1 Diagnostic set of microsatellite markers for hybrid purity testing and molecular identification of hybrids and parental lines in sorghum, Lalit Arya
Ten sorghum hybrids (seven kharif, two dual purpose and one rabi types) along with their thirteen parental lines were utilized for molecular identification and hybrid purity testing in the present study. Ten out of 11 microsatellite (or SSRs-simple sequence repeats) markers used were polymorphic (90.9%) with 2 to 6 alleles (average 3.4 alleles) and PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) value ranged from 0.28 to 0.61. All the ten polymorphic markers revealed polymorphism between the male and female parents of one or more hybrids and would be useful for their hybridity testing. Further, Sb5-236 and Sb4-15 have been identified as the two diagnostic markers for the genetic purity testing of all the ten sorghum hybrids included in this study. Sb6-42, Sb4-22 and Sb5-236 individually or a combination of Sb6-42/Sb4-22 and Sb5-236 could distinguish three and five hybrids respectively and can be used as referral set of markers for identification and protection of sorghum hybrids (CSH 13, CSH 15R, CSH 1, CSH 14 and SPH 837). All the kharif/dual purpose and rabi sorghum hybrids were grouped in separate clusters. Diagnostic/referral set of SSR markers will aid in hybrid breeding programme of sorghum.
2 Ethno-Medico-Botanical Studies of Plant Resources of Hoshangabad District, Madhya Pradesh, India: Retrospect and Prospects, M F Quamar
The present communication reports the folk medicinal uses of plants by the tribes of Hoshangabad District, Madhya Pradesh (India), which are therapeutically used against different ailments of human being as well as the livestock. In all, 179 plant species comprising 47 trees, 36 shrubs/undershrubs, 74 herbs, 21 climbers and 1 liana belonging to 76 families, used by the tribal people, have been enumerated and discussed, which signifies the ethnomedicinal values of plant species occur in the study area. The study, thus, highlights the potential of ethnobotanical research and the need for documentation of traditional knowledge pertaining to the utilization of plants as medicine. Pharmachemical analysis is obligatory in order to authenticate their accuracy and future prospects in the drug development with due benefit-sharing with the primary stakeholders for the greater advantage of mankind in the study area. The study could play a significant role in resolving the controversies pertaining to biopiracy and Intellectual Property Rights.
3 An Overview on Decalepis: A Genus of Woody Medicinal Climbers, Anwar Shahzad
Decalepis is one of the most important endangered woody medicinal climbing members of “Periploaceace” family. It comprises five species of twining vines and erect shrubs, D. hamiltonii, D. arayalpathra, D. salicifolia, D. khasiana and D. nervosa. Four of the five species of Decalepis are endemic to the Eastern and Western Ghats of peninsular India; the exception, D. khasiana, is geographically isolated from the peninsular species, occupying forest areas in the Meghalaya state in the easternmost part of India, Bangladesh, Laos, Myanmar and parts of Southern China. D. hamiltonii is the type species and most widespread of the Indian endemics. Three species (D. arayalpathra, D. hamiltonii and D. salicifolia) have clusters of numerous fleshy and tuberous roots with a sweet, vanilla-like fragrance due to the presence of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde (2H4MB). The tuberous roots of D. arayalpathra and D. salicifolia are moniliform, while those of D. hamiltonii are cylindrical. The roots of D. khasiana are documented as being non-tuberous, and fragrant due to an isomer of vanillin. Four of the five species of Decalepis (all except D. nervosa) are utilized in tribal and traditional Indian and Chinese medicine for the treatment of a wide range of ailments including those of the digestive system, lungs and circulatory system. Presently the three peninsular Indian species of Decalepis are threatened in the wild, and listed as endangered (D. hamiltonii) to critically endangered (D. arayalpathra and D. salicifolia) due to over-exploitation and habitat loss. During last few years considerable efforts have been tried to conserve this valuable endangered liana using different strategies of plant tissue culture viz., in vitro shoot regeneration (direct or indirect) and root induction, somatic embryogenesis, hydrogel encapsulation, normal root culture and hairy root culture. The present review provides up-to-date baseline information of all the species of this valuable endangered and endemic medicinal genus for further research work.