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International Journal of Politics and Security

Journal Papers (26) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 IŞİD’in Hibrit Savaş Stratejileri: Hibrit Savaş Konsepti Perspektifinden Analizi ,
2 Aegean Disputes Between Turkey and Greece: Turkish and Greek Claims and Motivations in The Framework Of Legal and Political Perspectives ,
3 Küresel İlişkiler Bağlamında Çin’in Afrika’daki Ekonomi Politiği: Nijerya, Angola, Sudan ve Demokratik Kongo Cumhuriyeti Örnekleri ,
4 Violence and Human Development: A Perspectıve From Amartya Sen , Gerry Flores ARAMBALA
Political violence is a broad term that is often identified with acts of violence perpetuated by individuals or the state with the lone purpose of achieving political goals. Political violence may come in two modes, either as political terrorism or counter terrorism. The former is determined as the aggressive manipulation of an individual’s judgments by threats and intimidations to achieve political change. The latter presupposes the preventive measures the government is doing in fighting against all forms of terrorism, which inevitably lead to war. This paper is intended to examine how both of these forms of political violence affect the development of an individual, following Amartya Sen’s capability approach. This paper will argue, in the end, that the best way of solving arm conflicts is democratic dialogue. This paper, following Sen, adheres to the idea that any attempt of solving violence by resorting to war is futile. War in all its form is destructive to the claim of individual development. The government that readily engages into war without having to consider first any democratic dialogues in solving arm conflicts is not fulfilling its task of protecting and prioritizing the development of the people. In war there is no individual development.
5 Globalization, Nation State and Radical Right In Western Europe: A Relational Analysis , Ahmet KARADAĞ, M. Nazım UYGUR
6 Between Representation and the ‘Real’: the Remaking of Terrorism in Modernity   , Tianyang LIU
Terrorism Studies have long been dominated by the language of security studies. This domination obscures our understanding of terrorism as a social process constructed through discourse and inter-subjective practices. This research will examine the processes of representing and remaking terrorism in self-consciousness, systemic rationalities of sovereign state and modernity itself, by which to illuminate the distortion, alienation and mistranslation between the interpretation of terrorism and the ‘reality’ of terrorism. To this end, it will critically engage with existing literature about academic understanding of terrorism and re-categorize it into three dominant modes—mythic mode, objectification mode and re-subjectification mode. Then it will demonstrate and examine the gap between different modes of representation of terrorism and the acts of terrorism by investigating the ways in which the phenomenon of terrorism is reconstructed through modern subjectivity and mistranslated in political systemic representation of terrorism. This research will conclude by illuminating the basic trend behind the perception of terrorism; that is, the subjectivity presented in the individual understanding of terrorist threat is increasingly eroded, subordinated and dominated by the social systemic interpretation of terrorism in modernity.  
7 Algeria’s Turbulent Path to Democracy: Missed Chances and The Fall of Abdelaziz Bouteflika   , Israel Nyaburi Nyadera Billy Agwanda    
The disastrous consequences some Middle East and North African countries experienced as a result of the Arab Spring diluted any hopes that another wave of people driven demands for democracy would be on the horizon in the region. Therefore, when protestors poured on the streets of major cities in Algeria demanding an end to the reign of president Bouteflika, who was contesting the presidency for a fifth term, many remained sceptical that this would result to a now familiar case of bloodshed and destruction as being witnessed in Yemen, Syria and Libya. This article seeks to examine Algeria’s turbulent journey in search of democracy, the missed opportunities and the bloodless fall of Bouteflika. It argues that the involvement of the military in Algeria’s politics has been the biggest obstacle to democracy, and the recent events that led to the fall of the military supported regime of Bouteflika could mark the beginning of a hopeful path to political reforms.  
