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European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

ISSN(p):2349-8870 | ISSN(e):2349-8870
Journal Papers (3596) Details
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Indexed Journal

1 STABILITY-INDICATING SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NALBUPHINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING FIRST DERIVATIVE OF RATIO SPECTRA AND RATIO DIFFERENCE METHODS, Khalid Abdel-Salam Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar, Ahmed El-Olemy *
Spectrophotometric stability-indicating procedures are described for determination of nalbuphine hydrochloride (NAL) in pure and dosage forms. First derivative of ratio spectra (1DD) and ratio difference methods are proposed for determination of nalbuphine in presence of its oxidative degradate. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-20 ?g/ml for both methods. The proposed methods can selectively analyse the drug in presence of up to 80 % of its degradate with mean recoveries of 101.26± 0.48 and 98.85±0.61 for derivative ratio and ratio difference methods respectively. These methods were validated and successfully applied for the determination of NAL in its commercial preparation and the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level and no significant differences were observed regarding accuracy and precision.
2 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENINGS OF BIDENS SULPHUREA CAV., Tanzila Sultana, M. Mohi Uddin Chowdhury, Farhana Hoque, Md. Sajid Ashraf Junaid, Md. Mashnur Chowdhury and Md. Torequl Islam*
In the present study, the methanol extract of Bidens sulphurea Cav. (Asteraceae) was screened for its phyto-constituents and pharmacological activities. Phytochemical investigation for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of reducing sugar, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and gums. In the antimicrobial activity test by disc diffusion method, the extract at the dose of 500 ?g/disc strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella paratyphi. Same dose of the extract found to be active against almost all the tested fungi. The crude extract of the plant showed the presence of strong analgesic, antipyretic and antifungic activity; moderate antiinflammatory, amylase inhibition activity and mild membrane stabilization and clotlysis activities. It was also found that the extract has a positive neuropharmacological activity on Swiss mice.
3 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENINGS OF BIDENS SULPHUREA CAV., Tanzila Sultana, M. Mohi Uddin Chowdhury, Farhana Hoque, Md. Sajid Ashraf Junaid, Md. Mashnur Chowdhury and Md. Torequl Islam*
In the present study, the methanol extract of Bidens sulphurea Cav. (Asteraceae) was screened for its phyto-constituents and pharmacological activities. Phytochemical investigation for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of reducing sugar, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and gums. In the antimicrobial activity test by disc diffusion method, the extract at the dose of 500 ?g/disc strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella paratyphi. Same dose of the extract found to be active against almost all the tested fungi. The crude extract of the plant showed the presence of strong analgesic, antipyretic and antifungic activity; moderate antiinflammatory, amylase inhibition activity and mild membrane stabilization and clotlysis activities. It was also found that the extract has a positive neuropharmacological activity on Swiss mice.
4 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENINGS OF BIDENS SULPHUREA CAV., Tanzila Sultana, M. Mohi Uddin Chowdhury, Farhana Hoque, Md. Sajid Ashraf Junaid, Md. Mashnur Chowdhury and Md. Torequl Islam*
In the present study, the methanol extract of Bidens sulphurea Cav. (Asteraceae) was screened for its phyto-constituents and pharmacological activities. Phytochemical investigation for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of reducing sugar, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and gums. In the antimicrobial activity test by disc diffusion method, the extract at the dose of 500 ?g/disc strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella paratyphi. Same dose of the extract found to be active against almost all the tested fungi. The crude extract of the plant showed the presence of strong analgesic, antipyretic and antifungic activity; moderate antiinflammatory, amylase inhibition activity and mild membrane stabilization and clotlysis activities. It was also found that the extract has a positive neuropharmacological activity on Swiss mice.
5 EFFECT OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM LEAVES ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND LIPID PROFILE STATUS IN CCL4-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS, *Aanuoluwa James Salemcity, Victoria Obiageli Nwaneri-Chidozie, Olakunle Oladimeji, Emmanue Ekpa, Blessing Titilope Olugbemi, and Esther Ojomenewu Ukwedeh
Effect of methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaves on lipid peroxidation and lipid profile status in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats was investigated for a period of two weeks. Thirty rats were divided into six groups: Group A (Normal rats), Group B (CCl4- induced rat) and Group C, D, E and F (CCl4 + various doses of the extract). There was no significant difference (P
6 METHANOLIC EXTRACTS: ANTI-ATHEROTHROMBOSIS ACTIVITIES, Md.Torequl Islam*, Ayesha Mahmood, Abdullah Al Faruq and Ali Ahmmad
Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs the blood flow through the circulatory system leading to hypertension, heart stroke, anoxia and so on. The complete deprivation of oxygen during infarction is the cause of the cell death. Crude biologicals and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. This study was aimed to investigate thrombolytic activity of methanol extracts of four traditionally used medicinal plants. For this an in-vitro thrombolytic study was carried out along with streptokinase and methanol were taken as reference standard and negative control respectively. Two doses (5 ?g/?l and 10 ?g/?l) were selected for the methanolic crude extractives. The highest lysis (55.15%) activity was observed with the Plumbago indica extract at the dose of 10 ?g/?l. Then followed by 28.29%, 26.53% and 17.26% for the Ficus racemosa, Alstonia macrophylla and Alstonia scholaris respectively at the same dose. With some exceptions all the extractives showed graded dose responses. Preliminary chemical group identification test revealed the presence of alkaloids, lycosides,steroids, saponins and terpenoids, tannins and reducing sugars important secondary metabolites.
7 PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC DRUGS INCLUDING DPP-4 INHIBITORS AND THEIR ADVERSE DRUG REACTION IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, Ijhar Ashraf, Abul Kalam Najmi, Prem Kapur, Mohd. Aqil, Mohd Akhtar*
Objective: This study envisaged the drug prescribing pattern and adverse drug reaction (ADR) profiling of different oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) including DPP-4 inhibitors. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 123 patients of HAH Centenary Hospital, New Delhi. Parameters recorded for different oral hypoglycemic agents prescribed including DPP-4 inhibitors were gender distribution, average age range, patient’s history, average number of oral hypoglycemic drugs per prescription, blood glucose levels, compliance or adherence etc. The data was collected from physicians prescribing records and patient’s medication profile. Results: Among the total 123 type 2 diabetic patients, 56 patients were male while 67 were female. The maximum number 41 (33.33%) fell under the age group of 51-60. A total of 21.95% patients had a family history of diabetes. The average number of oral hypoglycemic agents per prescription was 1.76. The mean fasting blood glucose level was 158.8 ± 76.6 mg%. The Morisky score 4 was observed in only 8.94% of the patients. The study population showed 46.34% adherence with the prescribed treatment. Metformin (33.4 %) was the most commonly prescribed followed by glimepride (21.5 %), ioglitazone (17.8 %) and vildagliptin (7%). Maximum numbers of ADRs were reported with metformin. The most commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic class was biguanides (metformin) followed by sulfonylureas (glimepiride), thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone), DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin and sitagliptin) and alphaglucosidase inhibitors (voglibose). Conclusion: The most common oral hypoglycemic class prescribed was determined as biguanides followed by sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, DPP- 4 inhibitors and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. The incidences of ADRs were higher with metformin.
8 SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY (WILKIE’S) SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT, Sushil Damor, Jigar Shah*, Sachin Veer, Nirmeet Patel
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon cause of proximal intestinal obstruction. Obstruction results from the vascular compression of the third portion of the duodenum between the aorta and the SMA. We describe a case of SMA syndrome in a 17-year-old male who presented at our emergency department with a 4-day history of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The diagnosis was established by abdominal KUB,upper GI endoscopy, high resolution USG and color Doppler findings. and computed tomography. He received medical and surgical treatment-duodenojejunostomy, which resulted in a good outcome.
9 PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF HELICANTHES ELASTICA GROWING ON NERIUM INDICUM, Ajith Kumar T G* and Lizzy Mathew
Loaranthaceaen members are not widely exploited for obtaining the medicinally active compounds. Helicanthes elastica commonly called mango mistletoe infests various other plants too. This plant growing in Nerium indicum was studied for the occurrence of various secondary metabolites by extracting with various solvents. The studies revealed the presence all the major compounds like alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides, phenols and tannins, triterpenoids, saponins etc. The organoleptic studies showed the powder of this plant has an astringent bitter taste, coffee brown colour and characteristic odour. The behavior of the powder with various chemicals and fluorescent studies showed characteristic colourations.
10 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE, Mukesh P.Ratnaparkhi* and Ashvini S.Kadam
Mouth dissolving drug delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups. Fast dissolving oral films (FDOFs) are the most advanced form of oral solid dosage form due to more flexibility and comfort. It improve the efficacy of APIs by dissolving within minute in oral cavity after the contact with less saliva as compared to fast dissolving tablets, without chewing and no need of water for administration. In the present research, rapidly dissolving films of Amlodipine Besylate were developed using HPMC E-5 & Pullulan as film forming polymers. HPMC & Pullulan are water soluble synthetic & natural polymers which were used as a film former from many years, PEG 400 and PEG 4000 used as a plasticizer. These two variables were studied at two levels using surface response method. The films of Amlodipine Besylate were prepared by solvent casting method using Ethanol & Distilled water as solvents. The prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, folding endurance and disintegration time. The in vitro and ex- vivo dissolution study of the optimized formulation was found to be 95.98% in 2 minutes and 88.49% in 3 minutes respectively. The prepared films exhibited good integrity and thickness. DSC and FTIR studies showed no drug polymer interaction.
11 A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF ASSOCIATION OF VITAMIN D LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC MUSCULO-SKELETAL COMPLAINTS, *Shankaran P and Sarve P
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in chronic pain status. Hence, the present study was a retrospective analysis of data from patients with chronic pain including non-specific musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Patients of either gender, aged between 18 and 75 years, presented with any form of musculoskeletal complaint for at least 3 months and who had checked their vitamin D levels were included in the study. The following details were extracted from the patient’s records: age, sex, diagnosis, duration of symptoms, presence of any co-morbid illness, vitamin D levels, and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. Results: Data from a total of 98 patients were included in the analysis. The median (range) vitamin D levels were 16.1(3-100) ng/ml. A total of 69 out of 98 (70%) study participants were found to be deficient in vitamin D and 19 (19.4%) with insufficient levels.Of those with non specific musculoskeletal pain (n=50), 40 (80%) had deficient levels and 8 (16%) had insufficient vitamin D. However, a trend (P=0.06) was observed between the duration of symptoms and vitamin D levels. A statistically significant difference (P=0.01) was seen in vitamin D levels [median (range) – 13.1 (3-51.5) ng/ml] in those with non specific musculoskeletal pain and other diagnoses had Vitamin D level [median (range) – 18.6 (6.2-100) ng/ml] in the sub-group analysis. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency may result in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hence, a high index of suspicion of hypovitaminosis D is necessary from the physicians when patients with non specific musculoskeletal complaints are encountered in their clinical practice.
12 EVALUATION OF HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF WHOLE PLANT OF ClerodendrumPaniculatum IN RAT FED WITH HIGH FAT DIET, C.D.Shaji Selvin * and Rakhi A.R.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the methanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum Paniculatum in reducing the cholesterol levels in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. The acute toxicity study was found that methanolic extract was safe up to 2000mg/kg, so one tenth of this dose was consider as evaluation dose. The methanolic extract of Clerodendrum Paniculatum was administered in single doses of 200mg/kg/day and double dose of 400mg/kg/day to rats fed with high fat diet to assess its possible lipid-lowering potential.The elevated levels of total cholesterol, ester & free cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein due to HFD. Administration of methanolic extract of Clerodendrum Paniculatum(400mg/kg)was significantly (P
13 SIMULTANEOUS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF GUAIFENESIN AND PSEUDOEPHEDRINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING DERIVATIVE OF RATIO SPECTRA AND RATIO DIFFERENCE METHODS., Khalid Abdel-Salam Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar, Ahmed El-Olemy *
Two simple, accurate, precise, reproducible, requiring no prior separation and economical procedures have been developed for the simultaneous analysis of binary mixture of guaifenesin (GUI) and pseudoephedrine hydrochlorid (PSD). The first method is the derivative of ratio spectra, where the absorption spectra of each drug were divided by a suitable absorption spectrum of the interfering drug (divisor) and then the first derivative (for PSD) and second derivative (for GUI) of these ratio spectra were recorded. The second method is the ratio difference, where The difference in peak amplitudes between two selected wavelengths in the ratio spectra were recorded for each drug. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 2-40 and 5-40 ?g/ml for GUI and PSD respectively for both methods. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of the two compounds in synthetic mixtures and in commercial drops.
14 ASSESSMENT OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SUDANESE PREECLAMPTIC PREGNANT WOMEN, Elhashimi E. Hassan*, Wiaam Sir Elhhatim, Siham M.Bakhit, NassrEldin M.A.Shrif, Mohammed A.Huneif
Background: Preeclampsia is a common gestational disorder which complicates 5-8% of pregnancies and it is associated with maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Minerals have important influence on the health of pregnant women and growing fetus and their Alterations in serum have been suggested as effective factors in causing preeclampsia. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the serum trace elements; zinc, copper and magnesium levels in preeclamptic and normal pregnant women. Methods: Hospital-based matched case control study was conducted during the period from October 2013 to April 2014. Cases were One hundred twenty two preeclampatic women and controls were 79 apparently health pregnant women from the Khartoum Teaching Hospital and Omdurman maternally hospital in Khartoum state, Sudan. Blood specimens were collected from both groups and serum levels of Zn, Cu and Mg were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The characteristic base line data were collected using structural questionnaire. Processing and analysis of data was carried out by means of statistical package for social science (SPSS version 16). Results: The means of serum trace elements zinc, copper magnesium levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia were significant lower (49.4 ± 17.0), copper (47.9 ± 20.0) and (1.23 ± 0.38) compared to (90.3 ± 16.8) , (91.7 ±23.2) and (2.04± 0.22) in healthy pregnant women , respectively . The trace elements zinc,copper & magnesium levels were found to be significantly decreased in pregnant women with preeclampsia. The maternal mean serum level of Zinc, Cu and Mg were lower among the severe PE patients compared to the mild patients (P.value < 0.05). There was no correlation between Age, parity and gestational age and serum level of zinc, copper and magnesium in mild and severe preeclamptic women (p. value
15 ASSESSMENT OF DRUG INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN PATIENTS TREATED FOR TB/HIV CO-INFECTIONS IN AYDER REFERRAL HOSPITAL ART CLINIC, MEKELLE; ETHIOPIA, Minyahi A. Woldu1*, Addishiwot G. Zewde and Jimma L. Lenjissa
Background: Concomitant use of treatment for tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is complicated by the adherence challenge of polypharmacy and overlapping side effect like drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatotoxicity in patients treated for the co-infections of TB/HIV using serum ALT levels as marker of hepatotoxicity. Result: The most frequent type of hepatotoxicity grade observed was toxicity degree type one, which was observed in 45% of the patients. Five percent of female and 10% male on HAART and anti-TB medications developed hepatotoxicity. Patient in age between 19-62 year were develop almost double the prevalence i.e 10%, compared to 4% in /=63 year. The prevalence of severe hepatotoxicity (grade 2 or more) was 15 (15%). There was no significant correlation in toxicity grade at baseline ALT measures, (Spearman Correlation Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)= .878). However, the ALT measure after three month showed that significant association with the grades of toxicity, (Spearman Correlation Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) = .000). HCV infection was significantly associated with the risk of hepatotoxicity, which occurred in 3 out of 4 of the study participants (OR, 22.7; P.value, 0.34). Conclusion: The prevalence of hepatotoxcity in the study area was comparable to other similar studies. HBV co-infection was an independent risk factor for hepatotoxicity. Clinicians must consider the possibility of drug-induced liver injury in the management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those with certain risk factors such as co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV).
16 PREPARATION OF IRBESARTAN NANOPARTICLES FOR DISSOLUTION RATE ENHANCEMENT, Hatem Sarhan* and Usama F. Aly
Nanoparticle technique offers promising methods for the formulation of poorly water soluble drugs. The objective of the present investigation was to enhance dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble irbesartan (IBS) by preparing stable nanoparticles. IBS nanosuspensions were produced by antisolvent precipitation under sonication. The physicochemical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and solubility studies, as well as measuring the particle size and in-vitro drug dissolution.The physicochemical results indicated that the antisolvent precipitation process led to the amorphization of IBS without drug-polymer chemical interaction. IBS nanoparticles increased the saturation solubility of drug almost sixteen fold. The in vitro studies showed a marked increase in the drug dissolution rate After 60 min, nanoparticles were almost dissolved completely but only 53 % of unprocessed IBS and 70 % of physical mixture (PM) had dissolved owing to its crystalline nature and larger crystal size. The combining of the methods was a promising method to produce uniform nanoparticles of IBS with remarkable improvement in dissolution rate.
17 PREPARATION OF IRBESARTAN NANOPARTICLES FOR DISSOLUTION RATE ENHANCEMENT, Hatem Sarhan* and Usama F. Aly
Nanoparticle technique offers promising methods for the formulation of poorly water soluble drugs. The objective of the present investigation was to enhance dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble irbesartan (IBS) by preparing stable nanoparticles. IBS nanosuspensions were produced by antisolvent precipitation under sonication. The physicochemical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and solubility studies, as well as measuring the particle size and in-vitro drug dissolution.The physicochemical results indicated that the antisolvent precipitation process led to the amorphization of IBS without drug-polymer chemical interaction. IBS nanoparticles increased the saturation solubility of drug almost sixteen fold. The in vitro studies showed a marked increase in the drug dissolution rate After 60 min, nanoparticles were almost dissolved completely but only 53 % of unprocessed IBS and 70 % of physical mixture (PM) had dissolved owing to its crystalline nature and larger crystal size. The combining of the methods was a promising method to produce uniform nanoparticles of IBS with remarkable improvement in dissolution rate.
18 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: A TECHNIQUE FOR PROVIDING NOVELISTIC PLATFORM TO DEVELOP QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY IN PHARMA SECTOR, Abhijeet Ojha*, Mini Ojha
The article highlights various aspects associated with technology transfer in the pharma sector. Technology Transfer in Pharmaceutical Industry has been viewed from the perspective of Innovation and Research & Development The success of any particular technology transfer depends upon process understanding or the ability to predict accurately the future performance of a process. Technology transfer is a process to transfer information and technologies necessary to manufacture quality drug product consistently or technology transfer is the process of taking an invention from its inception in a laboratory to a commercialized product. The Pharmaceutical technology transfer are based on to transfer product and process related concept between initial stage of development and manufacturing stages, or between manufacturing sites to achieve product realization. This concept forms the basis for the manufacturing process, control strategy, process validation approach and ongoing continual improvement.
19 A SIMPLE AND EFFECTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MANGANSESE (II) WITH RESACETOPHENONE GUANYLHYDRAZONE (RAG), V.A. Divate, P.S.Manoli* and S.R.Dhongade
In present work we report here a new simple effective spectrophotometric method for the determination of Manganese(II) with Res-acetophenone guanylhydrazone [RAG]. A standard procedure of the absorption spectra of the reagent and the complex is recommended. The absorbance measurements are carried out at 410 nm [Molar extinction co-efficient is 0.7604 x 104 lit. mole cm-1] at pH 8.9. Beer’s law is valid up to 10.0 ppm. Sandell’s sensitivity of the method is 0.0616 ?g/cm2. The Job’s variation and mole ratio method show that the composition of Mn(II) RAG complex is 1:2. The instability constant is 1.378x10-11. The method is applied for the determination of manganese in mild steel, tea leaves and coffee powder.
20 STANDARDISATION OF QUALITY PARAMETER AND QUANTIFICATION OF 6-SHOGOAL IN CHATURBHADRA KVATHA CHURNA - A POLYHERBAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION, U. Prakash Kumar, Indira Balachandran & A. B. Rema Shree*
Ayurvedic ‘finished’ medicines belong to diverse classes or categories e.g. churna, kvatha churna, gulika (pills), kashayam, lehyam, gulam, tailam, ghritam, lepa, kuzhambu, asavam, arishtam (besides bhasma, sindoora containing minerals and metals) etc. Standardized ayurvedic formulations of uniform quality are essential for beneficial therapeutic use. As the global market for herbal medicinal product is increasing tremendously, need for quality control parameters which are accepted globally, is being felt. Therefore an attempt has been made in developing standardization parameters covering physico-chemical parameters and TLC/HPTLC/GC profile for the ayurvedic compound formulation Chaturbhadra kvatha churna. Three batches of churnas were prepared; physico chemical parameters and extractions were carried out. The HPTLC analysis was performed on pre-coated silica gel plate 60F-254 plate using n-butanol: acetic acid: water (5: 2: 2) as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber. Camag TLC Scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. GC was carried out in Agilent GC equipped with HP-5 (5 percent phenyl methyl siloxane) capillary column (30 m x 320 ?m x 0.25 ?m) with gradient temperature programme. Tests for aflatoxins G1, G2, B1 and B2 were done according to standard procedure. The development of pharmacopoeial standards of Chaturbhadra kvatha churna was based on the outcome of physicochemical, TLC, HPTLC, GC finger print profiles and aflatoxin tests. As a quantitative marker for the churna, 6-Shogaol and 8-gingerol were tried in the chloroform extract (non-sequential) of the churna,using mobile phase hexane: acetone (7:3). Amount of 6-Shogaol present in the churna samples was quantified and it was found to be 0.007, 0.008, 0.0075% with respect to churna. Spectrum of 6-Shogaol and corresponding spot in churna samples were compared. HPTLC profiles of three different batches of CBK churna were compared. The results were found to be highly accurate, quick and reliable for routine monitoring in compound preparations. With the growing demand of herbal drugs market, it is suggested that this standardization tool will help in maintaining the quality and batch to batch consistency of many ayurvedic raw drug powder based preparations.
21 ENHANCED SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF TRISODIUM 2-HYDROXYPROPANE-1,2,3-TRICARBOXYLATE ON THE INHIBITION EFFICIENCY OF 5-METHYL BENZOTRIAZOLE SYSTEM ON BRASS IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENT, T.Gowrani*, P.Manjula, Nirmala Baby, K.N.Manonmani, R.Sudha, T.Vennila
The corrosion inhibition of brass in 3% NaCl in the presence of 5-methyl benzotriazole (MBT) and Trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate (TSPC) has been investigated using mass loss method, electrochemical techniques and solution analysis. Analysis of results revealed that of MBT inhibits 71% at optimum concentration(150 ppm). The addition of TSPC with MBT enhanced the inhibitive effect upto 90% and showed a synergism of inhibition. Potentiodynamic polarization results suggested that the MBT and the mixture of MBT and TSPC behave as mixed type inhibitors. The results of solution analysis by atomic adsorption spectroscopy showed that the mixture of MBT and TSPC effectively controlled the dezincification of brass. EDX analysis was used to determine the nature of the protective film formed on the metal surface.
22 SIMPLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF LABETALOL IN BULK AND MARKETED FORMULATION, Padmavathi P Prabhu*, Paramita Das, AnkurKaneria, Jithendar Reddy M
Two simple, sensitive and specific methods have been developed for the quantitative estimation of Labetalol in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Method A is based on oxidation of labetalol with ferric chloride followed by complex formation of resulting ferrous ion(Fe2+)with 1,10- phenanthrolin to form orange red colored chromogen which showed at 509nm.MethodB forms blue color chromogen with Gibbs reagent in alkaline condition by electrophilic aromatic substitution giving maximum absorbance 655nm.The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines.
23 SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF POTENTIAL COGNITION ENHANCERS DERIVED FROM M –NITROPHENOL, Yogita Dobhal*, Richa Gupta and Anurag Krishna
Objective: Synthesis and evaluation of some potential memory enhancer derivatives from m-nitrophenol. Materials and methods: m-nitrophenol on refluxing with 1-bromo-3-chloropropane in ethyl methyl ketone in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate synthesize the intermediate (38) which on treatment with acylic/ heterocyclic ring systems ( N, N-diethyl amine and various cycloamino moieties such as pyrrolidine, morpholine, N-methyl piperazine and imidazole) synthesize target compounds ( D1-D5) which were screened for nootropic activity. Transfer latency on elevated plus maze was used an index of learning and memory process. Results: Pharmacological results are expressed as % retention (Mean ± SEM) using ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s test using Sigma stat. Conclusion: All compounds possess considerable memory enhancing activities when compared with control and standard drug, piracetam (1 mg/kg) of body weight.
24 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PULSATILE SALUBUTAMOL SULPHATE TABLET IN CAPSULE PULSATILE RELEASE DEVICE FOR ASTHMA, M.Gnana Prasanna Lakshmi*, M.Surya Prabha, S.S.Manikiran, N.Rama Rao
That the drug should not be released at all during the initial phase of dosage form administration. Such a release pattern is known as pulsatile release. In the present research work, we have attempted to develop a novel dosage form by using a chronopharmaceutical approach. This novel system or a technique consists of one i.e. the immediate release powder and the extended release tablet. This novel system is a so-called “tablet in capsule”. The object of this study is to formulate and evaluate pulsatile tablet in capsule device of salbutamol sulphate drug by using HPMC K100M and HPMC K15 polymers. Keywords: pulsatile drug delivery system, salbutamol sulphate, tablet in capsule device.
25 A VALIDATED NEW GRADIENT STABILITY-INDICATING LC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CILOSTAZOL AND ASPIRIN IN BULK AND TABLET FORMULATION, Archana M. Ambekar*, Dr. B. S. Kuchekar
A simple, precise and gradient RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Cilostazol (CIL) and Aspirin (ASP) in presence of their corresponding degradation products. The RP-HPLC method consisted of a Binary pumps (model Waters 515 HPLC pump) and auto sampler (model 717 plus) was used. Chromatographic separation was achieved with Nova-pack C18 (4.6mm x 250 mm, particle size 4?m) column using gradient mode of elution. The mobile phase comprises of Acetonitrile: Ammonium formate (10 mm) pH 3.5 (adjusted with Ortho Phosphoric acid) in gradient mode. The flow rate was 0.7 ml/min and column temperature maintained at 40ºC throughout separation. The eluent was monitored at 254 nm using photodiode array detector (Waters 2998). The retention times of CIL and ASP were 24.5 ± 0.33 min and 16.3 ± 0.19 min respectively. The method was validated in terms of specificity, accuracy, linearity, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. Linearity for CIL and ASP was in the range of 5 to 100 ?g/ml and 2 to 40 ?g/ml, respectively and percentage recoveries of both analytes were in the range of 100 ? 1.5% and % RSD was
26 COMPARISON OF SERUM PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPTIC WOMEN, Dr Sazina Muzammil* Dr Khalid Umer Khayyam Ali Nasir Siddiqui
The total proteins, albumin, globulin and A: G ratio not significantly change with increase in blood pressure in pre-eclamptic women. The serum proteins, albumin and globulin were decrease from 5.96±0.49 to 5.27±0.44, 3.13±0.22 to 2.65±0.3 and 2.81±0.37 to 2.52±0.33 respectively with increase in urine albumin with highly significantly while A: G ratio was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Total protein, albumin, globulin and A: G ratio are inversely proportional to the blood pressure and urine albumin.
27 PHARMACOGENOMICS AND CANCER: THE SCIENCE TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE, Kaiser Jamil*
This article on Pharmacogenomics influencing cancer therapeutics summarizes the work leading to the development of personalized medicine. We present here the evidence of several genes responsible for interacting with various neoplastic drugs and their role in influencing the drug resistance or susceptibility. This research article deals with a wide spectrum of cancer patient’s biopsy samples- from solid tumors and such as breast cancer and cervical cancer, and liquid tumors like Leukemias and correlated their SNP changes with respect to various chemo-treatments. We describe here the genomic instability in cancer genomes which occurs due to SNP changes affecting the drug response to chemotherapeutic agents. This leads to poor quality of life (QOL) of the patients, and increases their burden of suffering due to metastasis. Hence knowing the SNP changes or genotyping the tumor samples is of great advantage for better diagnosis and for selecting the right therapeutic agent depending on the patient’s tumor profile. It is an attempt to bring out these aspects in this presentation by refereeing to the research conducted by us on discovering Biomarkers for drug toxicities. SNPs in the following genes, CYP1A1, GST-T1 & M1, MTHFR, and MDR1 were found to interfere in chemotherapeutic responses in these cancer patients. Hence knowing the SNP changes or genotyping the tumor samples will be a great advantage forbetter diagnosis and for selecting the right therapeutic agent depending on the patient’s tumor profile.
28 EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THREE ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS, Ignace Kindo*, S.John Britto, M. Thamacin Arulappan, Sinjumol Thomas, Mariat George and Ranjit Marandi
The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cipadessa- baccifera, Didymocarpus humboldtiana synonym- (Henckelia humboldtiana) and Alangium salviifolium were analysed for antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract of the plants were tested for total antioxidant capacity and free radicalscavenging activity by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil). The ethanolic extract of leaf of Alangium salviifolium exhibited high free radical scavenging activity at concentration 0.5?g, followed by Didymocarpus humboldtiana (Henckelia humboldtiana)and Cipadessa- baccifera. The total antioxidant activity was also high in Alangium salviifolium, followed by Didymocarpus humboldtiana (Henckelia humboldtiana) and Cipadessa- baccifera.
29 BIOSYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, ANTIMICROBIAL,ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIOXIDENT ACTIVITY OF COPPER OXIDE NANOPARTICLES (CONPS), Mariat George* and S. John Britto
Biosynthesis of nanopraticles has attracted scientist’s attention in recent times because of the necessity to develop new, clean, cost effective and efficient synthesis techniques. In particular, metal oxide nanopraticles are receiving greater attention since there is more scope for varied applications. In this study, we describe cost effective and environment friendly technique for biosynthesis of stable copper oxide nanoparticles has been obtained in Curcuma aeruginosa by using its powdered rhizome extract. This extract was added to the 3mMol of copper sulphate solution and the change in colour indicates the formation of copper oxides. These biosynthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were characterized with the help of Vis spectrophotometer (UV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The CuO nanoparticles were found to exhibit antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity.
30 HIV AND DENTISTRY: BRIEF REVIEW, Saurabh Rastogil, Jyoti rastogi, Varsha H Tambe, Fareedi Mukram Ali*
In patients with HIV infection oral health status has a central role. After the discovery of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS)in late 1980s, the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has presented a global developmental and public health threat and is still spreading rapidly. Since oral lesions are quite common in HIV infected patients, dentists are the most ideal persons to identify, manage and treat HIV-associated oral manifestations and have a responsibility to themselves and to their patients to be up-to-date with the evolving area of HIV and related issues. Thus this review contains the important aspects of the HIV and AIDS related to dentistry.
31 CONVERSATIONAL HYPNOSIS IN DENTISTRY, Swapnadeep Pannu, Saima Khan, Anuroop Singhai, Fareedi Mukram Ali*,Neha Singh, Shashank Gaur.
Modifying patient behavior in order to deliver good dental care has remained a major issue over the years. And today being the era of integrative medicine, all efforts need to be made to combine traditional medicine with alternative to optimize dental care. Conversational hypnosis is just such a technique which maybe used effectively in dental practice to bypass the conscious barriers and achieve instant rapport with the subconscious mind of the patient. As it is an attempt to communicate with the patient’s unconscious mind without him noticing and often takes place in the course of a seemingly regular conversation, it is termed conversational hypnosis. Erikson H. Milton who is considered the father of conversational hypnosis developed this effective therapeutic technique which though not explicitly hypnotic, really combined extensions of hypnotic strategies and language patterns which came to be popularized as the ‘Milton Model’. The aim of this article is to view this technique objectively, demystify it, and try and derive whatever benefit that can be gained from it in daily dental practice.
32 FACTS OF MERCURY TOXICITY: A REVIEW, Dr. Varsha H Tambe, *Dr. Fareedi Mukram Ali, Dr. Kishor Patil, Dr. Prasant MC
Mercury is a highly potent cell toxin with various effects on human and animal nervous systems. Exposure to mercury can happen by various sources, of which dental amalgam filing is the one of the most common and prevalent source. Dental amalgam is a mixture of mercury and silver alloy power that solidifies at mouth temperature. It is a non-degradable environmental pollutant. Mercury has many toxic effects on the body systems, including most commonly effect on nervous system. This article provides an overview of various facts of mercury toxicity to create awareness about the safe handling and proper waste disposal of mercury.
33 COMPARISON OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM LINN FRUIT BY SOXHLATION AND MICROWAVE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE, Padmaa M Paarakh*
The aim of the present study is to compare the in vitro antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum fruit by two different technique of extraction viz., Soxhlation and Microwave extraction and correlate the antioxidant activity with the amount of flavonoids and phenol content present in the extract. Coriandrum sativum fruits were extracted separately in soxhlet and microwave extractor with distilled water,25% ethanol, 50% ethanol, 75% ethanol and ethanol respectively. The study were carried out with all 5 extracts by both methods using different in vitro antioxidant model viz., Phosphomolybdenum antioxidant assay, Reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Total flavonoid content and phenol content were also determined. The study exhibited strong antioxidant activity in different in vitro systems. The 75% ethanol extract showed better results than all other 4 extracts followed by 50% ethanol and 25% ethanol extract on evaluation with the different in vitro antioxidant methods. Flavonoid content and phenol content also correlated well the in vitro antioxidant activity. Microwave extraction values were better when compared to soxhlet technique. This experiment has concluded the strong in vitro antioxidant properties of C. sativum. 75 % ethanol showed the highest antioxidant activity when compared all other four extracts. Microwave extraction technique is better than soxhlet technique of extraction. The total flavonoid content and phenol content were also more when microwave extraction technique was used. Further, investigation on in vivo antioxidant activity has to be carried outto understand its mode of action and to discover the main constituent of C. sativum fruit. responsible for this antioxidant effect.
34 PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE RELATED EMERGENCIES IN DENTAL OFFICE, VivekKolhe, Ranjeet Mandwe, Surendra Daware, *Fareedi Mukram Ali
Life threatening emergencies may occur in the practice of dentistry. Although the occurrence of life threatening emergencies in dental offices is infrequent, a number of factors exist today that can increase the likelihood of such incidents. These includes i. The increasing number of older persons seeking dental care. ii. Medically compromised patients. iii. Growing trend towards longer dental appointment. iv. Increasing use and administration of drugs in dentistry. Fortunately other factors exist to minimize the development of life threatening situations. These include pre-treatment physical evaluation of each patient which includes medical history of patient, physical examination and possible modifications in dental care to minimize medical risks. Objectives: The aim of this article is to focus the management of patients with endocrine disorders in dental practice. Results and discussion: The article describes the nature of endocrine disorders, their manifestations in oral cavity and the special dental management that should be carried out in these patients.
35 FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE, Rahil G. Bhura*, Nilesh Patel, Mehul B. Vyas, Dr. Samir K. Shah
Rahil G. Bhura*, Nilesh Patel, Mehul B. Vyas, Dr. Samir K. ShahAim of present work was to provide quick onset of action due to rapid dissolution and disintegration of tablet and to prepare and evaluate orodispersible tablet of Metformin Hydrochloride by direct compression method. In current research, orodispersible tablet was prepared by using different super disintigrants like crosspovidone (CRP), sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and cross carmallose sodium (CCS). The formulations were prepared by using direct compression method. Nine batches were prepared as per 32 factorial design, to investigate the combined effect of independent effect of variables (X1= amount of cross carmallose sodium and X2= amount of crosspovidone) on dependent variables (disintegration time and % drug release release in 10 min). The prepared fast dissolving tablets were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters, such as weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time, % drug content and % in vitro drug release to optimize the formula. In preliminary trials two super disintegrants cross carmellose sodium and cross povidone were found more effective as compared to sodium starch glycolate. 32factorial design results showed that amount of cross carmellose sodium and amount cross povidone had significant effect on disintegration time and % drug release. Out of all nine batches batch F5 (cross povidone 30 mg and cross carmellose sodium 30 mg) was selected as optimized batch with lower disintegration time (10.15 sec) and % drug release (93.28%). So from this work it was concluded that orodispersible tablets of metformin hydrochloride were prepared successfully.
36 EFFECT OF ZINC SULPHIDE NANOPARTICLES ON GERMINATION OF SEEDS OF VIGNA RADIATA AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT ACCELERATION OF GROWTH IN PRESENCE OF THE NANOPARTICLES, Sutapa Ganguly, Sukhen Das, Sujata G.Dastidar*
The synthesis, characterization and biological application of synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. This study describes the synthesis of highly dispersed zinc sulphide nanoparticles using a simple aqueous chemical method. Such synthesized nanoparticles were tested for their effect on germination of seeds and on acceleration of seedling growth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph analysis of the zinc sulphide nanoparticles (ZNPs) indicated that they were well dispersed and ranged in size from 10-30 nm. ZNPs were employed to improve germination of seeds and rate of seedling growth of Vigna radiata. Three sets of seeds were allowed to germinate on water with two different concentrations (10 to 20 mg/ml) of ZNPs. Higher percentage (70%) of germination was found in treated seeds when compared to the control. The seeds that were in a Petri plate with sterile distilled water only took longer time (1- 2 days) to sprout, whereas all treated seeds sprouted within 6 hr. The maximum height (12.8 cm) was observed in seedlings treated with 20 mg/ml of ZNPs. The possible contribution of ZNPs was to facilitate the penetration of water and nutrients through the seed coat and accelerate the germination of seeds.
37 RABIES REVIEW, Rameshwar Nath Chaurasia (DM)
Rabies is an acute viral disease of the central nervous system (CNS)that affects all warm-blooded animals including mammals.[1] It is an acute infectious encephalomyelitis, caused by a number of lyssaviruses including: rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus.[2] Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories. More than 55 000 people die of rabies every year mostly in Asia and Africa. 40% of people who are bitten by suspect rabid animals are children under 15 years of age. Dogs are the source of the vast majority of human rabies deaths. Wound cleansing and immunization within a few hours after contact with a suspect rabid animal can prevent the onset of rabies and death. Every year, more than 15 million people worldwide receive a post-exposure vaccination to prevent the disease– this is estimated to prevent hundreds of thousands of rabies deaths annually.[1] Several indirect estimates [3, 4] have suggested that modern. India has more rabid dog bites and human rabies deaths than any other country.
38 DETERMINANTS OF OUTCOME AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING CARDIAC EMERGENCY WITH ACUTE CHEST PAIN OF CARDIAC ORIGIN IN LUCKNOW DISTRICT, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA, Prashantha B*1, MZ Idris2, N Ahmad3, M Agarwal4, SC Yadav5, VK Singh6.
Background: India, accounts for 5.24 million deaths annually due to NCD s and 20 DALY s lost per 1000 population per year due to cardiovascular diseases. They also contribute to 35.3% of total morbidity. Objectives: To study the distribution of outcome and the factors contributing to complications and non-survival in patients attending cardiac emergency with acute chest pain of cardiac origin in Lucknow district. Material and Methods: A Descriptive Longitudinal Study was conducted in the cardiac emergency of CSMMU, a tertiary care center, following systematic random sampling technique on a sample size of 220 during study period of one year August 2010 to August 2011. Data was collected through preformed and pretested schedule and analysed using SPSS 17.0 software. Results: The rate of complications during hospital stay was about 29.1%, out of which 29.7% were persistent and the commonest complication was arrhythmias (22.3%), followed by LVF (7.3%). The rate of complications after 3 months of follow up was about 21%, out of which 27.9% were persistent and the commonest complication was recurrence of chest pain (9.5%), followed by LVF (6.3%). Overall in-hospital mortality rate of patients with acute chest pain of cardiac origin was 5% and total mortality rate upto 3 months of follow up was 13.7%. The factors responsible for complications in patients with acute chest pain of cardiac origin were: uncontrolled DM, stage I and stage II hypertension, presence of dyslipidaemia, lack of regular exercise and lower socio-economic class. The factors leading to non-survival were: uncontrolled DM, stage I and stage II hypertension, presence of LVF at admission, having renal or electrolyte abnormalities, LVEF
39 GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN ZEHNERIA SCABRA (L.F.) SOND. (TUBER), ORMOCARPUM SENNOIDES (WILLD) DC. (LEAF) AND BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA L. (LEAF), M. Thamacin Arulappan*, S. John Britto, Ignace Kindo
The investigation was carried out to determine the presence of secondary metabolites in Zehneria scabra (tuber), Ormocarpum sennoides (leaf) and Bauhinia tomentosa (leaf) by the qualitative analysis of Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and also other possible chemical components present in them were studied through GC-MS analysis. GC-MS analysis showed about 33 phytochemicals in Zehneria scabra and 18 phytochemicals in Ormocarpum sennoides and 25 phytochemicals in Bauhinia tomentosa (leaf). A wide range of fatty acids, heterocyclic compound which are having antifungal anti -inflammatory antibiotic activity, antioxidant were identified so that these medicinal plants can be recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.
40 CHONDRO MYXOID FIBROMA OF PROXIMAL END OF TIBIA A CASE REPORT, Dr.Siddaram Patil*, Dr.Sankar Rao. P, Dr.Raju, Dr.Veera shekar, Dr.Sahajahan Akthar, Dr.G. Sai Sumalika sree
Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign cartilaginous tumour of bone, can occur at any age, most occur in patients 10 – 30 years old. It occurs more often in males than females. representing less than 1% of all bone tumours. Although chondromyxoid fibroma in the proximal tibia is the most common location. Which was noticed in our case. We are presenting a case of CMF of 22 year old male involving proximal end of tibia.
41 BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO CHEMICAL QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER FROM HAND DUG-WELL IN ADIGRAT TOWN, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA, Zenebu Haile1, Alembrhan Assefa1 and Shilashi Badasa*
Lack of potable water has become a critical and urgent problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. A study was conducted to assess the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of water from hand-dug wells of Adigrat town. Four water samples were collected from four main hand-dug wells within the town between February and May 2014 and analyzed for bacteriological and physico - chemical characteristics. Macconkey and plate count agars were used for development of enterobacteriaceae and aerobic mesophilic bacteria, respectively. Water analysis revealed the presence of two types of pathogenic bacteria including enterobacteriaceae and aerobic mesophilic bacteria. The total aerobic mesophilic bacterial count of the samples analyzed was 4.3x104 CFU/ml and the mean count was 1.075x104 CFU/ml. The total count of Enterobacteriaceae was (156000 CFU/ml) and the mean count of Enterobacteriaceae was 3. 9 x 10 4. Temperature and pH levels were above WHO acceptable levels for drinking water in almost samples. Almost all samples tested did not meet the WHO bacteriological standards for drinking water. The presence of enterobacteriaceae and aerobic mesophilic bacteria should particularly raise serious public health concerns over the quality of the town’s hand-wells water. Therefore, intervention measures including creating awareness and educating residents on hand-dung well construction, care, boiling of water and improving sanitation should be urgently instituted.
42 GIANT FIBROADENOMA PRESENTING LIKE FUNGATING BREAST CANCER – A CASE REPORT, 1Dilip Choksi, 2Sushil Damor, 3*Jigar Shah, 4Sachin Veer, 5Pratik Shah 6Govind Dubey
Background: Giant fibroadenoma of the breast is a rare benign breast tumour which seldom grows to a giant size, it is even rarer for this benign tumour to grow rapidly, ulcerate pontaneously and present like a fungating breast tumour in a way mimicking breast cancer. Case presentation: This is a presentation of a 21 year old unmarried nulliparous Indian girl with a massive ulcerating and fungating left breast mass that was initially thought to be a fungating locally advanced breast carcinoma on clinical examination. Further examination of the morphology of the resected surgical specimen, histological and cytopathological examination confirmed it to be giant fibroadenoma of the breast. It was successfully managed by partial mastectomy with an excellent result and a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved. Conclusion: Though a rare clinical entity benign breast tumour can present like a fungating breast cancer and this must be bore in mind especially in young adolescent patients presenting with ulcerating breast tumour.
43 STERASE VARATIONS IN THE ARIAN ATER (blackslug) PHYLUM: MOLLUSCA, P. Swapna*, T.Ravinder Reddy. V.Vimala
Esterases from the six tissues (viz; Ctenidia, Hepatopancreas, Intestine, Mantle, Foot and tentacles) of the slug Arionater collected from the fields of komatipally village, extracted and analyzed using Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and nine esterase bands were detected in six tissues. The esterase bands were distributed in five main zones which could be classified as CE, AcE, ArE, Esdp and ER depending on the inhibition properties and relative mobility of esterase bands.
44 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYMERIC MICELLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CELECOXIB TO IMPROVE THE ORAL ABSORPTION, Anayatollah Salimi*1, Behzad Sharif Makhmal Zadeh1, Najme Mahmoudabadi1
Purpose: The aim of this study was to formulate polymeric micelle systemcontaining a lipophilic drug, celecoxib, and to explore the potential of carriers for such system. Methods: Full factorial design with three variables; drug percentage, type of surfactant mixture and co surfactant amount in two levels were used. The effects of variables on formulation characters; particle size, drug release and permeability from rat intestine were evaluated. Results: All formulations with particle size between 7.63 to 97.66 nm significantly increased celecoxib aqueous solubility that this effect is dependent to surfactant mixture. The results showed oleic acid as oil, labrafil -labrasol and Poloxamer - propylene glycol as surfactant mixtures, Capryol 90 as co-surfactant and lecithin as oily phase and membrane stabilizer agent prepared stable micellar formulations with sustained release property. Percent of drug release after 24 hrs. (% DR24) was between 11.95 to 46.82. All polymeric micelle formulations increased drug permeated through rat intestine. Maximum increase in p4 was 39.12 times compared to control. The result shows that drug percent and co surfactant amounthave a significant relationshipwith % P4. (p?0.05). All drug formulations containing 3% of drug, as compared to formulations containing 1% have a higher rate of gastrointestinal absorption. Conclusion: All formulations indicated sustained release profiles. Drug permeability through rat intestine was controlled by percent of drug and co surfactant amount in formulations so that higher permeability resulted with higher drug percent and lower co surfactant amount. This finding may be suggested un saturated intestine absorption of celecoxib.
45 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, Alex Martin* and Abhay Kumar Verma
The Pyrole ring is an ubiquitous structural feature of many synthetic compounds with diversified therapeutic efficacy. A large volume of published literature over the last few decades preludes a comphrehensive review. The major activities exhibited by the pyrrole derivatives are insecticidal, antibacterial, antiviral, sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and antiinflammatory activity. The article presents a comphrehensive review on the antimicrobial activities of some novel derivatives of pyrrole ring.
46 VISTAS ON ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF NOVEL OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES IN MODERN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, Rajeev Kharb*, Rupinder Kaur, Anil Kumar Sharma
1,3,4-Oxadiazole is a versatile heterocyclic nucleus containing two nitrogen and one oxygen atom which shows antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities etc. In recent time, microbial resistance to large number of antibiotics is observed so search of newer potent antimicrobial agent with different mechanism of action is a great need. This review article has summarized vital information on antimicrobial activity of 1,3,4-oxadiazole heterocyclic nucleus to provide effective antimicrobial drugs by solving the problem of microbial resistance towards currently used antibiotics.
47 EFFECTS OF ANTIDIARRHEAL AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CINNAMOMUM CECIDODAPHNE MEISSN. BARKS, Mohammed Aktar Sayeed1* Mohammad Fazlul Kabir 2, Rashedul Alam2, Rana Dhar 2,Limon Kanti Shill2, Naymul Karim2, and Ahsan Ullah2
Objective: To investigate the Effects of Antidiarrheal and Thrombolytic Activities of methanol extract of Cinnamomum cecidodaphne Meissn. Barks. Castor oil induced diarrhoea test were used to examine the in-vivo antidiarrheal activity in Swiss albino mice. Results: In vitro clot lysis model was undertaken to investigate the thrombolytic action of the extract. Data were analysed by using statistical software statistical package for social science (SPSS, version 19.0). In this study of antidiarrhel activity Loperamide was used as a standard. For thrombolytic test Streptokinase used as positive control. In case of antidiarrheal study value was found 76.36% 400mg/kg where standard was found 83.33% and the extract shown 35.08% of thrombolysis effect where streptokinase was found 77.06% of clot lysis effect. Conclusion: The extract showed significant activity as compare to standard drugs. Methanol extract of C. cecidodaphne Meissn barks might be triggering the premonition of novel drug discovery in future due to its antidiarrheal effect in animal model.
48 SYNTHESIS OF NEW TETRAZOLYL HYDROXYETHYL ACETAMIDES AS ANTI BACTERIAL AND ANTIPROTOZOAL AGENTS, Anitha Bhukya, Naresh K*, Madhava Reddy B, Harinadha Babu V
Present investigation describes about the synthesis of some novel tetrazolyl hydroxyacetamides. These compounds were designed, based on the structure of etanidazole, an imidazole containing antiprotozoal drug and its radio protective activity is under clinical trials. Some new N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(5-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-1-yl) acetamides (5a - 5h) were synthesized by 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of arylnitriles with sodium azide followed by reaction with ethyl chloroactetate and ethanolamine. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of physical, proton NMR, mass and IR spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antibacterial and anti protozoal activities and the results of some of the derivatives exhibited promising activities. The MIC values of the compounds 5b, 5e and 5h showed significant activity at a concentration of 1.56 and 12.5 ?g/mL. Highest antiamoebic activity was observed with compounds 5a and 5h possessing electron withdrawing substituents on phenyl ring.
49 ECONOMICAL AND ECO-FRIENDLY METHOD FOR THE REDUCTION OF HETEROCYCLICS POSSESSING ?, ? -UNSATURATED ACID SYSTEMS USING NOVEL REDUCTION METHOD, K. Naresh, B. Madhava Reddy, V. Harinadha Babu*
Reduction of hetero aryl acrylic acid to hetero aryl propionic acids was achieved using hydrazine hydrate and an oxidizing agent and yields were reported. Moreover, reduction of hetero aryl acrylic acids was also carried out using Palladium charcoal method and the yields of both the methods were compared. It was observed that though the yields were slightly less in hydrazine reduction method, the method appeared to be economical, eco-friendly with operational simplicity, reasonable yields and easy workup procedures which may be applied to large scale synthesis.
50 SACRAL CHORDOMA: A DIAGNOSTIC PREDICAMENT, *Sunita Bamanikar1,N.K.Panicker2, Nidhi Gupta3, Archana Buch4
Chordoma is a rare slow growing tumour that arises from the remnants of embryonic notochord. They present mainly in the axial skeleton with a proclivity for the spheno-occiput and sacral regions. Chordomas can pose diagnostic challenge and be confused with chondrosarcoma or mucinous carcinoma. We report here a case of classical chordoma in an elderly male patient which was provisionally diagnosed by cytology and frozen section examination and confirmed subsequently by histopathological and immunohistochemical study.
51 SUPRACUTANEOUS LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE FOR TYPE I & II COMPOUND FRACTURE IN DISTAL THIRD TIBIA FRACTURES, Dr.Siddaram Patil1*, Dr.Sankar Rao .P2 Dr.Rahul Reddy3, Dr.Pradeep3,Dr. Gauthami 4, Dr. Divya 4
Based on reported success treatment of distal tibial fractures, we used Supracutaneous locking compression plate, in Type I & II compound fracture in Distal Third Tibia Fracture. We prospectively assessed the outcome of open distal tibial fractures treated with, this method. From March 2013 through September 2014, 10 patients who sustained open distal tibial fractures were treated by Supracutaneous locking compression plate. Treatment consisted of low-profile, locking plates for external fixation after debridement and anatomic reduction, Followed by soft tissue reconstruction, where ever neaded, using minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis. All fractures were followed periodically for 18 months.
52 VARIATIONS IN THE EXTENSOR TENDONS OF HAND, B. R. Sontakke*1, S. Talhar2, A. M. Tarnekar3, J. E. Waghmare4, M. R. Shende5
Extensor Indicis (EI) and Abductor Pollicis Longus (APL) are known for different variations with respect to their attachments. During routing dissection of undergraduate students of batch 2013, in a 57 years formalin fixed old male cadaver, we observed two tendons of Extensor Indicis (EI) muscle bilaterally. One passes with Extensor digitorum (ED) tendon and other inserts on capsule of second metacarpo-phalangeal joint. We also noted that the tendons of Extensor Indicis (EI) lies on radial side of Extensor digitorum (ED) tendons. There were three slips (tendons) of insertion of Abductor Pollicis Longus (APL) on both the sides of cadaver. Knowledge of presence of such additional tendons is definitely useful for an operating surgeon performing tendon repairs, tenoplasties or tendon transfers.
53 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MORUS INDICA (MULBERRY) FROM CHHATTISGARH, Preeti, Chaitali Niratker*
The Methanolic and Ethanolic extract of Morus indica was screened against five different pathogens and showed significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium. It has been observed that ethanolic extract has maximum antibacterial activity against S.aureus (12mm). Among both solvents methanolic extracts has maximum antifungal. Activity against Aspergillus (30mm) followed by Penicillium (29mm). The present study shows that mulberry (Morus indica) leaf possess antimicrobial property as well as antifungal activity.
54 SOLITARY THYROID NODULE: CYTOPATHOLOGY AND HISTOPATHOLOGY, Kanya Kumari*1, Mrudula2, Ranveer3
Introduction: A thyroid nodule which is a palpable localised solitary swelling in the thyroid gland is a common clinical presentation for a variety of pathological disorders majority being asymptomatic. 5% of them are malignant which require extended surgery, hence correct preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. Aims and Objectives: To study & correlate cytopathology and histopathology of solitary thyroid nodule. Patients and methods: A Prospective study in the department of pathology, MIMS, Medchal from October 2011 to October 2013 evaluated 45 patients. The patients included those who presented with solitary thyroid nodule in ENT and surgery departments. They were evaluated with thyroid profile, Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) &finally Histopathology in few of them. Results: 45 cases were studied which had female preponderance (Female n=39; 86.6 % Vs. male n=6; 13.3%). The youngest patient of our series was a girl of 18 years with colloid goitre and the oldest patient was a man of 69 years, a case of follicular carcinoma. the most common non neoplastic lesion encountered in FNAC was colloid goitre 10(22.2%) and neoplastic being follicular neoplasm 19(42.2%) .Thyroid lobectomy was carried in 39 (86.6 %) patients, while the remaining 6(13.3%) underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. On Histopathological examination commonest non neoplastic lesion was 8(17.7%) Hashimotos thyroiditis and neoplastic lesion was Follicular adenoma 20(44.4%) Sensitivity . specificity,and accuracy of FNAC for detection of neoplasm were 73%,100% and 100%. Conclusion: The solitary thyroid nodule is a relatively common clinical finding which has a small but significant risk of malignancy. Fine needle aspiration has become the routine initial procedure. Cytological diagnosis is reliable, safe, simple, inexpensive, and reduces the number of unnecessary operations. But confirmation of FNAC diagnosis requires detailed histopathological examination to rule out vascular or capsular invasion.
55 EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF A HERBAL PRODUCT: THE CRUDE FLAVONOID EXTRACT OF GARCINIA KOLA HECKEL (BITTER KOLA) SEEDS INTO LOZENGES, *Uzondu, Akueyinwa. Lovet. E., Okafo, Sinodukoo. Eziuzo
Traditional medicine is the fore – runner of modern medicine. There is usually lack of standardization in the methods of extraction and formulation of traditional remedies into dosage forms. The seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel have been chewed and used for medicinal purposes, such as alleviation of mild throat infections. This claim was based on the fact that flavonoids can be extracted from the seeds. This study was set to obtain a crude flavonoid extract from the seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel and to formulate it into lozenges for the treatment of mild throat infections. The seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel were peeled, sun – dried to constant weight, and pulverised into coarse powder. Preliminary chemical tests were performed on the powder. Extraction of the crude flavonoid extract was done by maceration at room temperature (28 – 290C) and by soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were dried and weighed. The powdered extract was formulated into 100mg lozenges. The preliminary chemical tests performed on the powdered seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel revealed the presence of sterols and triterpenes, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, resins, tannins, starch and proteins. Alkaloids were not detected. The percentage yield of the extract by maceration was higher (12.83%) than by soxhlet extraction (4.6%). The extracts have a characteristic chocolate colour, and were stable at room temperature. This work showed that crude flavonoid extracts can be obtained from Garcinia kola Heckel seeds by eithermaceration or soxhlet extraction methods. The extract can also be conveniently formulated into lozenges.
56 SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AMONG ART AND NON-ART HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS IN LIVING WORD MISSION HOSPITAL, ABAYI, ABA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA., Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi1*, Dr.Okoroiwu Ijeoma Leticia2, Okoro Nnenna Kalu3, Agbo Ejiofor Christopher4
The study was carried out in Living Word Mission Hospital,Abayi,Aba,Abia State,Nigeria.The study was carried out among the ART and non-ART HIV patients attending the hospital.Some haematological and biochemical parameters values were compared among the ART and the non-ART HIV patients to ascertain if there is any significant change among those on treatment and those not receiving treatment.The total number of subjects for the study was 97(female=68, male=29).77 subjects were ART HIV patients(female=55,male=22) while 20 subjects were non-ART HIV patients(female=14,male=6). The result showed significant increase in Hb (P0.05) in mean value ,of PCV,RBC,MCV ,MCHC. The result equally showed significant increase (P0.05) in K+ ,but significant increase (p
57 SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AMONG ART AND NON-ART HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS IN LIVING WORD MISSION HOSPITAL, ABAYI, ABA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA., Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi1*, Dr.Okoroiwu Ijeoma Leticia2, Okoro Nnenna Kalu3, Agbo Ejiofor Christopher4
The study was carried out in Living Word Mission Hospital,Abayi,Aba,Abia State,Nigeria.The study was carried out among the ART and non-ART HIV patients attending the hospital.Some haematological and biochemical parameters values were compared among the ART and the non-ART HIV patients to ascertain if there is any significant change among those on treatment and those not receiving treatment.The total number of subjects for the study was 97(female=68, male=29).77 subjects were ART HIV patients(female=55,male=22) while 20 subjects were non-ART HIV patients(female=14,male=6). The result showed significant increase in Hb (P0.05) in mean value ,of PCV,RBC,MCV ,MCHC. The result equally showed significant increase (P0.05) in K+ ,but significant increase (p
58 GENOTYPIC AND PHENOLOGICAL PLASTICITY AMONG VARIOUS ACCESSIONS OF PLANTAGO OVATA (ISABGOL), Hafiz Muhammad Ziaullah 2*, Muhammad Shafiq1, Tasanum Naz1, Iram Fatima1,Sabahat Bano1
Plantago ovata is the cultivated and economically important species in the monotypic genus Plantago. P. ovata is a short-stemmed annual herb, 10-45 cm tall, generally used as a laxative, emollient and demulcent, and has great commercial and economic importance as well. The present experiment was designed to explore the germplasm variability among 47 accessions of P. ovata obtained from IABGR and PGRC (Pakistan Agriculture Research Council, Islamabad). Considerable variations were observed in five agro-morphological traits i.e., plant height, leaf width, length of ear, number of tillers per plant and number of seeds per ear. Among all test entries, the accession number 20555, 20671, 20666 and 20673 were found to be best in terms of all the parameters studied. These accessions may also be propagated in their original habitats to increase their productivity.
