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Bannag: A Journal of Local Knowledge

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1 THE POSITIONALITY OF INDIGENOUS STUDIES  IN THE ONGOING EDUCATION REFORM  , Eric Joyce DC. Grande 
My paper is an exploratory meta-analysis or meta-narrative of Indigenous Studies (IS).  Data include theses and dissertations, abstracts of paper presentations, proceedings of a seminar workshop that got published into a book, few journal articles, relevant policy papers, etc., within 2012-1017.  However, I focused on the 521 abstracts of paper presentations in six conferences within 2016-2017. These were surveyed for content analysis and reviewed for discourse analysis.  More specifically, my paper (1) situates IS within recent global, regional, and national education policies, (2) reports emerging trajectories in terms of topics, methods, and approaches; and (3) proposes a typology of Indigenous Peoples Education (IPEd).  These broad categories respectively represent IPEd as a means that advance colonization, mainstream in the ongoing education reform, marginal experience in specific contexts, and materiality of hybridity.   
2 RICE FARMING METHODS, TOOLS, AND INDIGENOUS PRACTICES AND BELIEFS OF ITAWES FARMERS OF TUGUEGARAO CITY  , Rhoda Mae E. Ramos, Tiburcio C. Gallibu  and Darin Jan C. Tindowen
Agriculture is very essential in sustaining and building a country, as it provides food and livelihood to the people and to the economic growth of a country. Most of the developing countries, like the Philippines have a high percentage of population and majority are living in rural areas and their primary livelihood is rice farming. This study aimed to determine the different farming methods, tools, practices and indigenous beliefs of the Itawes farmers of Tuguegarao City. Using purposive sampling through site selection and networking approach, 40 rice farmers were selected from the chosen barangays as the participants of this study. Interview, observation and documentation were used to gather the needed data.  The result showed that the Itawes rice farmers of Tuguegarao are engaged in traditional ways of farming. They still use traditional tools and equipment in planting and harvesting grains. The rice farmers are practicing their traditional animistic beliefs for good luck and thanksgiving for their good harvest. Also, participants are hesitant to adopt the use of the modernized machines in rice farming due to lack of financial capabilities and low skills in terms of technological competence. 
3 YBANAG UNONI: REFLECTIVE OF VALUES AND VIRTUES  , Jose Mari M. Melad 
Ybanag Unoni is reflecting the values and virtues of the Ybanags. It is the intention of this study to bring out these values and virtues from the selected Unonis which are in consonance with the values education framework by the Department of Education. The selected pieces were analyzed using the said framework as the basis
4 THE PREVAILING BELIEFS AND PRACTICES OF THE YBANAGS AS REVEALED IN THEIR FOLK LITERATURE  , Leonora M. Cagurangan
This study aimed to collect, classify, document and interpret five Ybanag literary types namely poem, proverbs, riddles and songs. Ybanag folk literature is didactic, moralistic, predominantly sentimental, romantic, socialistic, comic and spiritual as revealed in the themes of the literary pieces which are: Faith in God, Family solidarity, humility and simplicity, industry, love of knowledge and wisdom, patience and perseverance, reciprocity and justice, unity and cooperation, and love, courtship and marriage
5 THE MASCOTA DANCE: AN EXPRESSION OF YBANAG COURTSHIP  ,  Janet C. Daquioag 
Mascota is a wedding dance popularized by the Ybanags in the provinces of Cagayan and Isabela. It is performed by the newly married couple or by the other pairs attending a wedding celebration. However, there are no studies cataloguing the Mascota dance, with its moves, music and costumes. Thus, this study attempted to trace and document the origin of the Mascota dance in order to come up with a clearer definition of the dance in its skeletal form and understand more about its history.  With this documentation, Mascota dance will remain a significant landmark of the Valley’s history and also an initial attempt to preserve and promote this time-honored courtship dance of Ybanags. 