8 The Return of the Political: Chantal Mouffe and Ozamiz City Politics , Gerry F. Arambala
For nearly two decades, Ozamiz city was ruled by a political dynasty whose predatory politics has brought about the radical deficit of democracy in the state. Politics in the city is characterized with political harassments and violence. For three decades the ruling family succeeded in reformulating the democratic values of popular sovereignty and political antagonism in the city’s democratic institutions, that they were able to rule the city without any threats of popular uprising and protestations. With their political machinery they were able to hostage the people of Ozamiz; often denying most of the citizens’ freedom to insist on their fundamental democratic rights and entitlements. However, with the advent of the radical leadership exemplified by Chief Inspector Jovi Espenido, the fate of democracy in the city is changed from an authoritarian predatory system to a more open and democratic system. From a predatory state ruled by warlords and power predators to a liberal democratic state which embraces the fundamental democratic principles of liberty and equality.  This paper intends to examine the state of politics of Ozamiz city following Chantal Mouffe’s radical democratic paradigm. It aims to elucidate how Mouffe’s antagonistic democracy fits to the state of politics in Ozamiz after the progressive leadership of Jovi Espinido was realized.  
9 Avrupa Birliği’ne Uyum Sürecinde Türkiye’nin Siber Güvenlik Stratejileri , Salim KURNAZ S. Mustafa ÖNEN
Her ülke, kendi bilişim sistemlerini siber saldırılardan korumak ve sahip olduğu bilgi ve verileri güvenliğini sağlamak için etkin ve sürdürülebilir bir siber güvenlik stratejisi geliştirmek ve uygulamak zorundadır. Günümüzde siber güvenlik olgusu, artık her ülkenin ulusal güvenliğinin birer parçası halini almıştır. Yaşadığı siber saldırılar sonrası AB; siber güvenliğe yönelik stratejilerini ve yasal düzenlemelerini 2000’li yıllar itibari ile oluşturmuştur. Ayrıca AB, siber güvenlik stratejilerini uygulamak üzere gerekli kurumlarını da hayata geçirmiştir. Buna karşılık Türkiye’deki siber güvenlik stratejilerinin belirlenmesi ve iyileştirilmesi konusunun AB’nin siber güvenlik stratejileri ile karşılaştırıldığında; Türkiye’deki yapının henüz oluşum safhasında olduğu fark edilmektedir. Bu noktada Türkiye’nin AB uyum sürecinde AB’nin siber güvenlik stratejileri ile ilgili yasal ve kurumsal düzenlemelerini öncelikle gözden geçirmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın esas amacı, AB tarafından hayata geçirilen siber güvenlik stratejilerinin yasal ve kurumsal boyutunu inceleyerek Türkiye’deki siber güvenlik stratejilerinin oluşturulmasına ve geliştirilmesine belli ölçüde katkı sağlamaktır.  Çalışmada ilk olarak siber güvenlik kavramı ve türleri ele alınacaktır. Ardından Avrupa Birliği tarafından uygulanan siber güvenlik stratejileri ile Türkiye’de uygulamaya konan belli başlı siber güvenlik stratejileri kapsamında başlıca yasal ve kurumsal düzenlemeleri incelenecektir. Çalışmanın sonunda ise, ulusal siber güvenlik stratejilerinin oluşturulması ve iyileştirilmesi kapsamında mevcut düzenlemeler kısaca değerlendirilerek birtakım öneriler geliştirilecektir.  
10 Arap Baharı ve Tunus’un Yasemin Devrimi’ni Yeniden Anlamak   , Yusuf SAYIN
Bu çalışma, sömürgecilik sonrası süreçte önemli bir kırılma noktası olan, Tunus Yasemin Devrimi’nin sekizinci yılında değerlendirilmesine odaklanmaktadır. “Arap Baharı” olarak adlandırılan, etkilediği Ortadoğu ülkelerine kaos, devrim ve karşı-devrim ve darbe süreçleri yaşatan bu yeni aşama, bilhassa bölgesel değişim ve dönüşüm temalı yeni sürecin gölgesi altında gerçekleşmiştir. Arap Baharı sürecinde yaşanan Tunus tecrübesi, diğer ülkelere kıyasla daha çatışmasız ve yumuşak bir sürece işaret ederken, bu durumun ortaya çıkışında özellikle hareketlenmelerin başlarında Tunus’ta sivil toplum kuruluşlarının ve siyasal partilerinin faaliyetleri önündeki yasal ve siyasi engellerin kaldırılmasının ve Nahda Hareketi’nin ve lideri Raşid El Gannuşi’nin sergilediği uzlaşmacı liderlik anlayışının etkisi olduğu ifade edilebilir. Bu çalışmada, Tunus’ta gerçekleşen Yasemin Devrimi sürecine, Devrimin bölgesel ve uluslararası yansımalarına ve sekizinci yılında Devrimin geldiği aşamaya değinilmiştir.  
