexity of the associated factors, it is not an easy task to predict performance. The students of the Department of Architecture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana have the notion that colleagues who are admitted at odd academic years perform better than those at even years. To investigate this assertion, a pilot study was organised to evaluate the assertion. Moreover, results of architectural design studio grades of first year students (859) from the year 2000 to 2012 formed the focus of observation. Mean grades, maximums, minimums, percentage grades and standard scores were calculated. The output results indicated that the assertion of odd enrolment year having a better performance was found to be baseless. However, mean scores of mean maximum studio grades were slightly higher (0.4%) in odd years. Moreover, more students (57%) were found to do better in even enrolment years considering a base grade of 64%. Students in smaller classes performed best and this result was found to be significant. School authorities are to plan for smaller class sizes to maintain good performance at architectural design studios. Keywords: Students, Performance, Architecture, Design Studio
20 The efficacy of jolly phonics instructional strategy on the writing ability of junior primary pupils’ in Uyo senatorial district of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, Ogbemudia Magdalene Ifeoma and Prof. Julie U. Ibiam
This study investigated the efficacy of Jolly Phonics Instructional Strategy on the writing ability of junior primary pupils’ in Uyo Senatorial District. In this study two variables were considered which constitute the basic skills of Jolly Phonics Instructional Strategy. The two variables considered were blending of letter sounds (for reading) and identification of letter sounds in words (for writing). Sample sizes of 169 pupils obtained from four public primary schools in Uyo Senatorial District were used. Non-randomized pre-test- post-test control group research design was used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was Children Reading Activity Test (CRAT). The analysis of Covariance was used to analyse the data. The results obtained from the study at 0.05 level significance showed that blending of letter sounds (for reading) and identification of letter sounds in words (for writing) had significant effects on the writing ability of junior primary pupils in Uyo Senatorial District. Recommendations were made. Keywords: Jolly Phonics, Junior primary, Efficacy, Uyo Senatorial District.
21 Ghana’s numerous workers strikes; a cause for concern, Seniwoliba A. J.
It is undoubtful that the growth of every economy depends on the strength and commitment of its labour force. This therefore suggests that where the labour force is unstable with erratic performance usually marred by constant strikes, the growth of a country’s economy would be dwindling. The public sector has been characterized with strike actions following the introduction of the single spine salary structure. The first quarter of 2013 has witnessed several labour agitations mainly within the education and health sectors in Ghana. They have been asking for better conditions of service and the timely payment of arrears. Despite the role the labour force contributes to the growth of the economy, there is very little efforts from previous and succeeding governments to find lasting solution to these strike actions that occur very frequently. This study therefore, sought to contribute to knowledge about the underlying factors that cause the frequent strike actions in Ghana, some limitations of the Labour Act 2003 (Act 651) and to discuss the adjudication of labour issues and resolution of labour disputes. To verify these concerns therefore, views were sampled from individuals, executives of some labour unions, the internet (ghanaweb, google, myjoyonline, citinews etc), Ghanaian newspapers and commentaries on the current labour issues in Ghana and review of some works on labour relations. Amongst the more important findings was the fact that there must be a greater awareness of worker needs, values and objectives and the best way to handle strikes is to prevent them from occurring in the first place but when they (strikes) occur, management should be more proactive to investigate and manage the grievances by instituting effective communication approaches between management and employees and constantly monitoring working conditions to see what further types of improvements could be introduced to minimize strike actions. The paper recommends that participatory management decision making processes should be applied using the Alternative Dispute Resolution process to resolve the issues emanating from the research particularly relating to workers’ strikes. Keywords: Labour force, strikes, unrest, Ghana human resource, economy, single spine salary structure.