6 DAKLIS: A COLLABORATIVE FISHING TECHNIQUE  ,  Ferdinand N.Cortez 
This study aimed at recording the daklis, a collaborative fishing technique in Buguey. This study made use of the qualitative-expository research method using key informants such as the members of the daklisan, municipal officials and barangay folks of Buguey. The daklisan are simple folks aspiring to earn honest living. With the income that they earn during the daklis season, they augment this when harvest time in the fields come. They are also farm hands, carpenters and plowers. Daklis is one of the most popular fishing techniques in Buguey and in Gonzaga.The peak season starts early in March, when the waters’ color becomes tropic blue, and ends mid-May, when rains and thunderstorm would make the sea turbulent. It is also unique, because it involves a whole barangay in its peak season.     From a crude concept of fishing come an organizational structure and sharing and the spirit of bayanihan therein. The terms however, signify Hispanic origin. The people listed above are not sufficient to pull the heavy net (plus the catch). The amo and the sobreamo have to employ pullmen and boatmen. Thus, a scheme of sharing was conceptualized. 
7 MIDSUMMER AND MAYDAY EVE: A DUALITY  , Ferdinand N.Cortez 
8 POPULAR RELIGIOSITY OF THE ITAWES ON THEIR CONCEPT OF SALVATION  , Jennifer C. Bangi 
One of the means in which man and woman can achieve full humanity is through culture. It is for this reason that popular religiosity, as an expression of culture, is taken into study to find out its significant contribution to full human development, particularly of the Itawes of Atulayan Sur, Tuguegarao City. This study dwells into establishing the salvific elements or life-giving elements of the popular religious practices of patunak, balangun, and makitollu, as contributory towards their Christian Catholic concept of salvation.  The primary source of information was attained through interview and observation method. To substantiate the information gathered, library work was done. The hermeneutics of appreciation was especially employed in the interpretation of the data gathered, in respect of the culture of the subjects. The descriptive and expository methods were also used in presenting the data gathered. Specific Christian Catholic doctrines and traditions were utilized to enrich the reflections made from the popular religious practices.  This study reveals that patunak is a mirror of the hope of the poor people for survival from their impoverished situation. There is an evidence of transfer of life from one form to another. The Kingdom of God reigns in a structure which underwent patunak. Balangun, is necessary for the salvation of a sick child. While, Makitollu is concern about harmonious relationship of family members.  The practices are means of achieving salvation and they are essential in teaching important Christian Catholic values. Furthermore, the practices are not only concern about human relationships but extend to other beings.
9 MUSIC OF MAINSTREAMED AETAS IN PENABLANCA, CAGAYAN  , Grachelle Borrinaga, Mayline Abuzo, Rosalio Bobit Canapi,  Joe Zacharei Gangano 
The study conducted focused on the music of the Agta community. Numerous studies have been conducted among Agtas and other researchers were able to come up with a very substantial study. Researchers extracted much of information about the Agtas which actually satisfies the inquisitiveness of the researchers. This also triggers the group to study such, for this aim to know and understand the authenticity of the music of Agtas community and the custom behind their original music.Through interviews and observations, the data gathered revealed that Agtas were influenced by other group of people with regard to their music. Also, the music of the Agtas today was already a product of assimilated culture. This would now show that they do accept modernization and not merely confining to their own culture. 
10 FAMILY RITUALS: A TOOL TO THE STABILIZATION OF FAMILY STRUCTURE , Marco Baquiran, Emmanueliza Dillig, Jacqueline Viernes
This study investigated the extent of the effect of family rituals in strengthening family relationship and examined whether there is a significant difference on the effects when the family is classified according to family structure. The target respondents were 200 Louisian students from the different college departments. This study utilized frequency to determine the rituals that the family engage into, weighted mean to determine the extent of effect of the rituals and the analysis of variance to identify whether there is significant difference in the responses of the respondents. Based on the analysis, it has been found out that rituals positively strengthen the family relationship and that there is a difference in the perception of the respondents with regards to the extent of the effect of the family rituals in strengthening family relationship that lead to the stabilization of family structure. 