11 Political Philosophy of Al Farabi and the Logic of the Integration and Solidarity in the International Area   , Fikret BİRDİŞLİ
The classical theories and literature dominated by the ideas of Western philosophers and thinkers in the Political Philosophy.  Therefore, the western centrism perceived as a problem because of univocally denseness of in this field. This article scrutinize ideas of Al Farabi in context of classical idealism, because of his different approach or comment to same logical design. Famous theory of Al Farabi, the ideal state, expose different logic of the collaboration and solidarity from classical idealism by defining core value on personal perfectness and maturity instead of maximizing material interest. According to Al Farabi, solidarity and collaboration not only creating ideal conditions for having good governance, but also caused to the personal perfectness which is better serve to the stable integration and durable political system. The meaning of the collaboration and integration is a kind of societal evolution of the personality that begin from family and extend to the international community for serving better world by creating of ideal citizenship. In this context, ideas of Al Farabi contribute different meaning to the logic of collaboration, besides explanations of the idealism and liberalism. In addition, his contemplation about ideal city has include many reference for modern political ideas and concept. Therefore, Al Farabi may a reference from Eastern world and Islamic teaching for the modern political contemplations such a democracy, international integration, cosmopolitanism etc.    
12 BOOK REVIEW Critical Theory and World Politics, Richard Wyn Jones (Ed.), Lynne Rienner, London, 2001, 259 sayfa,   , Emre Baran PAK
13 Between Representation and the ‘Real’: the Remaking of Terrorism in Modernity   , Tianyang LIU
Terrorism Studies have long been dominated by the language of security studies. This domination obscures our understanding of terrorism as a social process constructed through discourse and inter-subjective practices. This research will examine the processes of representing and remaking terrorism in self-consciousness, systemic rationalities of sovereign state and modernity itself, by which to illuminate the distortion, alienation and mistranslation between the interpretation of terrorism and the ‘reality’ of terrorism. To this end, it will critically engage with existing literature about academic understanding of terrorism and re-categorize it into three dominant modes—mythic mode, objectification mode and re-subjectification mode. Then it will demonstrate and examine the gap between different modes of representation of terrorism and the acts of terrorism by investigating the ways in which the phenomenon of terrorism is reconstructed through modern subjectivity and mistranslated in political systemic representation of terrorism. This research will conclude by illuminating the basic trend behind the perception of terrorism; that is, the subjectivity presented in the individual understanding of terrorist threat is increasingly eroded, subordinated and dominated by the social systemic interpretation of terrorism in modernity.  
14 Algeria’s Turbulent Path to Democracy: Missed Chances and The Fall of Abdelaziz Bouteflika   , Israel Nyaburi Nyadera Billy Agwanda  
The disastrous consequences some Middle East and North African countries experienced as a result of the Arab Spring diluted any hopes that another wave of people driven demands for democracy would be on the horizon in the region. Therefore, when protestors poured on the streets of major cities in Algeria demanding an end to the reign of president Bouteflika, who was contesting the presidency for a fifth term, many remained sceptical that this would result to a now familiar case of bloodshed and destruction as being witnessed in Yemen, Syria and Libya. This article seeks to examine Algeria’s turbulent journey in search of democracy, the missed opportunities and the bloodless fall of Bouteflika. It argues that the involvement of the military in Algeria’s politics has been the biggest obstacle to democracy, and the recent events that led to the fall of the military supported regime of Bouteflika could mark the beginning of a hopeful path to political reforms.  