22 Higher education for all in need through the National Open University of Nigeria: A paradox in policy practice, Peter James Kpolovie and Isaac Esezi Obilor
This investigation adopted Program Theory-Based Evaluation Design in assessing the merit and worth of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), strictly in line with the institution’s mission statement, goal, and policy of “higher education for all in need”; to ascertain access to, and the degree of equilibrium in the demand and supply of higher education in Nigeria. Results revealed that of the total number of candidates applying for higher education admission in Nigeria, between 2003 and 2012, only 13.12% to 26.52% succeeded into Nigerian Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education; denying 73.48% to 86.88% of candidates who seek access to higher education. It was low access to higher education in the country that necessitated establishment of the NOUN in 1983 to ensure equity and equality of opportunities and wider access to education with a view to mopping up all who need higher education but are left out by the conventional education system. Results further showed that the government’s policy of “higher education for all in need through the NOUN” is merely a paradox in policy practice; because in its present state, NOUN has not and can never cope with the demand for higher education in Nigeria as it only admitted 0.03% to 1.89% of the candidates seeking higher education between 2003 and 2012. It was suggested that improved power supply and internet connectivity, more study centres especially in the rural areas, increased funding of NOUN, and the establishment of a National Open and Distance Education Commission for effective and efficient supervision of NOUN, will make the National Open University of Nigeria the “Higher Education Messiah” that it was intended to be. Keywords: Higher education for all in need; Program theory-based evaluation design; Paradox in policy practice; Open and Distance Education; Access to higher education; National Open University of Nigeria; Higher education.
23 Environment in Crisis, Dr. Md. Zulfequar Ahmad Khan
There are some uncertainties as to what effects a change in environment might have on the earth. The environment is our basic life-support system. Over the last two decades our reliance on the environment has been graphically displayed in series of some major environmental disaster. To fulfill our needs, there has been discriminate or unwise use of natural resources. That`s why, many parts of the environment have been badly damaged. If we continue to treat the environment as we have done up to now, the damage will get worse, the costs higher, and the consequences more serious. There are a number of factors responsible changes. The most prominent one is the industrial revolution. Consumerism (our increasing want for material things) has increased by leaps and bounds, creating mountains of waste. Our population has increased to an incredible extent. There are several challenges and they can be classified as economic, institutional, psychological, and informational. The threat of global environmental problem is growing. However, the actions must be carried within a sustainable and equitable development framework. The paper discussed several options but implementing them requires detailed analysis to ensure that national benefits are maximized. The importance of local control and management cannot be over-emphasized in ensuring sustainable development. Keywords: Environment, Pollution, Photochemical, Deforestation, Renewable energy.
24 A study on error patterns in “Addition” in primary school children (7 years old children), D. M. W. Munasinghe
“Addition” is one of main basic mathematical concepts that children learn. This concept is learned by students at the preschools level both informally and formally. There are some research findings that show that students make mainly three types of errors, such as Systematic errors, Random errors and Careless errors. Students make these types of errors relation to the concept of “Addition”. This paper examines the error patterns common with “Addition “in second years of schooling (grade 2/7 years old students). The gender wise differences in “Addition” are examined and analyzed; examined also patterns of “Addition” in the sample age group. The need for further in-depth research in the area of primary grade mathematics is highlighted. Keywords: Addition Pre-school, Primary school, Essential Learning Competencies
25 Managing campus accommodation and extent of achievement of millennium development goals for sustainability in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: students’ perception, J. N. D. Meenyinikor, Ph. D and Odigwe Benjamin
This paper analyses the types of accommodation for millennium development goals achievement available for sustainability in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria and the extent of students’ satisfaction with them. Literature review was used to construct the questionnaire. The descriptive survey has two research questions and hypotheses. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select 1000 male and female students from the population of 4000. It discovered four types of accommodation, students’ unsatisfaction and a significant difference between male and female students opinion. It concludes that campus accommodation is vital for goals achievement hence recommends the provision of the appropriate types and students’ involvement in decision making on pertinent issues. Keywords: Managing campus accommodation student, goals achievement sustainability
26 Effects of indoor air pollution on human health: A micro-level study of Aligarh City-India, Dr. S. Waseem A. Ashraf, Safia Khanam and Ayaz Ahmad