59 A REVIEW ON TOPICAL GEL, Bhandari Neeraj*, Pooni Neeraj, Verma pooja
Microemulsions are class of micro heterogeneous systems having unique features of stability, solubilization capacity, Structural morphology, physical properties and applicability. Microemulsion are stable, clear, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water with surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. They offer the advantage of easy formation, ease of manufacturing and scale-up, thermodynamic stability, and improved drug solubilization and bioavailability Preparing apharmaceutically acceptable dosage form demands a clear understanding of the micro-emulsion structure, phase behavior, factors leading to its thermodynamic stability and the potential uses and limitations of the microemulsion system. While microemulsion is used in several fields, in this review the pharmaceutical applications are emphasized. Several references are cited, but the list is by no means exhaustive.
60 INTESTINAL ATRESIA WITH MULTILOBED LIVER: A CASE REPORT, Dr Dnyaneshwar, Ch Sudhakara Babu
Objective To evaluate the causes, clinical presentation, diagnosis, operative management, postoperative care, and outcome in infants with intestinal atresia. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Pediatric tertiary care teaching hospital. Interventions Patients with duodenal obstruction were treated by duodenoduodenostomy , Patients with jejunoileal atresia were treated with resection and anastomosis; tapering enteroplasty, or temporary ostomy, web excision, and the Bianchi procedure . Patients with colon atresia were managed with initial ostomy and delayed anastomosis. Main Outcome Measures Morbidity and early and late mortality. Conclusions Cardiac anomalies (with duodenal atresia) and ultrashort-bowel syndrome (
61 MULTIDRUG RESISTANT POLYMICROBIAL INFECTION IN DIABETIC FOOT ULCER IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A CASE REPORT, Dr Kalidas Rit*, Dr Hirak Jyoti Raj, Dr Saswati Chattopadhyay, Dr Parthasarathi Chakrabarty
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most critical health conditions in India not only in terms of number of people affected, disability, and premature mortality, but also in regards to the health care cost involved in management of its complication. Foot ulcers are among the leading causes of morbidity in diabetes and are most common indication for admission in this population. Devitalized tissue is the site where the bacteria responsible for nonhealing ulcers inflict damage. Infectious agents are associated with amputation of the infected foot if not treated promptly. Here we review a unique presentation of a multidrug resistant (MDR) polymicrobial diabetic foot ulcer infection involving vancomycin resistant Enterococcus fecalis (VRE), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Corneybacterium amycolatum.
62 SERUM LIPID PROFILE STATUS IN EXAMINATION STRESS CONDITION, *A.I Uba1, M.K Atiku 2, A.M Wudil2, and M.S Aminu2
Proper understanding of the correlation between various forms of stress and lipid profile can help in the management of stress related diseases. This study was carried out to assess serum lipid profile in stress condition on a total of thirty (30) Bayero University, Kano students whose information on general lifestyle, including reading habits as well as anthropometric measurement were taken by means of semi-structured questionnaire. Their blood samples were taken before, during and after the commencement of examination and serum lipid profile was assayed. Mean serum Total cholestrol and mean High-density lipoprotein cholestrol were found to differ significantly (p?0.05) when compared on before and after the commencement of examination with higher mean value after the commencement of examination while no significant difference (p?0.05) was found with mean serum Triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein between these periods. Similarly, when compared on before versus during and during versus after the commencement of examination mean serum Triglycerides levels, Total cholestrol and Low-density lipoprotein levels were found to increase significantly (p?0.05) during the commencement of examination. However, the decrease in High-density lipoprotein levels was observed at this period. Moreover, the same parameters were found to be higher in male than in female subjects. Thus, the results of our study revealed an increase in serum Triglycerides, total cholestrol and low density cholestrol but decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during the commencement of examination; the period at which the subjects were thought to be under the highest stress condition.
63 A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ACTIVE IMPLEMENTATION VERSUS PASSIVE IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY ABOUT BACK CARE ADVICE IN NONSPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN AMONG PARAMEDICAL STUDENTS., Dr.Mona A. Salih*, Dr.Vijay Kumar**, Dr Siddaram Patil***
Lower back pain is ranked first as a cause of disability and inability to work, and expected to affect up to 90% of the world’s population at some point in their live.1It is the most common and costly musculoskeletal problem affecting the working population. The consequences to injured workers range from temporary discomfort to permanent disability. It is also leading cause of disability in people under 45 years of age and accounts for roughly 40% of all disability claims in the West. In India, approximately 35% people suffer from chronic back pain, which significantly hampers their day-to-day routine.[2]
64 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF THE METHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN), *Jack, I. R. and Nwachoko, N.
Psidium guajava linn commonly known as guava and belonging to the family Myrtaceae is widely used in folk medicine. The phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extract of the leaves showed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, proteins and triterpenoids but alkaloids and glycosides were absent. The presence of these phytochemicals indicates the pharmacological property and nutritive value of the plant. The sensitivity of five test organisms grown on MacConkey and blood agar were tested on the extract of different dilutions. The result showed that Escherichia coli indicated sensitivity with a zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 1.50cm only at full strength,Staphylococcus aureus with a (ZOI) of 2.5cm each at 50% and 100% strength and Proteus vulgaris with (ZOI) 0.60cm, 0.80cm and 1.00cm at 10%, 50% and 100% strength respectively. Streptococcus pneumonia and Pseudomonas spp. did not show sensitivity towards the extract.
65 APPLICATION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID AMONG PATIENTS WITH CARDIO-VASCULAR DISEASE, Dr.V. Petkova* and M. Dimitrov
The antithrombotic properties of acetylsalicylic acid and mainly its platelet-inhibitory effects made it widely used by patients with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study is to assess patients’ attitude towards application of OTC acetylsalicylic acid products in order to prevent and treat themselves from cardio-vascular diseases. Regardless of age, gender and education of patients they purchase products available without prescription, mainly containing acetylsalicylic acid and a large part of the demand is due to the advertising of the products
66 CHANGED C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND SERUM AMYLOID-A LEVELS IN BLOOD SERUM, ADIPOSE TISSUE AND LIVER OF OBESITY INDUCED RATS, Dr.Iliyan Dimitrov.1*, Dr.Vassil Kamenov MD1, Dr.Mariyana Argirova1, Dr.Anelia Bivolarska MD1, Dr.Penka Angelova MD2
C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are acute-phase proteins. These proteins are synthesized predominantly by liver during the acute-phase of inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that CRP and SAA are synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue as well, and increase in the mass of adipose tissue during obesity leads to elevated CRP and SAA levels in blood serum. A model of animal obesity was created using high-fat diet. Sixty, eight-weeks-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups – 1) control group fed with standard rodent food and 2) experimental group fed with a high-fat diet. They were subjected on these regiments for fourteen weeks. Blood serum, liver and adipose tissue specimens were obtained from each animal at the end of the experimental period. The CRP and SAA concentrations were quantified by ELISA method. Higher blood CRP and SAA concentration and lower liver CRP and SAA levels were found for the group of obese animals compared to the control group. The concentration of SAA in adipose tissue was significantly higher in obese compared with the lean animals. No significant difference was found for the levels of CRP in adipose tissues obtained from the two experimental groups. No correlations exist between CRP and SAA levels in blood circulation, liver and adipose tissue. The changes in the concentration of CRP and SAA in blood serum, adipose tissue and liver, in experimental obesity might be an initial step in the development of low-grade, chronic inflammation.
67 STABILITY-INDICATING BIVARIATE AND MULTI-VARIATE METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF AMISULPRIDE IN PURE FORM AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION, Khalid Abdel-Salam M. Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar and Ahmed Mohamed Abdel-Zaher*
Simple, accurate, sensitive and validated UV spectrophotometric and chemometric methods were developed for the determination of amisulpride in the presence of its acidic degradation products and in its pharmaceutical formulation. Method (A) Bivariate method; the method was applied for analysis of amisulpride in presence of its degradation product this is done at 215 nm and 240 nm in the range of 2 – 12 ?g ml-1 with LOD of 0.164, 0.301 ?g ml-1 and LOQ of 0.548, 1.002 ?g ml-1, respectively. Method (B) Chemometric methods as principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS), classical least square (CLS), for the simultaneous determination of amisulpride in the presence of its acidic degradate, in pure form and in its tablets. The developed methods have the advantage of simultaneous determination of the cited components without any pre-treatment. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level and no significant difference was observed regarding accuracy and precision.
68 ACETYL-L-CARNITINE AND VITAMIN E PROTECT AGAINST INCREASED RISK OF CEREBRAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND HIGH BRAIN LIPIDS: BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, Afrah F. Salama1, Mahmoud E. Salama2, Ahmad A. El-Ebiary3 and Hamdy Sliem*4
Triton is a non-ionic detergent, which produces hyperlipidemia via inhibition of lipoprotein lipase. Oxidative damage takes place in plasma lipids, mainly LDL, leading to atherosclerosis. Complications of atherosclerosis, including cerebral atherosclerosis, constitute a major cause of death. Based on the anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and vitamin E, this study was designed to evaluate their protective role against triton-induced oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in the brain of adult male rats. The present study was performed on 50 male albino rats, weighed 150±20 g. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups of ten rats each. Group I was used as control. Group II was injected I.V. with triton. Group III was treated with triton and ALC (I.P.). Group IV was treated with triton and vitamin E (orally). Group V was treated with triton and combination of ALC and vitamin E. Triton induced atherosclerosis via increased serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and LDL and total brain lipids. These effects were associated with decline in serum HDL level and total protein concentrations in the brain. Meanwhile, triton increased oxidative stress through an elevation in brain malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, associated with depletion of total thiol concentration, total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity. The use of ALC and vitamin E attenuated the toxic effects of triton on lipid profile, and it improved the antioxidant defense system of the experimental rats. The protective effect of the combination, with its antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, gives additive advantage, which exceeds that of ALC or vitamin E alone
69 SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM THE LEAVES OF CINNAMOMUM MACROSTEMON HAYATA, Cheng-Ta Li1, Chiu-Li Kao2, Hsing-Tan Li1, Shu-Ting Huang1 and Chung-Yi Chen1*
A chemical investigation of the leaves of Cinnamomum macrostemon Hayata (Lauraceae) afforded fifteen phytochemicals including three butanolides, obtusilactone A (1), isoobtusilactone A (2), and tenuifolide B (3); three coumarins, coumarin (4), isoscopoletin (5), and scopoletin (6); two steroids, ?-sitostenone (7), and ?-sitosterol (8); two benzenoids, cinnamic acid (9), and eugenol (10); two lignans, (+)-yangambin (11), and (+)-syringaresinol (12); three dibenzocyclo- heptenes, tenuifolin (13), reticuol (14), and subamol (15). The structural elucidation was performed mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectrum data. Compounds 1-3, 5, 6, 11, 13, and 15 were found for the first time from this plant.
70 ASSESSMENT OF DAMAGE TO CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVA) CAUSED BY THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA), *1Iram Fatima, 1Shagufta Parveen, 1Amber Raza, 2Muhammad Arshad Hussain, 1Abida Hussain
The root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita cause serious damage in the crop fields in many countries. Cucumber (Cucumis sativa) is one of the crops that are badly affected by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). The present studies were conducted to assess the damaging effect of root-knot nematode on different parameters of Cucumber by relating infectious plants with non-infectious plants at different inoculums levels. The data was recorded after five weeks of plant germination from inoculated and non-inoculated plants pots. At a level of 500 J2s reduction in growth parameters was 7.833, 28.133, 11.1666, 2.166, 3.6, 1.3 while at the inoculum level of 2000 J2s reduction in growth parameters was 5.333, 17.833, 8.1666, 1.433, 2.4333, 0.9666. Results revealed that affect of M. incognita on growth parameters correlate directly with inoculums levels. However, inverse relationship was found between reproduction factor and inoculum levels. With the increase in inoculums level, the growth parameters were decreased, however, the nematodes population was increased.
71 EFFECT OF VARIOUS FRACTIONS OF CAMEL MILK ON DIABETIC AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE PROFILE, *Sarwar M1, Mazin O. Mohager1 and A.Z. El-Bahrawy2
Diabetes is steeply turning into epidemic especially in third world countries. Efforts are being pooled to counter this present day menace. In this connection, existing diabetic treatment is expensive and at time with lots of side effects. Along with new regime of medicines, scientists are looking for complementary medicines. Camel milk has been shown in literature for its anti diabetic potential and a promising candidate as a complementary tool for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. In present study, camel milk was extracted with Alcohol, Chloroform and Ether at low temperature. Standard methods of extraction at low temperature have been adopted. Streptozotocin induced diabetes was produced in experimental mice with three consecutive intraperitoneal injections. Along with solvent fractions, left over residues have been collected and analyzed for anti diabetic activities. It was revealed that Residues of Extracted Camel Milk (RECM) have maximum hypoglycemic and reduction of Hb1ac activity. Alcohol ranked second in this line. Chloroform and Ether fractions also have anti diabetic activity but at lesser extent. RECM by stimulation or regeneration released more insulin in the blood of diabetic mice. RECM also raised Superoxide Dismutase in streptozotocin treated mice. Alcohol, chloroform and ether extracts also raised superoxide Dismutase. Elevation of Superoxide dismutase and suppression of glucose profile in response to various fractions of camel milk shows that it is a plausible agent to lessen the long term complications of diabetes and have potential to become modern day neutraceutical.
72 NEW SULFUR-CONTAINING AMIDES FROM CLINACANTHUS NUTANS, Iung-Jr Lin, Hsing-Tan Li, Cheng-Ta Li, Hung-Chun Yeh and Chung-Yi Chen*
Two new sulfur-containing amides, cis-entadamide A (1) and cis-entadamide C (2) were isolated from the leaves of (Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae)). The structures of two new sulfur-containing amides were elucidated by chemical and physical evidence.
73 DEVELOPMENT OF A THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF SALBUTAMOL ENANTIOMERS USING CHIRAL MOBILE PHASE ADDITIVES, Houda Chihab1, *Dr. Rachid Fegas1, 2, Said Zerkout1 and Michel Righezza2
A simple, rapid and accurate thin layer Chromatography method was developed for salbutamol enantiomers in tablet dosage form. The thin layer Chromatography method has shown adequate separation of salbutamol enantiomers in tablet Dosage form. The separation was achieved with mobile phase Acetonitril / Methanol/Cu2+, TLC plates: silica gel and cellulose, L-phenyl analine and histydine as selectors.
74 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL ESTER-ETHER PHENOL DERIVATIVES, Talal H. Zeglam, Omran N. R. Fhid*, Asma.Gebril, Massud A.S.Anwair, Reham M.Mufti and Zakia A.Ghanfoud
In the present study a new ester–ether phenol derivatives 2-5 have been synthesized and characterized. Their structures have been established on the physical and spectral analysis. The synthetic compounds were screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against: Metacillin resistance staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 11934, Extended spectrum B-lactamase (12,54,70), staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtales and Candida albicans (669,1047, 772, 1057, 660). The best result obtained at the concentration 100?g with compound phenyl benzoate 2 and 1-Nitro-4(phenoxymethyl)benzene 5 against fungus (Candida albicans 660, 1047, 1057 ). While Compound 5 possess significant active against gram positive and gram negative bacteria comparable to that of the standard drugs.
75 HEMATOLOGY IN THE SENESCENCE, Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi1, Okoroiwu,I.L.2, Daniel-Igwe,Gloria3, Ijioma Solomon Nnah4
The hematopoietic system is modestly affected by aging, and these effects become particularly notable after age 65. There is a continuous decrease in the volume of the hematopoietic marrow with age, which does not cause significant alterations in either granulocyte, monocyte, or platelet counts, although a slight £1.0 g/dl decrease in population mean hemoglobin concentration in men occurs. The recruitment of neutrophils in response to exogenous stimuli is slightly decreased, but the response to infection does not appear impaired. Neutrophil function is not significantly decreased with age of the subject. Although the population mean vitamin B12 and folate levels decrease with age, these changes do not result in decreased hematopoiesis as judged by blood counts, except in individual patients with significant deficiencies. Anemia in older individuals should be evaluated in the same manner as anemia in younger individuals. Certain coagulation proteins are altered significantly with aging, and a propensity to accelerated coagulation and compensatory fibrinolysis is present, leading to a new steady state. Decreased immune cell function is the most consistent change in older persons and perhaps the most important functionally. Although there is a tendency to decreased lymphocyte counts in the blood, the major effects are mediated by dysregulation of T lymphocyte function, perhaps as a result of the prolonged period since thymic atrophy in older subjects. This change affects both cellular immune functions and antibody responses to antigens because of the T helper cell function required. Many studies of aging have to be interpreted in the light of inadequate population samples for study, the difficulty and therefore the rarity of using longitudinal as contrasted with cross-sectional analyses, the small sample sizes after stratification for gender and decade of age, and the need to study smaller age intervals in the 8th through 10th decades of life because of more dramatic changes over short intervals at these ages. In 1998, individuals 65 years of age or older accounted for 12.7 percent of the population of the United States; this group is expected to grow to 23.0 percent of the population by the year 2040. Currently, there are 4.0 million people in the United States who are 85 years old or older.1 Data from 1985 through 1989 indicate that life expectancy at age 65 is 14 years for males and 18 years for females in most developed countries(Kinsella,1992). As a result, physicians are increasingly caring for older patients and are being called upon to interpret hematologic data in the context of the age of the patient. Age-related effects on cellular DNA results in a dramatic increase in the incidence of clonal hematopoietic diseases, especially leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and closely related diseases in the decades after age 50. In addition, the decrease in immune function has an impact on vaccine use and resistance to infection in older individuals.
76 EXTRACTION, ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CURCUMIN: A REVIEW ARTICLE, Pranali Waghmare, Dheeraj Patingrao and Dr. Pramod Kadu*
Curcumin due to its various medicinal, biological, pharmacological activities is high on demand and has high market potential, high cost. Curcumin naturally occurs from rhizhomes of Curcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae (Turmeric). Extraction is the first crucial step in preparation of curcumin formulations. This review article focuses on extraction of curcumin from turmeric using different techniques like, Soxhlet Extraction, Solvent Extraction, Maceration, Microwave Assisted Extraction, Sonication Extraction, Slurry Extraction and Refinement of Curcumin; further Isolation and purification and Identification of curcumin is also done.
77 A REVIEW ON ADVANCES IN TABLETING TECHNIQUES, Bipin R. Patel* and Dr. Rakesh P. Patel
The number of products based on new drug delivery systems has significantly increased in the past few years, and this growth is expected to continue in the near future. Tablet dosage form is most convenient and relevant dosage form. Innovation in tablet dosage form can be made to provide product of higher ?selectivity? for the drug for medical treatment. At present, there are so many existing drug delivery technologies that a total compilation is not within the scope of this article. Yet an attempt is being made to compile some of the most successfully marketed drug delivery technologies. The present review focuses on innovation in tablet system. Various systems like OSDrC concept, Accu-break technology, DiffCORE technology, GEOMATRIX technology, Tab in Tab technology are summarized in this article. Evolution of an existing drug molecule from a conventional form in to said technology can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, safety, and efficacy.
78 DEPRESSION AND ROLE OF MARINE BIOMATERIALS: A REVIEW, Vandita Namola*1, Parminder Ratan2 and Preeti Kothiyal3
Depression is the most common disorder nowadays seen in adults, old age and even children. It is one of the largest causes of morbidity, and is often accompanied with low mood, loss of appetite, insomnia. The major factors contributing to depression is deficiency of monoamines such as serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine in various regions of the brain. The rapidly growing number of patients suffering from depression has lead to an enormous increase in the research on antidepressant drugs, and as it is well known that synthetic drugs have various side effects therefore research on natural sources for treatment of depression is going on and marine sources being the most diverse of all natural sources is being studied extensively. Marine Biomaterials such as Bryostatin , and other biomaterials obtained from crustaceans , seaweed , algae are currently being researched as antidepressant leads . Hence, the objective of this review is to discuss various marine biomaterials that can serve as potent antidepressants.
79 RECENT ADVANCES OF BENZOTHIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS MARKER FOR VARIOUS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES, Gollapalli Naga Raju* and Rama Rao Nadendla
Benzothiazoles can serve as unique and versatile pharmacophore for experimental drug design. Benzothiazole moiety is very small but is fascinated by scientists because of the different biological activities by benzothiazole and their derivatives. The small and simple benzothiazole nucleus possesses numerous pharmacological activities like antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, and antidiabetic activities. This review was focused on the benzothiazole and its different derivatives that posses different biological activities.
80 FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS: AN OVERVIEW, 1*Gavandi Sandip, 2Jadhav Santosh, 1Patil Shivanand and 3Sapkale Geeta
Researchers throughout the world are focusing intensively on the methods for the development of new drug delivery systems to enhance patient’s compliance. Oral drug delivery remains the most preferred route for administration of various therapeutic agents. Oral delivery (viz., solutions, suspensions, tablets, and capsules) is currently the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most convenient and most economical method of drug delivery. A Fast dissolving tablet, orally disintegrating tablet or orodispersible tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited amount of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications. ODTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. FDDT formulation combines the advantage of both liquid and conventional tablet formulation while also offering advantage over both traditional dosage forms.
81 APPLICATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE FOLIN CIOCALTEU METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT FROM EXTRACTS OF TERMINALIA BELLERICA., Anjoo Kamboj*, Ritika Gupta, Ankita Rana and Ripanjot Kaur
Terminalia bellirica, is a perennial herb mainly distributed in the tropical regions and commonly found in South-East Asia, including Thailand. It is one of the ingredients of “triphala”, an Ayurvedic formulation that is believed to promote health, immunity and longevity. The fruit is reported to have purgative, cardiac depressant, hypotensive, digestive, expectorant, narcotic, ophthalmic, antipyretic, antiemetic and rejuvenating effect. Unripe fruit is a mild laxative and ripe fruit is an astringent. Seeds are used as aphrodisiac. Oil extract from the seed pulp is used in leucoderma and alopecia. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP) in an extract from T. bellerica leaves and fruits, by the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The crude extract was used to develop a method for TP assay in T. bellirica. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The optimum conditions for analysis time, wavelength and standard substance were 30 min, 760 nm and gallic acid as reference standard, respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved the method to be linear, specific, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform. This methodology complies with the requirements for analytical application and to ensure the reliability of the results.
82 COPPER(II) COMPLEXES AS IN VITRO ANTICANCER AGENTS AGAINST HUMAN BREAST CANCER MCF-7 CELL LINE: A REVIEW, Malathy Moorthy and Dr. Rajavel Rangappan*
In this review, we have discussed the in vitro antitumor potential of Cu(II) complexes synthesized from various ligands. Many copper complexes have been found to have potential for the treatment of cancers and many other diseases. Copper(II) complexes plays an important role as an anticancer drug, especially against the MCF-7 cell lines. The Anticancer activity of the Copper(II) complexes depends on the nature of the ligands. This review provides a bird’s eye view of the copper(II) complexes to a medicinal chemist for a target oriented information for the development of clinically viable anticancer drugs.
83 EVALUATION OF APOPTOTIC ACTIVITY OF BANGLADESHI PLANTS EXTRACT, Prawej Ansari1, 2*, Mustafe Khalid Mohamed 2, Sanjeeda Sarmin Badhan2, Md. Saiful Islam1, Md. Niaz Hossain3, Sabbir Anwar2, Md. Mustarek Uddin Meemo2
Objective: This study was carried out with four plants, Ixora nigricans, Neolamarckia cadamba, Dalbergia stipulacea and Hymendictyon excelsum, extract and was intended to investigate as well as compare their activity on physiological model by studying in vitro. Method: The in vitro cytotoxic or apoptosis study was made using Brine shrimp lethality a bio-assay method, most known, simple and reliable method in this field. Result: Results of this study were obtained by following graphical analysis and expressed as median lethal concentration (LC50). Among those plant sample the extract from Ixora nigrican was found with least value (LC50 = 44.7?g/ml) at 95% confidence limit it ranges from 43.94 to 45.52?g/ml, the lower the value of LC50, higher the toxicity. Conclusion: On the view point from this result, we can conclude by saying that the extracts we studied have some pharmacological property that can aid in the treatment of carcinoma. We need to identify the molecule that causing this effect and then we can move for clinical trial.
84 PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS AMONG CHILDREN IN A RURAL TEACHING HOSPITAL, TAMILNADU, Rajkumar Narasinghan1, S. Sakthi dasan2, Vijaya Rayapu3, Dhandapany Senthil Pragash3*
Hepatitis A virus infection is a major public health problem all over the world, especially in developing countries. It has a worldwide distribution. The common site of Hepatitis A infection is contributed to the liver, which leads to impaired liver functions. Hepatitis A belongs to the group of RNA virus which commonly spreads through oral route, food and water contamination. It may spread through blood products but the prevalence rate is very less. Hepatitis A can be prevented by vaccination, good hygiene and sanitation. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 121 children of age group 6 months to 15 years. The serum sample was tested for presence of anti-HAV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. Results From our study we concluded that Out of 121 children, 106 were found to be positive for anti-HAV antibody. The anti-HAV positivity rates were different among different age groups and the occurrence of anti-HAV antibody among children increased as age increases and was found to be maximum among the age group of 11 - 15 years. In the high socioeconomic group, the occurrence of anti-HAV antibody was low when compared to low socioeconomic group.
85 CLINICO-SEROLOGICAL PREVALENCE OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN AND AROUND PUDUCHERRY, Dhandapany Senthil Pragash1*, Latha Ragunathan2, Vijaya Rayapu1, Sakthidasan3
Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the Spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It affects humans worldwide, in both urban and rural areas and in temperate and tropical climates. There has long been under-reporting of these cases in India, mainly due to non-availability of diagnostic methods. Methods: Our study was mainly aimed at detection of leptospirosis along with clinical correlation. We carried out a prospective study in clinically suspected patients with leptospirosis over a period of 2 years. A total of 202 patients with clinical suspicion of Leptospirosis were categorized by age, sex, occupation and important clinical manifestations. Results: Out of the 202 cases screened, 81 (40.1%) were positive by dark field microscopy (DFM) and 76 (37.62%) by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The disease showed peak during rainy season. 76 positive cases by MAT, gold standard method, were followed up for epidemiological pattern, clinical features and laboratory parameters. Mean age of patients was 32.6 years (4 years to 70years) and males (56.58 %) were predominantly affected than females (43.42 %). The most common symptom observed in this study was fever (100%), myalgia (91%), headache (87%), conjunctival suffusion (50%), jaundice (39%) and oliguria (37%) and laboratory parameters as follows: raised ESR (100%), followed by abnormal LFT (72 %) and thrombocytopenia (54%). Conclusion: We conclude that, there was a positive correlation between clinical features and laboratory diagnosis. So patient can be started on empirical therapy using clinical features and later confirmed with laboratory diagnosis.
86 COMPARISON OF FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEI ON LESIONAL AND NORMAL SIDE IN PATIENTS WITH TOBACCO INDUCE KERATOSIS & LEUKOPLAKIA: THE PILOT STUDY, 1Dr. Sonune Shrikant*, 2Dr. Patil Ashok, 3Dr. Kandalgaonkar Shilpa, 4Dr. Suyog Tupsakhare, 1Dr. Mahesh Gabhane and 1Dr. Patil Kishor
The assessment of micronuclei in exfoliated cells is a promising tool for the study of the effect of carcinogens on oral epithelium. The technique involve examination of epithelial smears to determine the prevalence of cells containing micronuclei, extra-nuclear bodies composed of chromosomes or chromosomal fragments that failed to be incorporated into daughter nuclei at mitosis. Usually the neoplastic changes take place at the site of chronic stimulus. It passes through various phases of dysplastic changes. Clinically, shows varied spectrum of red and white lesions. Thus it can be hypothesized that micronuclei frequency is higher in that particular lesional tissue compare to normal contra lateral side. Aim of the present study was to compare frequency of micronuclei in Leukoplakia & tobaccos induce keratosis to that of normal contra lateral side. The study consist of 10 patients with clinical diagnosis of Leukoplakia, tobacco induce keratosis. Oral exfoliative cytology from the lesions as well as normal mucosa stained with papanicolaou stain used for counting micronuclei. Result shows that statistically significant difference in frequency of micronuclei on lesional side and non lesional side was found. Perhaps the difference between the frequency of micronuclei on lesional side and normal side almost found to be constant. Thus it can be concluded that, higher frequency of micronuclei suggest the localized effect of carcinogens on the oral mucosa. Perhaps the difference between both sides that is lesional and normal almost remains constant which may be because of the generalized effect of carcinogen on the oral mucosa.
87 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FRACTIONATED PLANT EXTRACTS OF AMLA [PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA L.], TULSI [OCIMUM TENUIFLORUM L.] AND NEEM [AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.JUSS], Vedamurthy AB1, Padmaa M Paarakh2* and Sudisha Jogaiah1
Fractionated methanol extracts of dried leaves of Phyllanthus emblica, Ocimum tenuiflorum and Azadirachta indica, were evaluated for the antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity by spread plate method against Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus aureus. The antioxidant activity of these fractions were determined by DPPH [1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picryl Hydrazyl] assay. It was found that gram negative bacteria was largely inhibited by the fraction III of Tulsi than that of Neem and Amla against reference antibacterial drug like Tetracyclin. The zone of inhibition was measured which shows that fraction III of Tulsi is having highest antibacterial activity when compared to Neem and Amla.
88 A RARE CASE REPORT OF AUTOIMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY, Vidyashree J.B1, Harshini V.2*, Renuka Ramiah3
Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia ( AIHA) has rarely been reported in pregnancy.[1] AIHA is characterized by the development of antibodies directed against one’s own red cell antigens. When such an autoantibody belongs to the IgG class, the condition is potentially dangerous to both the mother and the fetus, since IgG crosses the placenta readily.we report a case of pregnant woman who presented to us with anemia and was diagnosed with AIHA.
89 AYURVED MANAGEMENT OF LOW BACKACHE- A CASE STUDY, Dr. Tank Neha Girishkumar
Low back ache is a very common disorder having multiple causative factors. One of the major cause is degenerative disc problem which can be prolapse, herniation or annular tear of lumbo sacral intervertebral disc. The main symptoms are pain, muscle spasm, difficulty in movement, inability to stand for longer duration, numbness in legs etc. As the disease progresses patient is unable to do his routine activities which disturbs them mentally leading to anxiety, stress and sleeplessness. Various internal drugs for pain are available but, results are not satisfactory. The last available treatment is spinal surgery which is not much successful and therefore people with such disease are always in search of result oriented remedy. Classics of Ayurved have suggested some drugs and Panchakarma procedures through which correction of intervertebral disc can be obtained without surgery. Low back pain can be studied under Asthi Majjagata Vaata, disease mentioned under the chapter of diseases of Vaata and suggested line of treatment is Abhyanga, Swedana and Basti along with internal drugs which subsides the increased Vaata. Here, in the present case study patient had low back pain due to disc herniation at L3-L4-L5-S1 and she was treated with 2courses of "Kaala Basti” along with Abhyanga and Swedana. Internal drugs were Yograj guggulu and Rasna Saptaka decoction. Patient recovered remarkably and had almost nil complain after two courses of Basti and could do all her routine activities.
90 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF METFORMIN ORAL MUCOADHESIVE TABLETS: EFFECT OF POLYMERS ON EVALUATION PARAMETERS, M. Ravindra Babu*, M. Lakshmi Pravallika and Rekha Rani
An attempt has been made to develop oral mucoadhesive tablets for a drug like metformin which shows antidiabetic action. Hydrophilic polymers like high viscous sodium alginate and low viscous sodium alginate were used in the preparation. By using these polymers six formulations of oral mucoadhesive tablets were formulated by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were subjected for evaluation of hardness, weight variation, thickness, friability, swelling behavior, mucoadhesion strength, invitro release rate study. Formulation F2 containing more amount of high viscous sodium alginate is found to be optimized formulation. The invitro release of F2 formulation exhibits sustained release of metformin.
91 STUDY OF PAINT APPLICABILITY AND BIODEGRADATION OF MICA BASED STARCH-G-PEHA/MICA BIONANOCOMPOSITE, Bipranarayan Mallick*1 and Prafulla K Sahoo2
2-Ethyl hexyl acrylate (EHA) was grafted onto starch with mica as additive to synthesize starch-g-Poly (2-ethylhexylacrylate)/mica bionanocomposites by emulsion polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The bionanocomposite was studied for greater biodegradability and water resistant property with varied range of mica content to be used in paint industry. The bionanocomposites were characterized by FTIR and TGA for grafting pattern, thermal behavior and morphological arrangement. The intercalated structure of (starch-g-PEHA)/mica due to dispersion of nano scale mica into galleries of starch-g-PEHA biocopolymer were characterized by XRD study and TEM micrography. The coating, antifungal activity and ageing properties were studied drawing thin films with the bionanocomposites and biodegradability with water resistant properties were compared to establish its novelty over the previously reported (starch-g-PEHA)/SS and (starch-g-PEHA)/MMT bionanocomposites.
92 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF AMLODIPINE IR TABLETS AS PER 2*2 FACTORIAL DESIGN (SELECTION OF BEST BINDER-DISINTEGRANT COMBINATION), V. V. L. S. P. Sowjanya*, D.Madhurya, G.Vineela, G.Sony Chaitanya, Kaneez Fatima, G. Sahithi, G. Anusha
Amlodipine, is a widely prescribed anti-hypertensive drug belongs to class II under BCS classification and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. It needs enhancement in the dissolution rate in its formulation development. Binders such as Acacia and PVP K30 and use of superdisintegrant primojel and potatostarch are tried for enhancing the dissolution rate of amlodipine tablets. The objective of the present study is selection of best binder- disintegrant combination in order to enhance the dissolution rate of amlodipine IR tablets by 22 factorial design to achieve NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min. A total of four amlodipine IR tablet formulations were prepared using selected combinations of the two factors as per 22 factorial design. Amlodipine tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate characteristics. The dissolution rate (K1) values were analysed by ANOVA of factorial design. The individual and combined effects of binder and disintegrant on the dissolution rate (K1) of amlodipine tablets are highly significant (P
93 STUDIES ON EFFICACY OF BAIT CARRIERS IN ENHANCING BAIT PREFERENCES AMONG BY THE LESSER BANDICOOT, BANDICOTA BENGALENSIS, D. Sudha Rani*, Ch. V. Narasimha Rao, Y. Suryanarayana and M. Bharatha Lakshmi
Rodents cause severe economic yield loss to various field crops. Among all the rodent species infesting field crops the lesser bandiccot, Bandicoota bengalensis is the major potential pest. The most common method of rodent management is poison baiting which often led to genetic resistance, poison aversion, bait shyness, behavioural avoidance, non target poisoning and environmental risks. To overcome the above a laboratory trial was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Maruteru ,West Godavari , Andhra Pradesh during 2012-13 to evaluate the effective bait carrier as an alternative to be used in poison bait against field rat infesting irrigated paddy. Six sets of rodents were used for each experiment in both no-choice and multiple choice feeding trials with seven different bait carriers namely, bengal gram, dry fish, moong dal, honey, jaggery, potato slices (fried), maize flour along with regular bait (Broken rice and Vegetable oil, 98:2) as control for six consecutive days. The average daily intake (ADI) of each bait by the rodents is recorded and converted to g/100 g body weight. Among all the bait carriers evaluated the fried potato slices (Broken rice- Fried potato slices- Vegetable oil , 96:2:2) has recorded above 100 per cent increase in ADI of food in comparison to normal bait (Broken rice- Vegetable oil, 98:2). The order of bait preference followed the same trend in both no choice and multiple choice trials as Fried potato slices >dry fish >moong dal >bengal gram >maize flour >jaggery >honey.
94 A NOVEL STABILITY INDICATING VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FORSIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF AZILSARTAN AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM, G.Kumara Swamy1*, 2JM Rajendra Kumar and 3J.V.L.N.Seshagiri Rao
A simple, precise, accurate and economical stability-indicating RP-HPLC assay method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Azilsartan (AZN) and Amlodipine Besylate (AMD) in bulk drugs and their combined commercial tablets. The method has shown adequate separation of AZN and AMD from their degradation products. Separation was achieved on a Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 250mm, 5?m, Make: Waters) or equivalent) column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of Acetonitrile: Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate buffer Adjust pH 3.0 with ortho phosphoric acid (70:30, v/v).a isocratic elution mode at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The retention times for AZN and AMD were found to be 3.5 and 2.3 min respectively. Both drugs and their combination drug product were subjected to acid, base, hydrolysis, thermal and photolytic stress conditions. Thus stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed analytical method. Validation of the proposed analytical method was carried out as per ICH guidelines Q2R1. Quantitation was achieved with PDA detection at 254 nm based on peak area with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges 2.5-20?g/ml for AZN and 10-80?g/ml for AMD (R2 > 0.9999 for both drugs). The LOD and LOQ were 3.09?g/ml, 2.90?g/ml and 10.1?g/ml, 9.84?g/ml for Azilsartan and Amlodipine Besylate respectively. The method was found to be specific and stability indicating as no interfering peaks of degradents and excipients were observed. The proposed method is suitable for application in quality-control laboratories for quantitative analysis of both the drugs individually and in combination dosage forms.
95 T-BOOH INDUCED DNA DAMAGE: PROTECTION BY COLEUS AROMATICA, Dinesha Ramadas1, Sachidananda Gurumahadevaiah2 and Subhas Chandrappa Mundasada3*
Objective: The main objective of the study is to find a natural resource towards preventing oxidative DNA damage induced by t-BOOH. Materials and methods: By using standard antioxidant Butylated Hydroxy Anisole, Coleus aromatica extract, Tertiary butyl hydroperoxide, calf thymus DNA. The sheared DNA was used in submarine agarose gel electrophoresis where DNA damage was done by using tertiary butyl hydroperoxide. Similarly, the cytotoxicity study was also done to know the natural antioxidant itself is not toxic to cells by using lymphocytes and these lymphocytes were isolated from fresh human blood. Results and conclusions: The agarose gel electrophoresis bands were visualized in Transilluminator where, it was confirmed that, tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced DNA damaged was successfully prevented by BHA (400?M) and Coleus aromatic (25?g) extract. In cell cytotoxicity studies, BHA and Coleus aromatica extract inhibits the cell damage 71% and 75% respectively. The results confirms that, Coleus aromatica extract can inhibit tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced DNA damage and is nontoxic to cells.
96 WARTHIN’S TUMOR: A CURIOUS ENTITY – CASE REPORT, 1Dr. Vanita C Rathod, 2*Dr Sonam Agrawal, 3Dr. Siddharth Pundir, 4Dr. Sudhansu Dixit, 5Dr.Pankaj Kumar Agrawal and 6Dr. Swati Saluja
Warthin tumor was first described in the American literature, by Aldred Warthin, in 1929, the pathologist who named this tumor papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, but since then it was also known as adenolymphoma, cystadenolymphoma, and Warthin tumor. Because of its microscopically appearance and unknown origin, this tumor entity is still fascinating head and neck surgeons and pathologist. The etiology of Warthin’s tumors is controversial and whether they are true neoplasms or developmental malformations continues to be debated. Although this is the second most common benign tumor of the parotid, neither we nor our colleagues were familiar with it. Furthermore, we could find no mention of it in the family medicine literature. The following case illustrates a 50 year old male patient reported to our department with chief complaint of huge swelling on right side of face.
97 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE WATER-BODIES NEAR INDUSTRIAL AREA: DAGORI AND RAIGARH, Banerjee Priya1 and Dr. Sao Shweta2*
An investigation was undertaken on the areas like Dagori and Raigarh to see the effects of rapid industrialization on the water bodies of these two areas i.e shivnath river at Dagori and kelo river at Raigarh respectively. A Comparative study has been made by taking parameters like , Hardness, Total Solid, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) of these two rivers. The Potability of water was checked directly by collecting samples from the water bodies of these two areas. In the present investigation it was found that the maximum parameters of Shivnath river at Dagori were not at the level of pollution, but maximum parameters of Kello river at Raigarh shows that they are somewhat polluted and not potable. So, it is the need of the to take necessary steps for making the water potable for the survival of the living organisms on these water bodies.
98 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE WATER-BODIES NEAR INDUSTRIAL AREA: DAGORI AND RAIGARH, Banerjee Priya1 and Dr. Sao Shweta2*
An investigation was undertaken on the areas like Dagori and Raigarh to see the effects of rapid industrialization on the water bodies of these two areas i.e shivnath river at Dagori and kelo river at Raigarh respectively. A Comparative study has been made by taking parameters like , Hardness, Total Solid, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) of these two rivers. The Potability of water was checked directly by collecting samples from the water bodies of these two areas. In the present investigation it was found that the maximum parameters of Shivnath river at Dagori were not at the level of pollution, but maximum parameters of Kello river at Raigarh shows that they are somewhat polluted and not potable. So, it is the need of the to take necessary steps for making the water potable for the survival of the living organisms on these water bodies.
99 „EFFECT OF ELECTRON BEAM RADIATION ON SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF ORTHODONTIC BONDING ADHESIVES’, Dr. Shine Benny1* and Dr. M. S. Ravi2
Background and Aim: The goal of research developments in adhesive materials has been to achieve good and optimal bond strength during treatment and also enabling easy debonding and clean up procedures at the end of the treatment. Hence this study was designed to evaluate, the effect of exposure to electron beam radiation on shear bond strength of two commonly used adhesives in Orthodontics. Materials and methods: Lightcure composite and self cure adhesive was used for the purpose. 200 upper 1stpremolars extracted for orthodontic purpose was selected .In each group, upper 1st premolar; SS brackets were bonded with corresponding adhesive systems. The bonded specimens were subdivided into five groups for evaluation of bond strength before and after irradiation with 2kGy, 4kGy, 8kGy and 10kGy. The shear bond strength of the bonded specimens was tested using Universal Testing Machine. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using One- Way ANOVA. Results: When comparing before and after irradiation, the light cure adhesive had the shear bond strength significantly increased after irradiation with 4kGy and in Self cure adhesive the shear bond strength after irradiation significantly decreases. Conclusion: The electron beam irradiation had negative effect on the shear bond strength of self cure and light cure orthodontic adhesive; except for the radiation dose of 4kGy in case of light cure adhesive.
100 EVALUATION OF ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS OF ANTIGONON LEPTOPUS, Poonam Ranjan, Dilip Kumar Tiwari and Kishu Tripathi*
The objective of the present study is to investigate the antidepressant activity chloroform and ethanolic extract of leaves of Antigonon leptopusin Albino rat by tail suspension technique. The albino rats weighing about 100-150 gm were used and divided into seven groups, each groups containing six animals (n=6). Control group received distilled water (15 ml), Imipramine HCl (15mg/kg) for standard and test groups received chloroform and ethanolic extract of Antigonon leptopus in five different doses 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 150mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 250mg/kg per orally separately. They were evaluated for antidepressant effect by tail suspension model, after 30 minutes for ethanolic extract and after 60 minutes of drug administration. The immobility time was noted for five minutes for each rat in all groups. The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Dunnet?s multiple comparison test, p
101 A PROMISING FUNCTIONAL DAIRY FOOD USING PROBIOTICS WITH KALMEGH, Dr. Sunil S. Pande and Priyanka Gupta*
Kalmegh extract has well known nutritional and medicinal values. A probiotic yoghurt fortified with Kalmegh extract (KE) was manufactured using Lactobacillus acidophilus together with Bifidobacterium bifidum as a probiotic bacterial strains. Kalmegh extract was prepared and added at a concentration of 6% to Buffalo's skim milk. The effect on synersis, pH, TTA and sensory properties of the final product, as well as, the viability of the LAB were evaluated during 28 days of storage at refrigeration temperature. Lactobacillus acidophilus counts decreased from 36x108cfu/ml to 14x108cfu/ml and Bifidobacterium bifidum counts decreased from 100x109cfu/ml to 5x109cfu/ml, which is more than the recommended value of more than 107 throughout the storage period. Thus kalmegh fortified yoghurt could be used as a functional dairy food.
102 ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTY OF THREE ETHNO MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR WOUND HEALING., Abdul Latheef. K, Vineeth. T and A.B. Remashree*
Wound healing is a physiological phenomenon of tissue but it is interrupted by the bacteria, causing sepsis. If the bacterial growth is prevented by any antibacterial agents, the wound heals very fast. Now a day a variety of natural and manmade antibacterial agents are extensively used as antiseptic in the form of ointments, dusting powders and lotions. But there are a large number of ethnic communities which are far beyond the reach of modern antiseptics, treat common wounds of their pets and own with the commonly available plants or plant products. So the present investigation was undertaken to find out the antibacterial property of wound healing ethno medicinal plants in the form in which they commonly used to treat cuts and wounds. The study clearly showed that the ethno medicinal plants are having potential antibacterial activity comparable to the antibiotics which are commonly used. So there is a possibility of generating new antibiotics from cheap and widely available plant resources.
103 SCREENING OF ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PORTULACA QUADRIFIDA LINN ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS, Ashok Kumar D1, Mrinmay Das2*, Mastanaiah K2. and Arup Das2
The antidiabetic activity of whole plant extract of Portulaca quadrifida Linn. was investigated in a model of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. The biochemical parameters studied were: plasma glucose, degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, peripheral consumption of glucose levels on 1, 3, 7 and 10th day. Hydro alcoholic extract had shown significant protection and lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in glucose tolerance test. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after 2h at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight. The streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant reductions in biochemical parameter after treatment with the extract and Glibenclamide (used as standard) as compared to the diabetic controls. The results showed that the Portulaca quadrifida aerial parts have significant anti-diabetic activity. The results suggest the validity of the clinical use of Portulaca quadrifida in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type II.
104 OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF FORMULATION FOR pH DEPENDANT SOLUBLE DRONEDARONE HYDROCHLORIDE, K. Ramesh1, 3*, B. Chandra Shekar2 and P. Khadgapathi3
The brand name of marketed Innovator product for Dronedarone Tablets 400 mg is MULTAQ® (dronedarone) 400 mg tablets, it is an antiarrhythmic drug indicated to reduce the risk of hospitalization for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients in sinus rhythm with a history of paroxysmal or persistent AF. The recommended dose is one tablet of 400 mg twice a day with morning and evening meals. Dronedarone hydrochloride is showing pH dependant solubility, the solubility of drug substance is more in the pH range of 3.0 to 5.0. In order to have a bioequivalent generic product to that of marketed Innovator product, it is recommended to have the similar dissolution profiles in FDA recommended dissolution media. The present work was attempted to map the dissolution profiles of Dronedarone from tablet dosage to that of corresponding innovator product (MULTAQ® 400 mg tablets) profiles in FDA recommended dissolution media by optimizing the quantity of granulating fluid (Purified water), concentration of both surfactant (Poloxamer P407) and super disintegrant (Crospovidone). Based on the in vitro dissolution profiles of test product formulation, it was clearly evident that rate of dissolution of Dronedarone from tablet dosage form is showing increasing trend with decreasing concentration of Poloxamer P407 and increasing concentrations of Crospovidone and more over the quantity of purified water is also playing an important role with respect to granulation consistency, disintegration time and in-vitro dissolution profiles.
105 SURFACE MODIFIED CHARCOAL FOR SCAVENGING OF MANGANESE (II) METAL IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION, A.S. Dhote, A. K. Wanjari*, U. E. Chaudhari and S. S. Belsare
Adsorption is one of the most effective physical processes for removal of toxic metal from waste water. Adsorption has been proved to be an excellent way to treat industrial waste effluents, offering significant advantages like the low-cost, availability, profitability, easy of operation and efficiency. In this paper four parameter isotherm model namely Langmuir, three parameters namely Freundlich and Temkin were applied to describe the isotherm and to calculate their constant. The best estimation of the parameters of these models by non-linear regression analysis was obtained. A comparison between four and three parameters isotherm was reported. The characteristic parameter of each isotherm and related coefficient of determination (R2) have been determined. The effect of various parameters influencing the Mn(II) adsorptions such as effect of pH, Contact time, temperature, adsorbent dose have been studied. Maximum adsorption found to be 87.26 at pH 11.5. The results indicate that surface modification with Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) could be used to significantly enhance the capacity of granulated activated charcoal to adsorb Mn(II) metal ion.
106 RENAL ONCOCYTOMA - A RARE TUMOR, *Sunita Bamanikar1, Farhan Shaikh2, Harsh Kumar3 and Neeta More4
Renal oncocytomas are rare benign tumors arising from the distal tubular renal epithelial cells and have a good prognosis. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. We present here a case of a 36-year-old female in whom renal oncocytoma was diagnosed on histomorphological examination and confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. The patient’s one year follow up was uneventful.
107 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL N-ACYLHYDRAZONE DERIVATIVES, Pankaj K. Godhaviya1*, Praful K. Patel1 and Dinesh S. Kundariya2
A series of novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives was synthesized via condensation of acid hydrazide with different substituted acetophenone in the presence of catalytically acetic acid using methanol or ethanol as a solvent. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by using elemental analysis, Mass, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Also compounds were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activity (MIC) in vitro with two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and three fungal strains.
108 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS, Santhosh Kumar K1, Rajesh Kumar Putta*1, Ravi Shankar K1, Reddy GNVC2
The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of Benazepril by direct compression technique using various polymers like microcrystalline cellulose, starch, lactose and superdisintegrant like crospovidone using direct compression technique. Benazepril is an ACE Inhibitor used in the management of hypertension. The drug and excipients were subjected for compatability studies by FTIR. Later the formulations were evaluated for their pre compressional, post compressional parameters and In vitro drug release studies. The FTIR compatibility study revealed that there are no drug polymer interactions. The powder beds of all formulations exhibited uniform flow and ability and ease of compression. The prepared tablet showed uniformity with respect to their weight variation, thickness, friability and hardness; further the results indicated that the prepared tablets have sufficient mechanical strength and other parameters were within the specified limits. Different formulations showed disintegration time between the range of 2 min. In-vitro dissolution studies among all the formulations, formulation F6 containing (30 mg) Crospovidone showed 100% drug release within 45 min. Thus, formulation F6 was considered as optimized formulation than others. These results of the above study revealed that fast dissolving tablets of Benazepril could be formulated for immediate drug release to ensure symptomatic relief which leads to improved patient compliance.
109 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF ATENOLOL AND NIFEDIPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM, Dr. Bhavna A. Patel*
The aim of present work was to develop an accurate, simple, sensitive and Cost effective UV Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Atenolol and Nifedipine. The method has followed linearity in the range of 5-25?g/ml and 1.25-6.25?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine respectively. The value of correlation coefficient was 0.9987 & 0.9980 for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 274.5 nm and 0.9979 & 0.9970 for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 235 nm. Satisfactory values of Percent relative standard deviation for the intra-day and inter-day precision indicated that method is precise. Results of the recovery studies (97.77 % to 99.39% for Atenolol & 98.40 % to 100.37 % for Nifedipine) showed accuracy of the method. LOD calculated as 0.97?g/ml and 0.097?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 274.5 nm & 0.46?g/ml and 0.07325?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 235 nm. LOQ calculated as 2.94?g/ml and 0.322?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 274.5 nm & 1.41?g/ml and 0.222?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 235 nm .The developed method was extended to the formulation for routine estimation of Atenolol and Nifedipine.
110 DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF ZOOPLANKTONS IN THE RIVER HIRAN, DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF ZOOPLANKTONS IN THE RIVER HIRAN
Present work was carried out to investigate the diversity and distribution of zooplanktons in River Hiran. Samples were collected from five sampling stations, namely Kimdeshwar, Khitoula, Ghat Simariya, Khinni and Hirapur for two consecutive years. The most dominant zooplankton species collected were Daphnia pulex, Macrothrix rosea, Diaphanosoma brachyaurum and Alonella sps., of phylum Cladocera were recorded from the River Hiran. A total of 50 species of zooplanktons were identified from Hiran River in the year 2006 and 2007. In which 14 species of Protozoa, 17 species of Rotifera, 14 species of Cladocera and 05 species of Copepoda were represented the zooplanktons density. Zooplanktons densities have gradually increased from 183.00org/1 in July (S-5) to 2680.50org/1 in March (S-2). The population of zooplanktons expressed as average numerical values, varied from 183.00org/l and 2680.50org/l during the study period. The maximum population was recorded in the month of March, while the minimum was in the month of July.
111 A GREEN METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES USING CASSIA AURICULATA LEAVES EXTRACT, Dr. G. Valli*1 and S. Geetha2
Knowing the importance of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and Cassia auriculata as revealed by various literature resources, Green synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata leaves were carried out. The formation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were identified first by observing the color changes of the extract. Secondly titanium dioxide nanoparticles were confirmed by the spectral studies like UV-Visible, FT-IR, X-Ray Diffraction and Field Emission Scanning ElectronMicroscopy. UV absorbance at 447.3 nm and M-O stretching at 516.92 cm-1 by FT-IR for the TiO2 nanoparticles were observed. XRD and FE-SEM analysis of TiO2 nanoparticles showed that they were found to exhibit spherical shape with an average size of 38.0 nm.
112 A CASE REPORT: PELVIC ABSCESS BY NON-TUBERCULAR MYCOBACTERIUM: A VERY UNUSUAL PRESENTATION, Rajendra Saugat1, Saroj Kumari2, Manish Chhabra1, and Dr. Akhil Kapoor*2
Most abscesses are caused by a bacterial infection like staphylococcal bacteria and streptococcal bacteria. Non tubercular Mycobactrial (NTM) is very rare infection for pelvic abscess. Most of time NTM causes abscess in breast and skin, lymph node, there may be rout of entry was infected syringe. Treatment with ATD can cure the disease.
113 IMPORTANCE OF RAW PAPAYA DRESSING IN DIABETIC FOOT ULCER – A CASE REPORT, 1*Mehjabeen Fatimah, 2Saiyad Shah Alam and 3Hamiduddin
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused by absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Diabetic foot is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus. It increases the morbidity and mortality of the diabetic patients and is the major cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputations. This is a great concern for the society and the government. The management of diabetic foot ulceration is based on the control of blood sugar, wound debridement, identification and management of infection, proper dressing and definitive wound closure. Enzymatic wound debridement is an emerging concept in accelerating the wound healing process. A detailed literature search, some review articles and a few planned studies show the effectiveness of raw papaya fruit on wound debridement. The present article reports wound healing potential of raw papaya in case of diabetic foot ulcer.
114 ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA AGAINST NEUROBLASTIMA (IMR-32) AND COLON (HT-29) CELL LINES, M. Ponnanikajamideen1, M. Nagalingam2, M.Vanaja1, C Malarkodi3, S Rajeshkumar4*
Herbal medicine is established on the plants contains natural chemical substances that can promote health and have curative properties for illness and diseases. Medicinal herbs play an important role in the treatment of cancer. In this study we reported that potential anticancer activity of Sesbania grandiflora leaf extracts and compared with standard commercial anticancer drug. Water, ethanol and acetone extract of S. grandiflora leaves showed invitro anticancer activity against different human cancer cell lines like neuroblastima (IMR-32), and colon (HT-29). The potential of anticancer property of S. grandiflora leaf extract was assayed by MTT method. The activity was done at different concentration like 50-300 ?g/ml of the extract. From the analysis the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 200 ?g/ml against neuroblastima (IMR-32), and colon (HT-29) cell lines for all the extracts. While increasing the concentration of extracts showed decrease in cell viability. Extracts of S. grandiflora showed dose dependent reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis in the neuroblastima (IMR-32), and colon (HT-29) cell lines. This in vitro outcomes suggest a significant clinical effects of S. grandiflora against human neuroblastima (IMR-32), and colon (HT-29) cell lines.
115 SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TEA EXTRACTS, Soumen Banerjee and Sovan Bagchi*
Aqueous extracts of Camellia sinensis (C. sinensis) leaves show the presence of phytochemicals like alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, aminoacids, sterols, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds and tanins. Theaqueous leaves extracts of Camellia sinensis shows antibacterial efficacy against some pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial effect of tea against S. aureus proved very effective. Antibiotic sensitivity was done for all bacterial isolates of S. aureus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of tea extracts on different microorganisms such as Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aerogenosa and Escherichia coli. Different commercially available teas have been chosen like Black tea, Darjeeling Tea, Green Tea. The antibacterial activity of these different plant leaves extracts give an idea that which leaves extracts are effective against above mentioned bacteria. After the preliminary screening for antibacterial activity by well diffusion method, the MIC & MBC also determined against above mentioned bacteria. All the tea extracts like Black tea, Darjeeling Tea, Green Tea showed inhibitory actions against all the bacteria under study except E.Coli. Varying degree of inhibitory actions of tea are found against individual bacteria.
116 ALLOPURINOL AS A PROMISING ANTI-ANGINAL AGENT: AN OLD DRUG WITH NEW INDICATION, 1Virendra Kushwaha, 2Dr. Varun Sharma*, 3Arti Lalchandani, 4Neeraj Kumar, 5Shaheen Saeed, 6Anand Narayan Singh, 7Santosh Kumar Barman, 8Sangeeta Agrawal, 9Joginder Singh
Objective: To investigate protective role of Allopurinol (xantine oxidase inhibitor) in myocardial injury in patients with effort induced stable angina pectoris. Design: Prospective open label study. Setting: Tertiary care cardiac center. Patients: 14 Diagnosed cases of effort induced stable angina & 11 healthy volunteers for comparison. Interventions: Trade mill test (TMT) was performed in 14 patients of effort induced stable angina before allopurinol therapy and in 10 patients after two weeks allopurinol therapy (4 dropouts). Main outcome measures: Pre and post therapy total exercise duration, estimated maximum metabolic equivalents tasks (METs), % of target heart rate (THR) achieved and maximum ST depression. Pre and post therapy mean plasma levels of Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide- dismutase (SOD), and Catalase were compared mean levels of healthy volunteers. Results: In patients of effort induced angina, after receiving allopurinol mean walking time (Pre-therapy 235.57±20.25; vs Post-therapy 368.3±22.65; p
117 SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ETILEFRINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN PURE FORM AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION, Khalid A. Attia, Nasr M. El-Abasawy and Ahmed M. Abdelraoof *
A Simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of etilefrine (ETI.) in bulk powder and in pharmaceutical preparation. This method is based on measuring the native fluorescence of ETI. in methanol at 304 nm after excitation at 276 nm using 1 ml of acetate buffer pH 4. All variables that affect fluorescence intensity such as diluting solvents, pH buffer and buffer volume were studied and optimized .The fluorescence-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.5-8 ?g/ml with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 0.121 ?g/ml and lower quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.367 ?g/ml. The method was validated and successfully applied to the determination of ETI tablets with an average percent recovery ± RSD% of 100.05 ± 0.991. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method by applying t- test and F-test at 95% confidence level and no significant difference was observed regarding accuracy and precision.