15 The Return of the Political: Chantal Mouffe and Ozamiz City Politics , Gerry F. Arambala
For nearly two decades, Ozamiz city was ruled by a political dynasty whose predatory politics has brought about the radical deficit of democracy in the state. Politics in the city is characterized with political harassments and violence. For three decades the ruling family succeeded in reformulating the democratic values of popular sovereignty and political antagonism in the city’s democratic institutions, that they were able to rule the city without any threats of popular uprising and protestations. With their political machinery they were able to hostage the people of Ozamiz; often denying most of the citizens’ freedom to insist on their fundamental democratic rights and entitlements. However, with the advent of the radical leadership exemplified by Chief Inspector Jovi Espenido, the fate of democracy in the city is changed from an authoritarian predatory system to a more open and democratic system. From a predatory state ruled by warlords and power predators to a liberal democratic state which embraces the fundamental democratic principles of liberty and equality.  This paper intends to examine the state of politics of Ozamiz city following Chantal Mouffe’s radical democratic paradigm. It aims to elucidate how Mouffe’s antagonistic democracy fits to the state of politics in Ozamiz after the progressive leadership of Jovi Espinido was realized.  
16 Avrupa Birliği’ne Uyum Sürecinde Türkiye’nin Siber Güvenlik Stratejileri , Salim KURNAZ S. Mustafa ÖNEN
Her ülke, kendi bilişim sistemlerini siber saldırılardan korumak ve sahip olduğu bilgi ve verileri güvenliğini sağlamak için etkin ve sürdürülebilir bir siber güvenlik stratejisi geliştirmek ve uygulamak zorundadır. Günümüzde siber güvenlik olgusu, artık her ülkenin ulusal güvenliğinin birer parçası halini almıştır. Yaşadığı siber saldırılar sonrası AB; siber güvenliğe yönelik stratejilerini ve yasal düzenlemelerini 2000’li yıllar itibari ile oluşturmuştur. Ayrıca AB, siber güvenlik stratejilerini uygulamak üzere gerekli kurumlarını da hayata geçirmiştir. Buna karşılık Türkiye’deki siber güvenlik stratejilerinin belirlenmesi ve iyileştirilmesi konusunun AB’nin siber güvenlik stratejileri ile karşılaştırıldığında; Türkiye’deki yapının henüz oluşum safhasında olduğu fark edilmektedir. Bu noktada Türkiye’nin AB uyum sürecinde AB’nin siber güvenlik stratejileri ile ilgili yasal ve kurumsal düzenlemelerini öncelikle gözden geçirmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın esas amacı, AB tarafından hayata geçirilen siber güvenlik stratejilerinin yasal ve kurumsal boyutunu inceleyerek Türkiye’deki siber güvenlik stratejilerinin oluşturulmasına ve geliştirilmesine belli ölçüde katkı sağlamaktır.  Çalışmada ilk olarak siber güvenlik kavramı ve türleri ele alınacaktır. Ardından Avrupa Birliği tarafından uygulanan siber güvenlik stratejileri ile Türkiye’de uygulamaya konan belli başlı siber güvenlik stratejileri kapsamında başlıca yasal ve kurumsal düzenlemeleri incelenecektir. Çalışmanın sonunda ise, ulusal siber güvenlik stratejilerinin oluşturulması ve iyileştirilmesi kapsamında mevcut düzenlemeler kısaca değerlendirilerek birtakım öneriler geliştirilecektir.  