11 INDIGENEOUS GAMES OF THE AGTAS  OF PEÑABLANCA, CAGAYAN  , Ruth A. Hortelano, Johannes Paulus M. Juan,  and Darin Jan C. Tindowen
Culture is defined as the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, intellectual, emotional and material features that characterize a society or social groups. And with this reality, culture plays a vital role in the development of a certain community and society. And one of the elements that is important in understanding one’s culture is the presence of indigenous games.  This study aims to identify the different indigenous games of the Agta community of Peñablanca, Cagayan, Philippines. Ethnographic method was utilized to determine the needed data. Results revealed that the indigenous games of the Agtas are Sigegud (Bow and Arrow), Magsinaang-ugaw (Tree Climbing), and Magkabay (Swimming), where these games serve as their practice for survival and for recreation. 
12 ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS  IN SAN MIGUEL, BAGGAO, CAGAYAN  , Airah Jane C. Abad, Josephine M. Guerrero, Genifer B. Pataray and Jennifer C. B
Since time immemorial, plants have been put to medicinal use by the early groups of people which mean that medicinal plants constitute precious resources for mankind. Plants have been identified to have many uses such as food, shelter, but considering the type of living before, utilization for medicinal remedies is at its most significant heights. The objective of this study is to find out the different medicinal plants used by the people of San Miguel, Baggao. Based on the gathered data, this study aimed to provide a summarized information regarding the availability and utilization of medicinal plants in San Miguel through a pamphlet for the purpose of giving information to the natives as well as other readers as to what particular plants can be used to cure common ailments. Data were gathered through interview while plant specimen was identified and documented according to the ailments healed. This study was able to document 41 different medicinal plants used by 47 families. Mainly, the plants identified were used in treating 36 common ailments with respect to the parts utilized and the mode of preparation.  
13 ETHNOZOOLOGY OF THE KALINGAS  , Christine B. Mendoza
As population has multiplied and industry has expanded, accompanied by science and technology, man’s fear for the future fate of the world has increased. Right now, a new body of knowledge called Ethnozoology has emerged to provide a background of ethnic group and its useful animals, and the animasl that are of potential value to them. It also shows the relationship of animals to these ethics (the people of the area) regarding their customs, beliefs, and practices. This study is focused on the ethnozoology of the Kalinga Province. Descriptive method was utilized in the study. Results revealed that the Kalinga Province is rich with animals that are used by the residents for various purposes.   
14 TAXONOMY OF FISHES OF GONZAGA, CAGAYAN, PHILIPPINES  , Joyce C. Alinan
This study was conducted to determine the fish species found in the municipality of Gonzaga, Cagayan as to its taxonomy. Descriptive method of research supplemented by unstructured interview, field inspection, and documentary analysis were used as the main tools in the study. Two hundred seventy five respondents were taken from the fisher folks of Gonzaga, Cagayan. The results reveal that the taxonomy of fish species found in the locality in general have two classes of superclass Gnasthostoma namely class chondrichthyes with only one species and class osteichthyes with 68 families.
15 ALTERNATIVE MEDICINES AND PRACTICES IN THE PROMOTION OF COMMUNITY HEALTH CARE: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC SURVEY  , Felix A. Pattung
The study of folk medicine in our country can be a ground of research and documentation. Presently, there is good number of folk medicine in almost all parts of the Philippines. In response to this, the present study attempted to gather information and data in the municipality of Baggao about the use of alternative medicines and practices in promoting health care. Descriptive design was used in the study. Results revealed that the people of Baggao, Cagayan accept the use of various herbal plnats as alternative medicines in treating different illnesses. Also, alternative medical practices are widely used in Baggao, Cagayan. And finally, alternative medicines and practices have helped to a large extent in promoting health care in Baggao, Cagayan. 