Environmental pollution is one of the serious crisis to which we are facing today. It is fact that three basic elements air, water and land which constitute harmony of nature for proper and balance living of all organisms, it was fortunate enough that such hospitable and balance environment was the destiny of our predecessors. But it is contrary to living of the present environment. With the rapid growth of population, urbanization, industrialization, commercialization, consumerism, fast changing life style, unplanned development etc. have deteriorated the ecological balance day by day and now it went beyond its sustainable limit the craze of progress in agriculture, industry, transportation and technology is taken as the general criterion of development of any nation. Such activities of man have created adverse effects on all living organisms in the planet of the earth. The increasing population and poverty are also the cause of environmental pollution which compels the people for over exploitation of natural resources of the region. Besides poverty, illiteracy, unawareness, lack of knowledge, irrational and unplanned development etc. also contributes to pollution of the environment at regional scale. In the present work an attempt has been made to study impact of environmental pollution on human health, which is the home of approximately 0.67 million people, who are subject to sufferings. After foregoing analysis regarding variable of indoor air pollution and their impact on health, it may be concluded that the indoor air pollution is affected by the housing conditions and living conditions but to some extent it is also affected by the outdoor environment. Keywords: Air Pollution, Wards, Households, Disease, Health
27 Issues in integrating information technology in learning and teaching EFL: The Saudi experience, Dr. Yousef Hamad Al-Maini
The Saudi education system is facing a climate of change characterized by an interest in integrating new technology and educational approaches to improve teaching and learning. In this climate, the present paper explores the issues in integrating information technology in learning and teaching EFL in government intermediate schools in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The background to information technology use in Saudi education is introduced, with specific reference to the Watani project for integrating computer and Internet use into educational administration and teaching. Taking an interpretive approach, the author offers insights into the current status and use of Information and communication technology (ICT) facilities in the two intermediate schools. A discrepancy is found between intention and practice. Issues are highlighted that contribute to the failure to exploit fully the potential of ICT: teacher resistance, lack of training, and budgetary or resource constraints. The author concludes that the wider exploitation of information technology in learning English, supported by appropriate training, could benefit both students and teachers and offers recommendations for its implementation. Keywords: Issues, technology, EFL, teaching, Saudi Arabia
28 Emergence of web 3.0 with e-learning, Dr. Ashraf Badawood and Dr. Abdulghffar Qureshi
Since the beginning of the web, and in their evolutionary process, the web has developing been important changes in education to the degree that has become possible to integrate web 1.0 and web 2.0 e-learning tools, in a big part, has benefited in its development because of the huge momentum achieved with the emergence of internet, and the world wide web, possibilities of great opening, facilitating the methods and strategies that allow the emergence of e-learning, and therefore, access to knowledge. Before the emergence of a new paradigm such as web or the semantic web 3.0, it is necessary to study the possibilities that this area offers for the educational environment, particularly for distance education. This research document is about the possibilities opening up in education by developing this environment, which according to its characteristics, is transforming the web into a whole environment for true knowledge management, and may well be completely utilized by the area of education strategies and make the semantic web a facilitator in the educational process. This study presents an overview of the new paradigm of web 3.0 or semantic web from the point of view of their applicability in educational virtual environments, emphasizing the potential of this and the possibilities in could provide education in the new functionality for the management tools used of educational content in web environments. On this issue, Arroyo and others (2008) point out that achieving this goal involves the creation of entire technology architecture, which contemplate the battery technology. Moreover, these authors also highlight the fact that it requires solving various technical and theoretical problems that have prevented the goal, mainly with regard to the creation of ontologies for each domain of knowledge, and the expressive power of these, plus everything about the logical layer and inference engines that enable to extract knowledge content on the web. Keywords: e- learning, distance education, web 3.0, training, semantic web
29 Influence of home environment on the academic performance of primary five pupils’ in English Language in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State, Ogbemudia M. I and Alasa M. V
This study investigated the influence of home environment on the academic performance of primary five pupils’ in English Language in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State. Four variables were considered which include parental academic background, parental economic status, parental marital status and parental home location. A sample size of 50 primary five pupils obtained from five public primary schools in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State was used. Five hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post Facto research design was used for the study. Two instruments were used for data collection such as Home Environmental Factor Questionnaire (HEFQ) and Pupils Achievement Test (PAT) in English Language. The dependent t-test and the analysis of variance ANOVA were used to analyze the data. The result obtained from the study at 0.05 level of significance shows that parental academic backgrounds, parental economic status, parental marital status and parental home location have significant influence on primary five pupils academic performance in English Language hence the null hypotheses were rejected while the alternative hypotheses wee retained. This implies that home environment has significant influence on the academic performance of primary five pupils’ in English Language. These findings were extensively discussed and appropriate recom-mendations were made. Keywords: Home Environment, English Language, Orhionmwon Local Government, Academic Performance, Primary Five Pupils’.