17 Arap Baharı ve Tunus’un Yasemin Devrimi’ni Yeniden Anlamak   , Yusuf SAYIN
Bu çalışma, sömürgecilik sonrası süreçte önemli bir kırılma noktası olan, Tunus Yasemin Devrimi’nin sekizinci yılında değerlendirilmesine odaklanmaktadır. “Arap Baharı” olarak adlandırılan, etkilediği Ortadoğu ülkelerine kaos, devrim ve karşı-devrim ve darbe süreçleri yaşatan bu yeni aşama, bilhassa bölgesel değişim ve dönüşüm temalı yeni sürecin gölgesi altında gerçekleşmiştir. Arap Baharı sürecinde yaşanan Tunus tecrübesi, diğer ülkelere kıyasla daha çatışmasız ve yumuşak bir sürece işaret ederken, bu durumun ortaya çıkışında özellikle hareketlenmelerin başlarında Tunus’ta sivil toplum kuruluşlarının ve siyasal partilerinin faaliyetleri önündeki yasal ve siyasi engellerin kaldırılmasının ve Nahda Hareketi’nin ve lideri Raşid El Gannuşi’nin sergilediği uzlaşmacı liderlik anlayışının etkisi olduğu ifade edilebilir. Bu çalışmada, Tunus’ta gerçekleşen Yasemin Devrimi sürecine, Devrimin bölgesel ve uluslararası yansımalarına ve sekizinci yılında Devrimin geldiği aşamaya değinilmiştir.  
18 Political Philosophy of Al Farabi and the Logic of the Integration and Solidarity in the International Area , Fikret BİRDİŞLİ
The classical theories and literature dominated by the ideas of Western philosophers and thinkers in the Political Philosophy.  Therefore, the western centrism perceived as a problem because of univocally denseness of in this field. This article scrutinize ideas of Al Farabi in context of classical idealism, because of his different approach or comment to same logical design. Famous theory of Al Farabi, the ideal state, expose different logic of the collaboration and solidarity from classical idealism by defining core value on personal perfectness and maturity instead of maximizing material interest. According to Al Farabi, solidarity and collaboration not only creating ideal conditions for having good governance, but also caused to the personal perfectness which is better serve to the stable integration and durable political system. The meaning of the collaboration and integration is a kind of societal evolution of the personality that begin from family and extend to the international community for serving better world by creating of ideal citizenship. In this context, ideas of Al Farabi contribute different meaning to the logic of collaboration, besides explanations of the idealism and liberalism. In addition, his contemplation about ideal city has include many reference for modern political ideas and concept. Therefore, Al Farabi may a reference from Eastern world and Islamic teaching for the modern political contemplations such a democracy, international integration, cosmopolitanism etc.    
19 Critical Theory and World Politics, Richard Wyn Jones (Ed.) (Book Review) , Emre Baran PAK
Eleştirel Teori’nin Uluslararası İlişkiler disiplini ile özdeşleştirilmesine yönelik çabalara sıklıkla rastlanılmaktadır. Richard Wyn Jones tarafından editörlüğü üstlenilen “Critical Theory and World Politics” adlı eser de böyle bir amaç gütmekte ve Eleştirel Teori çerçevesinde siyaset bilimi ve uluslararası ilişkiler arasında köprü kurmayı amaçlayan bir bağlam sunmaktadır.             Marxist yaklaşımlar ve Eleştirel Teori üzerine yayımlanmış birçok eseri bulunan ve halen Cardiff Üniversitesi’nde çalışmalarını sürdüren Richard Wyn Jones’un editörlüğünü üstlendiği bu eser, Wales (Galler) Üniversitesi’nde gerçekleştirilen bir kongrenin bildiri metinlerinin derlenmesinden oluşmaktadır.  
20 Drivers of Political Radicalization and De-radicalization of Terrorism in Northern Nigeria  , Neba Ridley NGWA
This article sheds more light on the role of states and the bearing which political and elite interests may have exerted on public support for Boko Haram. It examines the political, socio-economic, and ideological context of the crisis and moves on to map the two dominant de-radicalization approaches; top-down and bottom-up approaches. The article exposes the fault lines of realism’s top-down approaches toward national security in Northern Nigeria and proposes a bottom-up approach as a complement to the earlier top-down model. An evaluation of both approaches reveals that top-down approaches are state-centric and are predisposed to realist techniques of wars centered on threat, use and control of military force. The work specifically argues for a hybrid security model that incorporates both elements on top down and bottom up security approaches.  The key theoretical considerations employed in the article relates to micro and macro theories of collective political violence. The theories provide a better understanding of the underlying drivers of violent extremism and radicalization that leads to terrorism and also justification for the approaches used in countering them. The article answered key research questions related to Top-down and Bottom-up security approaches.  