118 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTION WITH SECOND LINE DRUGS AMONG PATIENTS TREATED FOR MULTI DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS, Rajendra Prasad1*, Abhijeet Singh1, Nikhil Gupta2, Giridhar B. Hosmane1
Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is considered to be a global public health problem with notoriously difficult and challenging treatment. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with Second Line Drugs (SLD’s) can have severe impact on efficient management of patients with MDR-TB. It is necessary to estimate the frequency of ADRs encountered during the treatment with SLD’s. Various studies have reported that gastrointestinal ADRs are most common followed by ototoxicity with more than half of patients requiring either regimen modification or discontinuation. MDR-TB can be cured successfully with appropriate combination of drugs if adverse events associated with them can be can be managed aggressively and timely. There is urgent demand for newer and less toxic drugs to treat MDR TB patients.
119 STABILITY INDICATING CHEMOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF CEFACLOR IN PRESENCE OF ITS ACID INDUCED DEGRADATION PRODUCT., Khalid Abdel-Salam M. Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar, Ebrahim Abolmagd*
Three simple, accurate and Precise multivariate calibration methods, including classical least square (CLS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS), have been used for the determination of Cefaclor (CFC) in the presence of its acid induced degradation product. The CLS, PCR and PLS techniques are useful in spectral analysis because the simultaneous inclusion of many spectral wavelengths instead of the single wavelength used in derivative spectrophotometry has greatly improved the precision and predictive abilities of these multivariate calibrations. (CFC) was analyzed with mean accuracies 100.08+1.83, 100.09+1.81 and 100.1+1.82 for CLS, PCR and PLS, respectively. The developed methods were statistically compared with a reported method and no significant differences were observed regarding both accuracy and precision, all the developed methods have been validated according to ICH guidelines.
120 MICROWAVE SYNTHESISED POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND ITS DERIVATIVES AS BIO ACTIVE AGENT, Krishna Ranawat1, Dr. N.S.Chundawat1, Dr. G.P. Singh*1, Dr. Sadhan Singh2
The biological activity of anthracene derivative have been evaluated against, gram positive and gram negative bacterial strain by pathogen city tests. These tests were carried out by cup or agar well assay method. The screening data indicates that among the anthracene and their derivatives, the compounds were found to show moderate to excellent activity against the strains of bacteria used. Compounds 1.3 and 1.4 showed good to excellent activity against the bacteria B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa whereas compounds 1.3 and 1.4 showed moderate to good activity against the same bacteria. Compound 1.4 showed excellent activity against bacteria E. Coli.
121 STABILITY INDICATING CHEMOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF CEFACLOR IN PRESENCE OF ITS ACID INDUCED DEGRADATION PRODUCT., Khalid Abdel-Salam M. Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar, Ebrahim Abolmagd*
Three simple, accurate and Precise multivariate calibration methods, including classical least square (CLS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS), have been used for the determination of Cefaclor (CFC) in the presence of its acid induced degradation product. The CLS, PCR and PLS techniques are useful in spectral analysis because the simultaneous inclusion of many spectral wavelengths instead of the single wavelength used in derivative spectrophotometry has greatly improved the precision and predictive abilities of these multivariate calibrations. (CFC) was analyzed with mean accuracies 100.08+1.83, 100.09+1.81 and 100.1+1.82 for CLS, PCR and PLS, respectively. The developed methods were statistically compared with a reported method and no significant differences were observed regarding both accuracy and precision, all the developed methods have been validated according to ICH guidelines.
122 MICROWAVE SYNTHESISED POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND ITS DERIVATIVES AS BIO ACTIVE AGENT, Krishna Ranawat1, Dr. N.S.Chundawat1, Dr. G.P. Singh*1, Dr. Sadhan Singh2
The biological activity of anthracene derivative have been evaluated against, gram positive and gram negative bacterial strain by pathogen city tests. These tests were carried out by cup or agar well assay method. The screening data indicates that among the anthracene and their derivatives, the compounds were found to show moderate to excellent activity against the strains of bacteria used. Compounds 1.3 and 1.4 showed good to excellent activity against the bacteria B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa whereas compounds 1.3 and 1.4 showed moderate to good activity against the same bacteria. Compound 1.4 showed excellent activity against bacteria E. Coli.
123 MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF BENZOCOUMARIN-BENZOTHIAZEPINE HYBRIDS AS POTENT ANTI-TUBERCULAR AGENTS AND THEIR DNA CLEAVAGE STUDY, Kallappa. M. Hosamani1* Dinesh S. Reddy1 and Kanchugarakoppal S. Rangappa2
An efficient and expeditious method has been developed for the synthesis of benzocoumarin-benzothiazepine hybrids, under microwave irradiation. The present methodology is cost-effective in addition to other advantages like mild reaction condition, high yields of products in shorter reaction time and simple workup procedure. The structure of all the newly synthesized compounds was confirmed by elemental and spectroscopic analyses. All the newly synthesized compounds (2a-2j) were evaluated for their in-vitro antitubercular and DNA cleavage study. Among all the screened compounds, (2h) showed most pronounced activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) obtaining MIC of 3.12 ?g/mL. The compounds were further subjected for DNA cleavage study by agarose gel electrophoresis method, which revealed that compound (2h) inhibits the growth of the pathogenic organism by cleaving the genome as no traces of DNA were found.
124 FIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF AMISULPRIDE IN PURE FORM AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM, Khalid A.M. Attia, Mohammed W.I. Nassar and Ahmed M. Abd El Zaher*
Five Simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of Amisulpride in bulk powder and in pharmaceutical preparation. Method (A) First derivative method(1D), Method (B) Ratio derivative method(1DD), Method (C) Ratio difference method, Method (D) Mean centering method, Method (E) Dual wavelength method are used for the determination of intact Amisulpride in presence of its degradation product. The methods were validated and successfully applied to the determination of Amipride ® 50mg tablets with an average percent recovery ± RSD% of 100.26± 1.097 for method (A), 98.177 ± 1.130 for method (B), 99.60 ± 1.371 for method (C), 101.9 ± 1.349 for method (D) and 98.85 ± 1.007 for method (E). The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level and no significant difference was observed regarding accuracy and precision.
125 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF HANDWASHING IN PAKISTANI AS PREDICTOR OF PATIENTS’ HEALTH, 1*Adnan Bashir Bhatti, MD, 2Muhammad Usman, MBBS, 3Farhan Ali, 4Siddique Akbar Satti and 5Nabiyah Bakhtawar, MBBS,
Background: One measure that can definitely put a stop to the cross-transmission of micro-organisms is hand hygiene. The compliance of nurses the practice of washing their hands is pivotal when it comes to hospital acquired infections. There is lack of studies in Asia addressing this matter. Objective:This study is meant to assess the attitude, knowledge and practice of hand washing among nurses. Moreover, this study will also address the concern of availability of such services for the nurses. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongthree hundred (300) nurses comprising of 150 head/staff nurses and 150 student nurses. Subjects were consented and selected through non probability convenient sampling. Study Design: The study design was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study Setting and duration: The study was conducted in different wards of Capital Development Authority Hospital.The duration of study was about 3-4 months i.e. from September 2014 to December 2014. Inclusion criteria: All the nurses either head nurses, staff nurses or student nurses were included in the study. Data Collection and analysis:A precoded proforma was used to collect the information.Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data by calculating the frequency and percentage or mean and standard deviation of each response accordingly. Inferential statistics were also applied using Chi-square and t-test. P-value ? 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results:Basic facilities of hand washing were available at most places. It was found that 57.9% of staff/head nurses have good knowledge score while 42.1% of student nurses fall in this category. Regarding attitude, almost 35% said that their reason for non compliance to hand washing was non availability of hand hygiene facilities, 27.7% blamed time factor, 22% said due to poor quality of soap provided by the administration and 11.7% said due to lack of suitable environment. Regarding practice, it was seen that 4% of respondents do not wash hands at all. 80% washed their hands both before and after procedures. This practice was significantly higher (86.8%) in student nurses as compared to staff nurses (74.5%). Conclusions: The nurses had good knowledge on hand hygiene. However, attitudes, practices and facilities were average. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing were quite similar in staff and student nurses. The study highlighted the need for improvement of the existing hand hygiene training programs to address the gaps in knowledge, attitudes and practices. Policy message:Majority, despite having knowledge, need motivation and continuous education of hand hygiene. Facilities of hand hygiene should be made available.
126 FREQUENCY OF INTERNET ADDICTION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS; MALES VS. FEMALES, 1Adnan Bashir Bhatti, MD*, 2Muhammad Usman, 3Farhan Ali, 4Siddique Akbar Satti, 5Nabiyah Bakhtawar
Background: With the progressing easier access to internet; its addiction is increasing in students. This study shows the percentage of students who are mildly or severely addicted to internet and also compares the prevalence between the male and female gender. The study also throws lights on at which age the students are most likely to become addicted. Objective: Assess the frequency of internet addiction among medical students. Material and Methods: Study Design: Descriptive Survey. Study Settings: Capital Development Authority (CDA) Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Duration of Study: 1st May 2014 to 1st October 2014. Inclusion criteria: Medical students who were willing to participate in the study. Boys and girls will be included in the study. Data Collection and analysis: An internet addiction Performa will be given to participants. Collected data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The internet addiction criteria showed that 20.3% of students had problems due to internet usage. Male gender is more affected than female gender with 26.7% of males being addicted to internet and 14% of females addicts. Only 19.4% of students in age range of 17-20 years were addicted to internet; whereas it was much higher in age group 21-24 years with 21%. Conclusions: Male students are suffering from internet addiction more than female students. Students above the age of 20 years are more addicted to internet.
127 ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF POLYALTHIA CERASOIDES STEM BARK EXTRACT ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS., Bhargavi G1, Josthna P2 and Naidu CV1*
The present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of ethanolic extract of Polyalthia cerasoides stem bark (PcEE) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single intra peritoneal injection at a dose 45mg/kg body weight. The rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=6). Group I and II (normal and diabetic controls), Group III (normal rats fed with 400 mg of PcEE), Group IV (diabetic rats fed with 400mg of PcEE), Group V (diabetic rats fed with 20 mg of Glibinclamide). PcEE was administered to the rats at a dose 400mg/kg body weight for 21 days. Tissues were collected after the 21 days treatment. The antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated by measuring the activity of enzymes sush as Catalase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidise (GPX), Glutathione reductase (GR) and Glutathione S-transeferase (GST) in liver and kidney of normal and diabetic treated animals. These enzyme levels in diabetic rats were decreased compared to normal rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of P. cerasoides stem bark were significantly (P
128 ASSESSMENT OF LIPIDS PROFILE IN SUDANESE LEUKEMIC PATIENTS, 1Nahla I. Ibrahim, 1Sohair A. M, 2Gadalla Modawe, 1*AbdElkarim A. Abdrabo
Background: A number of studies have been published in recent years showing a significant association between leukemia and low plasma cholesterol levels. Objectives: We measured lipids profile which includes plasma total cholesterol, low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins in patients with leukemia in comparison with age and sex matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 normal healthy controls and 100 patients with leukemia (64 acute and 36 of them are chronic). Cholesterol profile was estimated using spectrophotometer method. Results: Mean ± SD of total cholesterol, LDL and HDL in leukemic patients were (120.86 ± 23.04, 29.47 ± 10.76, 29.38 ± 8.45mg/dl) respectively, while the mean ± SD of healthy person were (168.00 ± 14.73, 61.94 ± 14.64, 62.50 ± 10.60mg/dl) respectively. This result show highly significant difference which was lower in the leukemic patients compared to the control with P value (0.000). Conclusion: This study concluded that the strong association between leukemia and plasma cholesterol can be used as markers for bad prognosis, degree of maturation of leukemic cells and follow up of treatment. Also LDL may be used as a carrier targeting lipophilic cytotoxic drugs to leukemic cells.
129 A REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL USES OF VIOLA CANESCENS, Devender Sharma*, Hemraj Vashist and R.B. Sharma
Viola canescens commonly known as Himalayan White Violet belongs to Violaceae family. It is found in the Himalayan regions of India, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan. It is a perennial herb which mostly prefers to grow in the shady and moist places. V. canescens is an important medicinal plant which is mostly used in the traditional medicinal system for cough, cold, flu, fever, and malaria and is also given as anticancerous drug. So far, violin (alkaloid), viola quercitrin, methyl salicylate, and saponins are the different phytochemicals which are extracted from this plant. Molecular studies on V. canescens suggest that, in case of adulteration in the powdered form of Viola species, they can be distinguishable by the lengths of their spacer regions. Because of the overexploitation of V. canescens for medicinal purposes, the conservational status of V. canescens in different regions became endangered. It is the need of the hour to utilize different conservational strategies and save this precious medicinal wealth from extinction. The medicinal importance of Viola canescens is importantly needed to be brought in notice of every concern man. therefor the present study has been focused on the review of literature on this plant.
130 PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS ON MURRAYA KOENIGII-A REVIEW, Deepak Sharma*, HemRaj Vashist and RB Sharma
The present study has been restricted to the Pharmacological review on Murraya koenigii. The plant grows in forests of 500-1600 m height. M. koenigii is an unarmed, semi deciduous aromatic shrub or small tree with slender but strong woody stem and branches covered with dark grey bark, leaves are imparipinnate, glabrous, and very strongly aromatic. The plant has gained good reputation traditional medicinal system to overcome several ailments like diabetes, diarrhea, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory and so many. The plant exists from ancient time in the Ayurvedic therapy system for several ailments. Leaves of plants are frequently used in cooking of “curry” so called the curry leaves. The literature survey studied here includes reported traditional uses, phytochemical aspects and pharmacological activities on the plant.
131 OCULAR SAFETY AND TOXICITY STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC HERBAL EYE DROP FOR DRY EYE SYNDROME, 1N. Srikanth, 2*Sharad D. Pawar, 3Arjun Singh, 4S. N. Murthy and 5R.R. Padmavar
Acute Eye Irritation study of an Ayurvedic herbal eye drop containing herbal ingredients viz. Berberis aristata and Glyeyrrhiza glabra formulated for dry eye syndrome (DES ) complying the standards of Indian Pharmacopeia (IP.) was performed in New Zealand White rabbit as per the OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals (acute eye Irritation/corrosion) after fulfilling ethical requirements. 0.1 ml of the drop was placed in the conjunctival sac of one eye of each animal after gently pulling the lower lid away from the eyeball. The lids were then gently held together for about one second in order to prevent loss of the material. The other eye, which remains untreated, serves as a control. Eye drop did not cause irritation to mucous membrane of eyes of rabbits, no evident signs of toxicity and clinical changes were observed. The eye drop in New Zealand White rabbits was found to be nonirritant to the ocular mucous membrane.
132 INPATIENT DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS AND PHARMACIST INTERVENTION AT A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA-A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY, Mounica. Bollu*, Nalluri. Kranthi Koushik, Muddana. Nagalohith, Guduru.Venkata Sudheer, Nallani. Venkataramarao.
BACKGROUND: Now-a-days drug related problems were seen very commonly within the health care practice. These could result in the medication errors,adverse events,drug interactions and harm to patients. Pharmacist has an identified role in minimizing and preventing such type of problems. OBJECTIVES: To detect the incidence of drug related problems for the hospitalized patient, and to analyze the clinical pharmacist interventions performed during the review of prescription orders of the general medicine, psychiatry, surgery, pediatrics, gynaecology units of a large tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODS: It was a retrospective, observational and interventional study .The analysis took place daily with the following parameters: dose,rate of administration, presentation and/or dosage form, presence of inappropriate/unnecessary drugs, necessity of additional medication, more proper alternative therapies, presence of relevant drug interactions, inconsistencies in prescription orders, physical-chemical incompatibilities/solution stability. From this evaluation, the drug therapy problems were classified, as well as the resulting clinical interventions. For a period starting November 2012 until December 2014, the inpatient medication charts and orders were identified and rectified by ward and practicing clinical pharmacists within the inpatient pharmacy services in a tertiary care teaching hospital on routine daily activities.Data was collected and evaluated. The causes of this problem were identified. RESULTS: A total of 360 patients were followed .Male (71.66%) predominance was noted over females (28.33%). Drug related problems were more commonly seen in patients aged in between 31-60. Most of the DRP observed in the study resulted from the dispensing errors(26.11%),improper drug selection (17.22%),followed by untreated indications (14.4%) Majority of the clinical pharmacist recommendations were on need for proper dispensing(26.11%), and drug change (18.05%). Minor significance of DRPs were noted high (41.11 %), whereas (35.27 %) were moderate and (23.61 %) were major. The acceptance rate of intervening clinical pharmacist recommendation and change in drug therapy was found to be high (86.66%). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the prescriptions reviewed had some drug therapy problem and the pharmacist interventions have promoted positive changes needed in the prescriptions. In this context, routine participation of clinical pharmacists in clinical medical rounds facilitates the identification of DRPs and may prevent their occurrence.
133 TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDER – AN ENIGMA, Bhuwan Saklecha1, Maj Amit Jain2, *Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale3, Rahul Sharad Kulkarni4, Vishwas Diwakar Acharya5, Ravindra Gedam6, Dr. Chetankumar O. Agrwal7
Introduction: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is defined as ?functional disturbances of the masticatory system?. It has been a matter of controversy for a long time, yet it is imperative to have a sound knowledge about it for physiological reestablishment of the stomatognathic system. Etiology: The etiology of TMDs is multifactorial which includes occlusal factors, trauma, stress, parafunctional habits etc. which may lead to degenerative changes in the TMJ. Diagnosis: With proper history, physiological evaluation and in chronic cases behavioural or psychological assessment, TMDs can be diagnosed. Various imaging techniques including various radiographs, lateral and computed tomography, joint arthrography and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are used to confirm the diagnosis. However, recently MRI has become the gold standard for evaluation of soft tissue and the positional abnormalities of the joint disc. Management: The noninvasive management of non specific TMDs includes, patient education, exercise therapy and occlusal appliance therapy.
134 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPTLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PRASUGREL AND ASPIRIN, B.A.Patel*, S. Alvi* and S.J. Parmar*
A simple & precise Stability indicating HPTLC method has been developed & validated for the simultaneous estimation of Prasugrel (PRA) & Aspirin (ASP) from Dosage form. The method employed TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 GF 254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system comprised Carbon Tetrachloride: Ethyl Acetate: Acetic Acid (7.5:2.4:0.1, v/v/v). This system was found to give good result for both the drugs (Rf value: of ASP 0.34cm & PRA 0.58cm).Spectrodensitometric scanning-integration was performed at a wavelength of 240nm.The calibration curve was found to be linear within the concentration range of 150ng/spot to 900ng/spot for PRA and1125-6750 ng/spot for ASP. The regression data for calibration curve shows good linear relationship with r2 = 0. 9981 & 0.9979 for PRA & ASP respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Thus, the proposed method can be used successfully for routine analysis of PRA & ASP from dosage form.
135 SYNTHESIS OF SOME SUBSTITUTED IMINES CONTAINING TRIFLUOROMETHYL PYRIDINE AND EVALUATION OF ITS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY, Kaushik Narbherambhai Patel*1, Jayesh Jivanlal Modha2, Hardik Ashokbhai Mehta3
Pyridine moiety shows high anti-bacterial activity, so to synthesis newer pyridine containing imine derivatives 2-fluoro-6- (trifluoromethyl)pyridine and 4-hydroxymethylbenzoate were reacted in DMF to get pyridine moiety having ether linkage, which was further treated with hydrazine to get benzohydrazide, which on reaction with different substituted acetophenones to get different imines containing trifluoromethylpyridine. Reaction progress were checked by TLC method and Characterization was done by different spectroscopic method. On microbial screening against gram +ve and gram –ve bacteria and fungal strain. Many of them shows significant activity.
136 EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF GREEN TEA (CAMELIA SINENSIS) INFUSIONS WITH LEAVES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT HEIGHTS OF DARJEELING HILL, WEST BENGAL, Karabi Chakraborty and Sauryya Bhattacharyya*
Tea (Camelia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage and is also known for its medicinal value. The leaves are processed industrially for commercial usage or processed traditionally for preparation of infusions in different cultures of different countries. The present study was undertaken to find out whether the antioxidant activity and the content of tea bioactives change after processing by a local traditional process. Fresh tea leaves were collected from six different altitudes of Darjeeling hill, viz. 6900, 5800, 4500, 3600, 2500 and 500 feet. The assays performed included ABTS and DPPH radical decolorization assays and contents of total polyphenols, tannins, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid. It was observed that ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging abilities as well as ascorbic acid content were reduced in the leaves collected from higher altitudes, suggesting probable depletion of the antioxidant bioactives on exposure to extreme climatic conditions as well as elevated UV radiations. This was substantiated by the fact that total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were higher in the higher altitude leaves. Tannin contents were almost unchanged. The study indicated that the medicinal value of the tea infusions remained almost unchanged irrespective of altitude.
137 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EGATLOV MEASUREMENT IN ISOLATED ADIPOCYTES CELLS FROM OBESE TYPE TWO DIABETIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY CONTROLS, Hasan F.Al-azzawie1*, Nabaa S.Ibadi1 and Mohammed F.Al-Kotobe2
Obesity is associated with several chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. All of these are risk factors that contribute to metabolic syndrome, which in turn can lead to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we aimed to measure the voltage of adipocyte cell membrane and to show the relationship between its measurements with insulin resistance and serum levels of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokines, in obese type 2 diabetes compared with non diabetic obese subject. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, and glucose were measured in 50 obese men (BMI > 29) with type 2 diabetes, aged 37 to 53 years and having a body weight of 80 to 100 kg. Insulin resistance index values were calculated using measurements of fasting glucose and insulin levels. Using Pearson’s correlation test, the relationship of serum adiponectin concentration with insulin resistance, serum glucose, and insulin levels, was determined.The results showed a significant inverse relationship between adiponectin concentration and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients (p = 0.000, r = -0.59). In addition, a significant relationship was observed between fasting glucose and adiponectin levels (p = 0.005). The relationship between insulin and adiponectin levels was not significant (p = 0.196). Our findings indicate that the concentration of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic marker, is a precise insulin resistance predictor in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.There was a significant difference in voltage value of adipocyte cell membrane isolated from diabetic patients (-34.05mv) compared with (-61.140 mv) in healthy group and these value negatively correlated with insulin levels(r= - 0.67,P
138 DISASTER MANAGEMENT WITH MODERN TECHNOLOGY, Anitha S. Pillai1* and Dr. Rekha Gupta2
A Disaster is Natural and Man-made, the premier is a natural phenomenon the consequences of when a potential natural hazard become a physical event while the later includes an element of human intent it may be technical or sociological. Whether it is natural or man induced, play havoc with the lives of millions and destroy billions of dollars of property each year around the globe. Disaster cannot be stopped and it is impossible to recoup the damage caused by the disasters. But we can mitigate the impact by preparedness and long term risk reduction measures. Each nation need a plan and review the same in a regular manner how to tackle the disaster or an emergency situation. Timely disaster response and recovery efforts required in order to save lives and property. The prime concern during any disaster is the availability of the spatial information and dissemination of the information to all concerned. Information and communication technology has better management and planning implementation of disaster mitigation measures.
139 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A HIGHLY SENSITIVE LC–MS/MS METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF DAPOXETINE IN HUMAN PLASMA: APPLICATION TO A BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY, Hamed Hamed Abu Seada1, Khalid Abdel-Salam Attia1, Mohammad Wafaa Nassar1, Ahmed El Hamouly2*
In this study, an attempt was made to describe and validate a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of dapoxetine; a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor in human EDTA Na2 plasma according to the current bioanalytical guidelines. The internal standard used was reboxetine. The separation was performed on a Luna C18 5?m, 100A (50 x 4.6 mm), (Phenomenex) column under isocratic conditions using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.5% formic acid in water 80:20 (v/v) at ambient temperature with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection of dapoxetine and the internal standard was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using a Triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS Mass Spectrometer with electro spray ionization, operating in positive ion mode. The human plasma samples (0.25 ml) were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with tertiary butyl methyl ether. The method shows a good linearity (R2 > 0.996), precision (CV< 8.8%) and accuracy (bias < 8.5%) over the range of 0.1-1200 ng/ml dapoxetine in plasma. The recovery was between 82.03 and 84.6%. The limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/ml. The analysis required only a 1.2 minutes run. The developed and validated method for the determination of dapoxetine in human plasma was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study, for analysing approximately 800 subject’s samples.
140 BOTANY, TAXONOMY AND CYTOLOGY OF CROCUS BIFLORI - SERIES, R. B. Saxena*
Crocus series : (i) Crocus versicolores[1], (ii) Crocus speciosi[2], (iii) Crocus scardici[3], (iv) Crocus flavi[4], (v) Crocus longiflori[5], (vi) Crocus – Autumn[6], (vii) Crocus verni[7], and (viii) Crocus sativus[8] have been studied. Now the sub- genus crocus-crocus biflori – series are closely related, and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a comples cytology. Botany of crocus biflori- series, taxonomy of their species and their Infra specific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology, description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification.
141 A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO EQUIPMENT QUALIFICATION, Dr.S.Venugopal*
Equipment qualification is a key element in the pharmaceutical quality system. In recent times Regulatory agencies are more focusing on qualification of equipment. During the investigation of process deviations and complaints, equipment is a key element to consider. For example “6M methodology” men, machine, method, material, mother nature and measurements. Machine is the most key element in investigations because with out equipment manufacturing and testing isnot possible. Qualification of the equipment starts from design of the equipment based on the user requirement specification and functional requirement specification. Equipment qualification is carried out in various steps as mentioned below.
142 A COMPARATIVE IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF COLLOIDAL SILVER AND CHITOSAN STABILIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON MCF-7 AND HEPG2, P.Prema*1 and S.Thangapandiyan2
Recently nanotechnology research was discussed for the generation of nanoparticles as anticancerous agents. It is mandatory to elaborate the application of colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized silver nanoparticles in general and anticancerous property in particular. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity effect of colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized silver nanoparticles against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and liver cancer cells (HepG2) towards the development of anticancer drugs. The colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized silver nanoparticles were fabricated by using sodium borohydride as novel reducing agent. It was well characterized by UV, SEM, EDS, XRD, and AFM studies showed spherical shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 20-40nm and in slightly agglomerated form. Surprisingly it also showed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines were confirmed by MTT and cell viability assays. There was an immediate induction of cellular damage in terms of loss of cell membrane integrity, oxidative stress and apoptosis were found in the cell which treated with colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized AgNPs. This may be a first report on anti- MCF-7 and anti-HepG2 property of colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized AgNPs in the fourth generation of nanoparticle research. It is necessary to study the formulation and clinical trials to establish the nano drug to treat cancer cells.
143 INGRADIENTS IDENTIFICATION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF SAMVARDHANAGHRITA.-A AYURVEDIC POLYHERBAL FORMULATION, Satyawati Rathia1*, V.K. Kori2, Rajagopala S.2, C. R.Harisha3, V.J.Shukla4 and K. S. Patel5
Samvardhana Ghrita is an Ayurvedic formulation recommended by Acharya Kashypa in the management of various nervous system related problems both physically and mentally like Pangu (Lame), Muka (Dumb), Ashruti (Deaf) and Jada (Mentally deficient / Idiot) child. The present study deals with the pharmacognostical identification of ingredients of Samvardhana Ghrita and its physio- chemical analysis. Pharmacognostical study consisting of both macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drugs revealed the quality and genuineness of the constituents of Samvardhana Ghrita. Organoleptic features of fine powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standards prescribed.Loss on drying (Trace), refractive index (1.4630) specific gravity(0.9145).Thin layer chromatography results showed 5 and 6 spots when the plate was scanned at 254 nm and 366 nm respectively.
144 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEMONGRASS (CYMBOPOGON FLEXUOSUS) OIL AGAINST SOME SELECTED PATHOGENIC BACTERIAS., Archana Vaishnava* and Susweta Samanta
In this study the lemon grass oil was extracted from the plant sources Cymbopogon flexuosus antibacterial activity. Results of this study showed that most antibacterial effect of lemon grass and essence was against Gram positive bacteria. According to the considerable antibacterial effect of methanol extract of lemon grass leaves on pathogenic bacteria especially Gram positive bacteria that are involved in creating variety of nonsocial and malicious infections this extract can be considered as a natural antibacterial herbal product. Finally it is concluded that the mixture of lemon grass oil is used to treat bacterial infections. It is concluded that, in the present study, the plant contains potential antibacterial components that may be useful for evolution of pharmaceutical for the therapy of ailments. The antimicrobial activity was determined by well diffusion method. The activity was determined for different concentration of lemon grass oil against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Both Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtalis had the highest microbial sensitivity and this inhibitory effect increased with increasing methanol extract concentration. Also results obtained showed that growth inhibitory effect of methanol extract of lemon grass oil on tested Gram negative bacteria was very low, so that no growth inhibition effect on the Proteus valgaris and detected slight inhibitory effect against Escherichia coli at the highest extract concentration used (120 mg/ml concentration). These results indicated that among tested bacteria in term of sensitivity to methanolic dilution of lemon grass oil there was a significant difference.
145 WHITE ADIPOCYTES BIOMARKERS: UPDATE OF MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PROGRESS IN OBESITY, Dr. Abousree Taha Ellethy*
Increasing prevalence of obesity has increased unexpected series of different metabolic diseases and adipose tissue inflammations. Health organizations committees are looking forward to find specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers for obesity perception. Biomarkers can measure staging, grading, and therapy for a whole spectrum diagnosis of obesity and complications. Molecular genetics advances in obesity researches have generated many biomarkers with clinical importance of adipocyte. White adipocytes (WAC) are stores for excess calories in the form of triacylglycerols then, released as energetic molecules through different metabolic pathways. Getting excess calories will enhance non blocked synthetic pathways of adipose tissue that in turn develop overweight and/or morbid obese. Adipocytes in visceral fats than subcutaneous fats are related to metabolic dysfunctions e.g. insulin resistance (IR) and cardiac diseases. Current researches are interested in molecular characterization of biochemical secretions of WAC effects as a way to tackle obesity and its progress. The present study was to get knowledge around white adipocytes secretions that might be considered as biochemical diagnostic markers for the early obesity and risks in the future.
146 ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF HERBAL FORMULATION OF EQUISETUM ARVENSE, Snehal Singh1*, Biresh Kumar Sarkar2, X. Fatima Grace3, Manish Devgan4
The aim of this study was to formulate an herbal cream of Equisetum arvense extract and its antimicrobial evaluation. Disk diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial activity of Equisetum arvense extract. Herbal cream formulation was prepared by incorporating various ingredients together followed by the addition of herbal extract. The cream formulation was evaluated for the quality parameters. Results showed that Equisetum arvense was effective on S. aureus and E. coli. The antibacterial activity increases with the concentration of extract. The values of quality parameters lie within range. Study established cream formulation of Equisetum arvense as a stable herbal formulation which can be utilized for topical infections.
147 A REVIEW ON ROLE OF AMA IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF DISEASE, S. N. Tiwari*
The concept of Ama is unique to Ayurveda. Which acts as underlying cause of various disorder. Many factors play an important role in the production of Ama but in ayurveda, pragyaparadha act as a chief contributory factor. The term Ama means unripe or undigested food material.[1] Vagbhatta firmly believe that due to hypo-functioning of Agni the first Dhatu viz. the Rasa or chyle is not properly formed, instead the Annarasa undergoes fermentation or putrefaction being retained in Amashaya. It is a state of Rasa which is called as Ama.[2] By observing of different Samhita, few valuable and occult concepts comes into light which contribute Ama formation such as Mandagni, Dhatwagni-mandya and Mala Sanchaya etc. These factors facilitate Amotpatti and participate in the pathogenesis of several disorders such as Amajeerna, Vidagdhajeerna, Vistabdhajeerna ,Jwara, Atisara, Grahani Dosha and Amavata etc.[3] In the other hand the text of modern science states that due to disequilibrium of digestive juices, an oxidants (Ama) is produced which is a toxic byproduct & its peak level triggers the pathogenesis of different disorder.
148 OPTIMIZATION OF PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND SOME NUTRIENTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF L-LYSINE BY A MUTANT Micrococcus glutamicus SG300, Subadeep Ganguly and *Kunja Bihari Satapathy
L-lysine is an essential amino acid used as a feed supplement. It is produced by chemical, enzymatic and fermentation processes. In our present study, a mutant strain Micrococcus glutamicus SG300 developed in our laboratory, had been employed for optimization of different physlcal environmental conditions and some nutritional parameters especially carbon and nitrogen sources for L-lysine production. Initially, the strain accumulated only 6.2 g/ L of L-lysine in the fermentation broth. After optimization of different parameters, the production appreciably enhanced 17.8 g/L with pH, 7.5; temperature, 320C; fermentation time , 72h; volume of medium, 20ml; inoculums size, 10% with cell density 107 cells/ml; agitation, 200rpm by using biotin, 0.2?g/ml; glucose, 10% and urea, 10%. [Lysine, amino acid, Micrococcus glutamicus, physlcal environmental, nutritional parameters].
149 APPLICATION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID AMONG PATIENTS WITH CARDIO-VASCULAR DISEASE, Dr.V. Petkova* and M. Dimitrov
The antithrombotic properties of acetylsalicylic acid and mainly its platelet-inhibitory effects made it widely used by patients with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study is to assess patients’ attitude towards application of OTC acetylsalicylic acid products in order to prevent and treat themselves from cardio-vascular diseases. Regardless of age, gender and education of patients they purchase products available without prescription, mainly containing acetylsalicylic acid and a large part of the demand is due to the advertising of the products.
150 EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN IRAQI PATIENT WITH MAJOR BETA THALASSEMIA, Hasan F. Al-Azzawie* and Ali T. Kamil
The antioxidant status and oxidative damage to children with Iraqi ?- thalassemic major children were evaluated. Samples from 80 children with ?-thalassemic major and 40 healthy controls were used. All children were under 13 years of age. Our results showed that plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were elevated in ?- thalassemic children compared to controls together with compensatory increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GPx)activities and decrease in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione(GSH),Vitamine E and C. Elevated serum ferritin showed positive correlation with elevated liver enzyme levels except gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), confirming liver involvement due to iron overload. Serum ferritin also showed a positive correlation with elevated TBARS and SOD, suggesting that iron overload is involved in the oxidative stress shown in cells.
151 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF ALTERNANTHERA SESSILIS (LINN.) R. BR. EX DC., 1Alok Kumar, 2Abhishek Kumar, 3Ravindra Singh, 4Pawan Ahirwar, *5Manoj Kumar Tripathi
Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R. Br. ex DC. is a small prostrate perennial herbs belongs to family Amaranthaceae, widely used to treat the diabetes and skin diseases and also other various ailments. All the part of this plant are reported for various ethnomedicinal and therapeutic uses.Vegetative aerial parts viz. root, leaf and stem were collected in various seasions and studied for macroscopical, anatomical, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical, fluorescence and HPTLC studies. Microscopically root of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R. Br. ex DC. Showed presence of cork cells in surface view, reticulate thickening. Stem showed spiral and annular thickening, phloem fibres, cortical parenchyma filled with starch grains and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate, thick walled cork cells, collenchymatous cells, leaf showed palisade cells, cluster crystals of calcium oxalate, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, lower epidermis with stomata, upper epidermis with stomata, fragments of trichome characteristics feature of the family Amaranthaceae. Phytochemivcally, the various extract showed the presence of diverse phytochemicals such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, saponin steroids and triterpenoids tannin, proteins flavanoids content as compare to root and stem. The physicochemical analysis explored the loss on drying at 105oC , water soluble extractive value, alcohol soluble extractive value, Total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, Phytochemicals were evaluated for the plant Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R. Br. ex DC. Using HPTLC fingerprinting.
152 SEPARATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS IBUPROFEN USING AMINO ACIDS BY TLC, Zohra Chakrar, Zerkout Said*, Berkoune Hayet, Chihab Houda, Rachid Fegas
The enantiomeric separation of racemic compounds of ibuprofen, was performed by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel plates impregnated with optically pure amino acids, as the chiral selector and by using different amino acids in acetonitrile-methanol-water as the solvent system as chiral selector. This is in order to determine the best experimental conditions that enable us to separate the enantiomer’s ibuprofen: mobile phase, stationary phase and the best amino acid as a chiral selector.
153 A REVIEW ON OXAZOLONE, IT’ S METHOD OF SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY, Niraj Sharma, Janmajoy Banerjee*, Nomi Shrestha and Deepak Chaudhury
Oxazolones are five membered heterocyclic entity containing oxygen and Nitrogen. It is important synthons for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and is an important pharmcophore of synthesized drugs. Oxazolone is being synthesized in many ways since 1883. It shows marked pharmacological activity such as: antimicrobial, anifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. In present article we review the mechanism of oxazolone formation, it’s chemistry, diversity oriented synthesis of oxazolone, various method of synthesis and pharmacological activity of synthesized compound along with SAR.
154 DEVELOPMENT OF REAL TIME PCR ASSAY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION IN IRAQI WOMEN, Rehab S. Ramadhan1* and Sara A. Jihad2
This study was constructed to discuss a Molecular Study of Cytomegalovirus isolated from women with repeated miscarriage in relation to immune response molecule Tall like Receptor2. About (100) blood samples from women suffering from infection with Cytomegalovirus were collected from infertility clinic of Kamal Al –Sammaraee hospital and (50) samples from normal subjects served as control for comparison. Test subjects were divided into two age groups: 20-30 years old and 31-40 years old. The women distributed as (60) samples of infertile and (40) samples as miscarriage women. This study included Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test was used to detect anti- HCMV antibodies IgG and IgM in the patient serum samples. ELISA test result showed that the miscarriage women shown highest percentage of seropositive to CMV for IgG (40%) and (25%) IgM compared to infertile women IgG (20%) and (15%) IgM with a significant difference P
155 PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPARTIES, PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND USES OF MEDITIONAL PLANT FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN. (MORACEAE), Kesab Shrestha, Janmajoy Banerjee* and Ashis Shrestha
Ficus religiosa linn. known as Pippal (peepal) in nepali, Asvatthah in saskrit, belongs to family Moraceae. It is a species of fig native to Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri-lanka, South wast china. It is widely being used to treat various diseases like skin diseases, constipation, dysentery, snakebite and important constituent of traditional herbal preparation like chandraprabha vati shankha vati and kaminivindravan rasa. Bark powder is used to treat hypoglycemic, stomatitis and aphrodisiac. Stem bark is used for the ulcer treatment, asthma, parasympatholytic, viral infection, bacterial infection, protozoan infections, relaxant possess spasmolytic effects on smooth muscles and skin diseases. Latex has curing activity for toothache.The fruit extract have antitumor activity and is used to cure purgative and aphrodisiac. Ficus is used extensively used in traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha in the form of various formulations. Bark is used in healing ulcers, various skin diseases and scabies and in treatment of diabetes, the root bark is stated to be aphrodisiac. Ficus religiosa has been investigated for presence of a wide range of phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannin, terpenoids, sterol, volatile oils, carbohydrate, fatty matter, phytosterols, furanocoumarin derivatives, phenolic compounds etc.This compilation provides comprehensive review of its ethnopharmacological use, pharmacological activities, traditional use and medicinal use.
156 BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS FROM SESAME OIL WITH METHYL ACRYLATE AND METHYL METHACRYLATE CO-MONOMERS, Irin Sheela. C1* and Begila David. S2
In this study biodegradable polymers were synthesised by the polymerization of alkyd resin of sesame oil with co-monomers like methyl acrylate(MA) and methyl methacrylate(MMA). Monoglyceride of sesame oil(SOMG) was first prepared by the glycerolysis of sesame oil at 220 - 230°C. Then the resin was prepared by the reaction of the monoglyceride with cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride at 80°C for 2 hours. The cross linked biopolymers were prepared by the free radical polymerization of the resin with various concentration of different monomers in presence of benzoyl peroxide as initiator. The newly prepared polymers were analysed for thermal and mechanical properties. Biodegradation of the poymers were also tested by soil burial test and SEM micrographs assess surface damage and to look for the presence and nature of microbial growth. The reactions were followed by H1 NMR and FT-IR spectroscpy.
157 INVESTIGATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF FLOWERS OF CASSIA AURICULATA LINN, Venkatesh P.* and Hepcy Kalarani D.
Objective: An ethanolic extract of flowers of Cassia Auriculata Linn was investigated for its analgesic and antipyretic activity. Materials and methods: Hot plate method was followed for the investigation of analgesic activity and Yeast induced pyrexia method for antipyretic activity. 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Cassia Auriculata were used for the study. Aspirin and Paracetamol were used as a standard drug for the investigation of analgesic and antipyretic activity respectively. Results and Discussion: The study showed significant analgesic and antipyretic activity for the flowers of Cassia Auriculata. Conclusion: The results are comparable with that of the standard drug. The study accounts the scientific validation of reported use of the said plant in folklore use.
158 FREE RADICAL SCAVANGING ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF ADENOCALYMMA ALLIACEUM, Sati Ankita*, Sati Sushil Chandra and Tomar Arti
This study is done on leaves extract of Adenocalymma alliaceum.Extraction of leaves of Adenocalymma alliaceum yielded 15.12 gm of Pet.Ether extract, 4.60 gm of Chloroform extract,and 21.04 gm of methanol extract.Methanol extract of Adenocalymma alliaceum leaves showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to all extracts using DPPH method. The concentration of 500 ?g/ml of Methanol extract showed 85.83% anti-oxidant activity in comparison to all extract and standard drug. 500 ?g/ml concentration of Chloroform extract showed 73.94 % higher anti-oxidant activity in comparison to Petroleum ether. Both Pet. Ether extracts showed weak anti-oxidant activity. Ascorbic acid is used as a standard drug for comparison to all extracts.
159 PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS A AND E IN ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA, Dr. Raja Mukherjee1*, Dr. Saswati Chattopadhyay2, Prof. Dr. P. Sreelatha3, Dr. Kalidas Rit4, Dr. Tapajyoti Mukherjee5, Dr. Surya Jyati Chaudhuri6
Background and Objectives: Worldwide, viral hepatitis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Hepatitis A & E viruses, important causes of acute viral hepatitis, are transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Poor personal hygiene and inappropriate sanitary conditions favours their spread. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of both the viral infections in patients of acute viral hepatitis. Materials and Methods: Blood from 88 acute hepatitis cases of both sexes and of all age groups were collected from April 2011 to March, 2012. The serum was separated from the blood samples and IgM ELISA was conducted on them. Results and Conclusion: - 21 cases (24%) were sero-positive for Anti-HAV and 4 (5%) for Anti HEV. Males had higher prevalence (27.27%) of HAV infection while females (5.45 %) of HEV. More no. of cases was in the months of July- August. Thus sanitation and poor living standard play an important role in hepatitis A and E transmission.
160 THIAMINASE ACTIVITY OF THIAMINOLYTICUS CULTURE IN PRESENCE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF THIAMINE WITH OR WITHOUT VITAMIN C, *Sarwar M and Mazin O. Mohager
Vitamin B1 also called Thiamine when deficient caused Beri Beri and effects a large proportion of world population especially in third world countries. In Europe, North America and Australia, thiamine deficiency is common among alcoholics and usually manifests itself as the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome but has also been reported in patients on restricted diets for obesity, those who receive total parenteral nutrition and in those who are on fad diets or whose intakes are high in carbohydrate and low in thiamine. Thiaminase I is a transferase-type enzyme that catalyzes the displacement of the thiazole moiety of thiamine (vitamin B1) by a wide variety of nucleophiles: aromatic primary amines, heterocyclic compounds, and sulfhydryl compounds (i.e., co-substrates). Thiaminase activity occurs among cyanobacteria), plants, bacteria invertebrates, shellfish, and fish. Other enzyme, thiaminase II, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of thiamine occurs exclusively in microorganisms. While the thiaminase II in microorganisms seems to be involved in the thiamine salvage pathway the physiological significance of thiaminase I in species that contain the enzyme is not known and consequently there is a lack of knowledge concerning the possible agents or factors that cause the wide variation in thiaminase activity observed within organisms. The presence of thiaminase in the diet has been associated with the occurrence of thiamine deficiency symptoms among mammals, including humans. In present work it was in mind that in pure culture of thiaminolyticus effect of added thiamine in its various biological forms should be tested at different time intervals of the growing culture with or without the addition of vitamin C. It is revealed that maximum activity of the thiaminases of thiaminolyticus culture is found in 24 hours culture in presence of thiamine hydrochloride. Interestingly when Vitamin C is added it enhanced 13% more activity in thiamine pyrophosphate containing culture. Addition of Vitamin C also enhance 33% SOD activity in the culture containing thiamine pyrophosphate. Catalase activity was found to be increased from 5% to 9.1% in different forms of thiamine containing cultures. The addition of Vitamin C enhanced glutathion peroxidase activity from 8.5% to 13 %. It is therefore, concluded that addition of vitamin C can increase the thiaminases and anti oxidant enzymes activities in thiaminolyticus cultures and hereby indicates some underlying mechanism which needs to be explored in future. We also concluded that Vitamin C can be be beneficial in the deficiency of thiamine especially if it is caused by thiaminases through its antioxidant profile.
161 AN ORAL CAVITY PROTECTOR: MELATONIN- THE KNIGHT RIDER, 1*Dr. Vishal Mehrotra, 2Dr. Kriti Garg, 3Dr. Rohini Singh, 4Dr. Priyanka Sharma
Melatonin is a hormone that is primarily synthesized in the pineal gland. This hormone plays a vital role in protecting oral cavity from the harmful effects caused by various pathogens, autoimmune diseases and oral cancers. This protective action of melatonin comes from its immunomodulatory, antioxidant (free radical scavenger), proliferation and synthesis of Type I collagen, bone formation, oncostatic activity which includes anti-proliferative functions, stimulation of anticancer immunity, and modulation of oncogene expression, anti-Inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects. This article highlights the therapeutic effects of melatonin on the damages caused by mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries on the oral cavity, but also on the bone formation in various autoimmune disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.
162 ROLE OF VILDAGLIPTIN- DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE-4 INHIBITOR IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS - AN OVERVIEW, Revathi Pitchaipillai1*, Bhuvaneswari Shanmugasundaram1, Sarojini Kaliyaperumal2, Jeyaseelan Senthinath3 and Manickavasagam Subramania Pillai1
Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not produce or respond to insulin, a hormone that regulates the level of sugar in the blood. It is characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. They are classified into three categories Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (DM), Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Gestational diabetes. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing rapidly and plays a vital role in the genesis of the pathophysiological events. Oral hypoglycemic agents are used in the treatment of T2DM and they have their own limitations. Newer drugs have been invented for the treatment of T2DM. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors plays an important role in the treatment of T2DM. They are six DPP-4 inhibitor identified (Sitagliptin, Vildagliptin, Saxagliptin, Alogliptin, Linagliptin and teneligliptin). Vildagliptin is a second DPP-4 inhibitor approved by US FDA in February 2007. It is an orally active, potent, and selective DPP-4 inhibitor shown to be effective and well tolerated by patients with T2DM. It is rapidly and well absorbed with an oral bioavailability of 85 %. It is effective either as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents. It has got lower incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms when used as a monotherapy or combination therapy with other oral hypoglycemic drugs. Vildagliptin once daily or twice daily is found to be an effective, safety and well tolerated DPP-4 inhibitor as monotherapy or combination therapy with oral hypoglemic agents (OHA) or insulin in the treatment of T2DM patients.
163 EVOLUTION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND LIPID PROFILE ALTERATION IN CONTINOUS INTAKE OF MICROWAVE FOOD IN CHICKEN, Sharmila Banu Gani* and Pradeepa
Microwave (MW) technology has been widely used in different field in our lives. The microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimetre. Health consideration of microwave radiation has been the major subject of scientific investigation for the last decades. The present study was designed to study the 2.45GHz low level microwave exposed food for 3200 C for 10 mint broiler chicken. The main objective of this study to find out the effect of continuous intake of microwave exposed food for 30 days to the chicken. At the end of 30 days the chicken were sacrificed and biochemical parameters were determined in liver and muscles. It was observed that the level of lipid profile showed significant increase in experimental chicken as compared to control group. Feeding of microwave exposed food induced hepatotoxicity.
164 BIMANUAL TRAINING THERAPY VERSUS CONSTRAINED INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY ON UPPER LIMB FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH HEMIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY, Abdel Aziz A. Sherief*
Background and purpose: Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy have impairments in upper limb function beyond their unilateral impairments. The current study was conducted to compare the effect of bimanual training therapy versus constrained induced movement therapy (CIMT) on the affected upper extremity in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Materials and methods: Thirty hemiplegic children ranged in age from 8 to 10 years with hand spasticity ranged between 1 and 1+ grades according to the Modified Ashworth Scale participated in this study. They were assigned randomly into two equal study groups. Group A received a designed physical therapy program and constrained induced movement therapy, while the group B received the same physical therapy program in addition to play and functional activities that provided structured bimanual practice 1 h per day for bimanual intensive therapy. Both groups received treatment sessions three times per week for three successive moths .Each child in the two groups was evaluated before and after the suggested treatment duration for detecting the level of hand performance using the Peabody Developmental Test of Motor Proficiency while, hand grip strength by a hand held dynamometer and active abduction and external rotation range of motion were measured by a standard universal goniometer. Results: The results revealed non significant differences when comparing the pre-treatment mean values of all measuring variables for the two groups (p< 0.05), while significant improvement was observed in the two groups when comparing their pre and post treatment mean values. Also, significant differences were observed when comparing the post treatment results of the two groups in favor of the group B (p< 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that, hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy appears to have appositive impact on hand function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
165 A REVIEW ON TUBERCULOSIS, Ankush Thakur*, Hemraj Vashist and R B Sharma
Tuberculosis is a fatal disease associated with granuloma in different major organs of our body so called as granulomatos disease. The causative agent for the disease is Mycobacteria tuberoculosis aerobic bacillus bacteria. The disease highly communicable by droplet infection, by using towel, bed seat and by seating near to a patient. The highly effective drugs are available in market but „DOT? the direct observation treatment is used to remove the infection from the body totally. for the patient and to the people around the patient should know about the disease and therapy so that they could follow the precautions to prevent the spreading of infection to nearer people. The present work is an attempt to in torch few aspects of this disease.
166 CORRELATION OF 2D:4D RATIO AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE: A STUDY IN NORTH INDIAN MALE POPULATION, Vikramjeet Singh1, Reena Singla2* and Nidhi Puri3
Background: Human 2D:4D ratio attract considerable research interest because they exhibit sexual dimorphism and are linked to several traits.The objective of this study is to find whether 2D:4D ratio could be used as a marker for predisposition to CAD as assessed by coronary angiography in north Indian male population. Material and Methods: This study includes 200 males; 100 subjects with CAD and 100 subjects without CAD between age 18-80 years. Finger lengths were measured twice for both hands using digital caliper. The results were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: 2D: 4D ratio was found more in men with CAD & p value was statistically significant. Cohen’s effect size was small for right and medium for left hand. Conclusion: The present study supports a positive correlation between high 2D:4D ratio and CAD in males. High 2D:4D ratio is predictive of CAD and may be used in diagnosis and in early life style intervention in Indian men.
167 ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT IN MICE MODELS OF DEPRESSION, Anekere Dasappasetty Sathisha, Priyanka Shivaprakash, Kyathegowdanadoddi Srinivasa Balaji, Vellingiri Vigneshwaran, Krishnaswamy Krupashree, Shankar Jayarama*
Depression is a common and serious mental disorder affecting 350 million people worldwide. Patients after being treated with current antidepressant drugs experience suicidal thoughts which are one of the major adverse effects caused by antidepressants. Herbal medicines have been proved to be potential therapeutic agents. In this study aqueous extract of Garcinia indica was used to evaluate for its antidepressant activity using forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Antidepressant effect was measured by means of decrease in the immobility duration exerted by fruit extract. As it was evident, oral administration of 50mg/kg of Garcinia indica effectively decreased the time of immobility in both TST and FST compared to control. Potentiality of Garcinia indica was almost similar to that of standard drug Imipramine in alleviating depression in both the animal models.
168 MASS PROPAGATION OF ACACIA MANGIUM THROUGH PLANT TISSUE CULTURE, Sonal Shukla1 and Dr. Sao Shweta2*
The present study on “Mass Propagation of Acacia mangium Through Pant Tissue Culture” was conducted at Dr. C.V. Raman University Kargi road Kota, Bilaspur (C.G.). The man objective of plant tissue culture of mangium initiation was to standardize protocol for mass multiplication of Acacia mangium. Healthy explants were taken from the selected elite mother plant’s from the selected elite mother plant from mngium field and dipped in the 2% hgcl2 for 10 min. the initiation of micro propagation of Acacia mngium encircles Media preparation which includes MS Medium containing known concentration of the media. Shooting for shoot proliferation and multiplication SM = II Media. i.e. MS salt supple meted with 2 mg/lit. BAP kinetin and 25mg/lit. adenine sulphate. Was found to be best compared to other media prepared through number of multiple shoot’s were more in SM-II media but was not appropriate for subcultoring. Rooting Best rooting obtained in RM-II Media i.e.1/2. Strength MS- media supplemented with 2 mg/lit. NAA. Hardening og tissue culture growth plantlets Tissue culture of raised plantlet’s were subjected to specified culture culture regimes aimed at making them. Capable of surviving the uncontrolled and narshar ere vitro environment’sthis was cultured rised plantlet’s were hardened in to coco pet’s info the green house.
169 THE EFFECT OF MEDIUM ON THE PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCT RAMIPRIL STABILITY, Hayet Berkoune, Said Zerkout*, Zohra Chakrar, Houda Chiheb and Rachid Fegas.
A simple, rapid and sensitive HPLC method for the determination of the stability of ramipril in the buffer solution with different pH was studied. This approach uses high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detector. The spectra of Ramipril were recorded using mobile phase “Acetonitrile: sodium perchloride”, at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min (linear gradient elution). A symmetry C18 (75 mm × 4.6 mm ×3.5 ?m) was utilized as stationary phase, with detection wavelength of 210 nm. The Ramipril sample: 1 mg of Ramipril was dissolved in 1 ml of ammonium phosphate buffer at different pH (pH 3, 5 and 8) and these solutions were stored at 90°C for 60 min. No peaks for degradation products appeared in the chromatograms.
170 A COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR THE STERILIZATION OF MEDROXY PROGESTERONE ACETATE FOR PARENTRAL PRODUCT, 1Prof. Dr. Mahmoud M. Ghorab and 2*Dr. Tarek S. Makram
The sterility of parenteral product is an interesting subject to achieve stable formulae. The majority of solid active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) cannot be sterilized terminally since all sterilization techniques affect the quality of the product. The Aim of this study was to approach the best sterilization method for MPA solid micronized powders. Method sterilization of MPA powder has been done by three different techniques, namely, by autoclaving gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide. Studying the microbial, physical and chemical stability, the culture media Fluid Thioglycollate Medium ( FTM) and Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) covered the intended data required for detecting, the microbial free state and the validity of either of stabilization techniques. Chemical and physical stability studied by HPLC method, X-ray diffraction and IR spectrum and loser diffraction particle size analysis were done. Result The most suitable technique was gamma irradiation using the required dose to the maximum of 25 KGys and autoclaving with conservation from the exposure to the most steam that could be expected to deform the crystallinity of the hydrophobic powder. Conclusion sterilization by ethylene oxide was the worst technique due to particle growth, according to a long duration time under RH = 60 and the most serious drawback was the fact of remaining toxic residues from ethylene oxide.
171 OSTEOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF MORINGA OLIEFERA IN OVARIECTOMY INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS MODEL OF WISTAR RATS, Pragna Parikh*, Chirag Patel and Ayaz Rangrez
Osteoporosis is a bone condition defined by low bone mass, increased fragility, decreased bone quality, and an increased fracture risk. Due to lack of compliance in current pharmacological interventions targeting bone problems like postmenopausal osteoporosis, there is an urge for developing new alternative therapies for osteoporosis. In recent times, interest has been given to phytotherapy due their ease of availability and acquiescence. Hence, the present study demonstrates that supplementing ovariectomized (OVX) animals with Moringa oliefera (MO) flower. leaf and fruit extract have positive effect on bone health. Following ovariectomy there was a dramatic decrease in the serum calcium levels, with an increase in the excretion of calcium. Elevated TRAcP and ALP after OVX decreased with MO extract exposure, fall in both the markers clearly suggest that MO plant extract ameliorate the damage caused by estrogen deficiency. Further, phytochemical analysis showed an array of phytochemicals with anti inflammatory as well as antioxidant properties, proving its osteoprotective efficacy. In general, the presence of these Phytochemicals could account for the much touted medicinal properties. Because of the chemical complexity of the MO, one individual phytochemical cannot be given the credit for its pharmacological property. Some compounds may be collectively affecting broad aspects of physiology, detoxification mechanisms, reducing the stress and re-supplementing the lost hormones such as phytoestrogens.
172 A CLINICAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFICACY OF SINHASYADI KWATHA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VATARAKTA , *Dr. Devesh Kishor Wagh and Dr. Somadatta Bhaskarrao Kulkarni
Ayurved is an ancient system of Indian Medicine, based on firm principles which can never be challenged. But violating these principles give rise to various diseases. Faulty Aahar and Vihar, improper exercises, increased travelling, junk food leads to Vata and Raktaprakopa which in turn lands in Vyadhis like VATARAKTA. Vatarakta is a disease of Raktavahastrotas and is a Madhyammargagatavyadhi. Vatarakta is commonest among Chronic inflammatory joint diseases in which mainly small joints become swollen, painful. Therefore, it has taken the foremost place among the joint disorders. It continues to pose challenge to physician due to severe morbidity & crippling nature & claiming the maximum loss of human power. There are many treatments are available for the disease but to decrease events of side effect and adverse effect and to achieve best and long term results it is necessary to do research study on herbal medicine Although lots of work has been done on Vatarakta still the disease challenges our medical sciences, so it requires further research & proper treatment by Ayurvedic medicine.
173 CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA, ULCERATIVE COLITIS AND NEPHROTIC SYNDROME: WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP? , Dr. Hemant Mehta*, Dr. Abhay Bhave, Dr. Wasiyeeullah Shaikh, Dr. Bhagyashree Gorakh, Dr. Pallavi Tanpure and Dr. Naval Kazi
Membranous nephropathy could be primary or secondary to variety of conditions. It is essential to differentiate the two, which is difficult at times, but necessary to plan the appropriate treatment. We are reporting a case of chronic myeloid leukemia (in loss of remission status) and ulcerative colitis (clinically in remission), who developed membranous nephropathy and presented with acute kidney injury. He was advised to be treated with rituximab elsewhere, for presumed primary membranous nephropathy. On our analysis, it appeared to be a case of membranous nephropathy secondary to chronic myeloid leukemia, and the treatment of the underlying disease resulted in remission of nephrotic syndrome.
174 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES OF CASSIA SOPHERA LINN , Shukla Shivakant* and Singh Anoop
Pharmacognostical parameters for the all three parts of Cassia sophera L were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, physicochemical constants, extractive values of dry powder and its reaction after treatment with chemical reagents were studied. The determination of these characters will aid future investigation in their Pharmacological analyses of this species.