30 Effects of HIV/AIDS on academic and social lives of secondary school students in Samburu County, Kenya, Manyara Charity Gakii, Dr.Kisilu Kombo and Dr.Wokabi Francis
In the world today, the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) which causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become a global pandemic. Out of the 65 million people infected globally 29.4 million live in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO, 2009). Initially, HIV and AIDS were believed to be a problems confined to the adult domain. However, it has now become common knowledge that a person can be infected at any age. HIV and AIDS is a problem that the human race has had to contend with over the last decade until it has become a pandemic. The HIV and AIDS epidemic in Africa has impacted on the society in many ways. One of the most long-term impacts is the creation of an estimated 13 million orphans by 2000 and projected 24 million by 2010 (UNAIDS 2001). HIV and AIDS have been rated among the leading contemporary problems in Kenya especially among the youth. According to a study carried out by the population council (2003), 66% of adolescent HIV cases are in relationships with the opposite sex, while 61% are sexually active and have low contraceptive use and 43% think they have a “good “to “moderate “chance of getting the disease because they have multiple sex partners. In Samburu County, where the study was carried out, the cases of HIV and AIDS among the youth are reported to be rising constantly. This study was geared towards investigating the challenges of the infected and effected students in Samburu County with a view of identifying intervention measures by the schools to these challenges. The study focused on Samburu County due its high HIV prevalence of 7.2% in comparison to the national prevalence of 6.3%. By determining the number of students living with HIV/AIDS through the HIV/AIDS treatment, care and support centers, the study drew attention to the intensity of the problem and the need for the education sector to address these challenges. The target sample of the infected was purposively drawn from the existing records in the HIV/AIDS support centers while that of the affected was purposively selected with the assistance of their schools. The other component of the study sought to assess the school environment from which the samples are drawn, to determine the mechanisms put in place to support the affected and infected learners within the school environment. Self administered structured questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from the infected and affected students as well as the Principals. A pilot study was conducted in a different school to enable the adjustment of data collecting instruments so as to ensure validity and reliability of the data. Data was qualitatively analyzed by using simple frequency distributions and percentages and presented on tables. From the findings, it was evident that social-cultural and economic factor greatly impacts on the social and economic performance of the infected and affected youths in secondary schools. On the basis of the findings, the researcher recommends training of more guidance and counseling teachers, a policy to make HIV and AIDS a compulsory subject and establishment of youth Friendly Centers to deal with the challenges of students infected and affected by HIV and AIDS thus helping to curb the spread of the virus among the students. Keywords: Infected, affected, HIV and AIDS, students, impact
31 Prospects of developing careers of academic staff of Uganda Colleges of Commerce, Hojops Odoch J.P, Edward Oding-Wacha and Sudi Nangoli
This study was conducted to investigate and examine the prospects of developing career for academic staff of Uganda Colleges of Commerce through a quantitative research approach and methods. The findings indicate that a combination of recruitment, promotion and Training is positively correlated to Career Development. The study recommends that management of the Uganda Colleges of Commerce should support career development and also that staff should enroll on courses which will enable them upgrade to the next ladder. Staff are expected to be engaged in gainful activities such as research, seminars and refrain from disruptive activities such as over drinking. Those who aspire to go for further courses must ensure that they are relevant to enable them acquire the skills required for the new tasks. Staff should also be able to sacrifice and devote time and resources for their own good rather than waiting for the organization to think aloud for them. Keywords: Career development, challenges, Uganda Colleges of Commerce, Staff development
32 A comparative study of Open Book-Open Web (OBOW) exams and Invigilated Closed Book-Pen and Paper (ICBPP) exams, Mohammed Amanullah, Gaffar Sarwar Zaman, Ayyub Ali Patel and Khalid Mohanna