21 Analysis of the Intra-State Conflict in Afghanistan   , Mudassir FATAH
Afghanistan has been the hotbed of the international conflict since the Soviet invasion in December 1979. The decade long foreign troop presence mainly initiated the conflict within the different communities in Afghanistan. the withdrawal of the Soviets in no way marked the end of the Afghan conflict. With the Soviet withdrawal gave rise to a power vacuum and then the Taliban. The withdrawal of the Soviets intensified the intra-state conflict in Afghanistan and also the involvement of the external actors. The involvement of the external actors further intensified the intra-state conflict and the same continued till 1996. Afghanistan witnessed a kind of a stability for a brief period with the rise of the Taliban. The Soviet invasion and the civil war had already given rise to multiple militias and they continuously engaged the Taliban government/forces, and Afghanistan never saw the peace. The Taliban government too was not elected, so the challenges were bound to rise. The conflict continued till 2001. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the US, the conflict in Afghanistan took a new turn. US intervened in Afghanistan to dislodge the Taliban government and started the war on terror. Again, number of international actors fiercely got involved in Afghanistan. The United Nations, the NATO, Pakistan, Iran, India, Turkey, etc. all are now involved in the race for dominating Afghanistan, which further intensified the conflict in Afghanistan.  
22 New Media and Their Role in Supporting the Humanitarian NGOs during Armed Conflicts the ICRC's Work in the Syrian Conflict: A Case Study , Redouane TOUAT and Halima TOUATI    
This paper aims to highlight the role of New Media, especially the social networking sites, in supporting the international Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) during crises and armed conflicts. The focus is on the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), which has relied on Facebook in its work during the armed conflict in Syria. This reliance on Facebook has helped facilitate the process of communicating and interacting with the people affected by the conflict, and has made them aware of the consequences of the conflict and the necessary precautions that must be taken. Also, it has contributed to directing them to drinking water points, collective restaurants, and health centres, quickly and with a little effort.  
23 Yumuşak Güç Unsuru Olarak Kamu Diplomasisi   , Gökhan KÖMÜR
Küreselleşen dünyanın giderek değişmesi ve dünyanın artık eski dünya olmaması, yeni aktörlerin ortaya çıkması ve yeni anlayışların oluşması, ülkeler arasında stratejinin daha güçlü olmasını gerektirmektedir. Bu stratejik gücün ise en kuvvetli silahı, kamu diplomasisidir. Uluslararası sistemin farklı boyut kazandığı günümüzde, bu sistemde kabul görmek için eski diplomasi alışkanlıklarının terk edilmesi gerekmektedir. Böyle sistemde, devletler, ulusal ve uluslararası menfaatlerini korumak için ortaya çıkan yeni aktörleri kontrol etmek ve bu aktörleri kullanmak için yeni politikalar üretmelidir. Ortaya çıkan yeni ilişki biçimlerini doğru analiz etmeli bu doğrultuda küresel siteme uygun çalışmalar gerçekleştirilmelidir. Kamu diplomasisinin önemi, yabancı kamuoyunu ve gündemi etkileme becerisinde yatmaktadır. Yumuşak güç kamu diplomasisinin unsurlarından biri olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Yumuşak güç günümüzde demokratik sistemlerin politikalarının en önemli kısmını oluşturmaktadır. Yumuşak güç kullanarak milletler arasında etkileşime fırsat veren kamu diplomasisi araçları, ekonomik, kültürel, siyasi ortaklıkların ve barış ortamının oluşmasına zemin hazırlamaktadır. Dünyada cazibe merkezi olarak görülen, kendisini çok iyi ifade edebilen ve anlatan, güvenirlik kazanmış, işbirliğine açık olan ülkeler, dış politikada ve yabancı kamuoyu nazarında stratejik değerlerini artırarak uluslararası politikada kendilerine önemli bir yer bulmaktadırlar. Bu çalışmanın amacı literatürdeki diğer çalışmaları da inceleyerek yumuşak güç unsuru olan kamu diplomasisinin daha iyi anlaşılmasını sağlamak ve önemini ortaya çıkarmaktır. Çalışmada öncelikle kamu diplomasisi kavramı ele alınarak, anlamı, tarihsel arka planı, amacı ve hedefleri, özellikleri ve unsurları, faaliyet alanı ve boyutları ve son olarak da yumuşak güç kavramı incelenmiştir.  