16 ETHNOZOOLOGY OF AETAS IN PEÑABLANCA, CAGAYAN  , Marites E. Pascual and Emmanuel James P. Pattaguan
This study aimed to investigate the local animals used by the Aetas as food, medicine, decorations, wearing apparels, and toys or amusement, body accessories, and for other purposes. It was found out that local animals used by Aetas consist of 39 for food, 10 for medicine, 5 for decoration, 6 for body accessories, 21 for toys and amusement, 8 for cultural practices, beliefs, and rituals and 19 for other purposes. The fauna based traditional knowledge of using animals is a continuous practice in the community on the animal resource use and practices of indigenous people that will provide vital information for sustainability required as the guiding principle for biological conservation
17 LEXICOGRAPHY OF KALINGA DIALECTS  , Harwin Curtney L. Baggay, Thalia P. Melad  and Liza M. Empedrad
The study was a comparative study of dialects used by Upper Kalinga and Lower Kalinga with a view on finding out the differences and similarities used by them. The study was based on the selected 81 words which were translated in their dialects. The respondents of the study were the Kalinga tribes who reside in the Upper Kalinga which are Tulgaw and Dananaw Tribes and Lower Kalinga which are Limos and CalOwan tribes. These tribes belong to the same geographical location. More particularly, this paper describes in details the lexical, phonological and morphological differences of the tribes. The data gathering was conducted using two methods: written communication and oral communication. The findings show that Kalinga has differences and similarities in their lexemes. The Kalinga tribes have their own distinct lexemes. They differ in the pronunciation of various letters. It was found out that the differences of the four tribes have variation pattern. It was revealed in the study that the Kalinga province has its own lexemes and it varies in different location. This only shows that the tribes that are near to each other have a greater percentage of similarity and the tribes that are far from each other show high percentage of differences. This implies that the province has its own unique language disposition. Moreover, the implementation of the MTB-MLE can use the native tongue of the people aside from using the Ilocano dialect by knowing each student’s tribe to know what dialect to use as a medium of instruction. 
18 THE MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION  OF THE MALAUEG LANGUAGE , Kristine Mae R. Auayang, Matthew Rey P. Soriano and Darin Jan C. Tindowen
Language enables people to store meanings and experiences in order to pass on a cultural heritage to new generations. This study aimed to document the evolution of the Malaueg language and to further find out what morphological developments were made in the said language for the promotion of the Malaueg’s cultural identity. The study was conducted in Rizal, Cagayan. Structured interview and document analysis were utilized as its main instruments in gathering data. The findings revealed that the Malaueg language has a lot of words which share the same morphological structure with Itawes, Ilokano, Ibanag, Filipino, English and Spanish. Language borrowing, word coinage and blending were identified as the cause why these words were injected in the Malaueg language. The residents tend to adopt words from other languages to fill in the concepts or ideas they stand for. Subsequently, language borrowing, word coinage and blending are results of language contact. Moreover, language contact was seen as the primary reason why the Malaueg language evolved and it was brought about by intermarriages, migration and the proximity of the neighboring languages. In addition, the study also concludes that the Malaueg language is experiencing a language convergence due to the high levels of borrowing from different languages. It is seen to be vulnerable to change because of its contact with other ethnic groups. 
19 NUESTRA SENORA DEL PILLAR: REDISCOVERING  THE ARTS OF A HERITAGE CHURCH  , Clyde Vinzon Martin, Marjorie Andaya, Mark Gerald Teano, and Marie Jean Mendezabal
This study aimed to rediscover the arts in the heritage church. Nuestra Señora Del Pillar, a well-known church in Cauayan City. The descriptive qualitative method of research was used to describe the architectural style, structure and design of the church. An interview was also conducted to an architect, parish priest and parishioners who are knowledgeable of the church. Results of the study revealed that the heritage church was made up of Spanish Colonial architecture combined with Baroque style. Its structure was made up of first class materials, galvanized gabled roof, crossed step façade, four-storey quadrilateral bell tower, Solomonic and Roman doric columns, different arches like semi-circular arch and segmented arch. Its design is ornately decorated with European patterns. 