175 PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ROLE OF DOSHAS TOWARDS DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , Khemraj V. Pawar*, Dr. Ganesh Belorkar and Pradyumna M. Pasarkar
Ayurveda described physiological and physiological role of Doshas and it is stated that balancing state of Doshas contributes towards the normal functioning of body while imbalance state of Doshas considered responsible for disease manifestation. Doshas contributes in normal functioning of organs and also involved in pathogenesis when organs functioning becomes abnormal. Doshas such as; Vata, Pitta and Kapha exerts different types of effect on various systems including digestive system. Doshas affects physiological functioning of digestive system and also involved in ailments related to the digestive system. When Doshas are in balancing state of Samagni observed and physiology of digestive system remain normal while vitiated state of Doshas causes state of Mandagni, Teekshnagni and Vishamagni, in such conditions pathological events observed related to the digestive system. This article presented physiological and pathological role of Doshas towards digestive system.
176 CALCIUM CARBIDE RIPENED BANANA IMPAIR WHITE BLOOD CELL PROFILE BY ABATING LEUKOCYTE PROMOTING FACTORS IN RAT MODEL , Onwuka Osah Martins* and Chamberlain Victoria Chiamaka
The study was aimed at investigating mechanism of impairment of white blood cell profile in male Wistar rats orally administered Calcium Carbide (CaC2) ripened banana (Musa spp). Twenty five (25) male Wistar rats weighing 150g – 210g were randomly divided into five (5) groups: Group 1 (control) received 2ml of distilled H2O; Group 2 received 2ml of naturally ripened banana, Group 3, 4. & 5 received 2ml of 5g/kg of CaC2, 15g/kg of CaC2, and 25g/kg of CaC2 ripened banana respectively. All administration was done orally for 28days. Thereafter blood samples were collected from the animals for laboratory assays. The samples were assayed for white blood cell profile and leukocyte promoting factors (leukopoietin, interleukin -3(IL-3), and prostaglandins). Results showed significant dose dependent decrease in leukocyte promoting factors: leukopoietin (Figure 1), interleukin -3 (Figure 2) and prostaglandin (Figure 3) when compared to Group 1 and Group 2, P<0.05. It also showed dose dependent significant reduction in white blood cell profile (Total WBC count, and WBC differential count) (Table1) when compared to Group 1 and Group 2, P<0.05. Conclusively, this study suggests that Calcium Carbide (CaC2) ripened banana causes impairment of white blood cell profile by decreasing leukocyte promoting factors; leukopoietin, interleukin -3(IL-3), and prostaglandins- E2 (PGE2).
177 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MEDICATED CHEWING GUM CONTAINING ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE , Suraj Yadav*, Sandeep Atram, S. D. Pande and Nishan N. Bobade
Chewing Gums are mobile Drug Delivery Systems, with a potential for administering drugs either for local or systemic absorption via buccal route. It can be administered discreetly without water. Medicated Chewing Gums contains gum base along with Antiemetic agent which is intended to chew not to be swallowed. Also this formulation contains Polyisobutylene, Soya lecithin, Calcium Carbonate and Flavoring agents. The Medicated Chewing Gums were prepared by the direct compression method. The prepared formulations were evaluated for various pre-compression and post compression parameters. The in-vitro drug release of Formulation MCG3 showed satisfactory drug release within 30 min. at various chewing conditions. From the results it is concluded that the Chewing Gum Containing Ondansetran HCl will be the potential dosage form for the treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting.
178 OPINIONS OF MARRIED AND UNMARRIED WOMEN TOWARDS CESAREAN SECTION AND CESAREAN DELIVERY ON MATERNAL REQUEST IN CHANDIGARH, NORTH INDIA , Amandeep Kaur, *Dr. Dinesh Kumar, Dr. Savita Prashar and Dr. Ikreet Singh Bal
Context: There is an alarming increase in the rate of cesarean section deliveries and cesarean delivery on maternal request in recent years beyond medical reasons. It has economical, physiological and psychological consequences Factors behind decisions regarding acceptance or rejection of CS among women and opinions regarding CS are not clear. Available studies are confined only to married women ignoring unmarried girls in their marriageable age in spite of the fact that they are prospective mothers. Objectives: Present study is an attempt to investigate awareness of CS and CDMR with associated factors among married women and unmarried college going girls and to explore their opinions regarding CDMR and reasons of preference towards caesarean sections and demand for cesarean delivery. Methods: community based cross sectional study was conducted as a part of MPH dissertation conducted during March- June 2020 at Centre of Public Health, Panjab University Chandigarh among married women and college going girls of Chandigarh. Results: Study included 59 (64.8%) unmarried college going and 32 (35.2%) married women with an overall mean age 25.10±4.42 years. Overall awareness of caesarean section was found among 81 (89.0%) and CS as preferred mode of delivery was found among 21(23.1%) women. Overall awareness of CDMR was found among 67(73.6%) women including 47(79.7%) unmarried and 20 (62.5%) married women. association between marital status and awareness of CDMR was not found statistical significant (P=0.08). Family members came out to be the most common source of awareness of CDMR reported by 46(68.6%) women. Awareness pattern of CS and CDMR were not significantly associated with socio-demographic variables based on logistic regression model. Conclusions and Suggestions: The study concludes that awareness of CS and CDMR are high in both married and unmarried women irrespective of socio-demographic variables. Large gaps exist among awareness levels, preferred choices and potential demands caesarean rates. There is an urgent need to create awareness and avoiding misconceptions regarding CS and CDMR among married and unmarried women being prospective mothers. Study also suggest the need of health education interventions at college level for unmarried girls regarding delivery options to enable help to be ready for their safe prospective motherhood.
179 EARLY NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF FETAL ANENCEPHALY , Maria-Angelica Bencze, Marina Imre, Cristina-Crenguta Albu*, Stefan-Dimitrie Albu, Dinu-Florin Albu, Ana Maria Cristina Tancu
Anencephaly, the most severe form of cranial neural tube malformation, is a multifactorial disease which occurs as a consequence of the interaction between the genetic factors and the environmental factors. We are presenting here a particular case, of a patient aged 32 years old, Caucasian, clinically healthy, without pathological personal antecedents and without heredocolateral antecedents, pregnant for the first time, presents to A. S. Medical Center, from Bucharest, Romania, for a routine ultrasound examination. According to the first trimester ultrasonography, the following ultrasound diagnosis was established: Monofetal preganancy of 12 weeks, in evolution. Fetal anencephaly, a defect of the closure of the neural tube, early prenatally diagnosed and confirmed postnatally. The fetal ultrasound examination is a non-invasive prenatal diagnosis method, today very performant, cost-effective, and fast, through which the severe malformations can be diagnosed successfully by prenatal ultrasound screening, early, in the first trimester of pregnancy.
180 A RARE CASE REPORT OF METASTATIC PROSTATE ADENOCARCINOMA IN A YOUNG 54 YEARS OLD MALE PRESENTING AS A LEFT SUPRACLAVICULAR LYMPHADENOPATHY , Hassan E. Arekemase and *Muhammad Tahir
Prostate adenocarcinoma (PA) is one of the most frequent cancers in males around the age of 50. The metastasis of PA occurs in advanced stages and most commonly to regional lymph nodes, pelvic and abdominal organs. But the distant spread of PA to cervical lymph nodes is sporadic, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. Here, we present a case of swelling on the left side of the neck. The biopsy of the left supraclavicular lymph node revealed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (MPA). This presentation of MPA is infrequent because lymphadenopathy was the presenting symptom. The patient had no history or symptoms suggestive of primary prostate adenocarcinoma, and no prostate cancer workup before the biopsy. This presentation is quite unusual and an eye-opener in the differential diagnosis of lymphoma and metastatic lesion involving the lymph node.
181 CONCEPTUAL STUDY ON ANTI- TOXIC ACTIVITY OF TRIMURTHI AGADA: A REVIEW , Dr. Pooja Prakash* and Dr. Ashwin Kumar S. Bharati
Agada tantra or visha chikitsa is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda. It deals with different types of poisoning and its various aspects including its management. Many agada yogas and therapeutic measures to achieve the same has been explained in the classsics. Trimurthi agada is one such yoga explained in the keraleeya vishavaidya textbook which can be used in all kinds of poisoning. This paper is intended to put light on this simple yoga which can be used as a trinity in management of poisoning in our day to day practice.
182 AYURVEDA REVIEW ON MENSTRUAL DISORDERS W.S.R. TO THEIR THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT , Dr. Kundalik Shamrao Mandave*, Dr. Dadasaheb Bhausaheb Patil and Dr. Ashish Avinash Kale
Ayurveda science not only paid attentions towards the common health issues but this science also focuses for curing specific gynecological problems. The gynecological health issues not only affect quality of life of female but also imparts great burden to her family. The menstrual disorders are common health problems mainly associated with females of reproductive age group. As per Ayurveda most of such disorders related to the morbidity of Vata Dosha and Rasa Dhatu. Amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hypomenorrhea and dysmenorrhoea, etc. are common menstrual disorders. Ayurveda explains many therapies for treating such conditions including diet regimen, lifestyle modification, uses of natural drugs along with Ayurveda formulations and Panchakarma for detoxification purpose. The prevalence of menstrual disorders high now a day’s due to the diversified pattern of living style. This article presented some key aspects of menstrual disorders and their management through Ayurveda.
183 ROLE OF VAJIKARANA CHIKITSA IN CURRENT HEALTH SCENARIO: AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , Dr. Mahadev S. Sogi and Dr. Rajendra V.
Ayurveda the Indian science of life and spiritual principles suggest various concepts for restoring general health status, concepts of Dinacharya, Sadvruta and Vajikarana are some of them. The Vajikarana is one of the vital aspects of ayurveda which play important role in maintaining physical especially sexual health. The approaches of Vajikarana boost Rakta, Meda, Asthi and Majja Dhatus thus potentiate Shukra. The current scenario of stressful life style put health burden on society which ultimately leads diminished state of sexual and physical strength. The approaches of Vajikarana impart good health status of Shukra, confidence, internal strength, immunity and feeling of well being. Considering importance of Vajikarana in current scenario this article presented role of Vajikarana for maintaining normal health status.
184 THE PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AMONG HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS IN BSHAIR TEACHING HOSPITAL IN KHARTOUM - SUDAN , Hussam A. M. Nour, Hashim E. Elmansi, Sana E. Abdalla* and Asmaa Abdulaal
Background: Depression also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects feeling, thinking and behavior and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems, it is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Depression is not a normal part of growing older, symptoms of depression may be different or less obvious in older adults, such as memory difficulties or personality changes, physical aches or pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep problems or aches. Depression may require long-term treatment but don't get discouraged. Most people with depression feel better with medication, psychological counseling or both. HIV/AIDS (HIV) is one of the most devastating illnesses that humans have ever faced. It is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus Depression is the most common neuropsychiatric complication of HIV disease. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of depression among HIV patients in Bashair Teaching Hospital in Khartoum State. Methods: This is a cross sectional hospital based study conducted to measure the prevalence of depression among HIV patients in Bashair Hospital. A sample of 80, 46 were males and the other 34 were females were interviewed by structured questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of depression among HIV patients in Bashair Teaching Hospital was 19 % and that the percentage of males who have depression is higher than the females and the difference is not significant. The highest was in patients who were educated until lower standard (primary and secondary school). There is an association between depression and the duration of diagnosis. There is no association between depression and the monthly salary. Conclusion: The prevalence of depression in HIV patients is 19 %.
185 STUDY ON PERCEIVED STRESS AMONG ASYMPTOMATIC TO MILD COVID POSITIVE INPATIENTS ADMITTED TO A COVID DESIGNATED HOSPITAL , Torsa Das*, Dr. Amitabh Saha, Dr. Alok Chandra, Dr. V.V. Gantait
Background – The COVID-19 pandemic has had a global effect on the world population. It has had a strong influence on both the physical and mental health of an individual, especially for those persons who are in the higher age group and have multiple medical comorbidity. Person having Covid infection are more susceptible to develop anxiety and depressive features during infection and hospitalization phase and even after recovery. No study has yet examined the presence of psychiatric comorbidity and the perceived stress that they undergo while being hospitalized which the present study has attempted to cover in the state of West Bengal, India. Aim- We examined the presence of depression, anxiety, perceived stress in asymptomatic to mild Covid positive inpatients of a Covid designated hospital in West Bengal. Method- 60 people, diagnosed with COVID-19 by testing by RT PCR and after taking their informed consent were taken up for the study. Two semi-structured scale comprising of the socio-demographic data sheet and clinical data sheet were administered to them. The Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were administered. After the data compilation was completed it was then assessed using the Statistical Package and Social Sciences Version 25 (SPSS 25.0) for analysis and interpretation. Results- Middle aged individuals with mild symptomatic Covid 19 infection were noted to be having high degree of perceived stress than the young population. Few had history of alcohol, tobacco and cannabinoids use disorder while some fulfilled the criteria for an abuse disorder. It was seen that mild depression, anxiety and perceived stress were present in the participants who were living alone. Conclusion- The results of this cross sectional study suggested that the middle aged people were most affected by the Covid-19. The symptoms increased with age, were noted especially more in people who were having substance use disorder and who were living alone.
186 AYURVEDA MANAGEMENT OF ALOPECIA (KHALITYA) THROUGH RAKTAMOKSHAN AND ORAL MEDICATION: A CASE STUDY , *Dr. Pallavi Hitendra Bhirud and Dr. Suresh Mahajan
The prime aim of medical sciences is to maintain health of human being and on the parallel mode medical science also focused greatly towards the restoration of good physical appearance. The Indian medical science Ayurveda also encompasses various approaches for the management of optimum physical appearance along with good health status. Hair is considered important part of body especially for the beautification purpose and loss of hair before aging considered as alopecia and termed as Khalitya in Ayurveda. The loss of hair in early age or alopecia not only affects physical appearance of person but also causes psychological stress due to the diminished state of confidence level. It is believed that large number of young population currently facing this issue and men are more prone than female. Ayurveda mentioned various approaches for curing alopecia including use of natural drugs like Rasayanas and Kesh Vardhak Yogs along with Shodana Chikitsa. Present study reported successful management of case of alopecia using Ayurveda drugs along with Shodana Chikitsa (Raktamokshan with Jaluka). This study supported the fact that Ayurveda approaches play pivotal role in the treatment of Khalitya.
187 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FELODIPINE LOADED CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES , Sunil Kumar Batra* and Dr. Satish Sardana
The main objective of the present study was to develop and optimize chitosan nanoparticles of Felodipine by Design of Experiments (DOE). Modified ionic gelation technique was employed for preparation of chitosan nanoparticles due to poor aqueous solubility of Felodipine. The effect of critical formulation variables like, chitosan concentration, TPP concentration, surfactant concentration and process variable like rate of homogenization were studied for the particle size distribution; drug entrapment efficiency and process yield. The dependent variables of the formulations were optimized using 32 full factorial designs and defined in mathematical equations. The desired values of response variables were found by response surface plots and contour plots generated using the design-expert® 10 software. The design was validated by check point analysis. Particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and process yield for the optimized batch were found to be 77.08 nm, 40.63 % and 59.87 % respectively. Thus, using systematic factorial design approach, desired goals can be achieved in shortest possible time with least number of experiments.
188 ASSESSMENT OF DRUG USE PATTERN IN PAEDIATRICS USING WHO PRESCRIBING INDICATORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Dr. Shyam Nandan Yadav, Dr. Beulah Milton* and Dr. Amit Kumar Pandit
Introduction: Drugs use should be rational in specialized population, especially in pediatrics. Hence the present study was conducted in order to study the drug use patterns in pediatric population using WHO prescribing indicators. Methodology: A Prospective observational study was carried out in 160 patients for a period of 6 months at a tertiary care hospital. Results and Discussion: The male patients were more than female patients. Majority of the Pediatric patients were in the age group between 1 to 3 years. Most of the patients were suffering from gastrointestinal diseases followed by lower respiratory tract infections. The drugs in pediatrics were mostly prescribed by parenteral route. The classes of drugs commonly prescribed were antibiotics followed by bronchodilators. The number of drugs per prescription was found to be with a minimum of 3 and maximum of 5. Most of the drugs were prescribed by brand name. Overuse of antibiotics can result in adverse events and detrimental effects on the gut microbiata. Increased use of parenteral treatment can lead to pain on injection site and cause difficulty in reversing its physiological effects. The number of drugs prescribed for pediatrics should be reduced as prescribing many drugs will lead to polypharmacy, drug interaction and drug related problems. Prescribing by generic name should be encouraged. Rational drug use and evidence based medicine should be instituted. Conclusion: There was noncompliance seen with the WHO prescribing indicators. Periodic evaluation of drug use patterns is needed in pediatrics to improve the therapeutic benefits and reduce adverse effects.
189 IMPACT OF ACORUS CALAMUS AND FERULA ASAFOETIDA IN ANTI SNAKE ENVENOMATION STUDIES-A PHYTOCHEMICAL, SPECTROSCOPIC AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVE , Anoop M.*, Haritha Venugopal and Venugopal K. G.
The scheme of examining the bioactive components in Acorus calamus and Ferula asafoetida plants alone and in combination with other plants were presented in this work that extrapolates the idea behind traditional anti snake envenomation practices using the selected medicinal plants through a preliminary piece of phytochemical ,chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. The Rf values depicted in the ranges of 0.9 and 0.75, 0.645 for acetone extracts of Acorus calamus and Ferula asafoetida respectively that indicated the presence of a component that can stimulate the anti venom approach. The UV-VIS spectroscopic bands clearly represented presence of terpenoid class of compounds in the ranges specially in 200-320 nm for Ferula asafoetida acetone extracts and 500-700 nm ranges for the aqueous extract of Acorus calamus. The dispense of brown color ring formation stipulated the existence of terpenoid classes as secondary metabolite. These preliminary assays extended the way for further future interpretations of the residence of active principles that may be assayed through FTIR and mass spectrometer studies. The work aimed a Homoeopathic formulation that may be triggered through an ultradilution technique and nanoparticulate formulations from a purified bioactive extract that may be a constructive approach in traditional snake envenomation management practices.
190 ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT PROFILE OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN BANGLADESH , *Dr. Sanjida Khondakar Setu and Dr. Abu Naser Ibne Sattar
Background: Infections with resistant strain are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU). Patients admitted into the ICU usually have impaired immunity and are therefore at high risk of infections. Infections by multidrug resistant organisms constitute a major problem, limiting the choice of antimicrobial therapy. Objectives: This study was aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance pattern of pathogens causing ICU infections in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The aetiological agents, prevalence and types of ICU infections were also determined. Materials and Method: An observational study was carried out from January 2019 to December 2019. Blood, Foleys catheter tip, central venous line and tracheal aspirateswere collected and sent to the Microbiology laboratory. All pathogens were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods. Disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines Results: Out of the 673 tested sample 31.64% showed growth of pathogens among which the most prevalent samples were tracheal aspirates (70.76%) followed by blood (21.26%). The predominant isolate was Acinetobacterspp(39.43%) followed by Pseudomonas spp(25.82%), E coli (13.61%), Klebsiellaspp(13.14%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.98%)respectively. Most isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin, Cephalosporins and Quinolones group of Antibiotics. E coli showed 100% sensitive to Colistin Conclusion: High prevalence of multidrug resistant bacteria causing ICU infections. Application of more stringent infection control procedures and antimicrobial stewardship are recommended to combat this problem.
191 EMPAGLIFLOZIN AS POTENTIAL INHIBITOR OF POLYOL PATHWAY IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY THROUGH SODIUM-GLUCOSE CO-TRANSPORTER-2 AS AN ACTIVATOR OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE , Kushal Nandi, *Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Dr. Dhananjoy Saha
Empagliflozin is an inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2), the transporters primarily responsible for the reabsorption of glucose in the kidney. It is used clinically as an adjunct to diet and exercise, often in combination with other drug therapies, for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The first known inhibitor of SGLTs, phlorizin, was isolated from the bark of apple trees in 1835 and researched extensively into the 20th century, but was ultimately deemed inappropriate for clinical use given its lack of specificity and significant gastrointestinal side effects. Attempts at overcoming these limitations first saw the development of O-glucoside analogs of phlorizin (e.g. remogliflozin etabonate), but these molecules proved relatively pharmacokinetically unstable. The development of C-glucoside phlorizin analogs remedied the issues observed in the previous generation, and led to the FDA approval of canagliflozin in 2013 and both dapagliflozin and empagliflozin in 2014. As the most recently approved of the "flozin" drugs, empagliflozin carries the highest selectivity for SGLT2 over SGLT1 (approximately 2700-fold).
192 NATURAL BIO-COMPOSITES: AN INERT MATERIAL FOR TISSUE REPLACEMENT , Dr. Sampa Dhabal, *Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Dr. Dhananjoy Saha
Hard tissues in the human body are natural composite materials and they serve as templates in the development of tissue replacement materials. Over the last two decades, various bioactive composites have been investigated for tissue replacement and tissue regeneration purposes. Each of these composites has its distinctive characteristics and may be used in specific clinical situations. The successful clinical use of bioactive composites has paved the way for further developing this type of biomaterials for various applications. With new knowledge being gained of natural tissues and the human body and the advancement of composite science and technology, newer and better composite materials will become available for substituting diseased, damaged or worn-out body parts. Natural tissues such as bone have the exceptional ability of self-repair. It remains a great challenge for man to produce what nature has made for us.
193 IMPACT OF DIFFERENT DIABETES MELLITUS TYPES ON PREGNANCY OUTCOMES OF PREGNANT WOMEN , *Maha Saleem Mohammed Ali
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion, defective insulin action or both. It is the most common metabolic disorder that occurs during pregnancy. It has two clinical patterns; either gestational or pregestational diabetes. Pregnancy in women with diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations, obstetric complications and neonatal morbidity. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of different types of diabetes mellitus without vascular changes on maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done at Mosul General hospital - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology- Mosul /Iraq during the period from September 2018 to September 2019 and included 100 cases of gestational and pregestational diabetic pregnant women. The results showed that mean age of the studied group was (28.7±6.45) ranging from (18 to 41) years and the mean BMI of the studied group was (25.9±3.9) ranging from (18 to 32) and 44% of PGDM and 32% of GDM patients were obese. There was no statistically significant difference in positive family history of diabetes and previous history of congenital fetal malformation, Intra Uterine Fetal Death and gestational diabetes mellitus between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in gestational age at delivery and mode of delivery in current pregnancy between the two groups. Both gestational or pregestational showed no statistical difference between maternal and fetal outcomes. It can be concluded from our study that in either diabetes, gestational or pregestational, there was no statistical difference between maternal and fetal outcomes. Optimal control of blood glucose resulted in lower neonatal and maternal complications. Further studies on large geographical scale and larger sample size are required to support our conclusion.
194 EFFECT OF AQUATIC PLANT EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) AND CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) , N. A. Nerlekar, D. A. Malvekar, S. S. Jangam and A. U. Sutar*
In present study, pot experiment was carried to study the effect of aqueous extract of Hydrilla verticillata and Eichhornia crassipes on seed germination and growth of maize (Zea mays) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Aqueous extract of Hydrilla verticillata and Eichhornia crassipes significantly increases germination and growth of maize and chickpea. Maize shoot showed higher growth at 50% conc. of Ecchornia extract whereas chickpea shoot length was observed higher growth at conc. 30 % as compared to that of control. At higher concentration it inhibits the growth and couldn’t get better results. Also, at 10% of Hydrilla extract chickpea shoot and root length observed higher growth whereas it also showed increase in shoot length for maize as compared to other concentration. So plant extract like Hydrilla verticillata and Eichhornia crassipes can be used as a liquid biofertilizer for plants. The extract did not showed any effect on the growth of microorganisms present in soil.Soil treatment showed better growth of shoot and root length.
195 A REVIEW ON FLOATING MICROSPHERE , Shubham Nawani* and Vijay Jyoti
The design of floating drug delivery Systems (FDDS) should be primarily aimed to achieve more predictable and increased bioavailability. Now-a-days most of the pharmaceutical scientist is involved in developing the ideal FDDS. This ideal system should have advantage of single dose for the whole duration of treatment and it should deliver the active drug directly at the specific site. Scientists have succeeded to develop a system and it encourages the scientists to develop control release tablet. Control release implies the predictability and reproducibility to control the drug release, drug concentration in target tissue and optimization of the therapeutic effect of a drug by controlling its release in the body with lower and less frequent dose. This review paper presents formulation and characterization of floating microsphere.
196 IN-VITRO ANTIDIABETIC INVESTIGATION OF PSOPHOCARPUS TETRAGONALOBUS HYDROALCOHOLIC POD EXTRACT , Dhanya Rajan E. P.*, Rakesh K. Jat and Sujith S. Nair
Medicinally important herbal plants are one of the primary assets of remedial specialists. Undoubtedly, 80% of the total populace utilizes plants in medical care. There is an expanding interest in utilizing therapeutic plants and their phytoconstituents as normal sources due to their notable pharmacological effects in the body. Psophocarpus tetragonalobus of the Fabaceae commonly known as winged bean is well known for its high nutritional value but remains as an underutilized crop. The intention of this study was to explore the scientific basis of traditional usage of Psophocarpus tetragonalobus as an anti-diabetic agent in hyperglycemic patients. Hydroalcoholic extract from its dried pods were prepared and were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively for evaluation of phytochemical agents followed by anti-diabetic study in vitro.The results of phytochemical investigation indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, amino acids and fatty acids in crude extract. The prepared hydroalcoholic extract of the pods were analysed for its α-amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition assay using the 3, 5- dinitrosalicylic acid method. The IC50 values of α amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory activity of PTPH were 722.65±0.29 and 302.47 ±0.34 respectively and were closer to that of the standard drug Acarbose which exhibited the IC 50 values of 548.74±0.38 and 231.22 ±0.93 respectively. The pod extracts of P.tetragonalobus exhibit notable α-amylase and glucosidase inhibitory activity in the crude hydroalcoholic extract and hence can be used as a regular green vegetable and also be investigated further in isolating pure compounds with anti-diabetic activity.
197 HISTOPATHOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF COLONIC MUCOSAL BIOPSY SPECIMENS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Dr. Nazia Aslam Hungund* and Dr. Thejasvi Krishnamurthy
Introduction: Colonoscopy with biopsy is the diagnostic tool of choice in evaluating patients with colorectal pathologies. Biopsies help in diagnosing neoplastic lesions, assessing prognosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), exploring changes in bowel habits, evaluating symptoms of pain, bleeding, weight loss, chronic constipation and diarrhea. Objectives: To study the histomorphological spectrum of colonoscopic biopsies. To correlate them with clinical presentation and colonoscopic diagnosis. Methods: This retrospective study includes all colonoscopic biopsies received in the Department of Pathology, KIMS Bengaluru from January 2017 to January 2020. All biopsies were processed routinely and studied. Results: Out of 114 biopsies, 98 were non neoplastic and 16 neoplastic. The most common presenting complaint for neoplastic lesions was per rectal bleeding, and pain abdomen for non-neoplastic lesions. Non-specific colitis (38.78%) was the commonest non neoplastic lesion, followed by ulcerative colitis (27.55%), ulcers (7.14%), granulomatous inflammation (7.14%). Males (67.34%) showed a higher preponderance than females (32.66%). Among neoplastic lesions, benign lesions accounted for 25% of the total neoplastic cases and 75% composed malignant lesions; adenocarcinoma being the most common entity. Neoplastic lesions showed equal distribution in males and females. Conclusion: Histopathological interpretation on colonic biopsies is a cornerstone in diagnosing and managing patients with colonic lesions. Colonoscopic diagnosis correlated well with histopathology in carcinomas and granulomatous lesions. IBD showed a sensitivity of 93.75% and a specificity of 78.2 %. Mucosal biopsies should be a part of evaluation of patients with recurrent abdominal pain and bleeding per rectum, even if colonoscopy is normal.
198 ROLE OF GARBHINI PARICHARYA AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE , Dr. Anusha M.* and Dr. G. N. Govind
Pregnancy and child birth is beautiful event in every woman’s life. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies were common among pregnant women. Over 10% of the pregnant women were both anemic and deficient in B-complex vitamins, whereas 22% of women were both anemic and zinc deficient. The role of diet and life style plays a major role during pregnancy.[1] Ayurveda, A holistic way of living, documented about the Pathya in terms of ahara (diet), vihara (lifestyle), vichara (psychological aspect) to be followed during pregnancy with respect to each month. The proper pathya would result in the proper development of the fetus, and the health of The mother to withstand the strain of labor and postnatal period. Hence, an attempt is made to highlight the importance of pathya in garbhini.
199 ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT PROFILE OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN BANGLADESH , *Dr. Sanjida Khondakar Setu and Dr. Abu Naser Ibne Sattar
Background: Infections with resistant strain are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU). Patients admitted into the ICU usually have impaired immunity and are therefore at high risk of infections. Infections by multidrug resistant organisms constitute a major problem, limiting the choice of antimicrobial therapy. Objectives: This study was aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance pattern of pathogens causing ICU infections in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The aetiological agents, prevalence and types of ICU infections were also determined. Materials and Method: An observational study was carried out from January 2019 to December 2019. Blood, Foleys catheter tip, central venous line and tracheal aspirateswere collected and sent to the Microbiology laboratory. All pathogens were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods. Disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines Results: Out of the 673 tested sample 31.64% showed growth of pathogens among which the most prevalent samples were tracheal aspirates (70.76%) followed by blood (21.26%). The predominant isolate was Acinetobacterspp(39.43%) followed by Pseudomonas spp(25.82%), E coli (13.61%), Klebsiellaspp(13.14%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.98%)respectively. Most isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin, Cephalosporins and Quinolones group of Antibiotics. E coli showed 100% sensitive to Colistin Conclusion: High prevalence of multidrug resistant bacteria causing ICU infections. Application of more stringent infection control procedures and antimicrobial stewardship are recommended to combat this problem.
200 PATHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF ANURJATAJANYA KASA (ALLERGIC BRONCHITIS) AND ITS MANAGEMENT THROUGH AYURVEDA W.S.R. TO USE OF SHIRISHARISHTA , Vd. Sangeeta Vidhale (Rithe)* and Vd. Surajsing Laxmansing Thakur
The current scenario of health status witnessed many health ailments due to the ignorance of dietary rules. The awful conduction of daily regimen imparts many adverse effects on human body including allergic disorders like allergic rhinitis & allergic asthma. Allergic conditions are mainly considered as immunologically mediated adverse reaction against foreign substance. Ayurveda considered allergic conditions as Anurjatajanya and allergic reactions related to the respiratory system like allergic bronchitis termed as Anurjatajanya Kasa in Ayurveda. There are many natural drugs which help in allergic bronchitis and Shirisharishta is one such natural drug which can provides health benefits in case of Anurjatajanya Kasa. The anti-inflammatory effect of Shirisharishta relief symptoms of disease while Tridosha hara & Vishagna effects of Shirisharishta reduces pathological severity of allergic bronchitis. Considering these all aspect present article explored role of Shirisharishta in the management of Anurjatajanya Kasa.
201 AN OVERVIEW ON COVID-19 VACCINES IN INDIA , Sanket S. Vyas*, Dr. Ojas Patel and Dr. Harsha Patel
This review article outlines the key concepts of differences between corona virus and flu and current status of vaccine discovery process in India. There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).Corona viruses are enveloped positive sense RNA viruses ranging from 60 nm to 140 nm in diameter with spike like projections on its surface giving it a crown like appearance under the electron microscope; hence the name corona virus. The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. Influenza is an acute respiratory disease caused by the influenza A or B virus. It often occurs in outbreaks and epidemics worldwide, mainly during the winter season. Significant numbers of influenza virus particles are present in the respiratory secretions of infected persons, so infection can be transmitted by sneezing and coughing via large particle droplets. The mean duration of influenza virus shedding in immune competent adult patients is around 5 days but may continue for up to 10 days. The pandemic declaration of Covid-19 disease by World Health Organization (WHO) and subsequent widespread morbidities and mortalities in almost all countries of the world led to the research and development to find out a vaccine against SARS-CoV2 virus. Normally any new vaccine development takes 10–15 y time but the search for vaccine against SARS-CoV2 is going on at a very fast pace resulting in almost breakthrough in vaccine development by several research institutions and vaccine manufacturers. In India, there are three vaccine developers are currently working on vaccine discovery with large number of scientist. The article ends with the vaccine development phases and present scenario on development of corona vaccine in India and improves health outcomes through life course.
202 A REVIEW ON MICROEMULSION FOR ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY , Shashikant Chandrakar, Ashish Verma*, Amit Roy, Pushpa P. Gupta, Nagesh Sahu, Khemraj Yadu and Akhilesh Kumar
Microemulsion is clear, stable, isotropic mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a co-surfactant. Microemulsions act as potential drug carrier systems for oral, topical, and parenteral administration. They offer the advantage of spontaneous formation, ease of manufacturing and scale-up, thermodynamic stability, and improved drug solubilization and bioavailability. Preparing a pharmaceutically acceptable dosage form demands a clear understanding of the micro-emulsion structure, phase behavior, factors leading to its thermodynamic stability and the potential uses and limitations of the microemulsion system. Knowledge of the various methods available to thoroughly characterize a microemulsion system is essential. While microemulsion is used in several fields, in this review the pharmaceutical applications are emphasized.
203 DIGITAL EYE STRAIN DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC , Arsh Zahoor*, Saba Ijaz, Naveed Ijaz, Khaula Majid Khan, Aimen Tariq and Zufishan Tahira
E-learning was a common mode of studying, even before the emergence of the COVID 19 outbreak and it has been shown to be efficacious for the students. Following the COVID 19 pandemic, E-learning acquired increasing awareness and is now exercised globally. The first and foremost disadvantage of E-learning is Digital Eye Strain, DES. DES is a fledgling risk for the general population healthcare and is associated with to the amount of time spent using digital devices. This cross-sectional study was conducted to highlight the substantial rise in the utilization of E-learning during the COVID 19 pandemic and its effects on vision. Consecutive sampling technique was used and data was collected from 70 participants over the period of 1 month. The statistical data of our research showed that (30.0%) of e-learners spent maximum 4 hours online, (52.9%) with previous history of myopia, (1.4%) astigmatism, hyperopic and blurry vision. (35.7%) suffered from eye pain, (61.4%) had tired eyes, (20.0%) had red eyes, (27.1%) with watery eyes and (18.6%) with photosensitivity. Additionally, most of the people also complaint of headaches, neck pain, backache, shoulder pain, blurred vision and double vision. The statistical data of this research showed that only about (11.4%) people are aware of 20-20-20 rule, (87.1%) are unaware of it while (1.4%) are not sure about it.
204 ANTIASTHMATIC STUDIES ON LEAF EXTRACT OF TRAGIA PLUKENETII R. SMITH AND T. INVOLUCRATA L. , Kalaivanan M., L. Louis Jesudoss, A. Saravana Ganthi* and M. Padma Sorna Subramanian
Asthma is a common, chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that affects people of all ages and imposes a substantial burden on patients, their families, and the community. Among India’s 1.31 billion people, about 6% of children and 2% of adults have asthma. Many medicinal plants are used to treat asthma in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the leaf extracts of Tragia plukenetii and Tragia involucrata for its antiasthmatic activity. The anti-asthmatic activity was carried out on isolated guinea pig ileum preparation (in-vitro) and histamine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. The present observations showed that the ethanolic extract of leaves of T. plukenetii and T. involucrata significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the contractile effect of histamine. Ethanolic extracts of both medicinal plants were found to inhibit (p<0.05) bronchospasm induced by histamine in guinea pigs by varying degree. Although these results provide a support for the traditional uses of T. plukenetii and T. involucrata as anti-asthmatic action, further studies are necessary to better evaluate its safety and modes of action.
205 ASSOCIATION OF SERUM OMENTIN-1 AND LEPTIN WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION , *Hira Tanvir, Taha Masood and Fatima Zain
Introduction: Obesity, the most common nutritional disorder in industrialized countries, is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objectives: The main objective of the study is to find the association of serum Omentin-1 and Leptin with acute myocardial infarction. Material and methods: The data was collected from Doctors Hospital and Research Center, Lahore during January 2020 till June 2020. The data was collected after the permission of ethical committee of hospital. The data was collected from patients who suffering from acute myocardial infarction and visited OPD of the hospital regularly. The general information of the patients include age, BMI, BP, hypertension, smoking and previous history of myocardial infarction. Results: The data was collected from 50 patients. The mean age of the patients was 26 ± 3.9 years, with a maximum number of patients (60.2%) being within the age of 25-30 years and the rest in the age group of 20-25 years. The youngest patient was 20.1 years old. AMI in very young patients was highly prevalent in urban population (63.9%). Conclusion: It is concluded that Serum Omentin levels were significantly lowered while no change was found in serum leptin levels. Serum omentin-1 levels were independently associated with the MI.
206 ULTRASONIC AND ITS PRINCIPLES IN ENDODONTICS , Dr. Alok S. Pol*, Dr. Pallavi A. Naware and Dr. Ashima Jakhar
Ultrasonic devices have been used in industry for removal of unwanted material and debris for many years. In 1957 the use of a barbed broach connected to an ultrasonic delivery system for use in canal preparation and apical resection. Ultrasonic instruments play an ever-increasing role in several aspects of endodontic treatment. This review is an attempt to understand both the ultrasonic equipment and principles along with its rapid technological advances.
207 A REVIEW: APPLICATIONS OF ZNO NANOPARTICLE IN AGRICULTURE , Rajesh Dash, Ajit Varma and Monika Gupta*
Importance: ZnO nanoparticles hold excellent properties for its use in agriculture and medical fields due to its small size it can be used in fewer amounts rather than usual fertilizers that are used in high amounts since the need for sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture is trending now these days. ZnO NPs have proven to be an excellent applicant. Observation: A significant increase in crop yields have been recorded when using ZnO nanoparticles on various crops, it has also proven effective in water remediation, water disinfection, and in delivering pesticides without any residues from the pesticides. Hence, the use of nanoparticles in various biotechnological fields must be increased for an eco-friendly approach. Conclusion and Relevance: With the growing demand for basic food and eco-friendly methods of growing crops ZnO NPs have proven effective but everything has its pros and cons. Various researches have shown the toxicological effects of ZnO NPs on different organism including humans so we need for research in this nanoparticle field to study the characteristics and then tune these characteristics according to our need so that it possesses less harm to the environment as well as organism.
208 TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , *Hussain Ali Khan
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) is one of the systems lying under the category of controlled drug delivery, in which the aim is to deliver the drug through the skin in a predetermined and controlled rate. It has various advantages, like prolonged therapeutic effect, reduced side-effects, improved bioavailability, better patient compliance and easy termination of drug therapy. The stratum corneum is considered as the rate limiting barrier in transdermal permeation of most molecules. There are three main routes of drug penetration, which include the appendageal, transcellular and intercellular routes. Skin age, condition, physicochemical factors and environmental factors are some factors that are to be considered while delivering drug through this route. Basic components of TDDS include polymer matrix, membrane, drug, penetration enhancers, pressuresensitive adhesives, backing laminates, release liner, etc. Transdermal patches can be divided into various systems like reservoir system, matrix system and micro-reservoir system, which are used to incorporate the active ingredients into the circulatory system via the skin. After preparation of transdermal patches, consistent methodology are adopted to test the adhesion properties, physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release studies, in vitro skin permeation studies, skin irritation studies and stability studies. According to the duration of therapy, various drugs are commercially available in the form of transdermal patches.
209 REVIEW ON ASTHIBHAGNA , Dr. Gupteshwar Sonawane*
Ayurveda is the most ancient practiced medical science. As described in Ayurveda,a human body(sharir) is combination of two main factors which are 'Panchamahabhuta' and 'aatma'. As Sharir is made up of these two factors, the supportive framework on which body stands is Asthi (Bone tissue). The branch of surgery which deals with the deformities of bones is known as Orthopaedic. Treatment of this deformities and trauma management in Ayurveda is called as Bhagna Chikitsa. Aacharya Sushruta known as famous Indian Surgeon in ancient period. Ayurveda contains definition of Bhagna it's classification, types, general and special features.
210 MEDICATED CHEWING GUM: WONDER THERAPY , Dr. Geeta Bhagwat*, Adnan Siddique, Aqsa Siddique, Salman Shaikh, Deepak Yadav and Laxmi Prajapati
Medicated chewing gum are the novel oral drug delivery system which can be use for both local and systemic action. MCG are the solid single dose preparation which are intended to be chew and they are not supposed to be swallowed thus this type of drug delivery system provide prompt termination of therapy at anytime which provide a very distinct advantage over other oral novel drug delivery system. MCG provide high degree of patient compliance as it is easy for administration without water it is found. Now a days medicated chewing gum therapy are more seen as the prophylaxis therapy and there is large market of medicated chewing gum which are used for oral health like fluorides containing chewing gum for dental caries, aspirin containing for analgesic etc. Medicated chewing gums contain a gum base which is a heart of the preparation which provide the chewing gum its chewing consistency and other desired properties like strength, texture, surface, plasticity. apart from gum base it contain other supporting ingredients which enhances the look and appearance of chewing gum and make it market ready like flavourant, colourant, sweetener. the present review article will enlighten everyone with nicely discussed advantages and disadvantages, composition, manufacturing method, factor affecting release of active ingredients, evaluation and quality control parameter, application, future trend of medicated chewing gum.
211 HEPATIC CELL TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW , Karunakar Prasad Dwivedi*, Amresh Gupta, Arpita Singh and Swarnima Pandey
Few of the hepatic diseases that cannot be effectively cured by some reasons because there are various receptors existed in the liver. In this time, several passive targeted drug delivery systems have been used in the drug/gene delivery in the treatment of hepatic diseases. More importantly, different measures would be taken in accord to the specified cell that was lesioned or dysfunctioned via interaction between homing ligands and target receptors so as to improve accumulation of drugs in the target cell and to reduce nonspecific toxicity towards other cells or organs. Many serious liver diseases affecting millions of people world-wide cannot be treated despite many efforts which warrant a search for new therapeutic strategies. Potent drugs may not be effective enough in-vivo or exhibit adverse effects and enhanced delivery into the target cells may improve this significantly. We aim to summarize the available options for drug delivery to the different intrahepatic cell-types.
212 A REVIEW ON VYADHIKSHAMATVA (~IMMUNITY) W.S.R. TO RASAYANA AND LEHANA , Marde Ramakant, Vij Divya* and Shalini
The immune system advanced as defense system to protect humans from invading microorganisms. The ancient system of medicine i.e. Ayurveda not only deals with treating the diseases but also aims towards prevention of the diseases. Vyadhikshamatva is described in Ayurveda and this concept is opined as equivalent to immunity. The rasayan theraphy enhance the qualities of Rasa, enriches it with nutrients so one can attains longevity, memory intelligence, youthfulness. Intake of Rasayana is helpful in increasing the immunity of the person and to keep him away from the disease. Lehana means the act of licking or lapping up with the tongue. it is opined to be a preventive traditional measures against numerous infections. Hence, for attaining good Vyadhikshamatva, we should use various regimens such as Rasayana and Lehana for prevention of diseases by boosting immunity through it.
213 PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF BORASSUS FLABELLIFER ON DIURETIC ACTIVITY USING ANIMAL MODELS , Syeda Zehra Banu Mahmoodi*, Noorul Marwa, Syed Ahmed Hussain and Amreen Sultana
The following study project illustrates the diuretic investigation impact of Borassus flabellifer on Furosemide - diuretic rat model ulcers. In all groups diuretic effects were contextual. The investigating operation was correlated with Moderate tubular dilatation and degeneration along with tubular inflammation noticed. The above results can be inferred that the Borassus flabellifer -detailed extract against in the rat model can be called an adjuvant in diuretic care that can greatly reduce the need for standard measures such as Diuretic drugs, help rid your body of salt sodium and water. The efficacy and feasibility of the long-term usage of this sedate as a potential agent helping your kidneys release more sodium into your urine have been demonstrated in planned clinical procedure in the assistance of lower measurements of the detailing Borassus flabellifer extract.
214 PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF FICUS MOLLIS USING ANIMAL MODEL , Noorul Marwa*, Syeda Zehra Banu Mahmoodi, Syed Ahmed Hussain and Amreen Sultana
Natural exercises in skin are due to its interaction with different authoritative proteins. Within the tissue repair prepare, incendiary cells advance the relocation and expansion of endothelial cells driving to neovascularization of connective tissue cells which synthesize extracellular lattices counting collagen coming about in re-epithelialization of injured tissue. The expanded pliable quality may be due to expanded collagen concentration and stabilization of strands The wound-healing property of F. mollis has got to be attributed to the phytoconstituents display within the plant, and the faster prepare of wound recuperating ought to be recognized as work of either the individual or the added substance impacts of the phytoconstituents. The early tissue guess and expanded ductile quality of the entry point wound should be watched in our think about which will have been contributed by the phytoconstituents of F. mollis.
215 A RARE CASE OF MULTIPLE FETAL ANOMALIES – CLEFT LIP CLEFT PALATE, CORPUS CALLOSUM AGENESIS, BLAKE’S POUCH CYST AND SINGLE UMBILICAL ARTERY. A CASE REPORT , Dr. Ashwini Narayan Karandikar*
Fetal anomalies may also be known as congenital anomalies or birth defects. There are two general categories of fetal anomalies, structural anomalies and functional anomalies. Almost one fourth of all global neonatal deaths occur in India. Congenital anomalies is one of the largest cause of neonatal mortality in the India. Following is a rare case report of a female G2P1 A1 with 18.6 weeks pregnancy with multiple fetal anomalies and having guarded fetal prognosis. Her history revealed nothing abnormality except raised Alpha feto protein levels. Ayurveda can be helpful as a preventive measure through its treatment modalities like pre conception preparation, counselling for dietary and lifestyle modifications. Thus can help in minimizing the rate of congenital anomalies to a certain extent.
216 PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF UNILATERAL, NON-SYNDROMIC MACRO-POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY , Dinu-Florin Albu, Stefan-Dimitrie Albu and Cristina-Crenguta Albu*
The polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder with mendelian, monogenic transmission, characterized by the presence of multiple cysts at the level of both kidneys. The unilateral form are exceptionally encountered. We are presenting here an unusual case, extremely rare, of kidney disease with unilateral, macro-polycystic kidney, an isolated, spontaneous, non-syndromic case, which was successfully diagnosed by ultrasound before birth at 23 weeks of pregnancy, and confirmed post-birth, probably caused by a de novo spontaneous mutation.
217 TECTARIA WIGHTII (C.B.CLARKE) CHING- A FERN WITH PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC POTENTIAL   , Vineesh T. V.1*, Habeeb Rahiman U.2 and Venugopalakrishna Kurup V.3  
Pteridophytes are the sources of important therapeutic aids for alleviating human ailments. Tectaria wightii (C. B. Clarke) Ching. belonging to family Dryopteridaceae is one of the medicinally important pteridophyte used on insect bites or getting relief in centipede bite. The extraction of dried rhizome is also used as anthelmintic activity, stomach pains, gastrointestinal disorders, eradications of worms in children. Thus the present investigation to understand the bioactive compounds in the rhizome of T. wightii. It reveals that 16 bioactive compounds were identified from the methanolic extract of rhizome of T. wightii. These different active compounds have been found to possess a wide range of activities, which may help in the protection against incurable diseases. Ferns are an important phytogenetic bridge between lower and higher plants. Historically they have been used in many ways by humans, including as ornamental plants, domestic utensils, foods, and in handicrafts. In addition, they have found uses as medicinal herbs. Ferns produce a wide array of secondary metabolites endowed with different bioactivities that could potentially be useful in the treatment of many diseases. However, there is currently relatively little information in the literature on the phytochemicals present in ferns and their pharmacological applications.  
218 RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN PLAQUE AND CALCULUS DETECTION USING FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUE , Subburaman Nivedha*
The oral cavity is an open growth system with uninterrupted interactions of microbes and their nutrients. Deposition of dental plaque causes inflammatory changes on the periodontium which can lead to the destruction of tissue and loss of attachment. Traditionally, dental plaque is often detected by clinicians either by screening the plaque directly from the tooth surface or changing its colour with a disclosing solution. But these assessment methods have the limitation of being subjective. Therefore, the results may vary from clinician to clinician. Recent methods of plaque detection takes advantage of the ability of natural teeth to fluoresce, when the light is absorbed at a specific wavelength and then emitted in a higher wavelength. The difference between natural fluorescence of sound tooth and that with dental plaque and calculus can be quantified using light-emitting devices, such as laser, xenon or LED, etc.,. The review article focuses on the recent techniques for detecting plaque and calculus using the fluorescence phenomenon.
219 SERUM FERRITIN LEVELS IN CORONAVIRUS DISEASE-2019 (COVID-19) PATIENTS , Dr. R. Dhananjayan*
In the year 2109 a new strain of corona viruses characterized by high infectivity and severe symptoms and higher death rate recorded infections with COVID-19 virus beginning from Wuhan in china and spread to most of parts all over the world. The laboratory findings of various articles show that the patients with COVID-19 infection results low WBC count with lymphopenia, high level of LDH, D-Dimer, high serum Ferritin, C-reactive protein and IL-6. Few recent studies show that the levels of serum ferritin are increased during worsening of the disease, providing an indication of the risk of mortality. This review paper is focussed on the association between the serum ferritin level and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients.
220 SALT AND NON-SALT FORMING EXCIPIENTS TO IMPROVE THE DISSOLUTION OF DEXIBUPROFEN; FORMULATION OF CHEWABLE TABLETS , Dalia Naeem*, Mohamed Osman, Gamal El Maghraby, Ebtessam Essa
Dexibuprofen is a stronger non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug than ibuprofen but with less gastric damage. However, it suffers poor aqueous solubility. This work improved Dexibuprofen dissolution via co-processing with inert excipients with the aim of formulating chewable tablets. Wet co-grinding of Dexibuprofen with increasing proportions of mannitol or meglumine was performed after liberation from their ethanolic solutions. The prepared mixtures were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and dissolution behavior. Optimum co-processed mixtures were prepared into chewable tablets after addition of suitable additives. Wet co-grinding improved drug dissolution parameters compared to unprocessed one, with meglumine being superior to mannitol. Solid state characterizations reflected possible salt formation between the drug and meglumine. For mannitol mixtures, dissolution enhancement was attributed to partial amorphousization of Dexibuprofen along with particle size reduction. The selected co-processed mixtures were successively formulated into chewable tablets. In vitro dissolution studies were performed using crushed as well as intact tablets. Mannitol based tablets showed prompt drug release in both cases. However, meglumine based tablets required crushing for fast drug release indicating the need for chewing. The study introduced simple co-processing as a tool to enhance dissolution rate of Dexibuprofen with subsequent formulation of chewable tablets.
221 EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A ZERO-FLUOROSCOPIC TECHNIQUE FOR ABLATION OF RIGHT ATRIAL ARRHYTHMIAS LITERATURE REVIEW , Dr. Fadhle Alselmi*
Atrial arrhythmias result from defective Heart’s electrical system or inappropriate response of heart muscles to their electrical stimuli, It can cause an accelerated and uneven heart rate which does not let the atria pump blood efficiently to the ventricles. Arrhythmias are categorized according to their rhythm, rate and where they are located in the heart. Atrial arrhythmias are always associated with several kinds of cardiac or non-cardiac risk factors, such as ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure, high blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, alcohol abuse, obesity. They are associated with ageing and usually happen more frequently during middle age.
222 EVALUATION OF FUNCTION, OCCLUSION AND ARTICULATION IN PATIENTS WEARERS OF TOTAL DENTURES , Dr. Budima Pejkovska Shahpaska, Dr. Sci., Specialist in Dental Prosthetics,
Patients with total edentuloissness that come to our dental offices everyday are a specific category of patients. For many reasons we are obliged to take meticulous attention to details for providing the best possible solutions of manufacturing total dentures that are satisfactory. Living in the XXI century we are obsessed with the digital era, with possibilities for digital impressions, digital dental smile design, exocad, exocam programs etc. Then there is implant prosthetics with implant overdentures, with indication for usage of two, four, six even eight implant. There are many reasons that suggest that some patients have relative or absolute contraindications for implants. Others cannot afford them, nor can they afford CAD/CAM designed total dentures. For all of the above factors, still conventional prosthetics worldwide is a golden standard for a wide category of patients.
223 LIGNIN LOCALIZATION AND CONTENT IN PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS IS SENSITIVE TO CHANGE IN WATER BALANCE ENVIRONMENT , *O. M. Nedukha
The sensitive of lignin localization and its content in leaves of Phragmites australis to change in the water balance of soil was established by using the cytochemical method, laser confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and biochemical method. We investigated leaves of young plants Ph. australis (stage of vegetative growth), which used as a source of vitamins and to treat colds in medicine. The results were received by the comparison of the data in leaves of Ph. australis of the water-aquatic and terrestrial plants grown in nature. It was found that the decrease in soil moisture leads to an increase in the content of lignin in the epidermis and tissues of the conductive bundles of leaves of terrestrial plants. We assume that the increased of lignin content in the epidermis of leaves of terrestrial plants indicates that the leaves of both air-water and terrestrial plants of the reed can be used as a source of lignin for medical purposes.
224 COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM OF HUMAN EUKARYOTICS TRANSLATION INITIATION FACTOR2 B1 (EIF2B1) GENE , Mona A. Basheir*, Afra M. Bakri, Hind A. Elnasri and Mona A. M. Khaier
Introduction: Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is a progressive disorder that mainly affects the brain and spinal cord. This disorder causes deterioration of the central nervous system's white matter, which consists of nerve fibers covered by myelin sheath; it is highly complex and not fully understood yet. This study aimed to perform a computational analysis of the nsSNPs in the EIF2B1 gene, to identify the possible mutations and propose a modeled structure for the mutant protein that potentially affects its function. Methods: The nsSNPs were analyzed using 8 prediction software tools: SIFT, Polyphen-2, Provean, PhD-SNP, SNP&GO, I-Mutant 3.0, Mupro and Project Hope respectively. Results: Fifteen nsSNPs were found to be deleterious and damaging by SIFT, and 14 nsSNPs by PolyPhen-2, 12 nsSNPs by Provean, 5 nsSNPs were observed to be highly deleterious and damaging as in the 8 software. Conclusion: Five highly deleterious, damaging and disease related nsSNPs (rs113994007, rs150217005, rs201516905, rs375037006, and rs377538766) were detected at EIF2B1 gene. These nsSNPs can be considered as candidate nsSNPs in people with VWM after further conformation using laboratory techniques.
225 STUDY OF EAR INFECTION AND ITS COMPLICATIONS AMONG IRAQI PEOPLE , Dr. Falah Hussein Flaih AL- Abboodi
Poor management of ear infections can lead to many complications, and lack of otolaryngology services in our area may be a key cause of a high ear, nose and throat (ENT) disease complication rates. The aim of this survey was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of ear infection and its complications in Iraqi patients presenting to health facilities. This retrospective cross-sectional chat review survey was conducted on (2554) patients who attended to Al-Karama teaching hospital in Baghdad / Iraq and consulted for an ENT problem during the period from January to December 2017. The results showed that 785(30.7%) presented with ear infections, and 478 of them were men and 307 were women with an average age of 28 years. The most affected age group was children aged between (0-10) years with 36.6% prevalence. The prevalence rate was the highest among rural people (32.6%). Otitis media predominated (84.3%) of all ear infections). Otitis externa and interna were represented with a frequency of (14.0%) and (1.7%) respectively, and the most common complication was chronic otitis (41.2%). It can be concluded that ear infection remains a serious public health problem because of its incidence and complications associated with a high morbidity. Early and detailed consultation by an otolaryngologist might be a solution to this high rate of complications in our country.
226 THE RELEVANCE OF GENETIC PREGNANCY TESTS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SEVERE BIRTH DEFECTS , Cristina-Crenguta Albu*, Dinu-Florin Albu, Stefan-Dimitrie Albu
We report one clinical case of a 33-year-old, Caucasian woman who is pregnant for the first time. Ultrasound examination showed a singleton fetus with multiple malformations: unilateral cleft and lip palate, spina bifida and congenital heart abnormality with tricuspid valve regurgitation. Amniocentesis was done, and the fetal chromosomal analysis revealed a fetus with normal male karyotype: 46,XY. After a personalized post-procedure genetic counselling the parents opted to terminate the pregnancy. The autopsy confirm the prenatal ultrasound diagnosis.
227 NOVEL T-LYMPHOCYTES VACCINE CANDIDATES AGAINST HUMAN MUMPS VIRUS VIA REVERSE VACCINOLOGY , Elkhaleel Ahmed Ali Babiker, Yassir A. Almofti* and Khoubieb Ali Abd-Elrahman
Background: Mumps virus (MuV) belongs to paramyxoviridae family, genus Rubulavirus; non-segmented, enveloped negative sense single- stranded RNA virus that causes Parotitis, Viruria and Plasma viraemia. The aim of this study was to analyze Hemagglutinin Neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein and Fusion Protein (F) of 12 mumps virus (MuV) genotypes reported in NCBI database to predict possible epitopes that can be used as a therapeutic peptides vaccine using Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). Method: A total of 593 Mumps virus (HN) glycoproteins and 58 (F) Fusion Proteins sequences were retrieved from NCBI database and aligned to obtain conserved regions. The IEDB analysis resources were used to predict B and T cells epitopes and to calculate their population coverage against the whole word. Results: no epitope was proposed as B cell epitopes from the two proteins since none of the predicted epitopes passed the threshold of Bepipred linear epitope prediction, Emini surface accessibility prediction and kolaskar & Tongaonkar antigenicity prediction tools. For HN protein four epitopes were proposed interacting with both MHCI and MHCII (558-YIMELASNI-566, 164-NMPSFIPTA-172, 554-VYCVYIMEL-562 and 555-YCVYIMELA-563). Moreover they showed high population coverage against the whole world population. The population coverage for all these four epitopes (epitope set) was 99.97%. For (F) protein, three epitopes were highly interacted with MHCI (199-YLTELTTVF207, 198LYLTELTTV206, 361-IAGSYMRRF-369). The epitope 196-LGLYLTELT-204 was only interacted with MHC class II and proposed as MHC class II epitope. The population coverage of the four epitopes of the F protein (epitope set) was 99.94%. Recommendation: This study showed that no B-cell epitopes prediction. However we proposed successful epitopes with high affinity acting as T-lymphocytes vaccine. There is no peptide vaccine has been developed for MuV. However further investigation like in vivo and in vitro studies are required to prove the effectiveness of these predicted epitopes as a peptide vaccine.