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of ‘open book-open web’ (OBOW) examinations in comparison to invigilated closed book-pen and paper exams. An OBOW exam was conducted during April 2013, wherein 127 students participated in it. The result obtained in this exam was compared with the invigilated exam taken by the same students previously. The percentage of marks obtained by the students were graded as “A” for 90-100% marks, “B”, “C”, “D” and “F” for 80-89%, 70-79%, 60-69% and 0-60% respectively. Some students were placed under ungraded category (“U” grade), as they faced some technical problems during the exam. Cheating was assessed based upon the time at which the student started taking the exam, the total time taken to complete it and the marks they scored. The results indicated that there was no notable difference in the results between the two types of exams. The number of students scoring “A” grade was almost the same in both the type of exams viz. 36% of all the students scored “A” grade in OBOW as against 38% of the students in the invigilated exam. However the number of students scoring lower grades i.e. “B” to “F” was more in OBOW exams then the invigilated exams. A few cheating cases were observed in the OBOW exam and also in the invigilated exam, which is unavoidable in any circumstance. About 10 students faced technical problems like loss of internet connection, slowing of the internet connection due to traffic congestion in the network, hanging of the user’s computer system. It can be concluded that OBOW exams are better in accessing the student’s ability to understand the subject and reproduce it. Keywords: Open book open web examinations, closed book invigilated examination, online exams, authentic assessment
33 Uncertainties of digital information and preservation in today's and tomorrow’s generation: an idea, Raghunadha T. Reddy, Dr. K. Kumar and T. Sreenivasa Rao
The digital information generated by organizations from domains such as government, cultural heritage, science and education, audio, video, films, health, insurance, banking, etc are part of our digital universe or each one is a digital universe in its own right. There is good understanding in the Library of preservation issues and of the constraints of preservation strategies, which are taken into account in deciding what to take into the Library’s collections and how it should be managed. So this paper is brief discussion of an idea: uncertainties of digital information and preservation in today's and tomorrow's generation. Keywords: Digital Information, Preservation, Problems
34 The role of research and education to the sustainable development and food security in Sub Saharan Africa, Teweldemedhin M. Y. and Mwewa L
The paper examines the role of research and education for sustainable development and food security in SSA. The paper applied different case study literature review and trend analysis. In SSA research organizations are not well aligned with the needs and priorities of poverty alleviation strategies. For example farmers have difficulties in accessing new technologies and innovations, furthermore they it lacks organised networking. There is gap or disconnection between research and extension systems, between researchers and policy make; researches in SSA mainly under-funded as a research outputs are not adequately responding to the fast changing external environments in SSA. Therefore, the study suggested that it is time to introduce new model that can forest Sustainable economic growth in SSA that includes strategic way of reaching different target groups effectively. Keywords: Research, education and sustainable development
35 Resource sharing services in academic library services in Bauchi: the case of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University and Muhammadu Wabi Libraries, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Isyaku A. Adam and 2Ibrahim Usman
Although libraries have a long tradition of resource sharing, in the past the results have not be meaningful as regards to having enough to share with others. The pervasive state of academic libraries generates a syndrome of insufficiency, and will continue for as long as the so-deemed libraries prefer to conveniently ignore resource sharing. The paper addresses problem and importance of resources sharing. Survey method using questionnaire for collection of data from the two selected academic libraries was adopted. Findings revealed that resource sharing is practice at a very low level coupled with failure of the selected libraries to embrace information communication technology. Keywords: Resources sharing, Academic library, Questionnaire, Data, Information communication technology.
36 Job satisfaction of higher secondary school teachers in relation to their seniority and stream of education, M. Y. Ganai and Shahnaaz Ali
The main objective of the present investigation was to study and compare the job satisfaction of Higher Secondary teachers in relation to their Seniority (age) and Stream of Education. 100 Higher Secondary teachers have been randomly selected from various Higher Secondary Schools of District Srinagar. The data has been analyzed by applying mean, SD and t-value. The Senior Higher Secondary school teachers are more satisfied with regard to their job than Junior Higher Secondary teachers. The Science teachers are more satisfied with regard to their job than Social Science Higher Secondary teachers. Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Seniority and Stream of Education.