20 GETTING INKED BY A MAMBABHATOK:  THE TRADITIONAL TRADEMARK OF KALINGA  , Maybelle C. Aggabao, Lea C. Parungao, Ruby Louie M. Tuddao  and Marie Jean N. Mendezabal
The Kalinga province is one of the numerous places which is known for the practices of the skin piercing or tattooing. This descriptive-qualitative study explored the tattoo designs and its meaning based on the perspectives of the informants who were tattooed by a Mambabhatok, the process of tattooing and the reasons of the informants for being tattooed. A total of 18 informants from upper and lower Kalinga were identified thru snowball sampling. Information were gathered thru interviewing. The results revealed that there are similarities of the tattoo designs but has differences on the meanings based on the motifs and perspective of the informants in terms of its designs. Moreover, Mambabhatok from different localities in Kalinga have different styles, techniques and materials in creating traditional tattoo. On the other hand, the process of tattooing was all done manually thru hand tapping. The study also revealed that traditional tattoos of Kalinga, marks an individual’s identity and sense of belongingness in the community.   
21 THE UNDOCUMENTED FOLK LITERATURE OF PINUKPUK, KALINGA  , Harold Baggay, Edmar Quilang  and Darin Jan C. Tindowen
Folk literatures are oral in nature, so it is impossible to transmit exactly the original literature from one generation to another. It is also dependent upon the existence of a living culture to carry on a tradition. If any item of ceases folk literature exists within the memory of man, it is completely lost. This study aimed to document the undocumented folk literatures of the two tribes of Pinukpuk, Kalinga: Limus and Cal-owan. The study was conducted at the two tribes of Pinukpuk, Kalinga. The study utilized the qualitative type of approach using ethnographic method.  The researchers were immersed in Limus and Cal-owan tribes as active participant and recorded the data gathered. It was found out that Limos tribe has three literary types namely: Short stories, legends, and Riddles. The study also revealed that Cal-owan tribe has four literary types such as: Short stories, legends, songs, and riddles.   
22 ETHNOMEDICINE IN GONZAGA, CAGAYAN  , Joylyn V. Saraus, Jennifer U. Balonga,   Reajelyn S. Caguranagan and Jennifer C. Bangi 
In this study, the researchers have documented plants and animals utilized as alternative medicine in Gonzaga, Cagayan. The informants were the Ilocano residents in the area. The researchers have employed structured interview in gathering the necessary data for the study. The result of the study revealed a total of 61 species of plants and eight species of animals which were documented. But, the result of the study showed that the informants use more plants than animals because of its availability. The plants and animals are used as alternative medicine to treat various diseases of the human body. It can treat and prevent problems of respiratory, integumentary, muscular, digestive, circulatory, nervous, reproductive, endocrine and urinary system. Some of the specific diseases treated are “kulebra” (shingles), spasms, fever, dysmenorrhea, toothache, baldness, diabetes, inflammation, dizziness, and cough. It can also kill cancer cells and controls blood pressure. Furthermore, leaves is the most common plant part utilized. Other plant parts like rhizomes, roots, barks, fruit, and seeds are also used. However, there are plants which all its parts are utilized. The informants used many procedures to prepare the plants and animals as alternative medicine. Boiling and decoction are the most common methods used .Other methods utilized are poultice, extraction, mincing and grinding. Moreover, some plants and animals are cooked or eaten fresh. In some instances, the informants drink the prepared alternative medicine anytime of the day. Thus, it is very evident that plants and animals as alternative medicines play a vital role in the healthcare of the Ilocanos in Gonzaga, Cagayan. Though many commercial drugs are available, the informants still utilize plants and animals as alternative medicine because it is inexpensive.  