24 President Rodrigo Duterte and the Birth of Radical Democracy in the Philippines   , Christopher Ryan MABOLOC
In this paper, I examine the radical approach to politics of President Rodrigo Duterte. I will trace the roots of this radicalism to the colonial history of the Philippines in which the Spanish colonizers instituted an elitist democratic system that engendered a deep social divide that has made the people of Mindanao felt betrayed by the capital. This politics of exclusion also gave rise to terrorism in the Southern Part of the country, the latest incident of which was the crisis in Marawi that has left the city devastated to the ground. Political analysts have always criticized the president’s War on Drugs as anti-poor. However, Duterte has remained prominent due to his radical means toward governance. Previous administrations have been accused as lacking any political will. Duterte, on the other hand, has symbolized the strong will of a leader who possesses the charisma necessary to institute structural change.  
25 Evaluation of Developments in Afghanistan in the Context of Foreign Policy and Security Issues   , Hasan ACAR Mustafa PEKCANDANOĞLU  
The need for security is among the basic needs that arise with the existence of human beings. With the socialization of mankind, this need has become one of the important problem areas of the states. At this point, the security of the world which come across some regions more vulnerable than others. One of these geographies is undoubtedly Afghanistan. Afghanistan has long been a sensitive country to domestic and foreign political developments. The political instability that emerged with the intervention of the Soviet Union in 1979 was deepened with the disintegration of the union. The activities carried out by the Taliban administration, which emerged as an element of power during this instability process, caused the United Nations and the United States to impose some sanctions on Afghanistan. As a result of the “Operation Enduring Freedom” carried out by the USA in Afghanistan in 2001, the Taliban administration had to leave the country. Hamid Karzai was elected President at the end of the same year and was appointed as the head of the Afghan interim administration. At the end of 2014, the activities carried out by NATO under the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) were changed into the Resolute Support Mission. Ashraf Ghani, who was elected President in 2018, announced that he was ready to negotiate with the Taliban. As the United States played a mediator role in these negotiations, a temporary peace was established by creating conditions that would allow American soldiers to leave Afghanistan as of February 2020. This article aims to discuss the position of Afghanistan, which plays a critical role in the security of the Middle East, within the scope of domestic and foreign political developments.  
26 Komünizmden Sonra İslam: Orta Asya’da Din ve Politika, Adeep Khalid (Kitap İncelemesi) , Elanur AKDAĞ
Adeep Khalid tarafından yazılan Komünizmden Sonra İslam: Orta Asya’da Din ve Politika isimli kitap günümüzde Orta Asya cumhuriyetlerinde yürütülen din ve politika ilişkisini anlamak adına önemli bir kaynak olarak görülebilir. Cumhuriyetlerde yürürlükte olan politikaları anlamak kolay olmayabilir ancak Sovyetler Birliği’nde gerçekleştirilen uygulamaları incelemek, din ve siyaset ilişkisini kavramak adına önem arz eden bir kitap olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Orta Asya’da din ve siyaset alanına ilgi duyan akademisyenler için son zamanlarda yapılan önemli bir çalışma olan kitap, referans olarak kullanılacak bir kaynak olma özelliği taşımaktadır.