228 EFFECT OF β-CAROTENE AGAINST COLCHICINE-INDUCED MYOTOXICITY IN MALE RATS , Nawal Zakaria Haggag* and Laila Ahmed Rashed
Myopathy affects physical disability and interrupts the health system, hence intrudes life quality of humans. Colchicine is one of several drugs that has many side effects and can induce myotoxicity. Antioxidants should be available in sufficient concentration to keep the balance with oxidative stress and avoid tissue damage. Beta carotene (β-carotene) is an important member of carotenoids which has a powerful oxidative scavenger capacity. There is a great attention to more developed strategies for the use of β-carotene to avoid cardiac myopathy. This study aimed to evaluate the role of β-carotene (10 mg/ kg b.wt/day, orally for 2 weeks) against myotoxicity induced by colchicine (0.05 mg/ kg b.wt/day, intraperitoneanally for 2 weeks) in adult male albino rats. The results showed that β-carotene had improved myopathy markers either by co-administration or post-administration with colchicine. Also, β-carotene restored body and muscle weight gains, rearranged autophagy signals (LC3-II and LAMP-2) and collagen-1. Moreover β-carotene attenuated ROS and NO with increase of SOD levels and improvement of CK and LDH activities. Hence, β-carotene offers an exciting possibility of using it as effective antioxidant against muscle toxicity and atrophy induced by colchicine.
229 ROOT CANAL TREATMENT OF THE FELINE CANINE TOOTH , Dr. Tandir F., Dr. Džanković A., Dr. Korać S., Dr. Hadžiabdić N., Dr. Šaljić E., Dr. Bejdić P., Dr. Hadžiomerović N.*
Tooth fractures are very common in dogs and cats. The most commonly fractured teeth are the canines and the fracture occur mostly as the result of trauma. The majority of tooth fractures are accompanied by open canine teeth with the exposure of the pulp. To prevent other problems such as pulpitis it is important to start treatment as soon as possible. In this case treatment plan included root canal therapy followed by direct permanent coronal restoration. The obturation was perform with master gutta-percha cone and the appropriate amount of a sealer. The treatment was successfully completed with composite restoration allowing tissue preservation, enables retention and acceptable esthetic appearance.
230 IMPACT OF DIABETIC MELLITUS ON VITAMIN B12 LEVEL AND COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT IN SUDANESE PATIENTS IN SHENDI LOCALITY , Shema Osman, M. Ahmed, Mosab O. Khalid and Haghamad Allzain*
Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition which can present with non-specific clinical features, and in severe cases with neurological or haematological abnormalities. This study was carried out to evaluate B12 and CBC in diabetic patients living in Shendi locality. Blood samples were collected from thirty (30) diabetic patients as case group and fourteen (14) healthy subjects as control group were obtained and the study conducted from May to August 2018. The study found statistically significant difference of mean serum concentration of B12 in the case group (384.2pg/ml) and the control group (594.5pg/ml) with P.value of (0.000). Hemoglobin in diabetics found to be higher in males than females with P. value of (0.03). B12 level is higher in those living in rural area, with a significant variation with P. value of (0.01). The study concluded that the B12 significantly decreased in diabetic patients.
231 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC PROFILE OF NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES IN BUTEMBO CITY, EASTERN OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (DRC) , Moise Muhindo Valimungighe*, Joel Kambale Ketha, Kasoki Joelle Pamella, Patricia Kavugho Wundiyohangi, Mathieu Katembo Manzekele, Joseph Ndamiye Rugazura, Michel Kalongo Ilumbulumbu, Katungu Kitamwivirirwa Tecla And Lydie Kahambu Valimungighe
Background: It is estimated that more than 1 billion of people worldwide suffer from one or more neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The wealthy countries are not immune to this multi-faceted scourge affecting the populations of the poorest and most marginalized regions. This environment is a hindrance to socio-economic development and an additional barrier to overcome poverty. The aim of this work was to determine and evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic profile of neglected tropical diseases in Butembo city. Methods: This was a retrospective study, which took place from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2016 in the Butembo city, Eastern of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Result: The overall frequency of NTDs was 2.6% in Butembo city. The female sex was more represented in 60.8% of cases with the sex ratio of 1.5 in favor of the female sex. The majority of patients were under 15 years old, single, with a primary education level, without profession and resident in the city respectively in 82%, 84%, 62.5%, 85.4 and 92%. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis were more represented in 94.4%, followed by schistosomiasis (5%), lymphatic filariasis (0.4%) and rabies (0.2%). 72.6% of patients were treated on an outpatient basis. 23 deaths or 0.8% and 4 patients, or 0.1% came out with a physical deformation during our study period. Conclusion: NTD present a major public health problem in Butembo city seen the number of deaths and physical disability that result from NTD. A therapeutic approach with preventive chemotherapy and public awareness in the fight against insalubrity will help to reduce and eliminate these diseases.
232 PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CERVICAL INCOMPETENCE AMONG WOMEN WITH HISTORY OF SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION AT TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN SOUTH WESTERN UGANDA , Baraka Munyanderu Albin*, Lapat Jolly Joe, Manyang Antony Deng Kuany, Abesiga Lenard and Kanyesigye Hamson
Background: Cervical incompetence is one of the causes of second trimester abortion. It is of clinical and epidemiological interest because of its potential for significant consequences for women’s health and, by extension, to the well-being of families and society. But follow up of these mothers who have aborted is not routinely done to MRRH to find out whether they could be having cervical incompetence. To improve outcomes for mothers with clinically suspected cervical incompetence, cervical assessment is mandatory to first confirm the diagnosis. Than counselling and cervical cerclage can be done for the next pregnancy to prevent subsequent pregnancy loss and improve overall maternal morbidity and perinatal outcomes. Objective: To determine the prevalence and identify factors associated with cervical incompetence among women with second trimester spontaneous abortions attending gynecology outpatient clinic at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. Methodology: This was a Cross-sectional study carried out from 1st November 2017 to 30th March 2018 on patients with a history of second trimester abortion in at least 6 preceding weeks prior to the study. A total of 121 none pregnant patients with history of pregnancy were consented, interviewed, cervix assessed and diagnosis of cervical incompetence was made if a cervix freely admitted Hegars dilator size 8 and above. Data was collected on socio-demographics, medical conditions, obstetrics and gynecological factors and entered in Excel and analyzed using STATA 13. Multivariate analyses were done to determine the factors associated with cervical incompetence having statically significant level (CI <= 0.05). Results: The prevalence of cervical incompetence among second trimester abortion was 21.5% (26/121). Factors that had a significant relationship with cervical incompetence included number of abortions, specifically more than 2 (aOR 6.8; CI: 1.7-26.8; p=0.006), and cervical tear (aOR 17.1; CI:4.2-69.12; p=0.000). Conclusion: The Prevalence of cervical incompetence among second trimester abortion as diagnosed by Hegars dilator test was at a high of 21.5%. Number of abortions and previous cervical tear were independently associated with cervical incompetence.
233 ESTABLISHMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL REFERENCE VALUES FOR YOUNG ADULTS IN BANGANGTE, CAMEROON: PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM A PILOT STUDY TOWARDS HEALTHCARE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT , Marius Mbiandjeu Tchoumke, Romaric Tuono De Manfouo, William Lelorel Nankam Nguekap*, Cyrielle Kenouya Kwesse, Josué Simo Louokdom, Théophile Kamdem, Ashu Michael Agbor, Serge Honoré Tchoukoua, Pierre René Fotsing Kwetche, Kaba Kourouma and Lazare Kaptué
Introduction: Blood count is an essential routine examination in biological diagnosis. The interpretation of its results involves the comparison of values obtained with values or ranges of references usually specific to the Caucasian population. The aim of this study was to establish reference values specific to young adults in the city of Bangangté (Western Region, Cameroon). Materials and methods: This study was a cross sectional descriptive study carried out at the Cliniques Universitaires des Montagnes between December 2017 and May 2018. We recruited 312 young, healthy adults made up of 131 men and 181 women between the ages of 15 and 29 living in the city of Bangangté. After signing a consent form, all participants were voluntarily allowed to carry out clinical, radiological and biomedical examinations analysis to ensure that they are healthy. After selection, we performed the blood count with hematology automat (BC-2800). Results and Discussion: The results from this analysis allowed us to establish the reference values of the blood count parameters, which include: white blood cells between 3.5x109-9.7x109 / L (women) and 3.3x109-8.5x109 / L (men), red blood cells between 3.5x1012-6x1012 / L (women) and 4.3x1012-6.9x1012 / L (men), and platelets between 130x109 - 464x109 / L (women) and 165x109-412x109 / L (men). The Comparison of these values with the values described elsewhere has revealed the existence of several dissimilarities. Conclusion: This preliminary study permitted us to establish the references values of the blood count for young adults in the city of Bangangté and to identify potential differences between results obtained in this study and result obtained in other setting. Hence the need to establish our own reference intervals through wider studies and in different regions of Cameroon.
234 ACUTE TOXICITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF ACORUS SP. RHIZOMES ON THE FEMALE RATS WISTAR STRAIN , Ressi Susanti*
Acorus sp. is a traditional medicinal plant that is empirically widely used by the Dayak inland communities in treating various diseases. Scientifically Acorus sp. has been proven to have various activities including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-pain, nephroprotector and hepatoprotector. This study aims to obtain a lethal dose 50 (LD50) from methanol extracts of Acorus sp. rhizomes and observe the effects on behavior, body weight and organ index. The acute toxicity test method was adapted from the OECD 425 guidelines using female wistar rats. The Acorus sp. rhizome was extracted by maceration method using methanol as a solvent. The results of the study indicate that the Acorus sp. rhizome contains flavonoids, phenols, tannins, triterpenoids, saponins and alkaloids. Testing the toxicity of methanolic extract of red Acorus sp. rhizome with a limit test of 2000 mg / kg and 5000 mg / kg, there is no death in experimental animals so that LD50 is greater than 5000 mg / kg. The conclusion of this research is the Acorus sp. rhizome methanol extract is in the category of relatively non-toxic.
235 ASSOCATION BETWEEN AGE, BMI, AND THE TYPE AND LOCATION OF UTERINE LEIOMYMA: A UPTH STUDY , *Okon Michael and Olotu E. Joy
Uterine leiomyoma is the most frequent pelvic mass found in women of child bearing age. They occur in 20-50% of women with increasing incidence as women get older. This study evaluated the association between age, BMI, and the type and location of intrauterine leiomyoma in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Rivers State, Nigeria over a twelve year period. The study was a retrospective research which utilised clinical records to retrieve subject information as well as anthropological data from women clinically diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma who attended the obstetrics and gynaecological unit of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from 2007 to 2018. A total of 318 cases were obtained with complete records and the data extracted to excel sheet. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 23, IBM, Armonk, USA) was used to analyse the data. Chi-Square evaluated the association between categorical variables. Decision Tree using Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) estimated which subject’s characteristics was significantly associated with their clinical presentation. The result showed that age group was not a significant indicator for type (single or multiple) and location of the uterine leiomyoma (P>0.05); however, age group ≥35 years had the highest incidence (50%). CHAID analysis showed that significantly higher BMI (specific to subserous leiomyomas), in leiomyoma subjects was associated with multiple locations when compared to lower BMI (P<0.05). From the findings, it could be concluded that higher body mass index (BMI) and age was significantly associated with the incidence and location of the different types of the leiomyoma.
236 ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OF AGE, IN SHENDI LOCALITY, RIVER NILE STATE, SUDAN, 2017 , Omran M. Ahmed*, Abd Elbasit E. Mohammed and Haghamad Allzain
Background: Children who aren’t optimally breastfed, undernourished, or suffering from micronutrient deficiencies have substantially lower chances of survival than children who are well nourished. They are much more likely to suffer from serious infections and to die from common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea and measles. Objectives: This study intended to examine the nutritional status of children under-five (5) years of age in Shendi locality. Materials and methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional community-based study, carried out in Shendi Locality in 2017. Three hundred and eighty-four (384) children were selected randomly. A questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were used for data collection. Results: The study revealed that the prevalence of PEM was (10.2%). The moderate form was (7.6%) and severe form was (2.6%). The highest percentage of PEM (53.8%) among females. All mothers were breastfeeding. (21.6%) were uneducated and (83.9%) were not working (housewives). Households with a monthly income of about 500 Sudanese pounds were (7%). Families with a size of (6) people were (43%). PEM prevalence had a significant association with father’s occupation as well as parent’s knowledge about PEM with P. value = (0.05) (0.04) respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of PEM was high among children under-five (5) years, especially among females, and was associated with a number of factors such as: monthly income, parents’ level of educational, follow-up of children growth and provision of additional meals.
237 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE BRAINS OF CRICETOMYS GAMBIANUS AND THRYONOMYS SWINDERIANUS , George I. O.*, Fawehinmi H. B., Oyakhire M. O., Musa S. A. Agu I.
Scientific research in the biomedical sciences requires research animals as laboratory models for these purposes. The development of indigenous research animals such as Grasscutter (GC) and African Giant Rat (AGR) which do not need to be placed in rigidly controlled facilities and are readily available is essential for research in an environment with limited resources for carrying out scientific investigations. It is crucial to understand the neuroanatomical basis of the different behaviors of these animals. Therefore, this work compared the gross brain morphology and morphometry, prefrontal cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum of AGR and GC, and related the findings to their behavioural/functional differences. Five adult AGR and GC each were used for this study. Gross morphometry and morphology were carried out on fixed tissues of whole brain specimens of AGR and GC. Histological analysis was done on some brain structures. Both brains of AGR and GC were lissencephalic. The brain of AGR was oval in shape while that of GC was globe-like. There was a Y-shaped posterior cerebral artery emerging from the dorsal surface of each cerebral hemisphere of the GC, making a prominent depression on the caudal aspect of the cerebrum. Also, the anterior cerebral artery could be seen radiating from the parietofrontal aspect of the medial longitudinal fissure of each cerebral hemisphere. There were differences in the gross morphology and morphometry, and histology of brain structures of AGR and GC which could be related to their behavioral differences.
238 COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM OF HUMAN CFH GENE , Reem A. Osman, Afra M. Al Bkrye, Hind Abdelaziz Elnasri and Mona Abdelrahman Mohamed Khaier*
Introduction: Factor H is a plasma protein that controls activation of the complement system in the fluid phase, the mutations in CFH gene causes impaired regulation of the alternative pathway (C3bBb) production of abnormal protein. This protein had been associated with a typical haemolytic-uremic syndrome. This study will focuses on predicting the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms, nsSNPs that have been reported in CFH gene using computational analysis. Materials and Methods: Data about CFH gene was retrieved from NCBI database and were analyzed by computational software. Coding region of SNPs that are non-synonymous (nsSNPs) detected by (GeneMANIA, SIFT, Polyphen, PROVEAN, SNPs&GO, PHD-SNPs, I-mutant, MUpro and Project Hope) software. SNPs at un-translated region at3 ends (3UTR) and SNPs at un-translated region at 5ends (5UTR) were analyzed by SNPs function prediction software. Results: 357are the total SNPs in CFH gene reported in Homo sapiens, 309 SNPs in the coding region, 18 in the 3UTR and 30 in the 5UTR. Only SNPs present in the coding region, 3UTR and 5UTR regions were selected for analysis. Conclusion: seventeen nsSNPs were highly damaging and affect the function and stability of the protein, the score with PSIC SD range (1-0.99) and TOLERANCE INDEX equal(0-), Only one nsSNPs (rs121913051) from these seventeen nsSNPs was reported to be disease related by previous studies.
239 PRESERVE THE ORAL HEALTH OF THE GERIATRIC PATIENT TO MAINTAIN QUALITY OF LIFE, MASTICATION AND ADEQUATE DIGESTION , Cordero Perea Hazel*, Perea Gonzalez Gloria Patricia, Soberanes de la Fuente Luminosa, Gonzalez Manrique Rubi, Zarate Flores Alma Delia and Moreno Hernandez Luis
Preserving the general and oral health of the geriatric patient is important. Inadequate dental or prosthetic hygiene favors the proliferation of microorganisms, generating periodontal disease, tooth decay, dental loss. Partial or total edentulism favors chewing, digestion and bowel movements, leads to alterations in terms of feeding, favors the patient to consume a soft diet, nutrient deficiency frequently due to difficulty in chewing, decrease fluid intake, affecting evacuation. Descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative, observational, clinical study, 60-70 years, both sex. The Oral Health Impact Profile-Profile instrument (OHIP-14), informed consent was applied to 200 healthy geriatric patients and its diagnosis and treatment was performed. Considering the mean, the pre and postoperative treatment results were obtained: poor oral hygiene 92%/15%, periodontal disease 80%/23%, poorly adjusted prosthesis 43%/14%, difficulty evacuating 75%/16%. The dimensions with the greatest impact on oral health were general disability question (Q)14 Have you been totally unable to perform your daily activities? (63.5%) (Q)13 Have you felt that life in general has been less pleasant? (56.5%), psychological disability (Q)10 Have you felt embarrassed about problems with your mouth? (68%) (Q)9 Have you found difficulty resting? (70%) functional limitation (Q)1 Have you had trouble pronouncing words? (60%) physical pain (Q)4 Have you had painful discomfort in your mouth? (58%) (Q) Have you had painful discomfort in your mouth? (57.5%). Therefore, the oral condition affects the quality of life, it is convenient to implement preventive measures that influence the preservation of dental organs and avoid edentulism.
240 EARLY SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN PRETERM INFANTS AND ITS RELATION TO RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME IN SHENDI LOCALITY, NORTH SUDAN , Umniah M. A. Busharh*, Mamoun Mekki Elmanna, Haghamad Allzain and Khaled H. Bakheit
Essential lipids malnutrition can affect maternal health and lead in preterm birth to higher incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. The objective of this study was to investigate early serum lipid profiles in preterm infants and their relationship with development of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). This study was cross sectional, hospital based prospective case control study, conducted at the obstetrics and gynecology department in Elmak Nimer university hospital in Shendi town, River Nile state, north Sudan from October 2017 to April 2019. The study included 160 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) preterm infants, subdivided into three group according to their gestational age and the presence or absence of RDS. Another 50 AGA healthy full term newborns were randomly selected as control group. Umbilical cord venous blood was collected from all of them. Lipid profile (Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride (TG) were measured. Ninety-three infants developed Respiratory Distress Syndrome. RDS cases significantly increased P. value of (0.000). There was significant higher serum concentration level of TC and LDL with P. value of (0.000) and non-significant high HDL with lower birth weight. There was also significant increase of TG with higher birth weight. There was a significant decrease of TC and LDL in RDS, with P. value of (0.000) and non-significant of lipoprotein HDL and TG in RDS.
241 THE RESPONSE TO THE IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DRUGS IN CHILDHOOD NEPHROTIC SYNDROME IN AL KARAMA TEACHING HOSPITAL: RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY , Israa A. Hammoodi* and Ammar A. Hussein
 Nephrotic syndrome is a common renal disease in children sometimes need treatment with immunosuppressive drugs apart from steroid. Aim: to evaluate the response to immunosuppressive drugs in childhood nephrotic syndrome, the rate of sustained remission and the adverse effect of these drugs. Methods: retrospective study of 120 recorded files from them 68 patients with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome SSNS and steroid resistance SRNS, aged 1-19 years old, these children were treated and followed in Alkarama teaching hospital for 4years, the study started in the first of of April to the end of November 2015, the information data recorded were age, gender, body mass index BMI, Blood pressure, hematuria, s. cholesterol, s. albumin, urine protein: creatinine ratio, s. creatinine at presentation. The number of patient use the immunosuppressive drug, dose, duration, response, and adverse effect of each drug. Results: Sixty eight patients file records were evaluated 40 patients were SSNS and 28 patients were SRNS, male: female ratio were 2.3:1 and 1.5:1 for SSNS and SRNS respectively, clinical and laboratory data at presentation were not statistically significant except for hypertension which is statistically significant among SRNS and urine protein: creatinine ratio among SSNS. The remission rate among patient used cyclosporine were 50%(20/40) for SSNS, and for SRNS 39%(11/28), Tacrolimus were 25%(10/40) for SSNS and 10.7%(3/28) for SRNS, mycophenolate mofetil MMF 12.5%(5/40) for SSNS and 10.7%(3/28) for SRNS, Cyclophosphamide CYP 10%(4/40) for SSNS and 3.57%(1/28) for SRNS, Rituximab 2.5%(1/40) for SSNS and 7.14%(2/28) for SRNS. The most reported adverse effects were observed with cyclosporine which are gum hypertrophy 23%, hypertension 23%, hirsutism 19.23% and hyperkalemia 15.3% were most reported, with Tacrolimus the patients developed hypertension 11% and hyperglycemia 11%, with MMF gastrointestinal problem 12.5%, with CYP infection 9% and leukopenia 9% and with rituximab leukopenia 20% and thrombocytopenia 20% of cases. Conclusion: the responder to steroid and infrequent relapsers are more frequent than frequent relapsers FRNS and the later more frequent than SRNS. Hypertension are more statistically significant among SRNS and urine protein to creatinine ratio among SSNS. The best IS drug among SSNS and SRNS was cyclosporine and the most reported adverse effect were gum hypertrophy, hypertension and hirsutism.
242 CAESAREAN SECTION AND ITS RELATION WITH PRETERM BIRTHS IN AL-ZAHRAWI HOSPITAL – DAMASCUS – DURING SYRIAN CRISIS , Hisham Al-Hammami, 1Iman Al-Solh, *Abdulmajeed Al-Olabi and Rahaf Al-Sous
This research aim to study the prevalence of caesarean section (CS) in Al-Zahrawi hospital in Damascus and to investigate if it affects the preterm births (< 37 weeks of gestational age) by increasing its rate during the Syrian crisis period (2011 – 2018) this study is a cross-sectional study, and to study this we gathered our data from the archive of Al-Zahrawi hospital and then calculated the rate of CSs that occurred at a gestational age < 37 weeks and the rate of all CSs and calculated the percentage of the first rate from the second rate in each year of the above then compared the results of each year with the year before the Syrian crisis (2010) . Data were analyzed by using Spss 25.0, our results showed that there was no significant evidence if the increased CS rate caused a rise in the preterm births rate however this may be due to the limited sample size.
243 BILATERAL PNEUMONIA WITH EMPYEMA AND PLEURAL EFFUSION , *Madleen Jawad Sobhe Abu Aser dna Professor Abdalkarim Radwan
Pneumonia is the single leading cause of mortality in children under five and is a major cause of child mortality in every region of the world, with most deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Pneumonia kills more children under five than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined, yet increased attention in recent years have been on the latter diseases. Pneumonia is a form of acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) that affects the lungs. When an individual has pneumonia, the alveoli in the lungs are filled with pus and fluid, which makes breathing painful and limits oxygen intake. Pneumonia has many possible causes, but the most common are bacteria and viruses. The most common pathogens are Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), and respiratory syncytial virus RSV, the most common cause of viral pneumonia in children under two years. The populations most at risk for pneumonia are children under five years, people aged 65 or over, and people with pre-existing health problems. Streptococcus pneumonia frequently colonizes the upper respiratory tract, Pneumonia is an important clinical and public health problem, Pneumonia is inflammation lower respiratory tract caused by an infection that affects the air sacs in the lungs, The air sacs may fill up with fluids or pus causing symptoms cough, fever chill and trouble breathing. Also Besides it is a common acute disease of the respiratory tract in childhood. It easy to occur in all seasons especially in winter and spring also it easy to recurrent attacks affects the growth and development of the child if the treatment is not completely taken by a patient, it may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi in single or in both lungs. According to recent criteria developed by World Health Organization, the most of the deaths occur from severe pneumonia and management of severe childhood pneumonia requires early identification, prompt referral and the availability of intensive quality of care., Pneumonia potentially fatal infection and inflammation of the lower respiratory tract bronchioles and alveoli usually caused by inhaled bacteria and viruses have both properties Streptococcus pneumonia, pneumococcus. The illness was frequently characterized by high fever, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, sharp chest pain, and a productive cough, a Lake of appetite and fatigue confusion vomiting and Nausea. In this case, we report reviewing the presentation and management of bilateral pneumonia involving the respiratory system. This report aims to alert the clinicians to the potential diagnosis of pneumonia treatment. In this case male 5years old, He diagnosed by bilateral pneumonia with empyema and pleural effusion.
244 ULTRAVIOLET ASSAY OF METOCLOPRAMIDE. HCL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS APPLICATION TO CONTENT UNIFORMITY TESTING , Nief Rahman Ahmed*, Mohammad Jassim Essa and Ahmad Khaled Hamdoon
A simple, accurate, precise, rapid, economical and sensitive ultra violet spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of metoclopramide. HCL in pharmaceutical preparations and environmental wastewater samples, which shows maximum absorbance at 310 nm in distilled water. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 2-25 μ g/ ml, with molar absorptivity of 1.25X104 L.mol-1.cm-1, relative standard deviation of the method was less than 1.8%, and accuracy (average recovery %) was 100 ± 1.0. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of metoclopramide. HCL in pharmaceutical formulations, content uniformity testing and industrial wastewater samples The proposed method was validated by sensitivity and precision which proves suitability for the routine analysis of metoclopramide. HCL in true samples.
245 CORRELATION BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL PROSTATE SYMPTOM SCORE AND UROFLOWMETRY PARAMETERS IN MEN WITH LOWER URINARY TRACT SYMPTOMS , Anurudda Udaya Bandara Pethiyagoda*, Jinali Pabodha Manchanayake and Kalyani Pethiyagoda
Introduction: Our objective was to assess the clinical importance of post void volume and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire in men with lower urinary tracts symptoms (LUTS) in men. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed to assess the correlation between IPSS and uroflowmetry parameters. This study was conducted among 215 men [mean ± standard deviation: 61.59 ± 13.903 (17- 94 years)] at clinical research laboratory complex, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya. Interview based questionnaire with IPSS was used to assess the severity of their symptoms in their native language. Results: There was a statistically significant positive correlation between international prostate symptom score and bladder residual volume as a percentage of total bladder capacity (Pearson correlation: r = 0.384; p < 0.05). The mean total IPSS was 16.88 and mean post void volume was 57.98 ml. Over the past month, 25.1% of the study sample had the feeling of not completely emptying their bladder more than half of the time after finishing urination and their mean residual volume percentage was 30.07%. Conclusions: Based on our results, there is a significant correlation between the value of total IPSS and the residual volume. It is needed to do further investigations with a large sample over broader geographical area.
246 A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF LICORICE ROOTS, MARJORAM AND DATE PALM POLLEN AQUEOUS EXTRACTS AND METFORMIN ON POLY CYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME IN RATS , Doaa Khalaf Mahmoud, Zakia Mostafa Abdelkader and Mai Elsayed*
The present study was designed to compare the effect of licorice roots, marjoram, date palm pollen (DPP) aqueous extracts and metformin on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in reproductive-aged female rats. PCOS was induced by oral administration of letrozole given daily in a dose 1mg/kg b. wt. for 21days. After PCOS induction, the experimental groups were classified as follow; G1: Healthy control, G2: PCOS control rats, G3: PCOS+Licorice roots, G4: PCOS+Marjoram, G5: PCOS+DPP.G6: PCOS+Mixture of herbs by a ratio (1:1:1). Herbal extracts were administrated orally in a dose of (300mg/kg b.wt./day) for 30 days. G7:PCOS+Metformin (200mg/kg b.wt/day) for 30 days. Estrous cycle phases were measured every day to follow up. The present results revealed that PCOS caused disturbances in estrous cycle, serum sex steroid profile ( luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 protein (apoptosis marker). On the other hand, oral administration of licorice roots, marjoram, DPP and mixture of herbs as well as metformin significantly restoring parameters up to the normal level as compared to PCOS control group. Meanwhile, herbal administration showed better ameliorative effects as compared to metformin. These results were confirmed by ovarian microscopic examination which showed partial disappearance and reduction of ovarian cysts. In conclusion, the current results suggested that licorice roots, marjoram, DPP and their mixture have hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and hormonal regulatory effects on PCOS. Generally, the most ameliorative effect was observed in mixture administered group. This may be due to the synergistic action between the mixtures of phytochemicals present in herbs.
247 UTILIZATION OF DISSOLUTION RATE IMPROVEMENT EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HYDROPHILIC POLYMERS ON ANTIPLATELET DRUG (CILOSTAZOL) VIA SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE , Reda A. Mahmoud*, Wael A. Abdelhafez, Gamal Zayed, Ahmed M. Samy
Solid dispersions of a poorly water-soluble drug cilostazol in poloxamer188, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K25) and PEG 4000 were prepared by solvent evaporation technique. Physicochemical properties of the prepared systems were characterized by in vitro dissolution, powder X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cilostazol was found amorphously dispersed in solid dispersion system with the drug to poloxamer188 weight ratio of 1:5. FT-IR spectra data indicated that there was no interaction between cilostazol and the polymer. Solid dispersion prepared by the mentioned method showed an improvement of cilostazol dissolution. By comparison, solid dispersions of drug with Poloxamer188 showed distinctly superior performance in that cilostazol dissolved 67.6 ±3.1% within 120 min and the dissolution rate was at least 15 times faster than pure cilostazol. Poloxamer188 in 1:5 w/w drug/ polymer ratio could provide an effective pharmaceutical formulation method to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble cilostazol.
248 EFFECT OF THE ADDED EXCIPIENTS ON THE RELEASE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACECLOFENAC FROM ALGINATE MICROCAPSULES , Osamah Al Rikabi*, Esmat Zein Eldein and Mohamed Osman
Aceclofenac is analog of the potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Diclofenac with low gastric damage. It belongs to class II according to the Biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) that has poor aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of microcapsule of Aceclofenac with different polymers, to enhance dissolution rate of the drug and minimize gastric release. Alginate based micro-pellets were prepared to contain Aceclofenac in addition to other polymers to impart enteric effect. The selected polymers were Eudragit L100-55, Eudragit S100 and polyvinylpyrrolidone K90 (PVP) at different drug:alginate:polymer ratios. Microcapsules were prepared using ionotropic gelation method where the polymer was dispersed in sodium alginate solution. This liquid was then added drop wise to a solution containing divalent cations (calcium chloride solution). The resultant beads were separated, washed and dried. Before monitoring the dissolution pattern, the obtained beads were characterized using Fourier–transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dissolution studies were conducted in acidic and alkaline media. Physical state characterization reflected no interaction between the drug and excipients with possible reduction in the drug crystalline nature. The release of Aceclofenac from the polymeric matrices was considerably reduced in the gastric phase. While the modified crystalline state was associated with a considerable enhancement in the dissolution rate in the intestinal phase, therefore, this technique is considered simple and promising eco-friendly strategy to enhance the dissolution rate of the drug with expected reduction in its deleterious effect on gastric mucosa.
249 ALTERATIONS IN LIPID PROFILE LEVELS AND SELECTED LIVER FUNCTION MARKERS IN LONG TERM CONSUMPTION OF INSTANT NOODLES BY WISTAR RATS , Adjene Josiah Obaghwarhievwo, Ibrahim Saleh, Igumbor Eunice Obiajulu and *Odigie Mike Osagie
Several studies have linked the levels of selected liver function markers to the development of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and coronary artherothrombosis. However, the effects of long term consumption of instant noodles has on the activity of liver enzymes is yet to be fully researched; hitherto was this study designed. Fifty (50) adult wistar rats of an average weight of 200g were purchased for the study. After two (2) weeks of acclimatization, the rats were randomly grouped into five (5) groups of ten (10) rats each. While Group A animals were fed with cooked instant noodles (Type A), group B received cooked instant noodles mixed with spice, whereas, group C and D were respectively fed with cooked instant noodles (type B) and type B with spice. Lastly, group E (Control) rats received standard rat chow and water liberally. At the end of thirty (30) days of administration of test substances, rats were sacrificed (by cervical dislocation) and liver tissues harvested for biochemical assay of selected liver function markers [Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline Phospahatase (ALP)]. Also Assayed were total bilirubin levels. In any case, blood samples were also collected and assayed for various levels of lipid profile [Triglycerides (TG) Total Cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)] changes. Result showed a statistically insignificant change (p < 0.05) between the treated animals and those of control. For liver function markers, we observed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in ALT, AST and total bilirubin levels in the treatment groups. However, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in ALP in the treatment groups, which was a strong indication that the liver was affected. Study also revealed a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in all assayed lipid profiles except that of HDL which decreased significantly. We recommend that further studies aimed at corroborating this findings be carried out.
250 β2 AGONIST VERSUS CYSTEINYL LEUKOTRIENE RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST IN CHRONIC ASTHMA PATIENTS , Haitham Galal El Din Zakaria* and Mokhles El Nagar
Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterised by chronic airway inflammation. Although studies show that control of asthma can be achieved using many drug classes in the majority of patients, surveys repeatedly show that the response is variable due to multifactorial reasons. This study was designed to evaluate the usage of Beta 2 agonist "bambuterol" or Leukotriene receptor antagonist "zafirlukast" as preventive drugs in chronic asthmatics. Patients and methods: Using Open-Label clinical trial, 44 patients with moderate persistent asthma were randomly enrolled into 2 groups; the first group contains 22 patients, treated with once daily 10 mg orally bambuterol for 4 weeks and the second group contains 22 patients, treated with twice daily 20 mg orally zafirlukast for 4 weeks. Frequency of asthma symptoms, pulse oximetry (SpO2) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recorded at baseline and at the end point (after 4 weeks). Results: Both bambuterol and zafirlukast showed significant improvement in asthma symptoms, pulmonary function test values and pulse oximetry after 4-week therapy compared to the first visit (p < 0.05), however, bambuterol showed more significant improvement in PFT values compared to zafirlukast.
251 MILITARY DENTISTRY IN ANCIENT ROME: 27 B.C.-A.D. 476 , Valentine J. Belfiglio*
Vegetius writes that military leaders selected only the healthiest, strongest citizens for service.1 To maintain physical fitness legionnaires exercised, trained and consumed adequate quantities of healthy foods. Dental injuries and diseases interfered with the intake of proper nourishment. Roman commanders understood the importance of dental care to the overall well-being of a fighting soldier. Medical inspections and treatment including dental care allowed soldiers with medical problems to return to the battlefield as soon as possible. Medical and dental treatment acted as a force multiplier to give the Roman army an advantage in war.
252 CENTRAL LINE ASSOCIATED BLOOD STREAM INFECTION: HOW IT CAN BE PREVENTED? , *Rashmita Devi
Central line associated blood stream infection is the blood stream infection after insertion of central venous catheter. Catheter related blood stream infection is leading cause of blood stream infection particularly in ICU where it is leading cause of mortality and morbidity as well as increased health care cost. Many guidelines have given central line care bundles for prevention of central line based blood stream infection. However most of the caregivers are unaware of the guidelines for caring the central venous line.
253 HERBAL COSMETICS , Syeda Ayesha Farheen and *Mohammed Zubair
The concept of beauty and cosmetics is as ancient as mankind and civilization. Women are obessed with looking beautiful. So they use various beauty products that have herbs to look charming and young. Indian herbs and its significance are popular worldwide. Herbal cosmetics having growing demand in the world market and is an invaluable gift of nature. Herbal formulations always have attracted considerable attention because of their good activity and comparatively lesser or nil side effect with synthetic drugs. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing herbal beauty since time immemorial. Indian women have long used herbs such as sandal wood and and turmeric for skin care; Henna to colour the hair, palm, soles; and natural oils to perfume their bodies. Not too long ago, elaborate herbal beauty treatments were carried out in the royal palaces of india to heighten sensual appeal and maintain general hygiene.
254 ROLE OF VARMAM IN OSTEOARTHRITIS , Dr. D. S. Lavanya, M.D(s)*
Varnam in Tamil, also known as marmam. It is closely related to ancient Dravidian martial art ‘varma kalai’. It was founded and used by siddhars as healing medicine. It is a therapeutic stimulation of certain points where energy is found concentrated. According to varma, there are some vital energy storing points through which energy is transmitted to various parts of the body. These points are stimulated to heal diseases or to increase immune mechanism. This paper focuses on varmam points used to treat osteoarthritis.
255 YOGA FOR WOMEN , Dr. R. Padmavathi and Dr. P. L. Balasubramanian*
Yoga, an ancient science, can help Women cope with health issues and help them develop the state of their body and mind. It can help alleviate the pain that goes with Menstruation, manage stress, and ensure an easier delivery among other benefits. Yoga poses are also designed to tone and exercise the muscles of the body to eliminate excess fat, and make it more flexible and stronger. A Woman's capability to handle stress, whether emotional or physical, highly depends on her health Stress, hormonal changes and self-development. The hormonal changes associated with Menopause, Pregnancy and Menstruation can cause Women to suffer from Premenstrual Syndrome, Menstrual Cramps, headaches, and other symptoms. She also needs to stay healthy to be able to cope with Pregnancy and Menopause. Women have also been under the pressure to look good over the centuries.
256 A REVIEW OF MONKEY FEVER - ZOONOTIC VIRAL TICK BORNE DISEASE , Ganagama Pravalika, Mallannagari Shivanjali and Kadarla Rohith Kumar*
Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) or Monkey fever is an emerging zoonotic viral tick borne disease affecting mainly monkeys. Every year lots of human cases are reporting with a morbidity rate of around 2–10% in South India. The etiological agent of KFD is Kyasanur Forest Disease virus (KFDV), a RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. KFDV infection was reported mainly from wild primates and humans. The natural host of KFDV mainly involves wild primates: black faced langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) and red faced bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) and various tick species of genus Haemaphysalis high virus titers was noticed in black–napped hares, porcupines, flying squirrels, Malabargiant squirrels, three–striped squirrels, gerbils. In the transmission of KFDV, human act as a dead end host, with no sufficient viremia for further transmission. Kyasanur forest disease health disease among humans living in and around forests (KFD) is an important public and those whose livelihood depends on forests in certain parts of India.
257 AN AYURVEDA REVIEW ON HERBO-METALLIC FORMULATIONS AS THERAPEUTIC MODALITY OF RASA-SHASTRA , Dr. Vandana N. Hirudkar* and Dr. Kavita A. Khond
Ayurveda the science of life encompasses several concepts related to the health management. Ayurveda principles provide helps to establish physical, mental and spiritual coordination of body. Rasa-Shastra is one of the important streams of ayurveda that deals with Rasayana, herbo-mineral and herbo-metallic preparations for the management of various health ailments. The common forms of herbo-metallic preparations is Bhasma that are prepared with herbs and metal using concept of Puta; herbal juices/ decoction treated with metal. The most of the herbo-metallic preparations considered as nanoparticles therefore produce significant biological response and used as classical medicine in different health issues. This article presented a review on therapeutic importance of herbo-metallic preparations as parts of Rasa-Shastra.
258 AYURVEDA AND MODERN PERSPECTIVE ON RESEARCH METHODOLOGY W.S.R. TO CONCEPT OF VAADMARGA , Dr. Priyanka Barkade*, Dr. Pawan Kumar Kirar and Dr. Vivek Shrivastava
The evolution of human civilization witnessed development of medical science and Ayurveda science is one of them. Ayurveda deals with use of medicine and other therapeutic approaches for the management of good health status. Ayurveda not only focuses on physical and mental health but it also gives equal importance to spiritual health. The study of Ayurveda literature in systemic manner is prerequisite to explore theories and principles of Ayurveda science, in this regards Ayurveda classic described some tools of research methodology as Vaadmarga. These tools of research methodology (Vaadmarga) helps researcher to explore scientific principles in systemic manner. Considering importance of this aspect present article described some aspects of Ayurveda research methodology W.S.R. to classical descriptions of concept of Vaadmarga.
259 GENERAL GUIDELINE AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES RECOMMENDED FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SANKRAMAK ROGA: AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , *Dr. Ashutosh Kumar Jain, Dr. Jinesh Jain and Dr. O. P. Diwedi
Health is one of the prime concerns of mankind and medical community putting great efforts toward the health restoration of global population. The prevalence of communicable diseases are very common which affecting health of society from many years. Ayurveda also described concept of communicable diseases (Aupsargikarogas) along with their cause, transmission and treatment regimen. Air, water, time and region are major way for the transmission of communicable diseases. Kustha, Jwara, Shosha and Netrabhishyanda, etc. are the major Sankramak Roga as per Ayurveda since they transmits from one to another person through various mode of transmission. Present article emphasizes general concept of Sankramak Roga and their management through Ayurveda.
260 RISING THREAT OF BIO-TERRORISM IN TRAINS AND METROS& ROLE OF INTEGRATED DENTAL RESOURCES TO STRENGTHEN THE DISASTER RESPONSE CAPACITY , *Dr. Monis Raza, Dr. Mohit Mangla, Dr. Nikita Gulati and Dr. Shazia Zaidi
Over the past few decades, global events indicate that the threat of biological attack is not a myth, but a harsh reality. The threat of biological terrorism in densely populated areas such as metro / train and the consequent outbreaks, triggered by newly identified resurgent pathogens, as well as the possibility that high-consistency pathogens could be used as agents of biological terrorism, amply demonstrate the need to improve the ability of managing extremely infectious diseases in clinical and public health. This review provides a punitive summary of biological terrorism, the agents used, and counteracting measures, the role of a dentist, with a relevant note on India's current state of police investigation systems, laboratory response network, and the potential to counteract such an event.
261 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO VARIOUS ASPECTS OF RASA SHASHTRA: AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , Dr. Deepak Yashwantrao Dhoke*, Dr. Dayanand Dattatraya Ovar, Dr. Neeta N. Harale and Dr. Ujwala Murlidhar Katole
The Rasa Shashtra is one of the important aspects of ayurveda science that offers several health benefits and help to keep away from diseased conditions. The Rasa Shashtra mainly utilizes uses of Rasayana drugs to maintain normal physiological functioning of various organs of body. Rasa Shashtra gives correct way of healthy life since Rasayana drugs boosts Agni, establishes equilibrium of Doshas, empowered Dhatus and detoxification body. The adaptogenic, antioxidant, immunomodulator, rejuvenating and nootropic effect of Rasayana drugs stimulates many biochemical responses inside the body. Present article mentioned general considerations related to the various aspects of Rasa Shashtra and Rasayana drugs.
262 REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC PHILOSOPHY OF RASASHASTRA & SPECIFIC HEALTH BENEFITS OF RASAYANA DRUGS , Dr. Dayanand Dattatraya Ovar*, Dr. Deepak Yashwantrao Dhoke, Dr. Ujwala Murlidhar Katole, Dr. Neeta N. Harale
Ayurveda the science of therapeutic modalities mentioned various aspects for the maintenance of general health status and Rasashastra is one of such aspect of Ayurveda that involves use of metal, mineral and Rasayana drugs for the management of normal health status. The historical concept of Rasashastra initially involves utilization of mercury (Rasa) hence this modality termed as “Rasashastra”. The specific qualities of Rasa Aushadhi such as; high potency, diversified pharmacological action, palatability, shelf life and minimal dosing offers advantages over other conventional ayurveda formulations. These all Rasa aushadhis offers health benefits in the management of diseases such as; Madhumeha, Vatarakta, Sthoulya, Kushtha and Grahani etc. Present article dealt with therapeutic philosophy & specific health benefits of drugs of Rasashastra.
263 RASAYANA DRUGS; THEIR ROLE IN DISEASE MANAGEMENT AND GUIDELINE RELATED TO THEIR USES: AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , Dr. Dayanand Dattatraya Ovar*, Dr. Deepak Yashwantrao Dhoke, Dr. Neeta N. Harale and Dr. Ujwala Murlidhar Katole
The therapy which mainly imparts rejuvenation & Vajikaran effect considered as Rasayana therapy and the basic principles of Rasayana therapy described in classical literary of Rasa Shashtra. The drugs and approaches of Rasa Shashtra offer several health benefit including; good memory, intelligence, longevity, improve immunity, complexion, luster and strength. This therapy not only destroy pathogenesis of physical disorders but also help in the management of mental disorders such as; impaired mental functions, loss of memory, cognitive impairment, depression and anxiety etc. The specific properties (Guna) of Rasayana drugs attributed to their therapeutic potency, considering this aspect present article elaborated concept of Rasa Shashtra and Rasayana drugs in a view to explore this science for upcoming researchers.
264 TOPICAL MICROSPONGE GEL , Dr. D. V. Derle, Sayyed Shoeb*, Ekta Patil, Danish Sayyad, Ashwini Pingat, Ankita Gaidhane
Number of semisolid dosage forms that are used for topical applications among which gels formulations are becoming pre-eminent. The basic network of gel is a combination of a gelling agent and a solvent in which the drug molecules are embedded or entwined evenly. The nature transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) developed for systemic delivery of drugs using the skin as portal of entry. But TDDS is not practicable for delivery of materials whose final target is skin itself. circulation in significant amounts is an area of research. Mainly drug is entrapped in polymer they act as carriers for drug and show their pharmacological action In This review article discusses Genral replaced with general way how to formulate and development the microsponge gel analysis of mircosponge via DSC, SEM and FTIR, formulation and evaluation of topical microsponge gel. Different method is replaced with by novel method. And finally which parameter used for validation of dosage form.
265 FACTORS CAUSING DELAY IN PRESENTATION OF STROKE PATIENTS IN MEDICAL COLLEGE CATERING TO THE POPULATION OF SUBHIMALYAN REGION OF RURAL INDIA , Dhiraj Kapoor, Pankaj Kumar*, Shivani Sandhu, Dinesh Kumar, Ashish Sharma, Sanjay Kashyap
Objective: Various trials, show that treatment of ischemic stroke within the first 90 minutes of onset increased the odds of a favourable outcome by 2.8 fold, in the 91 to 180-minute window by 1.6 fold, and in the 181 to 270-minute window by 1.4 fold, while treatment in the 271 to 360-minute window did not improve outcome in a statistically significant way. So, the sooner tPA is given to patients, the greater the benefit is. As effective treatment for acute stroke is available, it is important to analyze the factors that are responsible for delay. If such factors are identified then strategies can be planned to expediate the arrival time at the hospital within the therapeutic window. Various Indian studies have been conducted in the urban part, but no such study has been done in rural and hilly region like Himachal Pradesh, where the demographic, social, behavioural and perceptual factors are different. Materials And Methods: So an observational cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted to look for the factors responsible for the delay in presentation of patients with acute stroke admitted in Dr. RPGMC (Tanda) H.P for a period of 12 months. Result And Conclusion: The factors which were found responsible for delayed presentation to hospital were: distance from home to nearest road, distance from nearest road to hospital, visit to local doctor, time of 1st medical contact, time taken by local doctor to refer, low threat perception of patients/ attendants, less concern about symptoms, perception of symptoms as non serious. Measures to reduce the delay in arrival of acute stroke patients to specialist will require careful education among the profession and the public of the importance of prompt transfer.
266 CO-RELATION BETWEEN TEXTURAL MORPHOLOGY OF SEEDS AND SEED MYCOFLORA OF PULSES , *Ashok Sadhu Kandhare
Seeds of pulses are naturally infected during cultivation or transient storage periods. The infections involves metabolic interactions between fungal pathogen and seed cells. The metabolic interaction milieu generates various metabolites. These metabolites produces morphological expressions on the seed. There is a correlation between seed texture, coloration and seed mycoflora.
267 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY STUDYS OF 8, 9-DI HYDRO 7H BENZO 1,2,4-OXADIAZOL-3-YL]-4-METHYL-2H-CHROMEN-2-ONES , Dr. A.L.V Ramana Reddy*
Synthesis, spectral analysis and bioactivity of new coumarin derivatives are described in this paper. Eight new coumarin derivatives were synthesized in moderate to good yields by react with 4-carbonyl chloride via 1,2-dichloroethane and done by the conventional and micro wave irradiation. The structures of all the newly synthesized molecules were assigned by elemental analysis and spectral data. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities strains using Cup plate method.
268 ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF THANEERVITTAN NEI, A NEUROPROTECTIVE SIDDHA FORMULATION USING INVITRO TECHNIQUE , Elakkiyaa V.*, Nisha J. , Visweswaran S. and Muthukumar N. J.
Neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a main cause of dementia, accounting for up to 75% of all dementia cases and has become a population aging-related concern for policymakers and public health systems around the world. Natural products have already proven to be promising sources of useful acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The currently approved drugs for AD, galantamine and rivastigmine are plant derived alkaloids which offer only symptomatic relief without preventing the progression of the disease. In search of identifying new AChE inhibitors preferably from siddha system of traditional medicine which is well tolerated and high efficacious on nervous system. The present study aimed at exploring the potential of siddha formulation ThaneervittanNei (TVN) for its acetylcholinesterase (AChE)enzyme inhibition property by usingEllman’s method. The result obtained from the present clearly indicates that the test drug TVN was effective in inhibiting AChE enzyme at stipulated concentration dose dependently. Maximum percentage inhibition of about 47.25% was observed at 500 μg/ml with the IC 50 value of 503.4±49.17 μg/ml when compare to that of the standard drug physostigmine, a known AChE Inhibitor with the maximum inhibition 86.62% at the concentration of 40 μg/ml with the IC 50 value of 10.85 ± 1.381 μg/ml. It was concluded from the observation of the present study that formulation like TVN has a tendency to inhibit AChE enzyme and may tend to halt the progression of neurodegeneration in near future.
269 STUDY THE MANAGEMENT OF SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURE HUMERUS IN CHILDREN WITH KIRSCHNER WIRE FIXATION , Dr. Shakti Swarup Panda* and Dr. Vikash Kumar
Supracondylar fractures, the most common elbow injury in children, usually affecting the thin portion of humerus through olecranon fossa or just above the fossa through the metaphysis. Considering the high frequency and the complications that follows, the fracture is managed competently to secure an excellent result and to avoid or minimize the complications. Aims and Objectives: The present study was done to restore and maintain the functional anatomy of distal end of humerus with K wire fixation and restore the movement as early as possible and subsequently assess the result of the surgery with reference to restoration of function and deformity. Materials and method: The present study was conducted from May 2017 to Apr 2018 on 45 cases of fresh supracondylar fractures in children, who underwent open or closed reduction with K-wire fixation. Two cases had neurovascular deficit (compartment syndrome) and all were managed within 48 hours of presentation to the hospital. The average period of union was 4.08 weeks. Results: Based on Flynn’s criteria the result were, 32(71.1%) patients obtained excellent results, 9(20%) had good results, 3(6.6%) had fair result and 1(2.2%) of them had unsatisfactory results. Conclusion: This study shows that anatomical reduction and K-wire pinning in the management of supracondylar fractures provides a convenient, cost effective modality with good results and full range of movement with relatively fewer complications.
270 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE BRAINS OF LOCAL BREEDS OF PIG (LANDRACE BREED) AND DOG (MONGREL BREED) , George I. O.*, Fawehinmi H. B., Oyakhire M. O. , Musa S. A., Akintola O. M.
Pig and dog are domestic animals that are useful to man. Dog is well known for its friendship with man while pig serves as a good source of protein to human. However, research has shown pig to have a higher Intelligence Quotient (IQ) than dog. What is the neuroanatomical basis for this difference in cognitive behavior? Five adult pigs and dogs each were used in this study. Gross morphometry and morphology were carried out on tissues of whole brain specimens of pig and dog fixed in 10% buffered formal saline solution. Histological analysis was done on their ventromedial prefrontal cortex which is responsible for higher cognitive functions. Both brains of pig and dog were gyrencephalic. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of sulci on pig brain compared to dog. Pig brain weighed 111.80±8.125g while dog brain weighed 65.52±3.352g. Also pig had longer right and left olfactory bulbs respectively (2.20±0.064cm; 2.27±0.078cm) than dog (1.43±0.133cm; 1.43±0.129cm). These values were not statistically significant. Pig paired olfactory bulbs were separated with a gap of about 0.5cm to 0.7cm which was absent in dog. There was a patent olfactory ventricle in pig olfactory bulb which was collapsed in dog. Betz cells of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex of pig had larger-sized cells, although the cells appeared to be more densely packed and smaller-sized in dog. Structural differences exist in the brains of pig and dog which could be related to their behavioral differences with respect to cognitive functions.
271 DEVELOPMENT & VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF BRINZOLAMIDE AND ITS IMPURITIES IN DRUG SUBSTANCE AS PER ICH GUIDELINES , Vivek Tummala*, Prof. K. Basavaiah and Dr. B. M. Rao
The analysis of improved RP-HPLC method for the separation and quantification of Brinzolamide and its impurities are described. Samples are analysed by means of reverse phase (RP-HPLC) using an Inertsil ODS-3V, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5μm, and the mobile phase consists of two Channels A and B. Channel-A pH 5.50 buffer: Acetonitrile (80:20 %v/v) and Channel-B: pH Acetonitrile: Methanol: Water (80:10:10%v/v). The flow rate is 1.0 ml/min. The column temperature was maintained at 25°C and sample temperature was maintained at (15°C) and wavelength fixed at 230nm UV-detection. It is found that the method of RP-HPLC with UV-detection system for the analysis of Brinzolamide impurities are straight forward and applied in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The developed LC method was validated with respect to specificity, precision, linearity, ruggedness and robustness. Validation study compared as per ICH guideline.
272 MORBIDITY PATTERN AND PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN THE URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE IN AURANGABAD, MAHARASHTRA , Dr. Rashmi Priya*, Mohan K. Doibale, Dr. Gautam B. Sawase, Dr. Arvind V. Gaikwad, Dr. Sunayana G. Kumthekar, Dr. Sanjay K. Singh, Dr. Shruti R. Gaikwad
Background: School children constitute 20% of total population. So, schools are the ideal settings for implementation of screening program. Gradually there has been a rise in childhood morbidity. Objective: to determine the prevalence of various childhood morbidities. Study Design: It was a community based cross-sectional study conducted in field practice area of a medical college in Maharashtra. RESULTS: There were 442 participants, 222 (50.22%) boys and 220(49.78%) were girls. The overall prevalence of morbidity was 51.08% with pallor (34.16%) being most common morbidity. There was significant association between gender and pallor, ear wax, pain in abdomen and overweight; p-value<0.00. CONCLUSION: Screening of morbidity and health promotion at school level is of sheer importance to prevent upcoming health issues in the society.
273 EFFECT OF PHARMACIST-PROVIDED HEALTH LITERACY FOR PATIENTS ON ORAL ANTICOAGULATION THERAPY , JOJU SEBASTIAN C.*, ALAN KURIAN, LISSA K. SUNNY, PRUDENCE A. RODRIGUES
Oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy using vitamin K antagonists is commonly used therapy for the prevention and treatment of various thromboembolic complications. It mainly aims to maintain the levels of anticoagulation capable of preventing thromboembolic events without increasing the risk of hemorrhagic complications. The main reason for the failure of the therapy is the unawareness of the patient regarding the medication. This study is thereby performed to assess the effect of pharmacist-provided health literacy through counseling and information booklet and the improvements in the knowledge and life style of the patient. OBJECTIVES ï‚· To develop and implement Oral anticoagulation booklet in the Cardiology department. ï‚· To assess the knowledge of OAC therapy among patients. ï‚· Identifying reasons for non-adherence to medication. ï‚· To detect drug related problems. Method: A total of 86 patients were studied which was divided randomly to control (55) and intervention(31) groups. Both groups were assessed for their knowledge using a questionnaire before and after the counseling to assess the knowledge gained. The patients in the intervention group were discharged with a booklet and both the groups were assessed for the knowledge retained after a period of time by the same questionnaire. Results: The study results showed that the patients gained knowledge after counseling and 14% more improvement of knowledge retention in intervention group (62%) than the control group. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that the patients who had been educated by the pharmacist shown improvement in knowledge regarding the therapy. The intervention group who had been given „patient information booklet‟ had shown significant improvement in knowledge retention than the control group.
274 THE EFFECT OF TOTAL PHENOL AND FLAVONOID TOTAL COMPOUNDS OF THE N-BUTANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF ACORUS SP. TO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIESIN STREPTOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICIA COLI , Nera Umilia Purwanti*
Background: Red Jeringau or Acorus sp. is a wild plant that lives in wet and moist soil. The red jeringau rhizome is empirically used by the Dayaks as a treatment for dengue and according to Saman et al. (2013) states that it is traditionally used as a stomach medicine and skin disease. The aims of this study to determine the activity of antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli bacteria from the n-butanol and ethyl acetate fraction of red jeringau rhizomes and the levels of total phenols and total flavonoids of n-butanol fraction and ethyl acetate red rhizome which give antibacterial activity. Method: The study was conducted by measuring total phenol levels and total flavonoids as well as the diameter of inhibition zones of Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli in the n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions with positive control using ciprofloxacin. The results of inhibition zone diameter data were analyzed using SPPS One Way ANOVA analysis. Result: The results obtained total phenol levels for n-butanol fraction of 10.32% and total flavonoid levels of 0.688% had significant differences with the positive control group at a concentration of 100% (10.44 ± 0.32) against Staphylococcus aureus and at a concentration of 50% (12.14 ± 0.48) and 100% concentration (12.11 ± 0.16) against Eschericia coli. In the ethyl acetate fraction with phenol levels of 43.26% and flavonoid levels of 1.49% the 100% concentration group (12.43 ± 1.29) was significantly different from the positive control group against Eschericia coli bacteria.
275 ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF LEAVES OF GOMPHHRENA GLOBOSA , K. Lakshman*, Vinutha Bhat, Archana V. R., Ashok Kumar B. S. and Girija K.
Crude methanol extract and its n-butanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of Gomphhrena globosa Linn. (Amarnthaceae) leaves were screened for antioxidant potential by1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydroxyl (DPPH) assay, 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay and nitric oxide assay. Total phenolic and flavanoids contents of different fractions were also determined. n-Butanol fraction showed significant antioxidant potential compared to other fractions. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in n-butanol fractions was 16.10 ± 0.25 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and 12.15 ± 0.15 mg/quercetin/g extract was significant when compared with other fractions.
276 PREFORMULATION STUDIES OF TRAMADOL HCL: VITAL PART OF FORMULATION DESIGN , Surendra Pratap Singh Parihar* and Himesh Soni
Preformulation study is a fraction which is initiated once the new molecule is seeded. In a broader way, it deals with studies of physical, chemical, analytical, and pharmaceutical properties related to molecule and provides idea about suitable modification in molecule to show a better performance. Preformulation parameters study can be linked to generation of effective, safer, stable, and reliable pharmaceutical formulation. Tramadol Hydrochloride is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic. The mode of action is not clear, even though the parent and metabolite of Tramadol binds to μ-opioid receptors and results in weak inhibition and reuptake of nor-epinephrine and serotonin. In the present works overall objective of preformulation studies of Tramadol HCl is to generate information useful in developing stable and Bioavailable dosage forms.
277 RESEARCH ARTICLE ON FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF CANAGLIFLOZIN BY DIRECT COMPRESSION METHOD , Savithri T. B.*, Farooq and C. Rashmi
Recent developments in fast dissolving/disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to elderly and children who have trouble in swallowing tablets. the present investigation was undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of Canagliflozin which offers a new range of product having desired characteristics and intended benefits. The drug is poorly water soluble therefore to enhance the solubility and release of drug, solid dispersion of drug with mannitol was prepared by melt solvent method and melting method. In addition, the physical mixture was prepared for comparison. Different superdisintegrants such as croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone were used. Directly compressible mannitol was used as a carrier and to enhance the mouth feel and taste. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique on rotary tablet machine. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, dispersion time and uniformity of content and in vitro dissolution test. All the tablets had hardness 3-4.5 kg/cm2 and friability of all formulations was less than 1%, weight variation and drug content were within official limit. Amongst all formulations, formulation F4 prepared with drug: mannitol (1:4) ratio by melting method and croscarmellose sodium as a superdisintegrants showed least disintegration time and faster dissolution.