37 Socio- cultural issues facing contemporary families in Nigeria: An appraisal of women holding administrative positions, Dr. Pat E. Mbah and Ozioma Azubike
It is shocking to learn that over 28% of working families living in the various communities in Nigeria are struggling to pay for basic life expenses. These families are the –working poor, and they make up the majority of the workforce. Despite differences in gender, race, income, or geographic origin, most families in the these communities are working towards the same goals: preserving healthy relationships; raising their children; maintaining a quality standard of living; coping with major medical illnesses; adapting to the needs of aging parents; and keeping their families safe. Unfortunately, low-income families have fewer –family assets to defend against crises when they occur. This study identified several challenges faced by most Nigerian families listing coping formats that can be adopted to streamline and alleviate these challenges for a healthy living standard. The study also appraised challenges women in administrative positions face both at work and among families. A survey was conducted, employing stratified randomly sampling technique to select 250 women from South East geopolitical zone in Nigeria. Three research questions were raised and three hypotheses formulated. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and 5-point likert scale was implored to analyze the ratings. A t-test at 0.5 level of significance was employed to analyze the identified issues and challenges facing families and women in administrative positions respectively. The result showed that women holding administrative positions are faced with so many socio cultural issues and challenges. It was recommended that there should be policy on the improving of the social well-being of families especially women on executive positions who are bread winners. Keywords: Administrative Positions, Gender, Issues, Socio-Cultural, Women
38 Perception of teachers towards the social studies curriculum in public primary schools in Kakamega Municipality, Kakamega County, Kenya, Rotich Joan Chelangat and Dr. Alice M. Yungungu
The Social Studies Curriculum helps learners to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an independent world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of teachers towards the Social Studies Curriculum in Public Primary Schools in Kakamega Municipality in Kakamega County, Kenya. To achieve this purpose, five objectives were addressed and these are; to find out the perception of teachers towards the teaching methods in Social Studies curriculum, to find out the attitudes of teachers towards the scope of Social Studies Curriculum, the availability and use of teaching and learning resources, the time allocation for teaching of Social Studies and the evaluation techniques used in Social Studies curriculum in Kakamega Municipality, Kakamega County. The study was guided by the theory of perception by Burns (1982). The theory explains how an individual put personal meanings to a psychological environment. The research design was descriptive survey. Stratified sampling and simple sampling method were used to obtain the study sample. The research method that was adopted was mixed method approach. The target population was all the teachers teaching Social Studies Curriculum and head teachers in Kakamega Public Primary Schools in Kakamega Municipality. The data collection instruments were questionnaires for teachers and interview schedules for head teachers. Piloting was done in two schools in Vihiga District to help the researcher in identifying any deficiencies in the data collection instruments. Validity of data collection instruments was ascertained by use of research experts at the department of curriculum, instruction and educational media at Moi University. The test-retest method was employed to ascertain reliability of data collection instruments. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentage and frequencies with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Computer Programme. The study established that teachers of Social Studies in public primary schools in Kakamega municipality use more than one teaching method. The perception of teachers towards the Social Studies Curriculum was that they prefer using more than one teaching method and that most of the teachers had positive perception. It was also found that the scope of Social Studies curriculum was wide. Further the study found that teaching and learning resources in public primary schools in Kakamega municipality were few and that some schools with a few resources did not put them into use. The findings indicated that teachers are not comfortable with the time allocated to the Social Studies curriculum for they found it inadequate in covering the content. Most of the teachers use question and answer method, continuous assessment and diagnostic evaluation in assessing learners’ retention. A rising from the study, the study recommend that teachers should attend in-service education courses on the appropriate teaching methods to be used, teachers should take part in Social Studies Curriculum planning, they should be updated on the new approaches, be involved in time allocation for various taught subjects, curriculum planners should either reduce the content or increase the time allocation and teachers be consulted in Social Studies curriculum evaluation. The findings are useful to policy makers, curriculum developers and curriculum implementers for improvement of the perception of teachers towards the Social Studies curriculum. The study revealed other areas that might require further studies. Keywords: Perception, Social studies, Curriculum, Education, Teachers.
39 The need to effectively prepare the technological education teacher for quality education in Nigeria for social transformation, self- reliance and economic development, Iteku Johnson Abor
Abstract The importance of human resource in any organization or nation cannot be overemphasized. This is with the fact that human resource is the most important factor of production. This paper therefore focuses on the need to adequately and effectively prepare the technological teacher for quality education in Nigeria for social transformation, self- reliance and economic development. The paper x-rays the various institutions and programmes meant to prepare the vocational and technology education teacher as well as the objectives of the vocational and technical education as stated in the national policy on education. The paper also tried to expose some of the problems militating against effective preparation of the vocational and technical education teacher. A conclusion of the fact that a well trained vocational and technology teacher will bring about the technological change that we have been yearning. Some suggestions on how to better the situation are also proffered. Keywords: Technical Education, Vocational, Practical Skills, Teacher, Quality Education, Nigeria