23 A METALINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE ITAWES CONCEPTS OF “MAHIMAMMAK” AND “MANNONOT” TOWARDS A FILIPINO ACT OF PHILOSOPHIZING  , Jerome De Mata Requidan 
The death of a language begins when meaningful terms in the language lose their significance or maybe simply forgotten by the linguistic community. Itawes, one of the minority languages in the Philippines, is in this sad state, with less and less people using the same and more and terms losing their significance in the actual communication of Itawes linguistic communities. This paper is an attempt to revitalize the rich linguistic traditions of the Itawes. This research involves a metalinguistic analysis of the Itawes terms “Mahimammak” and “Mannonot”. Fr. Leonardo Mercado’s framework on Filipino Philosophy will be utilized to build on an Itawes act of philosophizing that is Filipino in character. The research seeks to provide valuable information in advancing a uniquely Filipino act of philosophizing. 
24 AMBAHAN OF THE AKEANON BUKIDNON  , Maria Rayda T. Cipriano and Celedonia R. Hilario 
This research was a preliminary study on the ambahan of the Akeanon Bukidnon in Dalagsaan, Libacao, Aklan.  The ambahan of the Akeanon Bukidnon were collected and themes were extracted.  Lesson exemplars were then produced.  This was a qualitative study which used culturally resonant methodologies, specifically pakikiisa (oneness), a person-oriented approach with panagtagpo (convergence); pagkaana (presence); pagpangotana (asking questions); pagpamati (listening); pakig-ambit (life-sharing); pagtugyan (surrender); and, pagdawat (receiving).  In the collection, description and interpretation of the ambahan on the reflective culture of the indigenous people of Dalagsaan, three manog-amba (oralists) were interviewed.  The manog-amba performed the role of oral historian, culture bearer, preacher and entertainer.  The ambahan was described as a poem, a language, song, poetic joust, entertainment, pamaeaybay (preaching) and value laden.   Various themes significant to the lives of the Akeanon Bukidnon were identified:  arranged marriage, advice, commitment, inheritance, faith, friendship, humility, love, peace and respect.  This indigenous culture needs to be preserved to continue the rich legacy of the Akeanon Bukidnon. 
25 PAGPAPAHALAGANG PILIPINO SA MGA PILING SIDAY  NG SAN JULIAN, SILANGANG SAMAR , Ian Mark P. Nibalvos
Ipinahayag ni Lydia P. De la Rosa sa kanyang tesis-masterado na Community Values as Reflected in the Folktales of Barrio Salvacion, Bobon, Northern Samar, na “Values are expressed specially in literature.” Batay sa paniniwalang ito, pinagsumikapan ng mananaliksik na suriin ang mga pagpapahalagang Pilipinong nakapaloob sa mga siday o tulang Lineyte-Samarnon na isinulat ng mga “paragsiday” o mga makata sa bayan ng San Julian, Silangang Samar. Ginamit na batayan sa pananaliksik na ito ang tatlong teorya sa pagpapahalagang Pilipino: ang klasipikasyon ng mga pagpapahalagang Pilipino na binuo ni Timbreza noong taong 2003; nina Bulatao, Gorospe, Cordero, Paterno at Crisol; at ang Theory of Basic Human Values ni Schwartz noong taong 1992. Inilapat naman dito ang Intertextual Analysis sa pagsusuri ng mga piling siday upang makatulong sa pagtukoy ng mga pagpapahalagang Pilipinong nakapaloob sa mga ito. Batay sa pagsusuring isinagawa, napatunayan na ang mga piling siday ay kinapalolooban ng mga pagpapahalagang Pilipino. Dalawampu’t dalawang pagpapahalaga ang natukoy mula sa sampung siday o tulang Lineyte-Samarnon. Labinsiyam sa mga ito ang mga Recurring Filipino Values o ang mga pagpapahalagang karaniwan nang taglay ng mga Pilipino o nga mga San Juliananon. Samantala, tatlo naman ang mga pagpapahalagang hindi nabibilang sa kahit saan mang mga klasipikasyon. Ito ay ang pakikinig sa payo, pagpapahalaga sa matatanda, at pagmamalasakit o pagpapahalaga sa kabataan. Ito ang mga Emerging Filipino Values na taglay ng mga San Juliananon o mga pagpapahalagang Pilipino natatangi sa mga San Juliananon bilang mga Pilipino o sa mga Pilipino sa kabuuan.  