278 RANDOMISED CLINICAL CONTROLLED STUDY OF KASHMARYADI ‘KSHEERPAN’ AND ‘TIL TAIL MATRA BASTI’ IN MANAGEMENT OF GARBHASHOSH (IUGR) , *More Sunil Sadashiv, Khot Sanhita Shailesh and Lad Divyata Dilip
Asymmetric Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a major problem observed in pregnant women. There is need to study the reason for selection of the disease Garbhashosha (IUGR) and its importance. Analytical study of drug sample was done in the standard lab. About sixty numbers of patients were examined under the inclusion and exclusion criteria, clinical assessment and ultrasound based parametric assessment, investigation criteria & criteria of diagnosis were explained. Statistical tests applied to collected data and results have been drawn in this section. It is studied that the drug therapy has effective action on Garbhashosha. Kashmaryadi ksheerpan and Til Tail matrabasti is proved highly significant in increasing symphysis fundal height, abdominal girth and fetal weight.
279 ROLE OF BILWA PHALA MAJJA CHURNA WITH LAJJA AMBU IN GARBHINI CHARDI – A CASE REPORT , *Lad Divyata Dilip and More Sunil Sadashiv
Achievement of motherhood is the cherished desire of every woman. A series of changes happen in the physiological and psychological status of women, some of which may be felt as a discomfort to her. Ayurvedic classics have mentioned Garbhini Chardi as one among the vyakta garbha lakshanas, which can be correlated with Emesis Gravidarum. Emesis Gravidarum is a worldwide common obstetrical problem seen in the first trimester of pregnancy in about 50-90% of pregnant women. For such physiological alterations, if proper care is not given, it may lead to complication like severe dehydration, tiredness, weight loss, etc. which may affect mother and growing fetus. Though it is ideal to avoid drugs in the first trimester, some women are severely nauseated and need drug therapy. Thus, aim and objective of the study was to evaluate the role of bilwa phala majja churna with lajja ambu in Garbhini Chardi.
280 EFFECT OF PSYCHODRAMA ON LEVEL OF DEPRESSION IN GERIATRIC POPULATION RESIDING AT SELECTED OLD AGE HOMES IN PUNE CITY , *Augustina Massey, Sheetal Barde and Manu Acha Roy
 Background: Depression is different from normal sadness in that it engulfs our day-to-day life, interfering with our ability to work, study, eat, sleep and have fun. The feelings of helplessness, hopelessness and worthlessness are intense with little if any, relief. Depression demonstrates the variety of symptoms, such as mood, emotional, cognitive, motivational and physical signs. Depression is very common in More than 10 million cases per year (India). Hence, since psychodrama therapy pays a certain concern to these cases, it has been studies in the treatment field. Psychodrama is a method of group psychotherapy with interactive improvisation, theatre and other contextual frameworks. Objectives: 1) To determine the baseline level of depression in geriatric population. 2) To determine the level of depression post intervention through Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). 3) To compare the pre-test and post-test score. 4) To find the association between selected demographic variable and pre-test score. Research Methodology: The quantitative approach with Pre-Experimental One Group Pre-test Post-test Design is used in this study. Tool used is the standardized tool which is Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). There were 60 samples who met the inclusion criteria, by using the simple random sampling method. The intervention of psychodrama which was followed by monologue and empty chair was done for the period of 4 weeks. After the intervention post-test was conducted using the same tool by the investigator. The score were than calculated and reliability was established by Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.90. Thus the tool was found to be reliable. Results: Paired t-test for effectiveness of psychodrama on level of depression in geriatric population residing at selected old age homes in Pune city. Average depression score in pre-test was 12.1 which were 11.6 in post-test. T-value for this test was 2.7 with 59 degrees of freedom. Corresponding p-value was small (less than 0.05), the null hypothesis is rejected. It is evident that the psychodrama is significantly effective in improving the depression among geriatric population residing at old age homes. Fisher’s exact test is applied to find association between the post interventions on level of depression with the demographic variable. The association is considered to be significant if the p value is less than 0.05 (p<0.05). From the Fisher’s test table it can be seen that there is none of the demographic variables was found to have significant association with depression among geriatric population residing at the old age homes. Conclusion: The findings of the study shows that the effect of psychodrama brought a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test score, which means that the intervention was effective in decreasing the level of depression among geriatric population residing at old age homes.
281 ROLE OF LOW DOSE ASPIRIN AND LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN IN UNEXPLAINED CASES OF RECURRENT PREGNANCY LOSS , *Dr. S. Bhanu Rekha, M.D
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of low dose Aspirin and low molecular weight Heparin in unexplained cases of recurrent pregnancy loss. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a private hospital in mahabubnagar from June 2017 to May 2019. A total of 40 pregnant ladies who had previous 2 and or more pregnancy losses in the early (before 20 weeks) or late (after 20weeks) pregnancy period were included in the study. These pregnant women were properly evaluated in regard to the history of previous period of gestation of loss, previous scans in regard to documentation of fetal pole and gestation, cardiac activity, anomaly scan and growth scan and any special investigations in previous pregnancies and present pregnancy. Results: 40 pregnant women with previous 2 and more unexplained pregnancy losses who were evaluated and found negative with major causes of pregnancy losses were treated with low dose aspirin and low molecular weight heparin till term. This could give us a 92% live birth rate which is quite satisfactory. Conclusions: Use of low dose aspirin and low molecular weight heparin seems to be a good choice of drugs in treating the unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses.
282 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND ABACAVIR IN BULK SAMPLES AS WELL AS IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS BY USING RP-HPLC , K. Sravanthi* and Dr. J. Sangeetha
In the study, Lamivudine and Abacavir in tablets and bulk were analyzed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Different trails were performed with different mobile phases and different columns, peaks were observed and optimized based on the retention time, the optimized conditions were: stationary phase - Dionex C18 column, mobile phase - Methanol (40% volume) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (60% volume) with 0.1 M strength and 3.5 pH, flow rate – 1 ml per min and detecting wavelength 232 nm. The linearity range was 150 to 450 μg/ml (abacavir) and 75 to 225 μg/ml (lamivudine). The developed technique was applied to tablets. The retention time for Abacavir and Lamivudine were found to be 2.397 min and 3.296 min respectively, accuracy, sensitivity and precision were found significant. During stability studies, extra peaks were well segregated for Lamivudine and Abacavir and hence this method can be applied to study degradation of Lamivudine and Abacavir during quality control analysis.
283 DE-ESCALATION OF ANTIBIOTICS-AN EFFECTIVE TOOL AMONG PATIENTS AT ADESH HOSPITAL, BATHINDA, Pb. , *Singh Harinderjit, Patil H. C. and Patil R. K.
Patients admitted to Intensive therapy units (ITU) are critically ill patients and most often associated with infection or gets associated with infection due to their prolonged stay in hospital and due to the various invasive treatment options like catheter, tracheotomy tube, ventilation etc that they are treated with and due to the prevailing hospital flora. Strategy of de-escalation practice can be an optimal approach in preventing spread of antibiotic resistance by optimizing the usage of antibiotic thereby reducing pressure on bacterial ecology; as each antibiotic used, appropriate or inappropriate affects bacterial ecology by exerting selective pressure and thus driving resistance and thereby causing potential public health consequences. The antibiotics must be used in a manner that will ensure not only minimum subsequent antimicrobial resistance but also ensure maximum favorable outcome for the individual patient. this strategy of de-escalation practice can be an optimal approach in preventing spread of antibiotic resistance by optimizing the usage of antibiotic thereby reducing pressure on bacterial ecology; as each antibiotic used, appropriate or inappropriate affects bacterial ecology by exerting selective pressure and thus driving resistance and thereby causing potential public health consequences (Deresinski, 2007). Though a number of factors are at root cause of the problem the core factor is surely correlated with the extensive and extensively inappropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals especially in the Critical Care Units, where infections are common day-to-day problem.
284 THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN MALARIA AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE , *Dr. Tapan Biswas and Dr. Animesh Mondal
INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a disease that affects almost all blood components but thrombocytopenia is the most common haematological findings .Thrombocytopenia is frequently noticed in both falciparum and vivax malaria. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary centre for infection disease Hospital at Kolkata in West Bengal, India. We included all the patients who were admitted with thrombocytopenia and malaria. Excluded those who were co-infection with dengue, chikungunya, scrub typhus or others infection. Result: A total of 140 patients were included. 98 (70%) had platelet count <100000/mm3. Six patient had severe thrombocytopenia and developed different type of complication. Conclusion: Malaria is associated with thrombocytopenia. And thrombocytopenia is correlated with severe malaria. Thrombocytopenia is a good diagnostic tool and prognostic marker in both type of malaria. Objectives. To evaluate the predictive value of thrombocytopenia in malaria.
285 ASSESSMENT OF SEED GERMINABILITY OF PULSES AGAINST INFESTATION BY SEED-BORNE FUNGI , *Ashok Sadhu Kandhare
Seed mycoflora tend to affect adversely to germinability of seed. The vigour of the germinating seed is retarded by the seed-borne fungi. Assessment of the same is carried out in vitro by infestation of pulses seeds by their common seed-borne fungi. The common and dominant seed-borne fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger drastically reduced percent seed germination of the test pulses.
286 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORO DISPERSIBLE TABLET OF CHLOROPHENIRAMINE MALEATE , *Kanna Reshma, Manda Nagamani, Ragini Karra, Pulicheri Mounika
To develop Oro dispersible tablets of Chlorphenaramine Maleate to achieve rapid disintegration, dissolution to resolve the swallowing problems in Paediatric, Geriatric patients by rapid disintegration in saliva and improve the patient compliance. Oral route is the widely used route for the administration of any type of dosage form and can be made a best route by overcoming its drawbacks. Immediate release tablets by using a super disintegrant solved the problems encountered during the medication through oral route. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop fast disintegrating tablets of Chlorphenaramine Maleate. New generation super disintegrates Polyplasdone XL, Vivasole and Explotab was selected as super disintegrates. All the formulations were prepared by Direct Compression method using 6mm punch on 10 station lab press tablet Compression Machine. The blend of all the formulations showed good flow properties such as Angle of repose, Bulk density, Tapped density. The prepared tablets were shown good post compression parameters and they passed all the quality control evaluation parameters as per I.P limits. Among all the formulations F6 formulation showed maximum % drug release i.e., 99.89% in 18±0.01 sec hence it is considered as optimized formulation.
287 SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF A PERIAPICAL LESION ASSOCIATED WITH LEFT MAXILLARY CENTRAL AND LATERAL INCISORS USING PLATELET-RICH FIBRIN: A CASE REPORT , *Dr. B. Sai Krishna, Dr. Seema H. Bukhari, Dr. Abhishek Jain, Dr. Arpita Shekhar, Dr. Shilpi Kushwaha, Dr. Noor Fatima
Periapical lesion is a local response of bone around the apex of tooth that develops after the necrosis of the pulp tissue or extensive periodontal disease. The successful treatment of periapical inflammatory lesion depends on the reduction and elimination of the offending organism. When the orthograde root canal therapy fails to provide a successful outcome to the patient, root end resection or apicoectomy is the technique through which the desired results can be achieved. In this report, surgical management of a periapical lesion in relation to left maxillary central and lateral incisors of a 17 years old female patient has been discussed wherein a retrograde filling with MTA was done after apicoectomy and platelets rich fibrin was placed in the bony defect to accelerate hard and soft tissue healing.
288 EFFECT OF AGNIKARMA WITH PANCHADHATU SHALAKA IN SANDHIGATAVATA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KNEE JOINT , *Dr. Ujjwala Suryakant Rajmane and Dr. Kavita S. Patil
Sandhigatavata is one of the Vatta Vyadhi characterized by the symptoms such as Sandhi shoola (joint pain) and Sandhishopha (swelling of joints). Osteoarthritis (O.A.) is a degenerative joint disorder representing failure of the diarthrodial (movable synovial lined) joint. O. A.of knee joint comes under the inflammatory group which is almost identical to Sandhigatavata described in Ayurveda with respect to etiology, pathology and clinical features. Agnikarma is an ancient medical technique of treatment derived from Indian medicine in Ayurveda. The word Agnikarma is made up of Agni and Karma which means application of heat which involve procedure using a metal rod i.e. Shalaka in aseptic manner. Almost all Ayurvedic text has described Agnikarma as anushastra. Agnikarma (therapeutic heat burn) is one which give instant relief from pain by balancing local Vata and Kapha dosha without any untoward effects.
289 A PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE EFFICACY, SAFETY AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF DICLOFENAC AND THEIR COMBINATION WITH VARIOUS PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES IN ORTHOPAEDIC DEPARTMENT OF TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL , Hetal V. Kacha, Dr. Amita R. Kubavat*, Shailesh G. Mundhava and Shahenaz M. Malek
Objectives: To evaluate efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness of diclofenac, serratiopeptidase and chymotrypsin/trypsin as add on in reducing swelling and pain following upper and lower limb fracture. Methodology: This is a prospective, observational study Including 150 patients with upper and lower limb fractures admitted in orthopaedic department of tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups (50 of each), Group-1 tablet diclofenac prescribed, and group-2 tablet serratiopeptidase with diclofenac prescribed and group-3 tablet chymotrypsin/trypsin with diclofenac prescribed. Evaluation of swelling reduction was made by using tape measurement. Pain was assessed by using visual analogue scale at day 0, then daily up to 5 days. Adverse drug reactions were also recorded. Result: Reduction of swelling within group was significant (P=<0.0001). Comparison of reduction of swelling in all three groups was statistically not significant (p > 0.05). Reduction in pain score in three groups was significant, but decrease was more in group 1. Cost of therapy was more in group 2 and group 3 as compared to group 1. Conclusion: Patients in Group 2 and 3 showed more anti-inflammatory effect than of group1. However it is not statistically significant. Diclofenac showed more analgesic effect as compared to proteolytic enzymes. Cost of therapy in group 2 and 3 is more. Mild to moderate adverse effects were reported in group 1 and 2. Most common side effect reported was gastritis, in group1.
290 COMPARISON OF MESOPOROUS SILICA XEROGEL, AMINO-FUNCTIONALIZED MESOPOROUS SILICA XEROGEL AND PARTECK SLC FOR LOADING AND RELEASE RATE OF NICARDIPINE HYDROCHLORIDE , Potdar Dipali*, Dr. Bele Mrudula, Nemane Dipak, Nikam Vishal and Lahane Ajay
Purpose: Nicardipine hydrochloride is an antihypertensive drug which blocks the calcium channel. It belongs to the BCS class II having high lipophilicity, poor water solubility and hence low bioavailability. The main aim of this study is to synthesized MSX, AMSX by using biomimetic method and also marketed parteck SLC carrier is used to check its ability to be a good drug carrier for loading and release rate of poorly water soluble drug NH. This drug loaded xerogel is compared with drug loaded parteck SLC. The dissolution media was developed for performing the in vitro dissolution of nicardipine hydrochloride. The porous silica were synthesized by using sol-gel method. These silica carriers then loaded with drug by using in-situ inclusion method and evaluated by performing in vitro dissolution study in developed dissolution media. Also the drug is loaded in marketed parteck SLC by using solvent evaporation method (1:1,1:2,1:3) and evaluated by performing in vitro dissolution study. Methods: The synthesized MSX,AMSX,NH-MSX,NH-AMSX was studied by using SEM. Then MSX, AMSX, NH-MSX, NHAMSX and NH-PS (1:1,1:2,1:3) characterized by XRD, DSC, and ATR. Results: The in vitro drug release study revealed that the amino functionalized mesoporous silica xerogel show highest drug release (97.08%) followed by mesoporous silica xerogel (79.95%) and Parteck SLC(1:2)(68.33%). From XRD study, it can be seen that the mesoporous silica and drug loaded formulation showed no typical crystal peak, which suggest that the drug is converted into amorphous form after it is being loaded in MSX, AMSX and Parteck silica SLC. DSC study showed that nicardipine hydrochloride loaded mesoporous carriers [NH-PS (1:1,1:2,1:3)] endothermic peak due to the melting of nicardipine hydrochloride was not observed which denoted the amorphous nature of nicardipine hydrochloride in the mesoporous carriers. In case of drug loaded mesoporous silica xerogel (NH-MSX,NH-AMSX) a broad endothermic peak was observed near 259.30C and 258.60C which represents the presence of amorphous form of nicardipine hydrochloride in NH-MSX,NH-AMSX. Conclusion: From the results AMSX showed the higher loading capacity and enhanced dissolution release can be considered to be a good candidate as drug carrier for NH.
291 EFFECT OF GINKGO BILOBA ON CLOMIPRAMINE INDUCED SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION IN MALE RATS , Sridhar S.M*, Rohit Saraswat, Ashok Kumar B.S., Pradeep Kumar L., Gopisetty Saran
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (40 mg/kg, dose) on sexual behaviour: mount latency and frequency (ML&MF), intromission latency and frequency (IL&IF), ejaculation latency (EL), post ejaculatory pause (PEP) and couplatory frequency and interval (CF&CI) in Clomipramine -induced sexually dysfunction male rats. The results showed in relation to the Clomipramine treated group, the Ginkgo biloba extract, significantly restored the normal sexual behavior and antioxidant activities.
292 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PRAZOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE BY USING NATURAL POLYMERS LIKE GELATIN AND CHITOSAN , Gopisetty Saran*, Rohith Sarswat, Ashok Kumar B. S., Sridhar S. M., Pradeep Kumar L.
The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate microspheres as controlled release preparations of a highly water-insoluble drug, Prazosin HCL, using natural polymers, Chitoson and Gelatin materials. It is recently developed anti hypertensive drug used effectively in therapeutic practice. However, the Prazosin HCL has short half life and hence requires frequent administration. Therefore the possible way by which this can be overcome is formulating a controlled release formulation (CSR).
293 EFFECTIVENESS OF NURSE LED INTERVENTIONAL PACKAGE ON KNOWLEDGE OF MOTHERS REGARDING HOME CARE MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF THE SELECTED HOSPITALS AT KOLLAM DISTRICT , Jimi Patrishia Jerome*, Betcy K. Jayims, S. Anand and K. R. Anoopa
A quantitative study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of nurse led interventional package on knowledge of mothers regarding home care management of children with bronchial asthma in outpatient department of the selected hospitals at Kollam district. A pre- experimental one group pretest posttest design was used and fifty samples were selected by using non probability purposive sampling technique. The tool used was self-structured knowledge questionnaire. Posttest was conducted on the 7th day of pretest. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result shows that the mean pretest and posttest score were 11.42 and 20.94 respectively. The calculated ‘t’ value is 36.08 which was greater than the table value at 0.05 level of significance. It concludes that there is significant difference between mean pretest and posttest knowledge scores of mothers. The findings of the study suggest that nurse led interventional package was effective in improving the knowledge of mothers regarding home care management of children with bronchial asthma.
294 IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WETLAND: A STUDY FROM LAKHANI VILLAGE, BHANDARA DISTRICT, M. S; INDIA. , *Dr. Manmohan S. Bhaisare
The investigation about the impact of human activities on Lakhani village area. The area is situated 21.40 N Latitude and 29.490 E Longitude. The total geographical area of Lakhani village is 09 Km2 and the population density of the village has increased by 5.1 % in last 10 year. The main human activities are use of wetland area in surrounding ecosystem, so they came disturbances in physical, chemical and biological processes in our ecosystem and regulating climatic condition. The present study revealed on the impact of human activities on functioning purposes like construction of houses, roads, small drainage, uses of agricultural land etc. Due to the human encroachment, the area of wetland decreases day by day. This effect on disturbing landscape function, cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients, water purification, regulation of flow, supports for animal migration etc. and increasing the risk of extreme event like floods, drought etc.
295 A SINGLE CASE STUDY ON JALODARA W.S.R. TO ASCITES WITH SECONDARY DEPRESSION , Dr. Vijayendra Bhat G.* and Dr. Aniruddha
A male patient 63 year old was brought to SDM Ayurveda hospital with complaints of yellowish discoloration of eyes and urine, blackish discoloration of stools, itching all over the body, decreased strength, blackish discoloration of skin, reduced appetite and increased abdominal size since 1 year which had increased in last 3 months along with symptoms of reduced interest in daily activities. He was given line of treatment of udara chikitsa and was treated for 3 months. Significant reduction in almost all signs and symptoms of jalodara was seen along with improvement of the mood.
296 A CLINICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF SHUNTHI GUD AVAPEEDA NASYA IN KAPHAJA PRATISHYAYA W.S.R. TO CHRONIC RHINITIS , *Arun Kumar Pandey, Dr. Daya Shankar Singh and Dr. Preeti Pahwa
Kaphaja Pratishyaya is a condition in which vitiated Vata and Kapha Dosha causes Nasa Avarodha associated with either Snigdha Kapha Sruti (sticky nasal discharge), Nasa Kandu (Itching sensation in the nose) and Gandha and Rasa Ajnanatha (loss of smell and taste) with some of the clinical features of Vatakaphaja Pratishyaya. Nasya Karma is the special line of treatment for Urdhwajatrugata Vikara. Shunthi Gud Avapeedana Nasya which is prepared with Kaphavatahara and Shirovirechana drugs is being used for Nasya Karma in Kaphaja Pratishyaya. Patients presenting with the classical features of Kaphaja Pratishyaya and between the age group of 7yrs and 80yrs irrespective of sex were selected. 50 patients were selected and assigned in a single group. Avapeeda Nasya was administered for 7 days, once in the morning between 7am to 8am on an empty stomach. The treatment provided statistically significant result on the signs and symptoms of Kaphaja Pratishyaya (Chronic simple rhinitis). The treatment Shunti Gud Avapeeda Nasya Karma provided marked improvement in 18% of the patients and 82% of the patients showed moderate improvement. The drugs Shunthi and Gud, possess Kaphavatahara and Tridoshahara properties, which play an important role in pacifying doshas, participating in the pathogenesis of the disease Kaphaja Pratishyaya. This immune-modulation reduces the inflammatory process in nasal cavity and sinuses. The local irritation caused by the drug is helpful to liquefy the purulent sputum and ultimately expelled.
297 VARICOSE VEINS – A COMPRESSION STOCKING THERAPY TO PROVIDE FOR THE PRIMARY TREATMENT – A LITERATURE REVIEW , P. N. Rajarajan*, P. Jeganathan, K. Rajeswari, N. Sumathy and A. Uma Devi
Varicose veins are a common condition affecting the lower limbs. Apart from being a cosmetic problem, it can have some serious complications if not treated in time. Varicose Veins can be explained as a disorder of the veins especially of legs wherein they get affected due to the backward flow and turbulence in the circulation of the blood. The veins get perverted, become enlarged due to a condition called edema. The disease also shows many associated symptoms which worsens the condition of the varicose veins. The present article deals with brief introduction regarding the etiopathogenesis of varicose veins, related causes and symptoms, the non-surgical treatments and the study of compression therapy involves special elastic stockings or compression bandages that put gentle pressure on the legs to help prevent swelling. The aim of writing this review is to evaluate the role of compression stocking in the primary treatment of varicose veins.
298 INSILICO ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM (SNPS) IN HUMAN GSTM1 GENE ASSOCIATED WITH CANCER DEVELOPMENT , Dalia Mursi Abdelhalim, Afra M. Albkrye, Mohammed Ahmed Salih, Amna Elsadig Elsafi Abodlaa1, Hind Abdelaziz Elnasri and Mona A. M. Khaier*
Background: The gene for Glutathione-S-Transferase (GSTM1), is a member of the GST-superfamily, it encodes enzymes responsible for detoxification of free radicals and other carcinogens. The activity of these enzymes may differ due to polymorphisms which ultimately results in inter-individual susceptibility to cancer development. Aim: This study was carried out to analyse the nsSNPs in the GSTM1 gene, to identify the possible mutations and propose a modelled structure for the mutant protein. Methods: Through the in silico approach, using a combination of SIFT, Poly Phen-2, I-Mutant Suite, SNPs & Go and Project Hope software. Results: Among the 62 nsSNPs, only 21 were found to be deleterious. From these seven SNPs (rs371083091, rs376564748, rs553341658, rs758844606, rs142484086, rs533860247, and rs777299993) were reported to be highly damaging. A modelled structure of the seven highly deleterious and highly damaging mutant proteins were proposed. Conclusions: These results provide useful information in selecting target SNPs that are likely to have an impact on GSTM1 gene activity and contribute to an individual's susceptibility to the disease.
299 THE CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH NASAL POLYPOSIS WHO UNDERWENT SURGERY IN DAMASCUS HOSPITAL , Louei Darjazini Nahas, Saleh Alsaleh* and Mohamad Salem Koutayni
The objective of this retrospective study was to obtain epidemiological data from 110 patients with nasal polyposis who underwent surgery (FESS) in Damascus hospital. Moreover, this research aims to study the correlation between nasal polyposis with asthma and aspirin intolerance. The frequency of clinical manifestations, previous medical history, and recurrence rate were determined and then compared with other studies. Nasal polyposis is slightly more common in males compared to females. The most common affected age category was [31-40] years. The most common complaint was nasal obstruction 98.2% followed by rhinorrhea 80.9% then anosmia 80%. Recurrence rate (patients who underwent corrective surgery after initial surgery) constituted 23.6% of patients. Patients with asthma constituted 30% of patients. Aspirin intolerance was found in 24.5%, and Samter’s triad (nasal polyposis +asthma+aspirin intolerance) was found in 24.5%.
300 ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING PROGRAMME ON KNOWLEDGE OF STAFF NURSES REGARDING EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SELECTED COMPLICATIONS OF PATIENTS ADMITTED IN ICUS AT SELECTED HOSPITALS, KOLLAM , *Sandhya E., Binutha V. P., Anoopa K. R. and Anand S.
A pre experimental study was done to assess the effectiveness of teaching programme on knowledge of staff nurses regarding early identification and management of selected complications of patients admitted in ICUS at selected hospital in Kollam. The objectives of the study were to assess the effectiveness of teaching programme on knowledge of staff nurses regarding early identification and management of selected complications of patients admitted in ICUs at selected hospitals, Kollam and to find out the association between pretest knowledge score of staff nurses regarding early identification and management of selected complication of patient admitted in ICUs with their selected demographic variables including age, gender, qualification, total years of experience as staff nurses, years of experience in ICU and source of information. Quantitative research approach was used with pre experimental one group pretest posttest research design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 50 intensive care unit staff nurses who meet the inclusion criteria. Pretest was done on the first day followed by teaching programme (Day 1) and posttest was done on 7th day. The findings of the study revealed that there was a significant increase in mean posttest knowledge score of the samples (P<0.05) regarding early identification and management of selected complications of patients admitted in ICUs among staff nurses at selected hospital in Kollam after teaching programme.
301 CRITICAL VIEW ON THE NIDANA AND SAMPRAPTI OF KAMPAVATA- PARKINSON’S DISEASE , Dr. Gayathri R.* and Dr. Abdul Khader
Kampavata is one among the vataja nanatmaja vyadhis. Basavarajeeyam text gives the explanation about this disease with the symptoms like karapaadatale kampa, nidrabhanga, deha bhramana and kshinamati. Parkinson’s disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease is characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity along with, motor manifestations. Most people develop Parkinson’s Disease after the age of 60. Nidana plays a major role in manifestation of a disease. Samprapti is the complete procedure of manifestation of a disease. Though Nidana and Samprapti of Kampavata is not separately mentioned, the general nidana and samprapti of vata vyadhi can be considered in Kampavata.
302 SHUKRA IN COMPARISON WITH SPERM- A REVIEW , Dr. Arif Khan J. S.* and Dr. Abdul Khader
Human body is made up of seven Dhatus (seven categories of tissues). Shukra Dhatu is one among them. Shukradhatu is located in entire body. Shukra is white, pure, excellent Dhatu which is considered as best among all seven Dhatus. Individuals having the excellence of Shukradhatu are shown physical & psychological characteristics. According to texts of Ayurveda, Shukradhatu is pervading all over the body. It gives courage to a person. It creates softness in the mind. It is responsible for strength of individual. In metabolism of Shukradhatu nutrients essential for Shukradhatu are digested by Shukuradhatwagni and forms Shukradhatu. Vitiation of Shukradhatu shows Shukradhatu dusti (pathology) in the form of Vriddhi (hyper state) or Kshaya (waning). This vitiation may leads to mainly infertility and many other physical as well as psychological disorders. Therefore, it has a vital role in context to reproduction as well as to maintain physical and mental health. Similarly sperm is essential in the body for the continuation of biological life cycle and to produce offspring. Healthy sperm is the prime factor involved in the fertilization which is required to produce the progeny. Sperm health is historically been tied to the concept of male virility. Reduced sperm or no sperm affects the individual both physiologically and psychologically.
303 NATIONAL PROGRAMME OF BLINDNESS & THE CONTRIBUTION OF AYURVEDA , *Dr. Maheshkumar Nilkanth Chaudhari, M.S., Ph.D. (Shalya- Tantra) and Dr. Nikhil Dilip Chaudhari, M.S. (Shalakya-Tantra-Netra-Rog)
Netra- Roga is compiled in Shalakya-Tantra. 90% of knowledge, we achieved from the eyes. So one should be very careful regarding to keep his eyesight normal. For long life & enjoyment of life, normal eyesight is most important. So Ayurveda, has given importance to Netra & Netra roga. Todays Aahar, Vihar & food material is hazardous for eyesight. There is very broadly elaborated the Netra & Netra roga in Sushruta Samhita, Uttar Sthan. Since that era, our Maharishi has known about the importance of eye & eyesight. Our Govt. takes an important steps regarding blindness. But that is not enough. Govt. should involve Ayurveda too, for avoiding blindness. Because in Ayurveda, there are very good chikitsa–Upkram for netra roga as well as to maintain a normal eye sight. If one should properly followed, he will never suffer from eye problems. These Upkrama also helpful for bring down the number of vision. Those people, who know all these, they apply these Upakramas on themselves & enjoy the normal eye sight. Govt. should take appropriate steps to bring forward there hidden but most important upakrama in Ayurveda for eye & eye disease. Upakrama likes Anjan-vidhi, Netra-tarpan, Netra puta–paaka, Netra Aashchotana therapy, Nasya, Padabhyang, etc. There are also very good side & adverse effectless Ayurvedic medicines for maintaining the normal eye sight as well as for netra rogas. Some therapies for netra roga & prevention of blindness are illustrated broadly in Ayurveda. If practically thinks, & applied all these & brought in focus, this will definately beneficial to our society. Definitely, Ayurveda will play a great role in National Programmes of Blindness. AYUSH Ministry & concerned Dept. of Govt. of India, should take necessary steps regarding this & give the proper justification with literature in Ayurveda as well as to entire human beings to avoid blindness.
304 NATIONAL PROGRAMME OF BLINDNESS & THE CONTRIBUTION OF AYURVEDA , *Dr. Maheshkumar Nilkanth Chaudhari, M.S., Ph.D. (Shalya- Tantra) and Dr. Nikhil Dilip Chaudhari, M.S. (Shalakya-Tantra-Netra-Rog)
Netra- Roga is compiled in Shalakya-Tantra. 90% of knowledge, we achieved from the eyes. So one should be very careful regarding to keep his eyesight normal. For long life & enjoyment of life, normal eyesight is most important. So Ayurveda, has given importance to Netra & Netra roga. Todays Aahar, Vihar & food material is hazardous for eyesight. There is very broadly elaborated the Netra & Netra roga in Sushruta Samhita, Uttar Sthan. Since that era, our Maharishi has known about the importance of eye & eyesight. Our Govt. takes an important steps regarding blindness. But that is not enough. Govt. should involve Ayurveda too, for avoiding blindness. Because in Ayurveda, there are very good chikitsa–Upkram for netra roga as well as to maintain a normal eye sight. If one should properly followed, he will never suffer from eye problems. These Upkrama also helpful for bring down the number of vision. Those people, who know all these, they apply these Upakramas on themselves & enjoy the normal eye sight. Govt. should take appropriate steps to bring forward there hidden but most important upakrama in Ayurveda for eye & eye disease. Upakrama likes Anjan-vidhi, Netra-tarpan, Netra puta–paaka, Netra Aashchotana therapy, Nasya, Padabhyang, etc. There are also very good side & adverse effectless Ayurvedic medicines for maintaining the normal eye sight as well as for netra rogas. Some therapies for netra roga & prevention of blindness are illustrated broadly in Ayurveda. If practically thinks, & applied all these & brought in focus, this will definately beneficial to our society. Definitely, Ayurveda will play a great role in National Programmes of Blindness. AYUSH Ministry & concerned Dept. of Govt. of India, should take necessary steps regarding this & give the proper justification with literature in Ayurveda as well as to entire human beings to avoid blindness.
305 REVIEW ON THE ADVANCEMENTS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF KSHARSUTRA AND THEIR USES IN VARIOUS DISEASES , *Fabiha Hussain Kazi, Ramesh Vanaji Ahire and Aparna Abhay Raut
Ksharsutra- an Ayurvedic para-surgical procedure refers to corrosive or caustic thread used in the treatment of various diseases like Nadivrana (Sinus), Bhagandara (Fistula-in-ano), Arsha (Hemorrhoids), etc. Chakrapani Dutta was the first person to mention the method of preparation of Ksharsutra with its indication in Bhagandara (Fistulain- ano) and Arsha (Hemorrhoids). In the present era, Ksharsutra is used for various other diseases like excision of warts, excessive nipple, extra digits, small benign tumours etc. Kshar used in the formation of Ksharsutra has the properties like Tridoshaghna, Saumyata, Dahana, Pachana, Darana, Katuka, Ushna, Tikshna, Shodhana, Ropana, Lekhana, Shoshana, Stambhana, etc. which perform the work of incision, puncture and scarification to relieve derangements of the Tridosha and uniformly affects the diseased part to which they are applied. From traditional methods of Ksharsutra preparation, Snuhi ksheer and Apamarga Kshar are widely used but now the recent researches have proved that other medicated threads like Nimba Ksharsutra, Palash Ksharsutra, etc. have more beneficial effects than it. This review focuses on the advancements in the drugs used in preparing Ksharsutra and its application in various diseases in present era.
306 ANTHELMINTICS IN UNANI MEDICINE: AN EVIDENCE BASED APPROACH , Huda Nafees*, Sana Nafees, Mohd. Mohsin, Mohd. Anas, S. Nizamudeen
Medicinal plants have served through ages, as a constant source of medicaments for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The half of world is suffering from bacterial and helminthic infection, due to poor sanitation, unhygienic condition, malnutrition and crowded living conditions. The Latest estimation of W.H.O indicates that more than 880 million children are in need of treatment for these parasites In Unani literature helminthes are of 4 types these are- Long: Hayyat. Round: Mustadeer. Flat: Kaddudana. Small: Khalli. According to Tabri and Sarayoon (Al Hawi fit Tibb) the main cause for the production of helminths is heat and putrefaction. It has been mentioned that Dam (blood) has no role to play in these diseases Abujarih al Rahibstated that helminths also produced by the use of raw and soft things like raw wheat, raw meat, raw vegetables etc. Abdominal pain, dryness of lips, presence of worms in faeces, nausea, and paleness of face are the important symptoms mentioned in Unani medicine. Treatment of helminthes infection in humans according to Unani literature involves in removing the cause of production of the helminths i.e. the Balgham (Phlegm) from the intestines and the drugs responsible to kill the worms and those responsible for their expulsion from the body are indicated. For this purpose, those drugs which are bitter in Taste like Kamela, Baobarang, either of Haar or Barid Mizaj i.e. (Hot or Cold temperamental drugs) as per the Mizaj of the diseased person are recommended.
307 TO STUDY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACING IN PRIMARY DENTITION IN PRE SCHOOL CHILDREN-AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY , Dr. Shazia Nabi*, Dr. Shakir Hussain Rather, Dr. Nazir Ahmad Shah, Dr. Showkat Maqbool, Dr. Gagandeep Kaur
The proper maintenance of normal occlusion primarily constitutes one of fundamental objectives of pediatric dentistry. Many research papers and study are available that establishes various occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in the preschool children. The objective of our study was to study the characteristics of spacing in primary dentition in pre school children of 3 and 5 years of age.
308 A CASE REPORT-ROLE OF VIDHHA KARMA IN MANAGEMENT OF VISHWACHI , *Dr. Aprajita Saxena, Dr. Snehal Sonani and Dr. Chandrakant Pawar
Vishwachi is a disorder mentioned by Ayurveda under broad ailments of vatavyadhis. In vishwachi severe and throbbing type of pain which radiates from neck, shoulder, arm, forearm and digits is experienced. It affects complete upper limb, starting from base of shoulder joint till distal phalanges accompanied with loss of flexion and extension movement. Acharya Sushrut, father of ancient surgery has considered it as nanatmakavatavikara. For the present case report vidhhakarma was used in the patient suffering from vishwachi and presenting complains of stiffness in right shoulder and right elbow and restricted movement. After multiple sitting of vidhhakarma stiffness was reduced up to 70% and the range of motion increased by 80%.
309 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DRY VASA LEAF EXTRACTION PREPARED BY HIMA KALPANA AND KWATHA KALPANA , *Dr. Vikram Singh Bagari
Bhaishajya Kalpana, the Ayurvedic pharmacology is the science that describes the classic and new herbal drug dosage forms. Swarasa, the juice is considered the basest dosage form and it is prepared by Two different methods based on the drugs quality. Vasa, the Adhatoda vasica is a renowned pneumo-curative drug and it juice is prescribed to be extracted by a heating process. If fresh drug is not available than we can use dry vasa leaf for preparation of different swaras kalpana. This study is done to comparatively evaluate the effective method of extraction of vasa swarasa hima & kwatha kalpana (but both are not a swarasa kalpana) to extraction, by quantitative estimation of its active principle called vasicine. Three batches of vasa swarasa was prepared by both the methods, samples were collected by simple random sampling method and vasicine was estimated by high performance thin layer chromatography. The Kwatha (Phanta) method yielded quantitatively more swarasa and the vasicine is also comparatively more than Hima method. Hence Kwatha proves effective in extraction of a more potent Kwath vasa swarasa.
310 FASTING BY MUSLIM PREGNANT WOMEN DURING RAMADAN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY STUDY , Dr. Rabia Javed*, Dr. Shahana Hoor, Dr. Samina Asghar, Dr. Naima Umar, Dr. Azhar Abbas Shah, Dr. Nargis Hanif, Dr. Maryum Shafiq, Dr. Nishat Shafiq Khan and Mohammad Abdullah Imran
Purpose/ Objectives: There is a mixed opinion regarding fasting by pregnant women during Ramadan. This study was carried out to examine the knowledge, beliefs, attitude and practices of pregnant Muslim regarding fasting during the month of Ramadan. Methodology: Using convenient sampling, 200 pregnant women visiting 3 Basic Health Units were targeted in a 1 month (July 2019) observational descriptive cross-sectional survey study. A self-designed questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Data was analysed using SPSS-22. Chi-square test was applied to check the association between different demographic variables and fasting frequency. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The overall response rate was 95% (190/200). 77% fasted during Ramadan, out of which 50% fasted for a duration of 11 to 20 days and 95% considered fasting in pregnancy difficult than othewise.72% consulted a doctor for decision regarding fasting. 94% considered it “Wajib” with 90% being aware of fasting compensation after delivery. 47% perceived „feeling of weakness due to lack of nutrition‟ as the main risk of fasting. Educational status, presence of co-morbidity, duration of pregnancy and husband‟s restriction were positively associated with fasting (p-value <0.05). Conclusion: Fasting by pregnant women during Ramadan is associated with certain variables. There is need for health care providers to assess the pregnant women‟s status to decide whether to fast in Ramadan or not and increase their knowledge of health issues related to it.
311 AN APPRAISAL ON AYURVEDA TREATMENT IDEOLOGY IN TAMAKA SHWASA (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA) VYADHI , Suvidha Manohar Pazare*, Bhairavi Nimbarte, Surekha Pillevan, Pramod Gahane, Vinod Badole and Atul Andelkar
Respiration is the evident feature of life which is carried out by Prana vayu. This sole sign of life is affected in this disease Tamaka Shwasa, causing an impediment to the Respiratory function. Shwasa word indicates both physiological and pathological state of respiration. Ayurvedic texts have mentioned Tamaka Shwasa under the various types of Shwasa roga. Disease Tamaka Shwasa can be correlated with the disease Bronchial Asthma on the basis of its features & etiopathogenesis. Tamaka Shwasa is considered as Yapya (palliable) because this type of Shwasa roga is not only difficult to treat but also has a repetitive nature. Bronchial Asthma calls the attention of Medical world due to significant burden in terms of healthcare costs as well as lost productivity and reduced participation in family life. The Science of Life – Ayurveda is the best way to effectively & safely manage the condition without inducing any drug dependency where various Shodhana procedures and use of internal medication not only detoxifies the body but also provides nutrition & increases the elasticity of lung tissue & develops natural immunity of the body thus decreasing episodic recurrence of the disease and providing long term relief to the patient.
312 IMPORTANCE OF MEDHYA RASAYANA – A LITERARY REVIEW , Aditi Arun Gandhare*, Bhairavi Nimbarte, Surekha Pillevan, Pramod Gahane, Vinod Badole and Atul Andelkar
Rasayana tantra is a branch of ayurveda which describes the measures of attaining long life, maintenance of youthfulness, increasing immunity and providing excellent nutrition to all the body tissues. Rasayana on regular practice boosts nourishment, health, memory, immunity and longevity. Rasayana can be classified as Dravyabhuta and Adravyabhuta Rasayana. Adravyabhuta Rasayana includes Aachara Rasayana and Dravyabhuta Rasayana; classified as Kamya Rasayana, Naimittika Rasayana and Ajasrika Rasayana. Medhya Rasayana (nootropic herbs) is a subtype of Kamya Rasayana and they are used with an intention or desire to improve intellect, concentration and memory. Need of attaining mental peace is increasing day by day in view of tremendous increase in the stress and strain. Medhya Rasayana described in the classics can be used as single dravyas or in combination. Some examples from our classics are Mandukaparni, Gudduchi, Yashtimadhu, Shankhpushpi, Brahmi, Vacha, Jatamansi and Ashwagandha. Objective of this study are to highlight the importance of using Rasayana in today’s perspective which is bounded by stressed life and immense competition. All the relevant ayurvedic classics with desired content matter were available which was thoroughly searched and the outcome was analyzed. The use of Medhya Rasayana in everyday sphere is a boon to the mankind considering the amount of stress, one is surrounded by which is difficult to deal with nowadays.
313 IN VIVO ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF A COMBINATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF FICUS CAPENSIS AND CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS LEAVES IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS , Ezeigwe Obiajulu Christian*, Obayuwana Erhunmwense Ann, Iloanya Ebele Lauretta, Enemchukwu Benneth Nnanyelugo, Oguazu Chinenye Enoch, Anyaoku Ijeoma Cynthia, Ekwunoh Peter Okwukwe, Akpata Ebere Immaculata
Aim and Objectives: The antidiabetic effect of a combination of ethanol extracts of Ficus capensis and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Fasting blood glucose levels were checked using One Touch glucometer and test strips. The lipid profile and liver function test of the experimental rats were determined using standard diagnostic test kits. Results: The result obtained showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the blood glucose levels of the experimental groups treated with the extract combination compared with the diabetic untreated group as well as the group treated with the standard drug, metformin. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (TCHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TRIG) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels with a significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were recorded in the extract treated experimental groups compared with the diabetic untreated group. Also, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the levels of the various liver function test parameters, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and direct bilirubin (D.BIL) were recorded in the groups treated with the combined ethanol extracts of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius leaves compared with the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the result obtained that the combined extracts of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius leaves possess antidiabetic effect without altering the lipid profile and liver function parameters of the experimental animals. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of a combination of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius leaves will be beneficial in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus.
314 PEDIATRIC INFRATENTORIAL SUBDURAL EMPYEMA: BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTION , *Abdalkarim Radwan and Mahmoud Hatem Ayash
The goal of this report is to highlight and share informations with my colleague students about a rare disease with an explanation of signs and symptoms, diagnostic tools, drug therapy, surgical procedures and the outcomes in this case.
315 ASSESSMENT OF APHRODISIAC EFFECTS IN MALE AND FEMALE ANIMALS, ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY OF DIAZOSTIMUL , Ntondele L. M., Nsompi M. P. and Cimanga K. R.
Heinsia crinita (Afzel) Taylor is a medicinal plant currently used in traditional medicine in many African countries to treat various diseases including erectile dysfunction because of its aphrodisiac property empirically known by many people who use an aqueous macerate or decoction for this medical purpose. Nowadays, this aqueous extract is put in an ameliorated galenic form as tablets and called Diazostimul as a natural aphrodisiac product. In the present study, Diazostimul aqueous extract was evaluated in animal model for its aphrodisiac property. Results revealed that the oral administration of this extract in treated male Wistar rats leaded to significant increase of some sexual parameter behaviors such as mount intromission or mount frequency, intromission frequency, penile erection, penile trusting, ejaculation frequency, copulatory efficiency, number of sperm and penile ejaculation interval. On the other hand, other sexual parameters like mount frequency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency known significant decrease. It also showed good potency, ability, motivation, arousability, performance and vigor in treated male animals. All these effects clearly demonstrated that Diazostimul aqueous extract possessed aphrodisiac property. The administration of the extract also significantly increase the level of sexual orientation, oeastradiol, testosterone, production of sperm, motility and fertility in male animals,. In addition, it did not significantly affect the haematological and biochemical parameter concentrations and weight of vital organs of treated animals. It in contrary, it influenced the concentration of some electrolytes. In acute and subacute toxicity testing, results showed that Diazostimul is a safe drug without any toxic effect. They support and justify the current use of this natural medicine by many people in their daily sexual relation where there find great satisfaction.
316 AIR QUALITY, OUTDOOR RUNNING AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW , *Carlos V. Serrano, Jr., Cibele L. Garzillo, Eduardo G. Lima, Fábio G. Pitta, Lucas C. Godoy, Luciana D. N. Janot de Matos, Michael E. Farkouh and Greg J. Evans
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries and air pollution exposure is believed to be a key modifiable risk factor. Although explanations by which pollution leads to CVD remain inconsistent, recent studies suggest that compromise to vascular function are potential pathophysiological mechanisms. The inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM) is linked to an increased inflammatory status and adverse myocardial and vascular functions. Notably, physical exercise improves the CV risk profile. However, studies indicate that the forceful inhalation, as in intense exercise, of small environmental particles may directly or indirectly result in vascular damage, an early feature of the atherogenic process. The mechanisms responsible for this vascular dysfunction remain unknown. Therefore, a systematic review on vascular dysfunction markers in the setting of outdoor running in poor air quality environment was performed. Inflammatory, thrombotic, oxidative stress and endothelial markers were emphasized. These markers are adversely affected among high-volume runners exposed to an increased inhaled dose of air pollution. This adverse effect may induce vascular dysfunction and stimulate CVD.
317 EFFECT OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AQUEOUS EXTRACT (SOBO) ON LIVER MARKER ENZYMES IN PARACETAMOL-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS , Umoren E. B.*, Kolawole T. A., Ekpenyong J. F., Oyama O. E. and Obembe A. O.
The hepatoregenerative properties of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa in Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated. 30 adult albino Wistar rats (100-200g body weight) were used for the study. Rats in the control group (n =10) were fed normal rat chow, rats in group B (Paracetamol-treated group, n=10) were administered Paracetamol intraperitoneally at a dose of 750 mg/kg body weight while those in group C were administered Paracetamol 750 mg/ kg body weight + 10 ml/Kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of H. sabdariffa orally for 4 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. At the expiration of the treatment regime, serum levels of Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were examined. AST in the Paracetamol + H. sabdariffa-treated group was significantly higher (p< 0.05) than the control and Paracetamol- treated groups respectively. ALT in the Paracetamol-treated group was significantly lower (p< 0.05) than the control and Paracetamol + H. sabdariffa-treated groups respectively. ALP in the Paracetamol treated group was significantly higher (p< 0.05) than the control group. It was however significantly lower (p< 0.05) than in the Paracetamol + H. sabdariffa-treated group. In conclusion, results of the study revealed that the aqueous extract administration of H. sabdariffa could not confer its hepatoregenerative property in rats challenged with Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.
318 HYPERTENSION AND AORTIC ROOT DIAMETER AMONGST NIGERIANS , Erekosima Boma Uriah*, Gwunireama Israel Ukie, Kiridi Enefia Kelvin, Oki Blessed Oyinmiebi
Root of aorta provides linkage between the heart and the circulation, with documented reports of relationship with hypertension. The aim of this study was to use echocardiogram to evaluate the aortic root diameter in normotensive and hypertensive subjects, males and females ≥18years of age. Sixty two (62) volunteers were engaged in this research (32 males, 52%; 30 females,48%). Data were collected primarily and analysed using SPSS version 25.0. ANOVA, t-test and correlation were used to analyse the data, p<0.05 at 95% (confidence interval). Results showed that female hypertensives had a mean aortic diameter of 2.18cm compared to female normotensives, 1.77cm at the annulus, older female adults had higher aortic diameter at the aortic valve with a mean of 2.1cm. T-test was used to ascertain gender difference at the aortic valve, males had 2.050.30, females had 1.840.23, ANOVA established no significant (p>0.05) relationship between aortic diameters at various levels in both sexes with BMI, also aortic diameter did not increase with increasing age in males. This study recommends that cardiologists should do regular echocardiogram on their patients especially older females, and hypertensive females. In conclusion, this study provided reference values for aortic root diameter in normotensives and hypertensives in our population, it also revealed that female hypertensives have bigger aortic root diameter at annulus, older female adults also have a higher aortic root diameter at the aortic valve, males have a higher aortic root diameter at the aortic valve compared to females.
319 SERUM ANTIOXIDANT MINERALS STATUS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA , *Wali U., Dallatu M. K., Hadiza M. A. Alhassan H. M. and Jiya N. M. A.
Sickle cell anaemia is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decline in antioxidant defences. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of sickle cell anaemia and its attendant complications. In the current study, chromium, zinc, manganese, copper and body mass index (BMI) levels were evaluated in 35 sickle cell anaemics attending the Paediatric medical clinic of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the results compared to those of apparently healthy non-sickle cell anaemic volunteers of comparable age and social status. Serum levels of chromium, zinc, manganese, copper and BMI were 12.43±2.92 μg/dL, 5.33±2.46 μg/dL, 11.36±3.08 μg/dL, 6.55±0.48 μg/dL, 15.16±0.64 kg/m2 and 20.44±5.93 μg/dL, 9.32±2.67 μg/dL, 17.07±4.24 μg/dL, 6.86±0.57 μg/dL, and 17.67±0.53 kg/m2 in sickle cell anaemics and non-sickle cell anaemic subjects, respectively. There was significantly (P<0.05) decreased levels of antioxidant minerals in sickle cell anaemic subjects. Age and gender did not have significant (P>0.05) effect. The results suggest that sickle cell anaemics in the study area have low serum levels of antioxidant minerals, an indication that the sickle cell anaemics are predisposed to increased oxidative onslaught.
320 SYSTEMIC IMMUNE-INFLAMMATION INDEX AS A MARKER OF SUBCLINICAL INFLAMMATION IN PATIENTS WITH FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER , *Sena Ulu, Sinan Kazan, Elif Dizen Kazan and Onur Tunca
Background: Although FMF is a disease with episodes, subclinical inflammation may be present in the intermittent period. Systemic immune-inflammation index is a new, cheap and easily accessible inflammatory marker. Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare SII index in FMF patients in terms of subclinical inflammation , when they were attack-free and healthy controls. Besides, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the frequency of FMF attacks and SII index measured in the period without FMF attack. Methods: The analysis was performed with 173 FMF patients and 20 healthy subjects. All patients who met the diagnostic criteria of Tel-Hashomer followed by nephrology outpatient clinic were involved in this retrospective study. As the control group, all health workers who work in our hospital in internal medicine department were examined. Systemic immune-inflammation index was calculated as (absolute neutrophil count x platelet count)/absolute lymphocyte count. All patients were required to be at least 2 months of attack-free period and control group was also required to have no signs of active infection at the time of calculating the SII index. Results: Systemic immune-inflammation index was significantly higher in FMF patients than controls (583,08±362,1 and 381,38±123,9 respectively, p=0,016). Systemic immune inflammation index was also correlated with the frequency of annual attacks (p<0,001 and r=0,458). Conclusion: This the first study investigating the SII index in FMF patients. The SII index may be considered as a new, easily accessible and inexpensive indicator of inflammation in FMF patients.
321 A REVIEW ON THE ROLE OF VITAMINS IN CONGENITAL VENTRAL ABDOMINAL WALL DEFECTS; OMPHALOCELE AND GASTROSCHISIS , Mala Thakur*, Ryanjit Singh Virk, Pritpal Singh Sangha, Alessia Genova, Komal Virk, Snehal Goud, Vaugn De Vera and Pooja Shah
Omphalocele and Gastroschisis are two of the rarest ventral abdominal wall defects which occur due to congenital malformations in utero. These defects fail to fuse the abdominal wall properly, which expose the abdominal organs such as the intestines, stomach, and liver outside the abdominal cavity. Omphalocele is the protrusion of the abdominal contents covered with peritoneum sac through the base of the umbilical cord.[1] It consists of Wharton’s jelly in between both the amnion and peritoneum membrane. Meanwhile, Gastroschisis usually occurs to the right of the belly button and is the protrusion of the abdominal contents without the peritoneum sac covering.[1] Both of these birth defects can be detected prenatally by fetal ultrasonography as well as treated. Despite the technological advances in medicine, the explanation behind exactly why or how these defects occur are unclear. To examine the roles of different vitamins and their possible roles in the prevalence as well as manifestation of ventral abdominal wall defects, related studies were reviewed to find a possible explanation behind these malformations.
322 BRAINSTEM GLIOMAS DIFFUSE INTRINSIC PONTINE GLIOMA (DIPG) , *Dr. Madleen Jawad Sobhe Abu Aser, Dr. Amjad Alanqar and Professor Abdalkarim Radwan
Brain stem glioma is a very rare case. The incidence of this case is not known. Brainstem gliomas of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma remain poorly understood and the dismal prognosis has not changed despite various attempts to add chemotherapy to standard radiation. High –grade gliomas are malignant, often rapidly progressive brain tumors that divided into anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma based upon their histopathologic and molecular features. Brainstem gliomas have been one of the most difficult pediatric cancers to treat. Tumors arising in the brainstem were once uniformly discounted as surgically resectable lesions. Early neurosurgeons thought this location to be inoperable and fraught with disaster. The advent of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sophisticated neurophysiologic monitoring techniques have significantly advanced the surgical treatment of these lesions. Gliomas within the brainstem comprise 10-20% of all pediatric CNS tumors. Brainstem gliomas can occur at any age, although they generally present in childhood, with the mean age of diagnosis at 7 to 9 years. There is no gender predilection. The brainstem consists of three parts: the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. DIPG is a pontine glioma, meaning that it develops in the pons. Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma, commonly referred to as pontine glioma, infiltrative brainstem glioma, or DIPG, is a rare tumor of the brainstem that occurs almost exclusively in children. A pontine glioma occurs in the most delicate area of the brainstem, which controls many critical functions, including breathing and blood pressure. Its location, as well as the way it infiltrates normal brain tissue, makes it especially difficult to treat. There are about 300-350 new cases of DIPG diagnosed each year in the United States, usually in children under the age of 10. DIPG affects boys and girls equally. Brainstem gliomas are now recognized as a heterogeneous group of tumors. The classification systems provide a framework to predict growth patterns, surgical resectability and overall prognosis for these heterogeneous tumors. These systems allow the surgeon to better differentiate low-grade tumors from the diffuse inoperable tumor type. The WHO classification scheme of brain tumors remains the primary basis for guiding therapy and assessing overall prognosis in patients with a brain tumor. In this case study, we are going to discuss a 2 years old female child who was diagnosed with pontine glioma which is very aggressive and can cause death. Brain stem gliomas are present in 20% all-in neoplasm. MRI and all diagnostic reports show the diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Surgical treatment reveals with no outcomes. The patient is on conservative management. The patient is improving health but the treatment is under process.
323 EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES; CARMOISINE AND ACESULFAME POTASSIUM ON THE HEART OF ADULT WISTAR RAT , Ezejindu D.N., Aguwa U.S.* , Ugwuja J.O., Ezejindu I.O., Akukwu Cyprian D., Uloneme Godwin C., Okafor E.C., Okeke S. M.
Carmoisine and acesulfame potassium are widely used as food additives. This study examined the effect(s) of oral administration of carmoisine and acesulfame potassium on the histology of the heart. Twenty adult wistar rats weighing between 130-180g were divided into five groups of four animals each. Group A (control) was given rat feed and water; group B received 500mg/kg body weight of carmoisine, group C received 500mg/kg body weight of acesulfame potassium while group D was co-administered 250mg/kg body weight of each of carmoisine and acesulfame potassium. All food additives were given daily by oral gavage method for twenty-one days. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, the rats were sacrificed. The hearts were harvested, weighed and fixed in 10% formol saline for histological studies. Our result showed a significant increase in the relative heart weight in group B, compared to the control group. Histological observation showed that following administration of carmoisine and acesulfame potassium, there was mild infiltration of heart tissue by inflammatory cells. The result of the study revealed that exposure of rats to carmoisine and acesulfame pottassium at these concentrations caused mild distortion of cardiac fibers which may constitute a risk factor for cardiac function.
324 IMPROVING KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF ELJALLABIYA CITIZENS TOWARDS THE UTILIZATION OF WATER SUPPLIES, IN EL-OBEID, NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN, (2017 - 2019) , Musa A. O. Mohammed*, Magda E. Ahmed, Osman K. Saeed and Kubra A. E. Hammad
A health education intervention study was conducted to assess the role of a comprehensive health education program in improving water supply utilization, in Eljallabiya, El-Obeid City, North Kordofan State, Sudan. Building on community. A baseline survey was conducted to obtain baseline data from the study area. The intervention activities were the training program, health education activities. A total of (121) families were selected, were participated (100% response rate). Filled a self-administered questionnaire that was selected through a clustered sampling technique, and a simple random sampling technique used to select sample size determined from each household. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences version (22.0) software. Chi-square test was used to verify the possible association between different variables (dependent and independent). All houses out a range of network distribution system is increasing to (17.4%), after an intervention; (P.V= 0.002). (84.3%) of citizens change the stored water, is increasing to (99.2%). (65%) of citizens use plastic cups, is reducing to (19%) after an intervention. There was a significant improvement in their Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards water supply utilization, (P= 0.000). Regarding household treatment was increased from (9.7%) to (25.6%), (P= 0.000). The reasons behind absence of water treatment before using were: lack of knowledge of treatment methods, lack of chlorine tablets and treatment is not important, was reduced from (63.6%), (11.8%) and (20%), respectively, to (42.2%), (8.9%), (17.8%); (P.V= 0.000). (95%) of citizens had never used chlorine for water treatment, is reducing to (93.9%) after an intervention.
325 A STUDY OF RECRUITMENT PROCESS AND ORIENTATION PROGRAM IN A HOSPITAL WITH REFERENCE TO THE STANDARD LAID DOWN BY NATIONAL ACCREDITATION BOARD FOR HOSPITAL AND HEALTH CARE PROVIDER , Dipali U. Dumbre* and Dr. Sharadha Ramesh
Quality has become an essential part of the management and evaluation of health care. The continual improvement of service quality in healthcare units has become a prime consideration to ensure patient satisfaction across the world in the modern economic scenario. NABH is a constituent board of Quality Council of India (QCI), set up with co-operation of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India and the Indian Health Industry. NABH accreditation system is one of the methods for commitment to quality enhancement throughout the whole of the health care system in India. It involves all professional and service groups to ensure that high quality in health care is achieved, while minimizing the inherent risks associated with modern health care delivery. Human resource management is concerned with the management of people at work. It reflects a new philosophy, a new approach and a new outlook. The human factor plays such an important role in the field of management that some people consider human resource management and management as the same thing. As Apply observes: “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things. Human resource Management in hospitals assumes significance in an era of stiff and global competition; though we do not right now have global brands in hospitals, it may not be too long since now to have such collaborations. The efficiency of any organization manufacturing or service lies in its employees, as they are the ones who help the organization to realize its goals. The onus of the management now lies in making the employees ready for any kind of challenging roles in the organization to face the onslaught of competition. It is here that HRM assumes greater significance as it helps in Selection, Training, Placement, Control, and Compensation of the employees. The study on recruitment process and orientation program in a hospital with reference to the standard laid down by National Accreditation Board for Hospital and Health care provider is conducted in selected hospital and findings of the study shows that the organization follows the guideline of NABH for recruitment and orientation program.
326 A REVIEW ON SERUM MARKERS AND GENETICS OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION , Dr. R. Dhananjayan*
Endothelium is the biological active inner layer of the blood vessels, which controls vascular and thus organ functions. The arterial vessel is outlined by three distinct layers; tunica intima - a single layer of endothelial cells, tunica media - which comprises the vascular smooth muscle cell and tunica adventitia, an elastic lamina with terminal nerve fibres and surrounding connective tissue. The endothelial dysfunction is an imbalance in the production of vasodilator and vasoconstriction factors. When this balance is disrupted, it predisposes the vasculature towards pro-thrombotic and pro-atherogenic effects. There are many clinical markers proposed to link inflammation and atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction or damage can be approximated through measurement of serum biomarkers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms are small genetic changes or variations of a single base found in the sequence of DNA and are defined as polymorphisms when they are present at 1% or more within a population and their products are implicated in endothelial dysfunction and associated with endothelium dependent vasoreactivity. This review is focussed on serum markers and genetic aspects of endothelial dysfunction.
327 A CRITICAL REVIEW ARTICLE ON BOSWELLIA SERRATA (SHALLAKI) , Aradhna Saklani*, Neha Rai, D. C. Singh, Suresh Chaubey and Rishi Arya
Ayurveda is a comprehensive system of natural health care that originated in the ancient Vedic times of India. Its primary emphasis is on prevention of disease and maintenance of health. It also provides treatment for disease. Boswellia serrata is a multipurpose plant . Many text books in Ayurveda describe its morphology, habitat, ras pan-chak and its therapeutic uses which mainly focuses on its anti-inflammatory and analgesic action. It has hypoli-pidemic, Hepatoprotective, Anti- diabetic, immuno-modulator, anti-cancerous actions also this plant is the need of present scenario as it can be used as a substitute for Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) intake of which is associated with high prevalence of gastrointestinal or cardiovascular adverse effects. In the last two dec-ades, preparations of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata (Kundru, a traditional ayurvedic medicine) and of other Boswellia species have experienced increasing popularity in Western countries. Boswellia serrata contains chemi-cal constituents, such as β-boswellic acid, acetyl-β-boswellic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid.
328 A REVIEW ON CLASSIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION, SYNTHESIS, APPLICATIONS AND TOXICITY OF NANOPARTICLES. , Sunitha Reddy M.*, Ph. D. and Pallavi Sunduru, M. Pharm.
Nanotechnology is the study of very small structure. It is involved in the development of small structures like atoms, molecules, compounds of size 0.1 to 100 nm that can be developed into special devices with desired characteristics and properties by using synthetic methods like bottom up (or) top down techniques. Due to their small size it enhanced properties such as high reactivity, strength, surface area, sensitivity, stability, etc. These properties of nanoparticles has wide applications in many fields. Nanoparticles exist in different dimensions from natural sources and created by human activities. They play an significant role in technological advancement due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. Nanoparticles may be uniform (or) irregular with variations. They can be crystalline (or) amorphous with single (or) multiple crystal solids either loose (or) agglomerates. Aim of this review article is to know how nanotechnology is been used and developed from ancient days. Overview of this article is nanoparticle classification based on their origin, dimensions of their of structure, and nature, how nanoparticles are synthesized, their characterization, applications in various fields, and toxicity towards cells and tissues. Additionally, it provide information how the nanoparticle and nanotechnology is used in the target drug delivery.
329 AYURVEDA CONSIDERATIONS ON KADARA; CAUSE, SYMPTOMS AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW , Vikas Sharma*, Dr. Yogesh Wane and Dr. Prakash Joshi
Ayurveda the traditional science of long living described various aspects for the prevention and treatment of diseases. There are some diseases comes under heading of Kshudra-roga and Kadar is one such disease that affects daily life of diseased up to great extent. As per modern science Kadar Roga can be correlated with corn. This disease involves formation of dead skin callus on surface of toe. The disease may occur due to the injuries or friction to sole surface, wearing of defective foot wear, thorn prick and long walk without foot wear can cause corn. The modern science described use of anti-inflammatory agents, analgesics, corn cap and surgical interventions for the management of Kadar. Ayurveda described Shlya Karma, Anushastra karma, Utkartan and drugs, etc. for the management of Kadar. Considering painful and life affecting severity of this disease present article explore ayurveda and some modern concept on Kadar (corn).
330 SPECIFIC ROLE OF VARIOUS SURGICAL APPROACHES OF AYURVEDA IN SURGICAL PROBLEMS: AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , *Dr. Ranjit Solankar
Shalya Chikitsa is one of the pivotal therapeutic interventions of Ayurveda dealing with different surgical and para-surgical approaches. The approaches Shalya Karma help to manage different health issues like; cuts, wounds, Bhagandara, Pilonidal Sinus, Charmakeela, Avamanthaka, Dantapup and Kumbhika, etc. Shalya Karma offers many advantages where minor surgical interventions prerequisite. Chhedana, Bhedana, Vyadhana, Lekhana, Eshana, Aharana, Visravana and Sivana, etc. are some major approaches of Shalya Karma which can be performed using various instrument and natural materials obtained from plants and animal sources. Present article emphasizes role of various surgical modalities towards the management of different surgical and para-surgical health problems.
331 PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF AMRAGANDHI HARIDRA WITH RESPECT TO ITS KANDUGHNA, SHOTH-HAR KARMA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS ANTI-FUNGAL, ANTI-ALLERGIC, ANTI-HISTAMINE AND ANTI-INFLAMATORY ACTIONS , Monica Salaria* and Aditya
The name of Amragandhi Haridra is derived from Amragandhi & Haridra. Amragandhi refers to the smell of raw mango. Thus, a Haridra type with smell of raw mango. It has several properties such as Kanduhar, Shwasahar, Kashar, Abhighataj shothhar etc. Several researches have been carried out by modern researchers on this drug and the many beneficial qualities are known by now. Among them anti-inflamatory, anti-histamine, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant activity. There has been a wide use of drug in Ayurvedic medicines.
332 AYURVEDA VIEW ON OCCUPATIONAL DISORDERS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW , Dr. Nikhil A. Baxi*, Dr. Mayuri Ratnaparkhi and Dr. Neha N. Baxi
The disorders that may arise due to the harmful working conditions of professional environment are called occupational hazards. Hearing loss, asthma, heat stroke, stress, anxiety, backache, allergy, metabolic disturbances, Eyestrain/ Drishti Dosha and musculoskeletal problems, etc. are some pathological conditions considered as occupational disorders. Ayurveda treatment, maintenance of dietary regime & Dincharya along with Panchkarma therapies helps to manage occupational hazards. The prevalence of such pathological conditions increases day by day due to the diversified working conditions. Ayurveda not only provides way to treat occupational diseases but its principles and theories helps to prevent pathogenesis of occupational health hazards. Therefore present article explore Ayurveda view on occupational disorders.
333 A REVIEW ON DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME , Kanchan M. Dodani and Mushtaque A. S. Shaikh*
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), an endocrine disorder with the association of hyperandrogenism and anovulation, is the most common reproductive disorder in women. The condition further generates a constellation of different metabolic abnormalities worsening the situation more. The current treatment strategy for PCOS is rather symptomatic including drug therapy like anti-diabetic, anti-hirsutism, ovulation-inducing agents and others. However, in the past few years, there had been extensive studies on finding exact pathogenesis of PCOS and developing drugs that are curative rather than just being symptomatic. A few drugs which act as GnRH antagonist are under clinical trials for PCOS treatment. Also, NK3 receptor, extrasynaptic GABAA receptors are few other novel targets that are under investigation. An overview of pathogenesis, symptoms, treatment strategy and some novel targets has been presented in this paper.
334 CHALCONES AND HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS: A REVIEW ON SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTILESHMANIAL ACTIVITY , G. N. Lodhi*, S. S. Trivedi and C. A. Doifode
Chalcones are an important class of natural products and are considered as the precursors of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Chemically, chalcones are 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones in which two aromatic rings are joined by a three carbon bridge having a carbonyl moiety and α, β unsaturation. The compounds with the backbone of chalcones have been reported to possess various biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti platelet, anti ulcerative, anti 0malarial, anticancer, antiviral, anti leishmanial, antioxidant, anti-tubercular, anti-hyperglycemic, immunomodulatory, inhibition of chemical mediators release, inhibition of leukotriene B4, inhibition of tyrosinase and inhibition of aldose reductase activities. This paper mainly focuses on chalcones synthesized by Claisen Schmidt condensation which involves the condensation between an aromatic aldehyde or ketone with an aliphatic ketone or aldehyde catalysed by the presence of dilute alkali or acid to form alpha beta unsaturated compound. through reviewing different biological significance of chalcones and their derivatives have been reported along with their chemistry and of synthesis.
335 PATHOLOGICAL PROGRESSION, CAUSES AND AYURVEDA MANAGEMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME , Dr. Nilesh Subhash Kulthe* and Dr. Suryakiran P. Wagh
The diseases related to metabolic abnormalities are considered as metabolic disorders and these diseases mainly arise due to the disturbed life and dietary pattern. Sthaulya, Prameha, Hridroga and hypertension, etc. are metabolic diseases which affects health status of society badly. Ayurveda described Santarpanjanya Vikaras as diseases due to the defective metabolism. Pathologically disease mainly involves vitiation of Rasa, Medadhatu, Rakta, Mamsa and Srotasa, etc. The major metabolic disorders are comes under category of Amasayottha vyadhi which affects Udara Sthana and Gala pradesa.
336 ARDHA PAWANMUKTASANA IN SPONDYLOSIS W.S.R. TO LUMBAR SPONDYLOSIS: AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , Dr. Kishor Pimparkar*, Dr. Sudhir Kandekar and Dr. Yogeshwar Deshpande
Spondylosis is condition mainly arises due to the stress on bones, cartilage and muscles. The condition characterized as severe pain, restricted movement and disturbed daily activities. The stressful living pattern of current time that imparts physical and mental burden can cause problem like; spondylosis. Lack of exercise, seating for long time, use of wrong bed for sleeping, bike riding, uncomfortable posture for long periods, injuries and obesity can also trigger Spondylosis. Ayurveda recommended various treatment options for the management of Spondylosis and Yoga is one of them. The Yoga offers several health benefits in painful condition like spondylosis therefore present article summarizes role of Ardha Pawanmuktasana in Spondylosis W.S.R. to Lumbar Spondylosis.
337 DINCHARYA; AN AYURVEDA CONCEPT, LIFE STYLE DISORDERS RELATED TO IMPROPER CONDUCTION OF DINCHARYA , Dr. Sanjay Kumar Gupta* and Dr. Vinay Pareek
Dincharya is classical term described in traditional Ayurveda texts and it resembles daily routine. It is believed that proper conduction of daily regimen (Dincharya) helps to maintain healthy body and prevent various health related ailments. Dincharya involves essential practices that to be performed in day to day routine life like; eating at proper times, regular time of sleep, avoidance of improper daily regimen and exercise, etc. The improper conduction of daily regimen may causes pathogenesis of various disease especially related to disturbed pattern of life style such as; obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, insomnia, anorexia, stress, heart problems and hypertension, etc. The disciplinary conduction of Dincharya not only helps to maintain good health status but also prevent pathological triggering of such life style disorders.
338 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING MODULE ON MASS CASUALTY MANAGEMENT PLAN(MCMP) ON KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF STAFF NURSES OF EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT IN SELECTED HOSPITAL OF PUNE , *Nitin Patidar, Dr. S. G. Joshi and Jasneet Kaur
Background: The National Health Policy (NHP) was first formulated in 1983. This policy-guided government effort aims to provide health for all by outlining a time-bound phased setup of comprehensive primary health care services throughout the country. We believe that EDs should exist for true emergencies, similar to the notion that fire departments exist to extinguish fires. Nurses employed in Emergency Departments and Critical Care settings (ECCNs) are moving towards a new professional era encompassing a highly sophisticated clinical environment, education in advanced practice and augmented clinical duties denoting that new professional roles may need to be developed. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of training module on knowledge and perception among the staff nurses and to correlate the knowledge with perception of the staff nurses regarding mass casualty management plan. Methodology: A Pre-Experimental design one group pre- test post-test. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used for the groups. The sample consisted of 50 staff nurses who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study. In order to assess the Effectiveness of training module on mass casualty management plan (MCMP) on knowledge and perception of staff nurses self-structured questionnaire on knowledge and perception regarding mass casualty management plan (MCMP) was used as data collection tool. The tool consisted of demographic variables, Structured questionnaire (knowledge assessment), Likert scale (perception assessment), Training module on hospital preparedness for mass casualty management. Result: The findings show that analysis of structured questionnaire tool on Knowledge of the staff nurses regarding mass casualty management, which reflects that the before intervention 80% staff nurses are having average level of Knowledge regarding mass casualty management. The total mean knowledge is 8.54 in pre-test with SD 3.02. After intervention 86% staff nurses are having Good level of Knowledge regarding mass casualty management. The total mean knowledge is 16.56 in post-test with SD 2.6. Analysis of Likert sale on perception of the staff nurses regarding mass casualty management, which reflects that the before intervention 66% staff nurses are having bad perception of Knowledge regarding mass casualty management. The total mean perception in pre-test 27.4 with SD 4.46. After intervention 76% staff nurses are having Good level of perception regarding mass casualty management. The total mean knowledge is 57.5 in post-test with SD 3.12. Findings related to effectiveness of training module on knowledge and perception mass casualty management plan among the staff nurses shows that the significant change was observed in knowledge level as evident from the calculated’ value 8.54 to 16.56 in experiment group with t value of 5.66 to 14.46 and p value is .00001 that is less than 0.05 therefore structured teaching programme was effective. Conclusion: That the descriptive analysis was done for effectiveness of training module on knowledge and perception on mass casualty management plan among the staff nurses, which shows that training module is effective method for enhancement of knowledge and perception on mass casualty management plan.
339 A BRIEF REVIW STUDY OF MANAGEMENT OF AMVATA THROUGH VIRECHANA KARMA , Dr. Ajay Kumar Tikoo, *Dr. Shital G. Bhagiya and Dr. Nilesh Bhatt
Amvata is the condition in which Ama and Vata are involved. When Ama and Vata gets deposited in the Koshtha (gut), Trik (sacral region) and Sandhi (joints) it produces Shotha (oedema), Shula (pain) and Stabdhata (stiffness). This manifestation is known as Amavata. Virechana is one of the Panchakarma by the virtue of which Doshas are expelled through Adhobhaga i.e. Guda. It is used in the conditions involving the disorders in which the Pitta is associated with Kapha or Vata. Virechana has an important role in Amavata. The action of Virechana is not only limited to particular site but has effects on the whole body. It has direct effect on Agnisthana and hampered Agni is one of the initiating factors in Amavata. It is also to be taken into consideration that symptoms of Amavata viz. Anaha, Vibandha, Antrakujana, Kukshishula etc. are indicative of Pratiloma Gati of Vata. This can be treated by Virechana. Considering the significance of therapeutics, a number of studies have been carried-out in the various PG Departments of various colleges of universities. Here total five studies were screened, which compiled the impact of classical Virechana Karma in Amvata.
340 ELDERLY IN INDIA: STATUS AND CONCERNS , Dr. Dalvinder Singh* and Rana Noor
Ageing is inevitable, irreversible and progressive, and it‟s always accompanied with changes in the functions of most organs and leads to development of various chronic diseases. Advances in medicine have increased life expectancy, leading to an increase in geriatric population worldwide, and their proportion will only continue to rise in the coming years. The ageing of population is expected to become the next major problem for public health. Elderly people are an integral component of every nation that, like any other section, owes respect and attention. However, due to a changing family structure and modernisation, the elderly face the inevitable challenges of living their lives in a respectful manner. The most dangerous situations for older people include depression, loneliness, neglect, age-related diseases and inadequate treatment. Sadly, the abusers are members of their families on whom they depend upon the maximum. This paper focuses primarily on elderly people's problems and quality of life in India. It should be remembered that improving the quality of life of the elderly requires a holistic approach and a concerted effort on the part of the various stakeholders, such as government and health sectors, family and care givers etc.
341 ETHANOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS MEDIK , Anu Raj and Kandasamy Palanisamy Jaiganesh*
Abelmoschus moschatus Medik, is an erect, hispid, herbaceous plant with aromatic and medicinal property belonging to the family Malvaceae. Syn, Hibiscus abelmoschus Linn. The plant is traditionally used in the treatment of various health ailments. In India, roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicines. Seeds are used as a tonic, cooling, aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, digestive, stomachic, constipating, carminative, pectoral, diuretic, stimulant, antispasmodic, deodorant, and effective against, intestinal complaints, stomatitis and heart diseases. This present study reveals that wide range of novel phytochemical constituent has been isolated from this plant with diverse chemical properties and deals with enormous data that has been generated due to recent wide spread research in phytochemical, pharmacological aspect of this plant also include on its ethanobotany.
342 AYURVEDA AND MODERN VIEW ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF MENSTRUATION, RELATED ABNORMALITIES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT , *Dr. Rahul Sukhdev Bankar
Menstruation means menstrual cycle described as Rituchakra in ayurveda involving various phases i.e; Rajahsravakaal, Ritukaala and Rtuvyatitkaala. Characteristically menstruation defined as discharge of blood or menstrual fluid every month (Maasaata) along with abdominal cramps and pain which may persist for 3-5 days. The general consideration related to menstrual cycle is that it persisted periodicity of 28 days described as one Chandramasa in ayurveda. The prevalence of normal menstruation is important for the health status of women and it is essential for fertility while abnormal menstrual phases impart health problems including infertility. Diseases like Aartavadushti, Yonivyapat and Bandhya etc. are consequences of abnormal menstrual cycle. Present article summarizes some medical aspects related to menstruation along with its abnormalities and their treatment.
343 SHUKRADHATU; AYURVEDA AND MODERN PERSPECTIVE W.S.R. TO PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECT AND CORRELATION WITH INTERNAL CONSTITUTION (PRAKRITI) , *Dr. Rahul Sukhdev Bankar
Ayurveda the science of health described that there are seven Dhatus resides in body to perform specific biological activities, these are Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Ashti, Majja and Shukra. Shukra is one of the important Dhatus of human body considered as Sara of other Dhatus. Shukradhatu is produced by Majjadhatu and Shukravaha srota facilitate flow of Shukradhatu during Shukradharakala, it is stated that Shukragni helps in formation of Shukradhatu. Ayurveda described term Shukra for both male semen and female egg. The person having balanced state of Doshas, Agni and Dhatus possesses optimum quantity and functioning of Shukradhatu. Therefore state and functioning of Shukradhatu greatly influences internal constitution (Prakriti) of an individual. Present article emphasizes physiological aspects of Shukradhatu and its correlation with internal constitution of an individual.
344 ROOT CANAL SYSTEM PREPARATIONS: CURRENT CONCEPT AND CHALLENGES , Dr. Spandana*
Successful endodontic therapy is largely dependent on a triad of access cavity, canal preparation, and three-dimensional hermetically sealed obturation of the canals. Canal preparation is the most vital part of the triad that can be very challenging due to the complex morphology of the root canal system. Clinicians quite frequently encounter severe canal curvatures of different degrees within the roots that lead to a variety of problems including ledge formation, separation of instruments, canal blockage, and tear-drop transportation at the apex or perforation. Anatomical variations within the complex root canal morphology are the commonest cause of endodontic treatment failure. It is, therefore, essential to have a thorough knowledge about the internal and external morphologies of teeth.
345 AYURVEDA AND MODERN CONSIDERATIONS ON ASHMARI, RELATED COMPLICATIONS AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES W.S.R. TO RENAL STONE , Dr. Ganesh Belorkar*, Dr. Tushar Kakar, Dr. Shailendra K. Pund
Ayurveda the science of disease management described various theories related to the health management. Ayurveda literature broadly described various diseases related to urinary system & kidney, Ashmari is one of them involving vitiation of Mutravah Srotas. Ashmari means presence of renal stone causing obstruction in urinary passage and sever pain. Unwholesome dietary habits, avoidance of natural urges, side effects of medicines, Madyapana, Matsya sevan, smoking, alcoholism and lack of water intake, etc. can leads pathogenesis of Ashmari. Ayurveda described various approaches for the management of Ashmari including Aushadha chikitsa, Kshara Chikitsa, Shastra Chikitsa and detoxification measures, etc. Present article described Ayurveda and modern consideration on renal stone; Ashmari.
346 HYPERTENSION; CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, COMPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT AS PER AYURVEDA AND MODERN PERSPECTIVE , Dr. Nilesh Subhash Kulthe* and Dr. Suryakiran P. Wagh
Hypertension is described as Rakta Gata Vata in Ayurveda characterizes as elevation in blood pressure more than that of normal range. The normal range of blood pressure in healthy individual is from 120 mmHg (systolic) and 80 mmHg (diastolic). Hypertension affects functioning of heart, kidneys, brain and eyes etc. it is believed that involvement in sedentary lifestyle, genetic predisposition, psychological factors and disturbed dietary habits, etc. can provokes pathogenesis of hypertension since these all factors causes vitiation of Tridoshas. As per ayurveda hypertension involves disturbances in Vyana Vata, Avalambaka Kapha, Sadhaka Pitta and Rakta, etc. Present article summarizes ayurveda and modern perspective related to hypertension and its management.
347 HERBO-METALLIC FORMULATION IN RASASHASTRA, W.S.R. TO PREPARATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF BHASMA; A REVIEW , Dr. Shailendra K. Pund*, Dr. Tushar Kakar and Dr. Ganesh Belorkar
Ayurveda the science of longevity and healing described different modalities for the management of optimum health status and Rasashastra is one of such modality of Ayurveda. Rasashastra described use of various herbs and herbo-metallic formulation for enormous health benefits including rejuvenation, longevity, intellect, memory, strength, immunity and sexual strength, etc. Bhasma is one of the common herbo-metallic formulation comes under category of Rasa drugs and described as nanomedicine in modern formulary. The efficacy of such types of Rasa drugs depends upon their methods of preparation therefore appropriate formulary approaches should be adopted to prepare herbo-metallic formulation (Bhasma). The characterization of such formulation also prerequisite in modern scenario of quality concern thus characterization of such formulation must be done to establish their quality and inherent properties. Present article deals with various aspects related to Rasashastra w.s.r. to Bhasma.
348 STUDY OF MUCOADHESIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA OLIFERA GUM ON GASTRORETENTIVE TABLET OF BACLOFEN , Sujatha P. Muchalambe*, Sunil Kumar V., Suma U. S. and Mamatha M. K.
The objective of the study is to study the mucoadhesive effect of natural gum obtained from Moringa oleifera as tablet mucoadhesive polymer. This property of the gum was evaluated and compared with standard syntactic polymers like PVP K30, HPMCH4M for mucoadhesion. In this current study Baclofen is used as a model drug, where Baclofen has the absorption window in upper GI track and due to this often display low bio-availability, the half-life of the drug is 2.5-4hrs. The comparability of polymer and drug are carried by FTIR. The mucoadhesive tablet of different ratio of Moringa, HPMCK4M and PVPK30 tablet are formulated and evaluated for mucoadhesive time, mucoadhesive strength, swelling index. Dissolution study was conducted to characterize release mechanism of the formulation and data are fitted to various kinetic models. Stability study for optimized formulation B at 400 ±20C/75±5%RH for 90 days. It could be concluded that the gum Moringa oleifera can be used as a pharmaceutical Excepients in oral mucoadhesive drug delivery system.
349 PHARMACEUTICAL STANDERIZATION OF THE AJEYA GHRITA , Garima*, R. C. Tiwari, Chandra Mahesh and Lincon Kumar Sethi
Acharyas described ghrita paka under Sneha Kalpana is one of the common dosage forms that are used in day to day practice to treat any diseases. The concept of standardization, helpful to set the standard of the different dosage form that are very useful. In Ancient era physicist himself assess the doses form of raw drugs by their taste, smell, colour, texture and the preparation of the drugs. But modern era physians are depends upon the manufacturing units of the Ayurvedic formulations, so it is important the assessment of the drug doses form of the Ayurvedic drug. Hence, need of pharmacopeia standards.
350 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF AJEYA GHRITA ON PESTICIDE INDUCED TOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTER RATS , Garima*, R. C. Tiwari, Mahesh Chandra and Lincon Kumar Sethi
In modern era the habit of using processed food, packed food, use of junk food, food having different coloring agent and flavoring agents, used to increase the taste of food, but it produces a bad effect in our body. Some studies shown that fast food producer does not sell the products with similar ingredient what they advertised. If the body does not have enough antioxidants, free radicals cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been associated with developmental delay and neurological disorders, as well as many other diseases processes. Experimental work in the form of toxicity study against pesticide deltamethrin was induced. This study is undertaken to prove drug effectiveness against the pesticide induced toxicity and its further extended in form of clinical trial.
351 EFFECT OF AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF KARNASRAVA W.S.R. TO CSOM’’ , *Dr. Manoj Kumar Arya, Dr. Vijayant Bhardwaj, Dr. JaiPrakash Prajapati, Dr. Priyanka Thakur, Dr. Priya Sharma
Karnasrava is the condition characterized by discharge from karna and occur mainly due to avarna of vata dosha. CSOM being one of cause of karnasrava was selected for the study. The present study is done on 20 patients of kaavrnasra, who were grouped into two groups with 10 patients in each group. Group A was treated with Varunadi tail for local application and Katutrikadi churan for oral use, Group B with Ofloxacin ear drops. The signs and symptoms were studied before and after treatment. Results of the study indicates approximately equal results in both groups.
352 A RARE CASE OF VANISHING LUNG SYNDROME WITH HEPATITIS-B , Dr. Pulkit Gupta*, Dr. G. N. Srivastava, Dr. Anbarasan Thirua, Dr. A. Tiwari, Dr. A. Jaina, Dr. S. S. Dash, Dr. A. Suresh, Dr. Gowthami B. and Dr. K. S. Sravani
Vanishing lung syndrome (VLS) is a rare disorder otherwise known as idiopathic giant bullous emphysema, typically occurs in young, thin male smokers but cases have been diagnosed in middle aged men as well. In this disorder emphysematous bullae appear in the lung, alveolar walls gradually disintegrate to form large air spaces with eventual atrophy of the lung and[1-3] and compression of the adjacent side. The basic pathogenesis is not exactly known, however it has been attributed to[2] possible respiratory myositis. Vanishing Lung Syndrome was first described in a case report by Burke in 1937.[4] Since then several more case reports have been published in various journals worldwide.[5-8] It is most often confused with pneumothorax and inadvertent insertion of intercostal drainage is not a rarity even among reported cases.[5,8] The patients have little or no evidence of cough or respiratory infection[1] and finally die in respiratory failure. The radiographic criteria for this syndrome defined by Roberts et al include the presence of giant bullae in one or both upper lobes, occupying at least one third of the hemithorax and[9] compressing surrounding normal parenchyma. VLS is also known as type I bullous disease or primary bullous disease of the lung in which the lungs appear to be[10] disappearing on X-ray. Surgical resection of giant bullae is the treatment of choice, the indications include spontaneous pneumothorax, infection, or dyspnoea, the[11-15] best results are seen following limited bullectomy. Thoracoscopic treatment of giant bullae is an effective alternative to conventional thoracotomy with minimal[16] morbidity.
353 A STUDY ON ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN MEDICATION ERRORS AND ITS MANAGEMENT , Sai Theja Guduru*, M. Venkata Kishore, M. Chakradhar, S. K. Karishma, T. Lakshmi Prasooneswari and Dr. M. Alagusundaram
Introduction: Medication errors may be defined as “Any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the healthcare professional, patient, or consumer”. Medication error occur due to inadequate drug knowledge and experience, overworked or fatigued health care professionals, poor communication between health care professionals and with patients, patient characteristic. Aim: To assess the medication errors among medications prescribed to the patients there by minimizing medication related problems and improve the patient care. Results: Medication errors are classified into 8 categories in that are Prescribing errors are found to be 80(54.42%), Omission error 9(6.12%), Dose error 24 (16.32%), Dosage form error 8(5.44%), Administrative technique error 10(6.80%), Unauthorized error 0, Wrong time error 7(4.76%), Compliance error 9(6.12%). In total 147 medication errors out of 52(34.37) medications were reached to the patients and remaining 95(64.62) in that 40were reduced and 55 were prevented. Conclusion: The quality of patient care is gritty by the quality of infrastructure, quality of preparation, capability of personnel and good organization of operational systems. No patients should be debilitated with medication errors. Medication errors can be preventable through effectual comprehensive system involving clinical pharmacists, physicians, nurses and patients. Our study also aids in improving the safe and effective use of drugs in our hospital. Our study also helped to define the significant role of the clinical pharmacist in assessing and controlling medication errors.
354 EVALUATION OF DIURETIC AND NATRIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BOERHAVIA DIFFUSA LINN ROOT IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS , Dr. Vijay Patel* and Rekha Gour
Boerhavia diffusa commonly known as punarnava is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to family Nyctaginaceae. The medicinal value of this plant in the treatment of a large number of human ailments is mentioned in Ayurveda, Charaka Samhita, and Sushruta Samhita. The aim of present study was to evaluate diuretic and natriuretic activity of ethanolic extracts of Boerhavia diffusa root in albino wistar rats. The results of preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Proteins, amino acids, Carbohydrates, Steroids, Fats and oils, Tannins and phenols. In acute oral toxicity, animals didn‟t show any visible signs of morbidity and mortality. Four groups of Albino wistar rats were used to evaluate diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of roots of Boerhavia diffusa by using Lipschitz test model. Oral administration of Boerhavia diffusa at doses 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg produced a significant (P< 0.01) increase in the urine volume when compared to control and standard. Determination of urinary electrolyte concentration in urine was done by using a flame photometer. It has revealed that ethanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa roots was effective in increasing urinary sodium concentration. The results were analyzed by One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Thus, in conclusion the Boerhavia diffusa has a significant diuretic and natriuretic action in rats.
355 REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF THE FRESHWATER LOACH LEPIDOCEPHALICHTHYS THERMALIS FROM THE RIVER THAMIRABARANI, TIRUNELVELI, SOUTH INDIA. , J. M. A. P. Arachi*
Lepidocephalichthys thermalis (Valenciennes) is a small, burrowing shallow-water tropical cobitid fish species of economic importance in Tamil Nadu. The fish is hardy, sensitive to minor changes in the environment and at the same time can adjust well under laboratory conditions. Despite its small size (upto 7.5 cm) it is considered to be very nutritious. These highly valued food fish are brought to the market in live condition and sold. Being a burrowing fish, Lepidocephalichthys thermalis use less energy for maintenance compared to other fish species.
356 ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY IN KHARADKHED DAM WATER RESERVOIR USING PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS , Anil B. Chidrawar*
The analysis of water will prove its portability as well as various activities performed in the reservoir. In natural waters, dissolved solids are composed mainly of carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, sulphates, phosphates and nitrates of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron etc. In the polluted water, the concentration of other substances increases depending upon the type of pollution. Turbidity in natural water is caused by clay, silt, organic matter and other microscopic organism. The temperature at which a sample is collected and at which physico-chemical measurement are made important for data correlation and interpretation purposes e.g. Temperature reading are essential while performing tests such as colour, pH and specific conductance as well as for calculating parameters such as saturation stability indices, salinity and alkalinity. The major purpose of reservoir is to provide drinking water to growing town along with this certain water is also useful to irrigate the surrounding land. The studies are to find out temperature, turbidity and conductivity.
357 ANALYSIS OF PHARMACOVIGILANCE DATA AT THE ADVERSE DRUG MONITORING CENTRE PERTAINING TO ANTI TUBERCULAR DRUGS -A RETROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY , Dr. M. Nandhini Priya M.D., DTCD., *Dr. S. Anusha M.D.* and Dr. N. Shanthi M.D.
Background: The pharmacovigilance programme of India aims to improve patient safety and welfare of Indian population by identifying and analysing new signals from the reported cases and generating evidence based information on safety of medicines. The purpose of this study is to collect the data of adverse drug reactions to the antitubercular drugs and analyse them. India accounts for one fourth of global tuberculosis burden. In 2017, elimination of tuberculosis in India by 2025 was announced as a national goal. Antitubercular drugs are more prone to cause adverse drug reactions. This in turn may lead to poor compliance paving way for the development of drug resistance tuberculosis. Early detection and proper management minimizes this risk. The vision is to communicate the safety information to the health care professionals and public hence reducing the drug related complications. Methodology: This is a retrospective cross sectional study of adverse drug reactions reported to the adverse drug reactions monitoring centre regarding the antitubercular drugs. The data collected were from the CDSCO’s adverse drug reactions reporting form, reported in the time period of June 2015 – July 2017. Results: The demographic pattern, causality, severity of the adverse drug reactions were analysed. 187 adverse drug reactions were reported during the study period which included 133 men and 54 women. The mean age of the reported adverse drug reactions was 46.4±17.59 years. Among the antitubercular drugs pyrazinamide was more prone to cause adverse drug reactions followed by streptomycin. In 62.6% of cases the antitubercular drugs were the probable cause and in 37.4% of adverse reactions ATT were the possible cause. 91.4% of them were non serious and 8.6% of them were serious adverse drug reactions. Most common adverse drug reaction reported was dermatological reactions followed by gastrointestinal and neurological side effects. The study showed that there was a significant association between the causality and seriousness of the adverse reactions encountered. Conclusion: This study serves to stress the importance of pharmacovigilance programme, create awareness and intensify the ADR reporting by the health care workers. This is also useful in educating the drug related complications to the patients and the public.
358 BEETROOT (BETA VULGARIS) STEM - AN INEDIBLE WASTE PRODUCTS IS A POTENT SOURCE OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT , *G. Karthikeyan, K. P. Piriyadharsini and C. Mohanasundaram
Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) belongs to Chenopodiaceae family. Several parts of the beetroot plant are used for medicinal purposes such as lowering blood pressure, lowering the risk of diabetes, prevention of cancer, detoxification in liver, to treat anaemia. It is rich in vitamins and minerals. Beetroot stem has many nutritional and medicinal values. It acts as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory agent. The present study analysed the phytochemical constituents foundin beetroot stem using various extracts (Aqueous, Acetone, Ethanol, Petroleum ether). The antioxidant activity of beetroot stem extracts showed better results by using DPPH, Flavonoids, Total phenol and FRAP assay. The antibacterial activity of beetroot stem was done and it showed measureable effect against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. From this work, we provide the substantial evidence that beetroot stem is an inedible waste product is a potent source of antioxidant and antibacterial agent there by indicating its use as a value-added component for functional foods.
359 STUDY OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN RAINY SEASON IN VARIOUS GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS OF ELURU MUNICIPAL CORPORATION, WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT, A.P: A COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY , K.S.V.K.S. Madhavi Rani, R. Indira*, N. Lakshmi Prasanna, N. Nirmala and S. K. Masarat Jaha Begam
Next to air, water is the most essential element to human life. It is essential to the functioning of every single cell and organ system in the human body. It is evidently clear that water is one of the prime elements responsible for life on earth. Our drinking water today, far from being pure, contains some two hundred deadly commercial chemicals and is unsuitable for human consumption. This study on Potable water analysis is to ensure safe drinking water available at government schools, identify problems and bring responsibility towards water resources and to learn the water quality technologies. Water samples were assessed during rainy season on physico-chemical parameters like pH, EC, Turbidity, TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphate, Iron, DO and COD by using standard methods.
360 A PRE & POST-STUDY TO SHOW THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL MAPPING AS A POTENTIAL LEARNING TOOL AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN COMMUNITY. - AN INTERVENTION STUDY , Dr. Sunayana G. Kumthekar, Dr. Abhay Srivastava, Dr. Shruti R. Gaikwad, Dr. Gautam B. Sawase, Dr. Rashmi Priya and Dr. Mohan K. Doibale*
Background: Social mapping is one of the most popular tools in PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) so sometimes it is used in place of PRA itself. As the social map is made by local people & not by experts, it is significantly different from other regular maps. Social map tells us about the overview of community structure & socioeconomic situation also household differences by social factors & we also come to know who lives where in community. Objective: 1) To evaluate the feasibility of using social mapping as a teaching tool. 2) To collect useful information which tells us what to study & learn from in the community. Material and methods: A study was a community-based intervention study, which was conducted among sixth-semester medical students in the urban field practice area of medical college to show the effectiveness of social mapping as a teaching tool. A study was done by randomly selecting 30 undergraduate students from the sixth semester. Knowledge regarding the selected study area was tested before and after the intervention, and compared between two groups. Results: Results show that the average pre & post-test of Group A (control group) is not statistically significant compared to Group B (Intervention Group) which shows a highly statistically significant difference. (p-value < 0.000001). Conclusion: Social mapping was found to be an effective way of understanding the infrastructure and social structures in the field or community.
361 EFFECTIVENESS OF TOPICAL APPLICATION OF BREAST MILK AND POVIDONE IODINE ON UMBILICAL CORD HEALING AMONG THE NEWBORNS , Betcy K. Jayims* and Bhasura Chandrachood
A comparative study to assess the effectiveness of topical application of breast milk and povidone iodine on umbilical cord healing among newborns in selected hospitals at kollam. The objectives of the study were to assess the effectiveness of topical application of breast milk on umbilical cord healing among the newborns (group 1), to assess the effectiveness of topical application of povidone iodine on umbilical cord healing among the newborns (group 2) and to compare the effectiveness of topical application of breast milk in group 1 and povidone iodine in group 2 on umbilical cord healing among the newborns. A quasi experimental time series design was used and consisted of 80 newborns born by Caesarean section were randomly assigned to Group 1 and Group 2. The tools used were demographic proforma and an observational checklist for assessing umbilical cord healing process. The intervention was provided to both groups thrice a day for seven days including cord swab culture on day 3 and at cord separation. Healing process was assessed on day 3, 5 and 7.The data collected was analyzed with descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. On comparing the signs of infection on Group 1 and Group 2, it showed that abnormal findings in Group 2 were comparatively higher than Group 1. On comparing the overall healing process between groups on day 3, day 5 and day 7, calculated ‘z’ value was greater than table value. It concludes that there is a significant difference in healing process among the newborns with topical application of breast milk in comparison to povidone iodine. The findings of study suggest that topical application of breast milk helps in early detachment of cord, less infection and better cord healing in comparison to povidone iodine.
362 A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AND LECTURE METHOD ON KNOWLEDGE REGARDING PRETERM BABY AMONG BSC NURSING STUDENTS AT SELECTED NURSING COLLEGE AT KOLLAM , Betcy K. Jayims*, Pinky Antony, Soly Thomas and Asha Francis
A comparative study to assess the effectiveness of problem based learning and lecture method on knowledge regarding preterm baby among BSc nursing students at selected nursing college at kollam. The objective of the study were: To assess the sample characteristics ,To assess the effectiveness of Problem based learning on knowledge regarding preterm baby among BSc nursing students (group A),To assess the effectiveness of Lecture method on knowledge regarding preterm baby among BSc nursing students (group B),To compare the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning in group A and Lecture method in group B on Knowledge regarding Preterm baby among BSc Nursing Students. Quantitative research approach was used for the study. Quasi experimental design was used. In the present study, the samples are third year BSc nursing students of Bishop Benziger College of Nursing Kollam. The sampling technique is purposive sampling technique. The sample size is 48. The structured questionnaire regarding the preterm baby and its management which was developed after extensive review of literature and based on the expert opinion. The data collected was analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. The following conclusions were made: 100% samples are female. Samples did not have any previous source of information regarding preterm baby. There is no significant difference between post-test scores of knowledge among students regarding preterm baby undergoing PBL and lecture method. Hence, both methods are equally effective in improving the knowledge regarding preterm baby among students.
363 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL INVESTIGATION OF ALLIUM SATIVUM , Monali Dumore, Ashwini Chandewar*, Ankita Gaidhane, Bharti Ambadkar and Omkar More
Natural products have been an integral part of ancient traditional medicine system. the objective of the study was investigate the phytochemical constituent and proximate composition of garlic (A.sativum) extracts. The phytochemical screening of the garlic for various phytochemical constituents was conducted using laboratory method. The proximate and mineral composition was determined by using standard method. the qualitative phytochemical screening of the Allium sativum aqueous and ethanol extract indicate the presence of the alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, saponin, tannins and phenol. The qualitative proximate composition of the bulb in g/100g showed the extract contain carbohydrate, protein, fats. The chemical analysis revealed that the l sulphated ash value of the compound was found to be 0.20%, the total ash value of the compound was found to be 3.20% and the loss on drying showing the 6% which resemblance of the standard value of that compound itself. The alcoholic extract of the compound shows the zone of inhibition while comparing with the streptomycin as the standard it showing 10mg/ml, it was shown approximately 13mm it shows Allium sativum having antimicrobial activity.
364 APPLICATION OF VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF LINAGLIPTIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM , Sumit Soundale, Padmanabh B. Deshpande* and Akshay Kale
Linagliptin is an inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme that degrades the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulin tropic polypeptide and is used to lower the increased blood sugar level. High performance thin layer chromatography method has been used for chromatographic separation of Linagliptin and was carried out by using precoated with silica gel 60 F254 aluminium plates as stationary phase and mixture consisting of Toluene: Methanol in the ratio of (8: 2, v/v) as optimum mobile phase. Densitometric detection of separated spot was carried out at 294 nm. The developed method has been successfully applied for the estimation of Linagliptin in tablet dosage form. Linagliptin was subjected to stress condition of hydrolysis (acid, base), oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation and analyzed under optimized chromatographic conditions. Linagliptin was satisfactorily resolved with retention factor value of 0.38 ± 0.02. Linear response was observed in the concentration range of 100-600 ng band-1. The % assay (Mean ± S.D.) was found to be 100.61 ± 1.52. Linagliptin was found susceptible to hydrolysis, oxidative and thermal stress conditions. The developed method can be used for the analysis of Linagliptin without any interference from the excipients and can be successfully used to estimate the amount of drug in the formulations by easily available low cost materials.
365 ASSESSMENT OF SEED GERMINABILITY OF PULSES AGAINST INFESTATION BY SEED-BORNE FUNGI , Ashok Sadhu Kandhare*
Seed mycoflora tend to affect adversely to germinability of seed. The vigour of the germinating seed is retarded by the seed-borne fungi. Assessment of the same is carried out in vitro by infestation of pulses seeds by their common seed-borne fungi. The common and dominant seed-borne fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger drastically reduced percent seed germination of the test pulses.
366 SHOOT INDUCTION FROM TENDRIL EXPLANTS OF LUFFA ACUTANGULA L. A VEGETABLE CROP PLANT , *Mandaloju Venkateshwarlu
Shoot induction was achieved in one of the impartant medicinal plant of cucurbitacae family, Luffa acutangula. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP + 2.0 mg/l NAA and 2.0 mg/l L-Glutamicacid was found to be optimum to induce shoots. The present study established reliable and reproducible protocol for rapid multiple shoot induction from tendril explants of Luffa acutangula using different concentrations and combinations of cytokinins. Tissue culture techniques are now becoming popular as alternative means of vegetative propagation. The effect of benzyl amino purine in inducing shoot induction was already reported in some of the important medicinal plants (Komalavalli and Rao, 2000). The Tendril explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with various cytokinins i.e., BAP and NAA. Coconut water also had a role in triggering the formation of multiple shoots. Addition of BAP at 2.0 mg/l concentration or NAA at 3.0 mg/l to the MS basal medium, induced regeneration from the Tendril explants.
367 A CLINICAL STUDY ON KIKKISA W.S.R TO STRIAE GRAVIDARUM AND ITS MANAGEMENT WITH KARAVIRADI CREAM , Dr. Hemant Patel*, Dr. Shilpa Donga, Prof. L. P. Dei, Dr. Yogesh Manani and Dr. Shrawan N. Kamble
Striae garavidarum is a physiological change found in the second trimester of pregnancy particularly in the seven months due to the overstretching. It is a very major problem in the modern cosmetic conscious era. The current study is an attempt to understand the ailment according to Ayurvedic ethics and to evaluate the efficacy of Karaviradi cream in Kikkisa. Total 17 patients were registered for this study, 15 completed the course of treatment while 2 patients discontinued due to various personal reasons. Karaviradi cream was used as local application on the area of abdomen, thigh and breast (where possibilities of Kikkisa appears) as required (Appx 10 gram) twice in a day for two months. After completion of treatment, in overall effect of therapr, 26.67% of patients got no occurrence, 60% patients had mild occurrence, while 13.33% of patients got moderate occurrence. None of the patients had found severe Occurrence. Karaviradi cream is a highly effective for preventive Kikkisa with no apparent evidence of complication.
368 INTER RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD LEAD CONCENTRATION AND OXIDATIVE CARDIAC RISK PARAMETERS IN ADULTS: EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID , Prof. Ipsita Mazumdar* and Prof. Krishnajyoti Goswami
It is well known that chronic lead exposure leads to various health hazards. Along with lead, it has also been seen that homocysteine, pyridoxine, cobalamine and folate are linked to cardiovascular complications, oxidative stress and a lot of other lifestyle disorders. In the present study, the relationship between these various parameters and chronic lead exposure was evaluated in lead smelting industry and jewelry industry workers, with an more than 10 years of working experience. Ascorbic acid, a known antioxidant, was administered in controlled doses over a specific period of time to study its effects on the said parameters. Method: Samples were analysed for homocysteine using Fluoroscence Polarisation Immunoassay, Vitamin B12 and Folate using ECLIA method, and malondialdehyde and RBC Superoxide dismutase were assayed with kits suppled by Randox Lanoratories. Blood Lead levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: Results showed a significant decrease in all parameters except malondialdehyde in chronic lead exposed workers. On administration of a controlled dose of ascorbic acid, over a specified period of time, most parameters were seen to be statistically significantly altered towards a healthier side. Conclusion: A significant positive association was detected between lead exposure and oxidative stress with cardiovascular effects, which was seen to be improving upon administration of Ascorbic acid over a specific period.
369 NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN MADURAI , C. Anitha Mohan*, P. Kannan and K. Vidhya
The role of nutrition in health promotion, disease prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is well recognized. Balanced nutrition is vital for optimum growth and development of the individual as well as for the proper functioning of various organ systems. Apart from being an important part of weight management, diet plays a substantial role in the etiology of many chronic degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis and some types of cancer. Thus nutrition can be considered as a double edged sword with one end of the spectrum occupied by nutrient deficiency disorders while at the other end we have diseases of surplus. So medical professionals have to play an important role in educating the patients regarding what they eat in order to emphasize the importance of diet in the management as well as prevention of disease conditions. In this scenario nutrition knowledge of doctors becomes essential. This study was carried out in II year medical students who are budding medical professionals. Moreover this age group is considered as the age of emerging identity when specific behavior patterns are established. And so in this study we have tried to examine the nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior of these students using GNKQ.
370 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ABSORPTION RATIO METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AZILSARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND CHLORTHALIDONE IN COMBINE DOSAGE FORM , Shubham Murlidhar Chaudhari*, Sachin Shrikrushna Rane, Prof. (Dr.) Rajesh Yadav Chaudhari and Prof. (Dr.) Vijay Raghunath Patil
A simple, robust, precise, UV spectroscopic method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Azilsartan medoxomil and Chlorthalidone in bulk and tablet dosage forms. In this paper the estimation of those drugs was carried out by absorbance ratio method. This method is based on measurement of absorption at 254nm and 241nm i.e, λmax of Azilsartan medoxomil and Chlorthalidone respectively. The linearity observed for Azilsartan medoxomil is in the range of 24-120 μg/ml and for Chlorthalidone is in the range of 10-50 μg/ml. The accuracy of method was found to be within the range of 99.77%-99.69% for both Azilsartan medoxomil and Chlorthalidone respectively. The developed methods were validated with respect to linearity, accuracy (recovery), and precision. The method can be employed for estimation of pharmaceutical formulations with no interference from any excipients and diluents. The results were validated as per ICH guidelines.
371 MMC ALUMINUM MATRIX COMPOSITE- INTRODUCTION AND PROPERTIES , *Prerana Sunil Jadhav and Dr. Sunil T. Jadhav
Aluminum alloys are used in advanced applications because their combination of high strength, low density, durability, machinability, availability and cost is very attractive compared to competing materials. However, the scope of these properties can be extended by using aluminum matrix composites materials. The study was conducted to investigate the general properties and application methods of metal matrix composites in comparison with polymer matrix composites and ceramic matrix composites. In addition, the properties of the most widely used metal matrix composites (aluminum and magnesium) were also studied. The information was collected from published online articles and journals on metal matrix composites. While metal matrix composites have been widely used in the aerospace and automobile industry, their properties are still being researched for further development and applications.
372 SYNTHESIS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL THIENO-1,2,3- TRIAZINES , Saravanan Janardhanan* and Manju Bharghavi
The main aim of this work was to synthesis a thieno-1,2,3- triazines by using Gewald reaction and its analogues were synthesized by diazotization; 3-N-p-tolyl-5,6-dimethyl thieno[2,3-d][1,2,3]-triazin-4-(3H)-one, 3-N-methyl-5,6-trimethylene thieno-[2,3-d][1,2,3]-triazin-4-(3H)-one, 3-N-(4-chloro phenyl)–5,6-trimethylene thieno[2,3-d][1,2,3]-triazin-4-(3H)-one and 3-N-methyl–5,6-tetramethylene thieno[2,3-d][1,2,3]-triazin-4-(3H)-one. The synthesized thieno-1,2,3- triazines derivatives subjected to in vitro anticancer activity screening by using MTT assay in Ht29 colon cancer cell lines and Doxorubicin as standard. The prepared analogues were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectra. The result reveals that most of the synthesized compounds showed anticancer properties.
373 APPLICATION OF QUALITY BY DESIGN APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL RP-HPLC METHOD FOR LURASIDONE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM , Dr. Deelip Derle, Vrushali Shelke*, Ekta Patil, Sayyed Shoeb and Adhiraj Derle
The current research is aimed to study and investigate the estimation of Lurasidone in the bulk drug and its tablet dosage by a developed and validated RP-HPLC method. The method was developed using Quality by Design principles. All the computations for the current optimization study and statistical analysis were performed using Design Expert® software. The 33 randomized response surface designs with a Box-Behnken design were used with 17 trial runs to study the impact of three factors on the three key response variables. The Flow rate, pH of mobile phase and Mobile phase composition were selected as independent variables. The retention time, theoretical plate number and tailing factor were selected as dependent variables based on risk analysis. The resulting data was processed into Design Expert 11 software and analysed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA).The analysis were carried out using HPLC of Waters, series 2482 (Binary pump, Orochem C18 column, Waters 2489 -UV-Visible Detector, Breeze 2 software) with manually injecting 10 μl of mobile phase consisting of Methanol : Water (85:15), maintaining isocratic flow. The calibration was linear in the range of 200-300μg/ml. The RSD for accuracy, precision and robustness was observed within the range (less than 2%). System suitability parameters were within the limit. The validated limit of quantitation (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) was 24.80μg/ml and 8.18μg/ml respectively. The assay result of marketed formulation for Lurasidone was 98.76 %. Hence accurate, precise, and robust method were developed and validated.
374 FULMINANT MENINGOCOCCEMIA , *Dr. Madleen Jawad Sobhe Abu Aser and Dr. Amjad Alanqar
Meningococcemia a bacterial infection of the blood due to Neisseria meningitides also called meningococcal bacteremia or meningococcal sepsis. As the name suggests, this bacterium is best known for causing meningococcal meningitis, which occurs in up to 20% of those with meningococcemia. Up to 75% of those with meningococcal meningitis will also have bacteremia. Purpura fulminans, an often-fatal condition owing to the associated septic shock. These two clinical aspects of the meningococcal infection are consequences of a tight interaction of meningococcal with host endothelial cells. This interaction, mediated by the type IV pili, is responsible for the formation of microcolonies on the apical surface of the cells. This interaction is followed by the activation of signaling pathways in the host cells leading to the formation of a microbiological synapse. A low level of bacteremia is likely to favor the colonization of brain vessels, leading to bacterial meningitis, whereas the colonization of a large number of vessels by a high number of bacteria is responsible for one of the most severe forms of septic shock observed. Neisseria meningococcus is a Gram-negative coccus restricted to humans, which is responsible for two major diseases cerebrospinal meningitis and/or septicemia. Paradoxically, N. meningitides is a common inhabitant of the human nasopharynx, and as such is a normal, saprophytic organism that is transmitted from person to person by direct contact. Only in a small proportion of colonized subjects does the bacterium invade the bloodstream where they are responsible for septicemia and/or meningitis, after crossing of the blood-brain barrier. Fulminant meningococcemia accounts for 5% to 10% of patients with meningococcemia; it is rapidly progressive and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The highest meningococcal incidence is found in the 6- to 20-month-old age group; whereas immunouncompetence is suggested in adults with the condition. Coincidentally, eating disorders are purported to be the most prevalent psychiatric or behavioral disturbance affecting adolescents, and studies indicate that vulnerability to infectious. Meningococcal disease caused by the gram-negative diplococcus Neisseria meningitides is a relatively common infectious disease in developing countries of Asia and Africa. Infection usually starts with a non-specific prodromal of fever, vomiting, malaise, and lethargy followed by signs of septicemia and shock tachycardia, tachypnea, cyanosis, oliguria, hypotension or meningitis stiff neck, headache, photophobia, and impaired sensorium. Neisseria meningitides is responsible for two major diseases: cerebrospinal meningitis or septicemia. The latter can lead to a purpura fulminans, an often-fatal condition owing to the associated septic shock. These two clinical aspects of the meningococcal infection are consequences of a tight interaction of meningococci with host endothelial cells. This interaction is followed by the activation of signaling pathways in the host cells leading to the formation of a microbiological synapse. A low level of bacteremia is likely to favor the colonization of brain vessels, leading to bacterial meningitis, whereas the colonization of a large number of vessels by a high number of bacteria is responsible for one of the most severe forms of septic shock observed. A characteristic meningococcal rash may not appear early in the disease course, potentially delaying the diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy in the patient and isolation and chemoprophylaxis in close contacts. We present here a patient who presented with fulminant meningococcal shock associated with characteristic skin lesions of meningococcemia and discuss the clinical presentation and management. The importance of early identification of the characteristic skin lesions of meningococcemia and timely institution of an appropriate antibiotic.
375 BENIGN MIMICKERS OF PROSTATIC CARCINOMA: INCIDENCE, CORRELATION WITH PSA LEVELS AND THE DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMAS , *Dr. Mahsheena K. M., Dr. Ira Baradwaj and Dr. Karpagam Janardhan  
Background: There are several benign proliferations and normal histoanatomical structures of prostate which mimic malignancy and their awareness is essential to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Establishing, or ruling out, the diagnosis of carcinoma of prostate has been a well-known challenge for pathologists for many years. Aim: To assess the morphological spectrum of benign mimickers of prostatic carcinoma, their incidence and correlations with serum PSA levels. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 180 cases of prostatic biopsies. All the lesions were graded into non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Cases with foci where malignancy was questioned and which upon expert review the entire case was determined to be benign were included as benign mimickers of prostatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical (IHC) were used in suspicious and atypical cases for a confirmative diagnosis. The histological features were correlated with serum PSA levels. Results: Non-neoplastic lesions were common in this study with 39.4% associated with benign mimickers. 71 cases(39.4%) formed the group benign mimickers of prostatic carcinoma which included basal cell hyperplasia (21.6%), small acinar proliferation (8.89%), atrophy (6.1%), adenosis (3.3%), granulomatous prostatitis (1.67%) and inflammatory atypia (0.6%). IHC was essential in 24 (13.3%) cases for correct diagnosis. Majority of the benign mimickers of prostate had higher PSA levels >4ng/ml (81.6%). Basal cell hyperplasia and Small acinar proliferation had PSA level >10ng/ml. CONCLUSION: Basal cell hyperplasia and small acinar proliferation are the most common benign changes causing diagnostic difficulty. Careful examination of H&E sections usually suffices to diagnose these benign mimickers. However in 13.3% of cases IHC was essential for a conclusive diagnosis. Using a panel of immunostains including AMACR, 34βE12 and p63 (positive AMACR immunostaining along with negative basal cell markers) is recommended in the differentiation of prostatic cancer and benign mimickers.
376 A REVIEW ON THE MUTATIONS OF THE BRCA 1 GENE ON NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS , Alessia Genova, Olivia Dix, Mala Thakur*, Manraj Singh Dhillon
Mutations in the BRCA 1 Gene (BReast CAncer) greatly impact women in a lifetime risk of developing ovarian and or breast cancer. Men are also at equal risk of developing breast cancer if they inherit the abnormal gene of BRCA 1. Recent studies have indicated abnormal inheritance of the BRCA 1 gene not only plays a significant role in breast and ovarian cancer, but may indicate a crucial role in neurocognitive disorder, specifically Alzheimer’s Disease. The integrity maintenance of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is important for all organisms and cells. A defect in the repair of DNA results in neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Related studies were reviewed in the correlation of low levels of BRCA 1 gene and neurological disorders such as: Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Frontotemporal Dementia.