26 INDIGENOUS PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION  , Andylyn Simeon 
Much has already been written about the philosophy of education which most of the times are from the west.  In recent times, the eastern philosophies of education are also gaining attention.  However, this paper attempts neither to look towards the west nor towards the east but from among and from within the cultures, that is, the indigenous philosophies of teaching and learning.  The study investigates some indigenous educational philosophies from Africa, North America, Australia, and the Philippines through a review of the literature.  A list of common elements of indigenous philosophies was lifted.  These are terrestrialism, communitarianism, oraliticism, preparationism, perennialism, holisticism, deconstructionreconstructionism, and practicalism. These principles were paralleled with Religious Education and possible applications on enriching philosophies on Christian education were discussed. 
27 THE OBJECTIVE ETHNOLINGUISTIC VITALITY OF ISNAG, ISNEG YAPAYAO, AND ITNEG TINGGUIAN IN ILOCOS NORTE: DETERMINING FACTORS OF LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE AND SHIFT  , Agnes Catalan Francisco 
This study assessed the objective ethnolinguistic vitality (OEV) of three indigenous languages spoken in Ilocos Norte, Philippines—Isnag, Isneg Yapayao, and Itneg Tingguian. It also examined the factors that contribute to such OEV levels in terms of demographics, institutional support and control factors, and status factors. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of responses of 90 respondents were employed.   Results revealed that the demographics of L1 speakers are essential elements towards maintenance of their L1. As found in the three L1 communities, a majority of them (57%) speak their native language. Though these communities exist amidst a more dominant community, intergenerational transmission of their language likely takes place. Birth rate is higher than death rate which implies that more speakers of the L1 are expected thus enabling them to survive in the next generations to come.  Various institutions provide support to them in terms of education, government services, economy, politics, religion, and socio-cultural support. Media and religious institutions were found to have less support given towards language vitality. Status factors, likewise, need reinforcement. Owing to Giles et al.‘s (1977) OEV model, the vitality level of the three L1 is medium. 
28 LOCAL HISTORY OF CAVITE: THE CASE OF YOSHIAKI MUTO (KA MUTO)  OF INDANG, CAVITE  , Joether Aquino Francisco 
This historical and oral accounts of Yoshiaki Muto (Ka Muto) of Fukushima-ken, Japan attempt to trace back his beginnings as a resident of Indang, Cavite, as a Filipino family man, as a photographer and a businessman before the Japanese occupation in the Philippines, as a clergyman, and as a civilian officer of the Japanese Imperial Army. Using descriptive-analytical or oral historical method in gathering data, the researcher informally interviewed Ka Muto‟s son and relatives, some church members, and old residents of Indang, Cavite. It was found that due to very limited accounts of Ka Muto, the need to address the question, “Did Ka Muto come to the Philippines by accident, by choice, or by order of the Japanese Imperial Army?” Further, it was found that there are many fallacies about Ka Muto in Indang, Cavite. He was always mistaken to be the Colonel, but it was his eldest son who was once an officer of the Philippine Constabulary. Owing to these findings, it was recommended that further studies on the sociopolitical history of Indang, Cavite before the Japanese Period be conducted especially among those leading characters who played important roles in the life of Ka Muto, and whose unsung stories have not been well documented as part of the history of the locality of Indang, Cavite.