377 AN EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF BACOPA MONNIERI (L.) AGAINST PARACETAMOL-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN SWISS ALBINO MICE , Rubaba Karim*, Ashfia Fatima Khan, Rebeka Yeasmin, Jesmin Akter, Tanjela Akter
Bacopa monnieri L., locally known as ‘Brahmi’, is available widespread throughout Bangladesh. This plant contains significant phytochemical constituents and is well known for its numerous pharmacological properties, particularly, memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative and anti-epileptic. A number of observations have been made on its hepatoprotective activities against chemical-induced liver toxicity in recent years. The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of Bacopa monnieri L. in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxic mice model. The animals were allocated into 7 groups and subsequent treatment was provided for 7 days. The toxic control group was given 400 mg/kg b.w./day (p.o.) of Paracetamol while 140 mg/kg b.w./day (p.o.) of Silymarin was administered to the normal control group. The treatment groups were given 200 & 400 mg/kg b.w./day (p.o.) of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant respectively. The hepatoprotective effect of different plant extracts were assessed by determining serum levels of liver enzymes (ALT & AST) and bilirubin. Our study revealed that treatment with 400 mg/kg (b.w. p.o.) of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant significantly reduced the levels of serum ALT, AST and bilirubin. In addition, the histopathological data of liver from a different animal group also supported the assessment of hepatoprotective activities of the plant based on biochemical parameters which confirms the restoration of the normal functional propensity of hepatocytes. To conclude, the present investigation suggests that high doses of different extracts of Bacopa monnieri L. offer potential protection against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.
378 PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF TURMESAC® ON PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN RATS , C. T. Sadashiva*, H.M. Firoz Hussain and S. Nanjundaiah
The present study were carried out to assess hepatoprotective potential for Turmesac® (formulated by using turmeric rhizome extract) against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Oral administration of Turmesac® in two doses 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg body weight were subjected for the evaluation of hepatoprotective potential against PCM (2g/kg) induced liver injury. Silymarin (50mg/kg) was used as a standard drug. The biochemical parameters like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), glutathione (GSH), super oxide dismutase (SOD), total bilirubin (TBR), total protein (TP) and catalase (CAT) were assayed in liver homogenates for all studied groups. In addition histopathological study was also carried out. The results revealed significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and TBR and increase in GSH, TP, SOD and CAT levels when compared with toxic control. These data indicate that Turmesac® is a natural antioxidant hepatoprotective agent against hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol model. Thus, Turmesac® may have a therapeutic value of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as well as in paracetamol therapy.
379 A NEW TREND IN THE FORMULATION OF THE SOLID DOSAGE FORM TO INCREASE CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL SOLUBILITY IN A SIMULATION MEDIA TO GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. , Omar Y. Mady, El-Zeiny M. Ebeid, Ahmed A. Donia, Waseem Qasim*
The pharmaceutical active substance solubility is the rate-limiting step for classes II and IV drugs. In pharmaceutical industry, the additives used to improve the manufacture process and passing the pharmacopeial standards. In this study, dual aims for the additives were tested, to comply the product with the pharmacopeial standards of the prepared pharmaceutical dosage form and to enhance the drug solubility. Solubility of candesartan cilexetil (CC) in a physical mixture with either polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) in simulation conditions to GIT was tested. Then, tablet formulations based on the solubility data pressed and then characterizations of the prepared tablets in comparing with the drug brand name were carried out. Both polymers enhanced the drug solubility. PVP is protonated in acid medium forming complex with the acid form of the drug and non-protonated in phosphate buffer interacting with the drug basic form. The free energy changes associated with increasing solubility indicating that the process is spontaneous by addition of the polymer. Increasing the polarity of PVP in acid medium led to decreasing its randomization because of the nature of the interaction with drug. In phosphate buffer the nature of interaction changed which led to more randomization process. The values of enthalpy changes are positive indicating that the solubilizing effect of the polymers on the drug is endothermic. The enthalpy changes on using PEG is due to its weak polar center, which is influenced by the polymer molecular weight, solution pH and temperature. Candesartan tablets prepared according to the solubility findings and drug release showed improvement comparing with the brand name. Accelerated stability study showed the shelf life of the formula is two years which could be also increase by using increasing the additives percent. This work is a preformulation step carried out in each R&D departments of research centers or pharmaceutical industries. The results showed that it could be decreasing the dose of the drug by using additives in a physical mixture form. This leads to decreasing the drug dose and consequently the cost and its side effects without any additive technological aspect.
380 A NOVEL WAY FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CROWDING WITH PEG LATERALS , Prerna Suri*, Vinit Aher and Maninder Singh
Diligent diagnosis and treatment planning are the mainstays in dealing with clinical situations with peg laterals to obtain phenomenal outcome with maximum patient satisfaction. This case report describes a 21-year-old female with balanced soft-tissue profile, peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors, ectopic canine, deep bite, upper and lower anterior crowding and treated with a comprehensive orthodontic-restorative-periodontic therapy. Ideal overjet and overbite were obtained with final restored peg laterals to normal contour. Interdisciplinary care can be an effective option in clinical scenarios demanding varied dental intervention to achieve ideal treatment goals.
381 ASSESSMENT OF CATHEPSIN K BIOMARKER IN GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID DURING ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT — A CLINICAL STUDY , Prerna Suri*
Introduction: Orthodontic tooth movement causes sequential release of numerous biomarkers from the periodontal tissues, this study helps us to better understand the biological processes involved. Objectives: This study was designed to detect and assess the Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) levels of lysosomal protease, Cathepsin K during human orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Methods: Sixteen bimaxillary protrusion patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with four first bicuspid extractions were selected. Retraction of the canine was initiated by giving lace back on maxillary left canine which was used as Test Tooth (TT) and maxillary right canine used as Control Tooth (CT) with no lace back. From each patient 4 GCF samples were collected 1 hour before, on 1st day (24 hours), on 7th day (168 hours), and after 1 month(30 days). The dynamics of mechanically stimulated Cathepsin K levels in GCF was assessed using enzymatic immunoassay (ELISA). Results: Results show significant differences between the control and treated teeth for Cathepsin K, with mean values significantly higher for treated site than control sites. On 7th day, at the test side, the levels of Cathepsin K were higher than the corresponding control sides. Another important finding was seen on the 30th day, where Cathepsin K levels were significantly higher on the control side when compared to the test side. Conclusion: These results conclude that the amount of Cathepsin K in GCF that increased during the early period of orthodontic tooth movement may indicate a significant role during initial tooth movement.
382 EFFECT OF (Tigernut) CYPERUS ESCULENTUS TINCTURE ON LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RATS EXPOSED TO MILD STRESS , *Olorunfemi Oluwadare J., Asara Azibalua A. and Baulch Ebibodere K.
The effect of Cyperus esculentus tincture on learning and memory and anxiety related behavior was investigated in female wistar rats. Twenty wistar rats weighing (210-240g) was randomly assigned into four group with five rats each. The second group was administered scopolamine, the third group was given 0.5ml/100g of Cyperus esculentus tincture for two weeks while the fourth group was given 1ml/100g of Cyperus esculentus tincture for 2 weeks. The control group was given water and feed ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Learning and memory test was carried out on all the groups using navigation maze, passive avoidance box and Y-maze. Also behavioral test on anxiety was carried out on all the groups using the elevated plus maze. The outcome of this study was statistically analyzed using ANOVA, as the result showed significant difference when compared with the control group. The control group showed normal responses when using the elevated plus maze while the rats given scopolamine and 1ml/100g of Cyperus esculentus showed some anxiety related behaviours. Also the group given Cyperus esculentus especially the 1ml/100g showed positive responses when using the passive avoidance box, navigation maze and Y-maze in contrast to the scopolamine group. In conclusion, Cyperus esculentus poised to enhance learning and memory in female wistar rats.
383 THE MEDICINAL EFFECT OF GARCINIA KOLA TINCTURE ON THE COGNITO-MOTOR , *Olorunfemi Oluwadare J., Asara Azibalua A. and Baulch Ebibodere K.
The medicinal effect of Garcinia kola tincture on the cognito-motor balance and gait pattern was investigated in wistar rats. Twenty Wistar rats, weighing 100-150 g, were used for this study. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with five rats each. Group 1 rats served as control and were given no treatment. Group 2 rats were administered low dose of Garcinia kola tincture (0.5ml/100kg), orally. Group 3 rats were also administered with high dose of Garcinia kola tincture orally (1ml/100g) orally. Group 4 rats were given diclofenac drug (0.01mg/100g), intraperitoneally. Neuro - behavioural test for memory, learning and motor co-ordination as well as gait assessment were carried out on all the groups using Barnes- maze, passive-avoidance, navigational tasks and rotarod test. The outcome of this study was statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The high and low dosage group of Garcinia kola tincture showed improved cognitive ability (learning &memory) compared to the control group during Barnes-maze and passive-avoidance tests but a decline in navigational task. There was no significant effect of Garcinia kola tincture on motor coordination in wistar rats observed in the study. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that Garcinia kola tincture increases cognition in wistar rats but has no effects on the motor activities and locomotion in the rats.
384 ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF INHALED TOLUENE IN VAPOUR EXPOSURE CHAMBER ON RENAL AND LIVER FUNCTIONS AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN RATS , *Olorunfemi O.J., Amah-Tariah F.S. Asara Azibalua A., Banigo Tamunotonye
This study assessed the effect of toluene inhalation on kidney and liver functions and markers of oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four rats were grouped randomly into four groups – each group having six rats. Group 1 (control), group 2 (exposed to toluene vapour at concentration of 8,200 ppm for 14 days), group 3 (exposed to toluene vapour at concentration of 4,100 ppm for 28 days), and group 4 (exposed to toluene vapour at concentration of 2,050 ppm for 56 days). Using a whole-body vapour exposure chamber, animals in groups 2 – 4 were put through toluene vapour exposure challenge. Blood samples from rats in all groups were examined to determine the concentration of urea, creatinine, and electrolytes in serum. Likewise examined were the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT) enzymes, alongside total protein and albumin in serum. The concentration in serum of markers of oxidative stress; malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT)were estimated. Data showed that when compared with the control, in the 14-day group; inhaled toluene significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) potassium ion concentration, chloride ion concentration, and the level of urea and ALT enzyme. Also, the level of GSH and MDA (11.16±2.66) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) while albumin level significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05). In the 28-day group, chloride ion concentration, urea level and AST enzyme level significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, the level of GSH and MDA (10.59±0.58) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) while ALP enzyme level significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05).In the 56-day group, in comparison with the control, albumin level significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05). However, no statistically significant change was observed in the concentration of potassium and chloride ions, urea, ALT, AST, and ALP levels, and in the level of GSH and MDA (1.63±0.35). These outcomes thus demonstrate a strong connection between observed concentration and duration dependent toluene vapour toxicity in the kidneys and liver, and the existence of severe oxidative stress-related tissue injury following exposure to toluene vapour.
385 EFFECTS OF DAUCUS CAROTA (CARROT) JUICE ON MEMORY AND COGNITO-MOTOR BALANCE AND GAIT PATTERNS IN RATS , *Olorunfemi O.J., Asara Azibalua A. and Egbejimi Ayebatonbra M.  
The effects of Daucus carota (Carrot) juice on memory, cognito-motor balance and gait pattern was investigated in wistar rats. Twenty (20) wistar rats weighing from 120-150g were used for this study. The twenty (20) rats were sorted into four groups with five (5) wistar rats in each group. The first group served as the control group, which was given only feed and water. The second group was administered dopamine (0.1ml/100g), intraperitoneally in addition to their feed and water. The third group was administered low dose of Daucus carota juice (0.5ml/100g). The fourth group was administered high dose of Daucus carota (Carrot) juice 1ml/100g. Neuro- behavioral tests for memory, cognito-motor balance and gait patterns were carried out using the passive avoidance test, rotarod test, handgrip test and beam walking test. The outcome of this study was statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The results of study showed that Daucus carota (Carrot) juice has a significant (p< 0.05) memory boosting effect and improved cognito-motor balance but has little or no significant influence on gait patterns.  
386 THE EFFECT OF ECT-INDUCED ALTERED BEHAVIOR ON SPATIAL JUDGMENT AND MENTAL ALERTNESS IN WISTAR RATS , *Olorunfemi O. J., Asara Azibalua A. and Igwedibia C. P.
The study investigated the effect of electro-convulsing therapy (ECT) –induced altered behavior on spatial judgment and mental alertness. Albino wistar rats used were grouped into four groups; control groups treated with saline water as vehicle, mild shock group (2.5mA ECS), high shock group (4.0mA ECS) and Cerebrex drug group (100mg/kg). Prior to the experiment, the rats were exposed to different trials using Barnes maze test, beam maze test, navigation maze test, and elevated plus maze test. The behavioral tests were performed in different trials and altered behavior was clearly exhibited in all the tests; such as Barnes maze (inability to locate the escape hole), beam walk (increased time to walk across the beam), navigation maze (inability or prolonged time to locate the exit hole) and elevated plus maze ((decreased total time spent in the open/close arms). Statistical analysis was performed using IBM-SPSS-version 22.0. The descriptive characteristics were expressed as means ± sem. The repeated measures of ANOVA and Post-Hoc analyses were used in the comparison of control groups with Mild Shock, High Shock, and Cerebrex groups respectively. Results obtained from the study showed that Mild and High shock had negative effect on cognitive ability, motor coordination, spatial judgment and mental alertness and it also increased anxiety in rats. However, Cerebrex had had a less pronounce effect of cognitive ability, spatial judgment and anxiety but had a positive effect on motor coordination. In conclusion, this study suggested the possibility of ECT could have a profound interference on motor response, spatial judgment and mental alertness in rats.
387 ASSESSMENT OF HIPPOCAMPAL MEMORY AND LEARNING BEHAVIOURS IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS USING PASSIVE AVOIDANCE BOX TECHNIQUE , *Olorunfemi O.J., Asara Azibalua A. and Umana K. T.
The study was designed to assess the hippocampal memory and learning behaviours in rats using passive avoidance box technique and scopolamine after which the rats underwent carry some memory and learning tests such as Barnes maze test, Navigational maze task, elevated plus maze and beam walk test. Twenty albino wistar rats were grouped into four groups which comprises of the control group, mild shock group, moderate shock group and scopolamine group with five rats per group. Group A (control) was given clean water and feed, Group B was given mild shock (2 times) using passive avoidance box, Group C was given moderate shock (3times) using passive avoidance box and group D was given 0.1ml/kg Scopolamine daily after which they underwent a total of nine (9) trials of some memory and learning tests which include: elevated plus maze, Barnes maze, beam walk test and navigational task. The results collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22.0 statistical package. The descriptive characteristics we're expressed as mean and standard deviation. The repeated measured of ANOVA and Post-Hoc analysis technique were used in the comparison of the control group and other groups. The significance level of the groups were set at P>0.05. From result obtained, it can be seen that mild and moderate shock and scopolamine had a positive effect on the hippocampal memory and learning behaviour by increasing the response in the first three trials with the moderate shock having the highest-effect.
388 PATTERNS OF VARIATION IN BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE AND CAPILLARY OXYGEN SATURATION DURING ANTI-ORTHOSTATIC POSTURE CHANGE IN YOUNG HEALTHY ADULT GIRLS , *Olorunfemi O.J., Amah-Tariah F.S., Asara Azibalua A. and Banigo Tamunotonye
In orthostatic position that during exercise, blood pressures tend to increase and capillary oxygen saturation concomitantly tends to decrease after exercise. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of anti-orthostatic posture change on blood pressure profile and capillary oxygen saturation in healthy adult females. The research was carried out using 110 young healthy adult female humans between the ages of 15-30years. The subject’s height and weights was measured to determine their body mass index after which was allowed to rest for 15minutes (on a couch) before their resting blood pressure was measured and recorded. After resting, immediately the blood pressure and oxygen saturation was taken, the subjects was subjected to ride an ergonometric cycle for one minute and immediately their blood pressure and oxygen saturation was measured using digital blood pressure meter and pulse Oximeter, the subjects was allowed to rest for 5minutes, after which the exercise was repeated and readings was measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS model 2019, ANOVA analysis technique was used in the comparison of the height, weight, body mass index, pulse rate, systolic & diastolic blood pressure and oxygen saturation and was expressed as Mean±SD. Anti-orthostatic posture had negative effect on blood pressure profile after exercise and positive effect on capillary oxygen saturation in young healthy adult female humans, the analyzed results obtain from each values was statistically significant when compared to each other. The oxygen saturation mean value was normal at rest and both phases of the exercise regimen. The variation between oxygen saturation values in both phases of the exercise regimen and at rest was statistically significant (at p < 0.05).
389 RESPONSES OF SOME SELECTED ANALGESIC AGENTS TO MECHANICALLY-INDUCED PAIN USING UGO BASILE ANALGESY METER , *Olorunfemi O. J., Amah-Tariah F. S. and Asara Azibalua A.
The use of the analgesy-meter in the screening of the analgesic potentials of diclofenac-sodium, piroxicam and paracetamol in rats was investigated by inducing mechanical pain during the assessment in a standard laboratory. Twenty albino Wister rats were placed randomly into four groups of five animals each. Normal saline was given to the control, diclofenac sodium, piroxicam and paracetamol were administered intraperitoneally to the treatment groups at relative doses of (0.05ml/100g, 0.1ml/100g, 0.15ml/100g and 0.2 ml/100g of the body weight of rat). Pain threshold was analysed using the animal response to pain and stimuli and the rotational movement of these animals at the doses where monitored after 0, 30 and 60 mins after administration. The gait pattern was monitored using the Rotometer to observe the animal’s free rotational movement after painful stimuli. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA, while Post Hoc multiple comparison test was used in the comparison of the analgesic effects of the control group with the diclofenac treated, piroxicam and paracetamol treated groups with relation to mechanical pain. Results obtained were statistically analyzed and showed that the paw withdrawal threshold was seen to be significantly different (p<0.05) at low to moderate doses of the treatment groups when compared with the control. From the results, it was observed that the intraperitoneal administration of low to moderate doses of the selected analgesics such as the diclofenac sodium, piroxicam and paracetamol produced inhibition to pain when screened using the analgesy-meter and has shown the usefulness and reliability of the analgesy-meter in the screening of the selected analgesic agents.
390 EFFECT OF BAKER’S YEAST-INDUCED HYPERTHERMIA ON MOTOR FUNCTION IN RATS USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC MOTOR TESTS , *Olorunfemi O. J., Asara Azibalua A. and Umana K. T.
Hyperthermia is an abnormally high body temperature caused by failure of the heat regulated mechanisms of the body to deal with the heat coming from the environment. Heat fatigue, heat syncope (sudden dizziness after prolonged exposure to the heat), heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke are commonly known forms of hyperthermia. Risk for these conditions can increase with combination of outside temperature, general health and lifestyle thereby affecting the brain and spinal cord leading to loss of possible sensation and motor function. With this regard, there is need to carry out a research study into the possible effects of induced hyperthermia on the motor function of albino wistar rats as study model while using static and dynamic motor test as test techniques for evaluation of the effect. 20 wistar rats were used and divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. The group 1 rats were the control group, group 2 rats where administered with 0.1ml of epinephrine, while group 3 rats where induced with fever and 0.1ml of epinephrine administered. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS-version 22.0 statistical packages, the descriptive was expressed as means, standard error of mean (SEM). The Post Hoc was used in the comparison of control group with epinephrine group 2, yeast (saccharomyces-cerevisiae)+epinephrine group 3 and yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) group 4. The experiment lasted for three weeks and on evaluation of the results obtained from the static and dynamic motor tests, there was a slightly significant effect of epinephrine on induced fever on the motor functions of the Wistar when compared to the control group. Hence, further studies to support the findings from this research are highly recommended.
391 INTERFERENCE OF 1, 3, 7-TRIMETHYLXANTHINE (CAFFEINE) INGESTION ON MOTOR BALANCE AND POSTURAL REFLEX , *Olorunfemi O. J., Amah-Tariah F. S. and Asara Azibalua A.
The research was carried out to investigate the effect of pure caffeine administration on the postural reflex using healthy wistar rats weighing 180-240g for 3 weeks. A total of 20 rats were divided into four groups. All the rats were given clean water and rat feed throughout the study. The group one animals (control group) were not given any drug, while the animals in group two, three and four were given drugs intra-peritoneally: group two were given 1ml/100g of Celebrex, group three and four were given pure caffeine at concentrations of 0.5ml/100g and 1ml/100g respectively. The effect of caffeine on postural reflex was carried out on both control and test groups, the animals first underwent a mild shock of 3.5mA using an Electroconvulsive therapy, then the spatial learning and memory was assessed with Barnes-maze task, the postural reflex was assessed using Rotarod task and Beam-walk task. The measurement of latency on all the tasks was taken at time range of 5minutes. The results were presented as mean value standard error of Means (±S.E.M). Mean drugs (Celebrex and Caffeine) effect was analyzed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings showed that there was significant increase (P≤0.05) in spatial learning and memory in the animals that were given Celebrex and Caffeine, and there was significant increase (P≤0.05) in the spatial learning and memory in the animals in group four compared to the animals in group one, two and three. It was observed that there was no significant difference (P≥0.05) on the postural reflex on the animals that were given caffeine. From this research it was observed that caffeine may have effect on spatial learning and memory but do not have significant effect (P≥0.05) on the postural reflex.
392 STUDY OF ADVERSE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTION IN DERMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT AT TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL , Boney J. Lapsiwala, *Dr. Chetna R. Patel, Dr. Manoj R. Halpati and Dr. Naresh D. Kantharia
Background: An adverse cutaneous drug reaction (ACDR) contributes approximately 3% of all disabling injuries during hospitalisation, increases morbidity and complications of drug therapy. The pattern of cutaneous reactions and the drugs causing various reactions are changing continuously over the period of time due to introduction of newer drugs and changing trends in the use of drugs. There is scarcity of such data in India which includes aspects like demographic details, type of cutaneous adverse drug reactions, pharmacological agents responsible for it, causality and severity assessment of reactions etc. Methods: 150 patients were enrolled from dermatology department at tertiary care teaching hospital over period of 6 months. Confirmed cutaneous adverse drug reaction details were recorded. Causality grading was done by using Naranjo’s Algorithm Scale and severity grading was done by using The Modified Hartwig And Siegel Scale. The variety of skin manifestations and agents causing cutaneous drug reactions were also noted. Results: Study population affected (â„…) by Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions in this study was maximum with maculopapular rash (30.04%) and least with Steven Johnson syndrome (0.02%). Drug classes responsible were antimicrobial agents(50.02%), NSAIDs(29.12%), steroids(9.54%),anti-epileptic agents(3.01 %), anti-retroviral agents(2.23%), acid suppressors(ranitidine, omeprazole)(1.69%), haematinics(0.08%) and others(4.31%). The causality assessment by Naranjo’s Algorithm Scale shown in present study was probable category (60.14%), possible (36.98%), doubtful (2.87%) and definite (0.01%). Study population showed moderate severe level 3(48.43%) followed by mild level 1 (34.63%), mild level 2(16.91%), moderate level 4 (0.02%) and severe level 5 (0.01%). Conclusions: In our study we found maximum maculopapular rash in study population and agents found culprit for highest contribution were antimicrobial agents showing concern of rational use of antimicrobials. Causality grading showed probable category maximum and severity grading showed moderate severe level 3 like many other similar studies. This result of the present study helps to health care professionals in policy making regarding rational use of drugs, rational prescription and adverse drug monitoring on regular basis.
393 EVALUATION OF HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LEAD-ACETATE-INDUCED ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HYPOESTES ROSEA LEAF , Uwikor F. K.*, Nwachuku E. O., Igwe F., Echonwere B. and Bartimaeus E. S.
Lead is a dangerous heavy metal which is widely spread in the environment and haematological parameters may provide an indication of lead intoxication. This study we assessed the effect of aqueous extract of Hypoestes rosea (AEHR) leaf on the haematological parameters of lead acetate induced male and female albino rats at acute and sub chronic stages in pretreatment and post treatment phases. Animals were divided into 17 groups of five each for both sexes in the treatment groups, while the positive control group had 10 animals in each sex. 8 groups were for the acute phase of the study for 21 days in each sex, while 8 were for 35 days for the sub chronic stage of the study. NC group received rat feed only, EC group received 100mg/kg bwt/day for 21 days at acute and 35 days for sub chronic. PC group received 60mg/kg b.wt per day of lead acetate for 7 days. The other 3 groups received 100mgkg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg b.wt respectively for 14 and 28 days either as pre-treatment or post treatment, for both sexes of the albino rats. Samples were taken at the end of the study period through the jugular vein under diethylether anaesthesia, Results showed that the administration of lead acetate on both sexes of the albino rats caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the mean HB of the albino rats. The administration of the different doses of AEHR on the albino rats showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the mean HB of all the groups as compared to the PC group. The result of our study shows that the administration of lead acetate on both sex of the albino rats caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the WBC count of all the rats. The result of our study shows the administration of varying doses of AEHR on both sexes of the albino rats in the pretreatment and post treatment phase of the acute and chronic stage of the study showed a dose dependent reduction and reversal of the increased total WBC.
394 EVALUATION OF NASAL POLYPOSIS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH ALLERGIC DISEASES , Khaled Alhomsi*
Objective: The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to obtain epidemiological data from the charts of 133 patients with nasal polyposis who reviewed AlMouwasat University Hospital and to determine the frequency of the presenting symptoms of nasal polyps. Moreover, this research aimed to study the correlation between asthma with both allergic rhinitis and aspirin sensitivity. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective study of the files of the patients who reviewed AlMouwasat University Hospital and were diagnosed with nasal polyposis. This study included all cases from January 2016 to November 2019. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 25.0. Results: The most common age of presentation was 41–50 years old. Nasal polyposis was more common in females 57.1% compared to 42.9% males. Asthma was found in 33% of all patients with nasal polyposis. 40.6% of patients with nasal polyposis had allergic rhinitis. 20.3% had unilateral nasal polyposis. The most common complaint was nasal obstruction in 87% followed by anterior rhinorrhea in 79%. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for large-scale epidemiologic research showing the prevalence and incidence of nasal polyposis in Syria.
395 CANALICULAR ADENOMA OF A MINOR SALIVARY GLAND ON THE PALATE: A CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE , Dr. Pavani Vidyadhari, *Dr. Shahela Tanveer and Dr. Nishanth Palakaturthi
Canalicular adenoma is a benign tumor which comprises 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms and 4% of minor salivary gland neoplasms. It is a relatively rare neoplasm but constitutes the second most common among benign minor salivary glands tumors. It occurs typically in the upper lip and buccal mucosa of individuals with a peak incidence in 7th decade with female predilection. Infrequently it is found on the palate and in the parotid gland. Few cases of multiple foci of canalicular adenoma have been reported in the literature. This article is about a case report of canalicular adenoma involving the posterior hard palate, the least common site, in a 55 year old female patient.
396 STATUS OF HIV TESTING SERVICES AND COMPETENCY LEVEL OF HIV TESTERS AND COUNSELORS IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN IBADAN METROPOLIS, OYO-STATE, NIGERIA , Christiana Adeyoola Oluwamotemi, F. A. Okanlawon, Ademola Adelekan, Oluwatomi Olunuga
Uptake of HIV testing services has been poor and statistics show that HIV has spread extensively in urban and rural areas of Nigeria with a person becoming infected with HIV every minute. Poor quality of care is one of the most common reasons why clients would not choose to use available health services. This study therefore explored the status of HIV testing services and competency level of HIV testers and counsellors in primary health care centres in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo-State, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. A four-stage sampling technique was used to select health workers from PHCs and semi-structured questionnaire and observational checklist were used for data collection. HCT sessions by counsellor testers were observed, and questionnaires were self-administered among other health care providers. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Respondents’ mean age was 36.14 ± 12.58 years. Observational checklist revealed that 93.3% of the respondents had poor interpersonal relationship, 100% had poor pre-test counseling practice and good HIV testing practice. Majority (80.0%) of the respondents had good handling and disposal of contaminated items practice and 80% had low competency level. From the questionnaire, it was reported that insufficient consumables, insufficient staff, no privacy, low quality services were some of the challenges affecting HIV testing services as stated by 56.4%, 25.5%, 12.8%, 10.6% of the respondents. This study revealed that primary health care centers have pre and post-test HIV counseling services but inadequate counseling rooms to effectively achieve the best result of the available counseling services. Majority of the HIV testers and counselors had low competency level. Government and non-governmental organisations should play active role in training HIV testers and counselors and provide all resources needed to ensure effective HIV counselling and testing services in Primary Health Care centers in Ibadan Metropolis.
397 SYNTHESIS OF 1,2,3-TRIAZOLE CONTAINING DERIVATIVE OF PIPERIDINE , Aminata Thiam, Rokhyatou Seck, Magatte Camara, Oumar Sambou, Armel Diatta, Abdoulaye Gassama*
A reductive amination reaction between N-Boc -piperidin-4-one and phenoxy-ethylamine was successfully used for the synthesis of (5-Methyl-2-phenyl-2H-[1,2,3] triazol-4ylmethyl)- (2-phenoxy-ethyl)-piperidin-4-yl-amine. The total synthesis of this small molecule is reported for the first time in this study.
398 RELATIONSHIP OF BODY MASS INDEX WITH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL OF PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS IN MONTENEGRO , Vesna Samardžić
Obesity is defined as the presence of a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 and is considered to be one of the fastest growing health problems in the modern world. The incidence of overweight and obesity is rapiddly increasing. Studies of healthy life style habits among future health professionals are conducted in many countries. The adequate level of physical activity is important for proper functioning of the human body. It reduces the risk of obesity and maintains good shape of our body. The primary aim of this study was to assess prevalence of overweight and obesity among physiotherapy students in Montenegro and its corelation with physical activity level. We included physiotherapy students who volunteered to participate in the study. Before assessment, students signed informed consent to participate in the research. Parameters of physical form: body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated after antropometric measurements. Physical activity (PA) level was assessed with Internationa Physical Activity Questionaire (IPAQ)-short form. A total of 62 students (42 female, 20 male) of physical therapy aged from 19 to 25 years were enrolled in this study. BMI showed that 39 (62.9%) were normal body weight, 21 (33.9%) were overweight and 2 students were found obese (3.2%). Abdominal adiposity, as measured by increased WHR was present in only one student. Body composition of students was satisfactory. The level of physical activity was not satisfactory and there was not found statistically significant correlation between a BMI scores and the PA level. The study reinforces the need to encourage regular physical activity and healthy habits routine among physiotherapy students. Habits of healthy living started early are kept later in the life.
399 DOES TURMERIC ENHANCE THE REGENERATION OF PLANARIA MACULATA? , Alim Parhar* and Safal Parhar*
For centuries, many Asian cultures have believed that turmeric (Curcuma longa) is beneficial in healing. Turmeric was used over 3,00 years ago in Ayurvedic, Unani, and Siddha practices as was thought to have many medicinal properties. This idea has carried on today as many South Asian countries believe that it is a good antiseptic and antibacterial agent for cuts, burns, and bruises. In Pakistan and Afghanistan, turmeric is used to clean out wounds and stimulate recovery of the broken skin.[1]
400 THE RELATION BETWEEN ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS (AASs) USE AND THE DECREASE IN SPERM COUNT AMONG MALE ATHLETES IN DAMASCUS SYRIA , Mazen Ismail Allouche and Lama Ayad Al Adal*
The objective of this cross sectional study is to know the relation between anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) use and the decrease in sperm count among male athletes in Damascus – Syria. Eighty athletes were included in the study. The athletes were divided into two groups, group I included 40 subjects with a history of AAS use, while group II also included 40 subjects with no history of AAS use. The study showed that 37.5% of AAS users had sperm count below the normal values (62.5% normal - 12.5% mild oligospermia - 17.5% moderate oligospermia - 7.5% severe oligospermia). This findings indicated that use of AAS can lead to a decrease in sperm count, moreover smoking cigarette, cannabis use and alcohol intake had a negative impact on sperm count.
401 STUDY OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS RISK IN JAUNDICED NEONATES TREATED WITH PHOTOTHERAPY IN THE EARLY CHILDHOOD , *Dr. Zahrah Mohammed Ali Abbood Issa, Booran Mamdooh Saeed Nazhat and Rand A. Abduljabbar Al-Wattar
Only a limited number of studies evaluated the association between phototherapy-treated neonatal jaundice and the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the early childhood. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between the AD development in the 1st two years of life who receive phototherapy in the case of neonatal jaundice. In this case control study, 80 children younger than two years of age who were admitted to Karama Teaching Hospital (Baghdad, Iraq) were enrolled. The subjects were classified into the case (children with AD, n=35), and control (children without AD, n=45) groups. AD was diagnosed by an allergist according to the AD diagnostic criteria. The history of neonatal jaundice treatment with phototherapy as well as the medical records of all the recruited subjects was investigated. Data were collected by a physician according to clinical manifestations and medical records. The association between phototherapy-treated jaundiced neonates and developing AD was examined. The mean age of the participants in the case and control groups was (11.6±6.6) and (10.7±5.5) months respectively. It was found that 11(68.8%) of the phototherapy-treated neonatal jaundice patients developed AD in their early childhood. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of jaundice treatment with phototherapy on the AD development in the early childhood. The prevalence of AD was higher in the patients with positive history of jaundice treatment with phototherapy (P = 0.01, OR=4.13, 95% CI: 1.41-10.14). Based on the results, it can be concluded that atopic dermatitis in early childhood was significantly associated with neonatal jaundice treatment by phototherapy.
402 PREDICTION OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN PAX1 GENE ASSOCIATED WITH KLIPPEL–FEIL SYNDROME , Lana Salah Mohamed Salih, Afra M. AlBkrye, Hind Abdelaziz Elnasri and Mona A. M. Khaier*
Background: The PAX1 gene is a member of paired Pax family that develops control genes that which encodes transcription factor. This gene plays critical roles during fetal development and during embryogenesis and essential for development of the vertebral column. It is located in chromosome 20 at position 11.22 causing Klippel–Feil Syndrome. Materials and methods: The nsSNPs of PAX1 gene were obtained from NCBI dbSNP database and were analyzed using computational bioinformatics tools. They were analyzed by (SIFT, Polyphen-2, Provean, I- mutant, SNPs& GO, PHD, GeneMANIA and Project Hope software). Results: The total number of SNPs collected from NCBI database were 4148, 164 SNPs were in the coding region, 38 in the 3´UTRs, 3 in the 5´UTRs. Only SNPs that were found in the coding region were analyzed. Four nsSNPs were found to be deleterious and having high score in all software used (rs143731938, rs147752664, rs199692693, rs372580256), they were also predicted to change protein stability.
403 THE ROLE OF MITOMYCIN-C (MMC) IN PRIMARY PTERYGIUM SURGERY FOR PREVENTION OF RECURRENCE , Dr. Hashim Thiab Hassan*
Backgroud: Pterygium is a fibrovascular wing shaped, sub-epithelial fleshy ingrowth of bulbar conjunctival tissue which can spread to the corneal limbus and beyond. Pterygium is now accepted as a distorted wound-healing response and dys-regulated cell proliferation disease rather than a degenerative lesion. The stromal overgrowth of fibroblast and blood vessels is accompanied by an inflammatory cells infiltrate and accumulation of abnormal extracellular matrix. Pterygia are relatively common in the general population and typically follow an indolent course. It is a common health problem in Iraq because of dry hot climate. Simple excision of the pterygium alone has a very high recurrence rate. Many adjunctive methods have been used to reduce the recurrence such as chemical agents like mitomycin-C (MMC). The mechanism of action of MMC seem to inhibit fibroblast proliferation at the level of the episclera. The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of intraoperative MMC 0.04%(0.4 mg/ml) for 3 minutes on pterygium recurrence and complications after surgical removal with the bare sclera resection (BSR) technique. Patients And Methods: Prospective non-comparative interventional study was conducted at Eye unit, Alyarmouk Teaching Hospital. Fifty patients with primary nasal pterygium were selected. Detailed history was taken. Complete ocular examination done and those fulfilling inclusion criteria were applied in the study. We used topical proparacaine 0.5% and local infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:200.000 adrenaline, to all patients freshly prepared MMC 0.04% (0.4mg/ml) for 3 minutes was applied through a sponge spear at the bare part of the sclera then the eyes were thoroughly rinsed with a 100ml sterile balanced salt solution (BSS). Average surgery time was 20 minutes (range: 15–25min). All patients received topical corticosteroid and antibiotic treatment for at least 4 weeks postoperatively. All patients were followed for a minimum of one year and recurrence rates and complications were assessed after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Recurrence defined as fibrovascular tissues invading the cornea 1mm or more. Results: We recruited 50 eyes of 50 patients, 33 female patients and 17 male patients, with 26 right and 24 left eyes. Age range from 21-60 years, mean age at operation was 42.55 years. The size of pterygium on cornea was 2-5mm. Average surgery time was 20 minutes (range: 15–25min). Recurrence was defined as 1 mm fibrovascular tissue over the corneascleral limbus onto clear cornea in the area of previous pterygium excision. Two recurrent cases encountered (recurrence rate 4%), one male after 3 months and another female after 6 months, the mean is 4.5 months. The side effects encountered were: ocular discomfort, phtophobia, lacrimation, foreign body sensation, and ocular pain in 35 cases(70%). Chemosis, oedema & hyperemia of surrounding conjunctiva in 30 cases (60%). Superficial punctate keratitis in 2 cases (4%). Conjuctival avascularity in areas of pterygium excision in 15 cases (30%). Avascularised sclera in 25 cases(50%) between 1-6 months postoperatively. Granuloma in one case after 1 month (2%). The adverse side effects were all mild, self limiting, and easily treated. No patients experienced severe complications during 1 year of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: A single intraoperative application of 0.04% (0.4mg/ml) MMC for 3 minutes after BSR technique of pterygium is associated with minimal complication and effectively reduces the recurrence rates. We prefer BSR technique followed by intraoperative MMC which was safe,simple and acceptable adjuvant for prevent recurrence, in comparism to MMC eye drops postoperatively in which the risk of overuse from self-administration of this toxic chemotherapeutic agent by the patients themselves at home, and postoperative therapy entails repeated bathing of the entire ocular, nasolacrimal, and oropharyngeal surfaces for 5–14days with MMC which carry high serious side effects and also prefer to another technique like conjuctival autograft (CAG) which is technically more difficult, time consume and inapplicable in cases with previous conjuctival disturbance.
404 INSIGHTS OF SEMIOCHEMICAL COMPONENTS IN TERRESTRIAL LAND SNAILS , Shovon Mohammad Shariar*, Takahiro Asami and Mohammad Abdul Hai Siddique
Semiochemical substances were detected for the first time in terrestrial land snail species (Bradybaena similaris, Bradybaena pellucida & Bradybaena circulas). We found snail behaviors resembling stimulation or attraction to these substances. These semiochemical substances act as attractant molecules or sex pheromones in snail species. No study has led to the isolation of semiochemical substances in land snail species. Here, we reported that land snails released semiochemical substances or sex pheromones for their communication.
405 RATE OFPERTUSSIS AMONG IRAQ POPULATION, A RETROSPECTIVE CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY , Dr. Yasir Khudhair Abbas*
Background: Pertussis is a severe respiratory infection characterized by acute coughing attacks accompanied by difficulties in breathing and wheezing in the chest. Aim: To identify the rate of disease among population in Iraq. Method: A retrospective cross sectional study was carried out at the Life Statistics Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Health within 6months. During this period, the study samples were 941. Data was entered to Excel sheet and the STATA software program was used to analyze this data and make tables and graphs. Results: Our finding 446/941 (47.4) were male and 495/941(52.6) were female, the highest percentage of pertussis 58.9% occurred in the age group less than 5, followed by 27.6% in the age 5 to 14 years, then 2.4% in the age group more than 45 years old. The higher of incidence rate 2.60 recorded in Muthanna province, 0.92 in Babylon, then 0.83 in Thi- Qar, and the less rate was 0.01 in Al-Anbar, Salah-Al- Deen and Al-Najaf, respectively. Conclusion: Most cases with pertussis occurred in the age less than one year; the incidence rate of pertussis was higher in the south of Iraq. Early diagnosis and treatment of pertussis with a macrolide antibiotic, such as azithromycin, before the paroxysmal stage of disease can help mitigate complications and reduce the spread of this highly contagious disease.
406 BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND RESISTANCE OF BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL AGENTS ISOLATED FROM DIARRHEA IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS, N'DJAMENA , Nadlaou Bessimbaye*, Bakarnga-Via Issakou, Djimadoum Mbanga, Tsouh Foukou Patrick Valere, Nicolas Barro
Immunocompromised people such as HIV/AIDS patients are often subject to diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. This study aimed at assessing the biochemical and antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria and fungi isolated from HIV patients. Stool samples were collected and analyzed according to standard clinical microbiology procedures for isolation of the etiological agents of diarrhea, using Hektoen, Mueller-Hinton and Sabouraud media. The filamentation assay, MGG staining, methylene blue and Amann's Lactophenol were used to identify different fungal agents. The biochemical characteristics of isolated fungi and bacteria were determined through agglutination tests, rack and API 20 E galleries. The susceptibility tests were performed by diffusion method on Casitone and Mueller-Hinton agar. The presence of bacteria was linked with CD4 count less than 50. The occurrence of fungi (85.49%) and bacteria (14.50%) isolates were significant (p = 0.001) and showed different range of sensitivity. Majority of bacterial strains were resistant to beta-lactams (50%) and sensitive (85%) to quinolones. The fungal strains were sensitive (83.63%) to the azole derivatives and resistant (96%) to the polyenes. Azole derivatives are more active than polyenes. The activity of fluconazole is limited. We recommend that prescribers recommend the use of 5-fluorocytosine, econazole and voriconazole which are more active and can be an alternative to fluconazole. The most active antibiotics are quinolones. Ciprofloxacin is the most active antibiotic and can be an alternative to nalidixic acid.
407 DETERMINATION OF MANGANESES IN FOOD BY COMPLEXOMETRY , Vitor Hugo Migues*
Manganese (Mn) is one of the most abundant elements in biosphere, corresponding to 0.098% of elements on Earth. This metal is an essential micronutrient in animal diet, being responsible for activation of several enzymes in metabolism. In the present work, the validation of manganese (II) determination by UV-Vis using 6-[2'-(5-bromothyazolylazo)]-3,5-dihydroxy-1,2-benzenedisulfonic acid (Br-TDB) as complexant in food was performed. The reaction between the reagent Br-TDB and Mn (II) has a maximum absorption at 502 nm. The system obeys Beer's law 0.1-3,0 mg L-1 having LD = 0.009 and LQ = 0.020 mg L-1, and RSD 0-1.2%. The accuracy was assessed by comparing the results with those obtained by ICP OES. After validation, the procedure was applied to the determination of manganese food samples . The results had no significant differences at a confidence level of 95%.
408 PREVALENCE OF RESPIRATORY INFECTION AMONG POPULATION, A RETROSPECTIVE CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN IRAQ , *Dr. Israa Tareq Mahmood
Background: In the world, respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of mortality causing almost 12% of all deaths. Aim: To identify the frequency of cases at the different ages during the study period in Iraq. Method: A retrospective cross sectional study was carried out at the Life Statistics Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Health within 3 months. During this period, the study samples were collected for 5 years, starting from 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018. Data was entered to Excel sheet and the STATA software program was used to analyze this data and make tables and graphs. Results: Most cases (52.3%) were male more than female cases (47.7%). In 2014, the number of cases was higher 24.6%, followed by 2015 24.5% and the less number was in 2017 (15.6%). Also, the highest percentage of cases occurs in the age less than 14 years old. The peak of graphs was high in 2014, 2015 and low in 2016 and 2017. Conclusion: There is a highly relationship between the age groups by year at the p. value less than 0.05. And this might require more effort especially among age less than 14 years and elderly. By highlighting regions and populations with the highest burden, and the risk factors that could have the greatest effect, funders, policy makers, and programme.
409 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS , Nief Rahman Ahmed*, Amenah Ibrahim Ahmed and Nadia Cheni Saadallah
A simple, accurate, and rapid visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in pure form, pharmaceutical preparations and environmental water samples. The method is based on the oxidation of Promethazine hydrochloride by sodium hypochlorite in a Sulfuric acid medium to form a pinkish red colored product with an absorption maximum at 518 nm. Beer’s Law was obeyed in the range of 2-28 μg/ml with molar absorptivity of 0.978×104 L.mol.-1.cm-1. The relative standard deviation of the method was less than 2% and accuracy (average recovery) was 100±0.98%. The optimum conditions for all color development are described and the proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations and water samples. The common excipients and additives did not interfere in the proposed method.
410 ULTRA-SENSITIVE ESTIMATION OF VARDENAFIL. HCL IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL WASTE WATER SAMPLES , Nief Rahman Ahmed*, Amenah Ibrahim Ahmed and Hiba Younis Qasim
A simple, accurate, precise, rapid, economical and high sensitive UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of vardenafil hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations and environmental wastewater samples, which shows maximum absorbance at 214 nm in distilled water. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.1-2μg/ ml, with molar absorptivity of 4.745×105 L.mol-1. cm-1, relative standard deviation of the method was less than 1.9%, and accuracy (average recovery %) was 100 ± 1.03. No interference was observed from common excipients and additives often accompany with vardenafil hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of vardenafil hydrochloride in some pharmaceutical formulations (tablets) and industrial wastewater samples. The proposed method was validated by sensitivity and precision which proves suitability for the routine analysis of vardenafil hydrochloride in true samples.
411 IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF DECOCTION OF AMARANTHUS TRICOLOR , Md. Siddiqul Islam*, Md. Fahad Hossain, Zebunnesa Ahmed and Salma Parvin
The decoction of the leaves of Amaranthus tricolor was set for evaluating antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. With the help of Kanamycin (30μg/disc) used as positive control we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the decoction by using disk diffusion method. We achieved different degrees of susceptibility of the microorganisms with this decoction. Among 17 different types of microorganisms Bacills sereus, Salmonella paratyphi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans showed more activity with the extract. Investigation for evaluating cytotoxic activity of the decoction was done by examining the lethality of brine shrimp nauplii. Vincristine sulphate was used as positive control in this experiment. We observed LC50 as 11.02 μg/ml and 0.32 μg/ml from the extract of Amaranthus tricolor and vincristine sulphate repectively. It can be suggested form the results of study that decoction of Amaranthus tricolor may be used for treating different types of bacterial and fungal infections. It further indicates that cytotoxic compound may be searched from the extract of Amaranthus tricolor in future investigations.
412 STUDY OF THE SEROPREVALENCE OF SWINE BRUCELLOSIS IN SELECTED CAMEROON REGIONS , Djawe Blaowe Parfait*, Ibrahima Djoulde, Bamia Aline and Moiffo Kengne Anicet Magloire
Brucellosis is a contagious disease of farm animals due to bacteria of the genus Brucella. Six species (B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. ovis, B. canis, B. neotomae) are incriminated in the natural infection of several animal species like cattle, goats, pigs , rodents, carnivores and other mammals (OIE, 2007 ; Boukary and al., 2010). It can also reach other ruminants, some marine mammals and humans. It is therefore a notifiable zoonosis. This study on brucellosis in pigs was carried out from August 2015 to January 2016 in farms in the Far North region and in the slaughter areas of pigs in the city of Douala. The general objective of this work is to contribute to a better knowledge of the epidemiology of swine brucellosis in Cameroon. Blood samples were taken from 1081 pigs at least 6 months old and were then analyzed with Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA for antibodies against the Brucella bacterium. The serological analysis of the sera made it possible to screen 20 sera out of 1081 samples taken with proportions of infected pigs of 6.03%; 3.67%; 2.39% and 0% respectively for the North-West, Littoral, West and Far North of Cameroon. The most affected age group of pigs is between 12 and 24 months with a prevalence of 1.20% (95% CI: [0.55 - 1.85]) (P <0.05). The Duroc, Landrace and Pietrain hybrids are the most affected with respective prevalences of 0.56%, 0.65% and 0.46%.
413 SEASONAL VARIATION AND URETERIC COLIC IN CENTRAL SRI LANKA , Anurudda Udaya Bandara Pethiyagoda*, Kalyani Pethiyagoda, Anuradha Jayatilake and Jinali Pabodha Manchanayake
Introduction: Ureteric colic constitutes a major health problem worldwide and it has reported a prevalence rate 5–12% of the population during their lifetime. This study was designed to find the effect of weather changes on the occurrence of ureteric colic. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study done in Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya from January 2017 to December 2018. Climate data of the corresponding months were collected from Department of Meteorology recorded in the nearest weather station (Katugastota). The available monthly meteorological data included highest, lowest, and average temperature (measured in degree Celsius), average relative humidity (recorded in percentage), total rainfall (measured in millimeters). Results: The patients with ureteric colic constituted 5.41 % (1585/29292) of all patients admitted to the surgical wards, teaching hospital, Peradeniya within 2 years. There was a significant correlation between the mean monthly number of patients with ureteric colic and relative humidity (p: 0.036, r: -0.609), but not with maximum air temperature (p: 0.075, r: 0.532), minimum air temperature (p: 0.368, r: 0.285), average air temperature (p: 0.342, r: 0.342), total rainfall (p: 0.957, r: -0.018). Conclusions: A significant increase of colic was observed in the inter monsoon periods when weather changes from one climate season to the other.
414 ANAESTHETIC TECHNIQUES FOR ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERIES IN BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL (BSUTH), MAKURDI, NIGERIA , *Efu ME, Elachi IC and Ojo BA.
Background: Orthopaedic surgery entails operating on osseous and non-osseous structures of the limbs, spine and joints of the body. Like all other surgeries, orthopaedic surgeries require the administration of anaesthesia to patients. Central neuraxial blocks for lower limb surgeries has gained worldwide acceptance because it has lower mortality rates, shorter hospital stay, reduced patient cost and decreased in-hospital complications. General anaesthesia (GA) and regional anaesthesia (RA) have been used successfully for upper extremity orthopaedic procedures. It is also the technique of choice in the paediatric age group, the critically ill patients as well as being use for upper limb surgeries. This study was undertaken to ascertain the anaesthetic techniques employed in orthopaedic surgeries in the Benue State University Hospital, Makurdi. Methodology: A total of 117 case files of eligible patients were retrieved from the records department. Relevant information were extracted from the patients’ folders and transferred into a prepared proforma. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 25 using simple statistics. Results: A total of 117 orthopaedic surgical cases were evaluated. The age bracket with the most number is that between 21 t0 30 years with 28 making up 23.9% of the study population. Eighty-five patients were male, accounting for 72.6% of the study population, while 32 were female, making up the remaining 27.4%. Most of the patients were between ASA II and ASA III with 47 (40.2%) and 45 (27.4%). A total of 131preoperative diagnosis were made either singly or in combination with the two most common indications for surgery being femoral fracture and tibial fracture with 23 and 20 accounting for 17.3% and 15.0% of the variables. Of the total of 125 surgical procedures that were undertaken in this study, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) were carried the most, recording 35 accounting for 28.0% of the variables. Similarly, of the total of 117 anaesthetic procedures that were undertaken, sub-arachnoid block (SAB) was employed 65 times accounting for 55.6% of the variables.. Also, of the 13 episodes of complications that were recorded, hypotension was the most common having been recorded 7 times accounting for 53.8% of the variables. Again, of the 16 management modalities employed for the management of complication of the anaesthetic technique intravenous administration of ephedrine was carried out 5 times representing 31.3% of the variables. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that regional anaesthesia is the most common anaesthetic technique used in this centre, mostly with the employment of SAB. GA is still being utilized mostly for children and upper limb surgeries. Training of personnel and the provision of modern equipment that aid regional technique will change the equation further in favour of these desirable techniques. That is where the world is going.
415 A STUDY ABOUT THE MORTALITY RATE IN THE ACUTE EXACERBATIONS IN PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE , Hussam Al Bardan, Farhan Aldakkak* and Baraa Chikho
The objective of this retrospective study was to obtain epidemiological data from 72 patients who died because of an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Damascus hospital. Moreover, this research aims to study the reason of the acute exacerbation, which lead to death. The frequency of smoking habits, and the infectious causes and non-infectious causes and mortality rate were determined and then compared to other studies. Mortality was more common between males who tend to smoke more than 60 packs/year. The most common affected age category was above 60 years old. The most common cause of the acute exacerbation, which lead to death, was pneumonia 66.66%.
416 ROLE OF DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTOR IN CHOLINERGIC INTERNEURON IN RESPONSE TO COCAINE , Elmira Mofid MD*, Sukhrajwinder Sekhon MD, Casem Ballouk MD, Olha Huzo MD
Dopamine (DA) is the predominant catecholamine neurotransmitter in the human center nervous system, where it controls a variety of functions including cognition, emotion, locomotion activity, hunger and endocrine system regulation. The effects of the DA are brought about when DA interacts with the membrane bound dopamine receptors that belong to the G-protein coupled receptor family. There are five different types of DA receptors which are subdivided into two subfamilies; first, the D1-like that includes D1R, D5R and second, the D2-like that includes D2R, D3R and D4R. Dopamine is synthesized by the neurons of the substantial nigra and ventral tegmental area (VTA), and by hypothalamic neurons of the arcuate and periventricular nuclei (8). Projections originating from brain areas that synthesize this neurotransmitter give rise to four axonal pathways which are (i) nigro-striatal; (ii) mesolimbic; (iii) mesocortical; and (iv) tuberoinfundibular (7). The mesolimbic pathway originates from the midbrain VTA and innervates the ventral straitum, the olfactory tubercle (OT) and parts of the limbic system (7). This pathway has been implicated in the control of the reward mechanisms and in the psychomotor effects generated by drugs of abuse, including cocaine.
417 SUB-LETHAL TOXICITY OF LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN ON REPRODUCTIVE BIOMARKERS OF FEMALE WISTAR RATS , *Iheanacho J.U.I., Onyeka P.I.K., Okafor A. I., Udujih, H. I. and Okoroigbo F. I.
A study on Sub-lethal Toxicity of Lambda-Cyhalothrin on reproductive biomarkers of female Wistar rats were carried out using approved protocols by institutional animal ethics committee and guide lines of National Research Council for care and maintenance of animals. Three concentrations 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% of sub-lethal solutions were prepared and administered to three treatment groups of female Wistar rats through feed. At the end of treatment period, blood samples were collected for reproductive hormonal analysis. The results showed that Wistar rats in the treatment groups had a significant dose dependent decrease in serum estrogen, FSH and LH levels while progesterone had a non-significant dose dependent decrease across treated rats. It is therefore necessary to create public awareness on the possible toxic effects of Lambda-Cyhalothrin. Also, further studies should be conducted on its exposure and risks to humans.
418 STUDY OF MATERNAL OBESITY CONSEQUENCES AND COMPLICATIONS ON THE FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION , *Dr. Bushra abd Al-Hassin Hochem, Dr. Abeer Hashim Abdul-Majeed and Dr. Kawther Yahia Saeed
In the recent years, the prevalence of maternal obesity has been increasing dramatically (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2). Maternal obesity is correlated with an unequivocal increase in maternal and fetal complications of pregnancy and these complications also extend beyond fetal life in childhood and adulthood as well. This study aimed to evaluate maternal and neonatal complications on birth associated with maternal obesity. The current study included all women who gave birth between January 1st and December 31st, 2018 at Al-Fallujah teaching hospital for gynecology and pediatrics/Iraq. Data included information about maternal health (degree of obesity, associated complications of birth, anemia and type of birth) and neonatal status (birth weight, gestational age, associated diseases and Apgar score). A higher incidence of IUGR, as well as an increased frequency of infants who needed intensive care after birth, a higher rate of cesarean surgery and a higher frequency of thromboembolic complications were observed in patients with associated obesity. It could be concluded that complications grow both in number and severity with increasing obesity. Diagnosis of the fetuses with IUGR is important for monitoring and management of pregnancies associated with obesity and it involved a close collaboration between obstetrician, family physician and neonatologist.
419 ACHIEVING POPULATION VITAMIN D SUFFICIENCY WILL MARKEDLY REDUCE HEALTHCARE COSTS , *Sunil J. Wimalawansa, MD, PhD, MBA, FACP, FRCP, FRCPath, DSc
Oxygen, water, and food are three essential components for human survival. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are the three major food components; preferably these should be eaten as natural components, unprocessed. Organic food while nutritionally similar to natural food, marketed at a higher price. Beyond that, there are several essential food substances that human life is dependent upon. These include essential fatty acids, macrominerals, and micronutrient components.
420 APPLICATION OF FACTORIAL DESIGN TO FORMULATE AND OPTIMIZE LOSARTAN POTASSIUM- LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES , Mohamed El-Arabya*, Sanaa A. El-Gizawya, Esmat A. Zein El Deina and Mohamed A. Osman
Losartan Potassium (LP) belongs to class III in biopharmaceutics classification system with antihypertensive activity. The aim of this study is to design Losartan Potassium loaded Solid lipid nanoparticles (LP-SLNs) and to optimize on their physio-chemical properties including particle size (PS), entrapment efficiency (%EE), zeta potential (ZP) and in-vitro release of drug. Losartan Potassium loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (LP-SLNs) were prepared by means of a w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation technique employing stearic acid alone or mixture of stearic acid and Geleol™ as a lipid matrix. A (23) non-randomized full factorial design was adopted to optimize LP-SLNs physicochemical properties. Three independent parameters were selected in this design including the lipid type, the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (%w/v) and the amount of lipid (mg). The impacts of these parameters on particle size (PS), entrapment efficiency (%EE), zeta potential (ZP) and in-vitro release of drug were inspected. The designed preparations of LP-SLNs possessed a spherical shape with a particle size in the range of 294 nm to 671 nm and a negative zeta potential range from -18.04 to -8.02 mV. The % entrapment efficiency of LP-SLNs formulations were found to be in the range of 20.18 to 32.19. Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed no possible interactions between LP and other additives while differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) manifested transformation of LP from crystalline to amorphous state in SLNs formulation. Stability studies of the chosen freeze dried LP-SLNs formulations showed a high stability during a period of three months.
421 COMPARATIVE CIRCUMFERENTIAL BODY ANTHROPOMETRIC FEATURES OF THE IGBO, IJAW AND YORUBA OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA , Okoh P. D.* and Didia B. C.
Circumferential anthropometry is a branch of physical anthropology which measures precisely and systematically the body. The study aimed at investigating and comparing the circumferential body anthropometric dimensions of the Igbo, Ijaw and Yoruba of southern Nigeria. The research design was a cross-sectional design. The study utilized a total number of one thousand two hundred (1200) participants with four hundred (400) randomly selected from Igbo, Ijaw and Yoruba ethnic groups whose ages ranged from 21 to 40 years and BMI range of 18.50 to <30.00. Minimum sample size determination was done using the Taro Yamane’s formula. Statistical analysis was done using statistical package for the social science (SPSS version 25.0). Continuous variables were presented as mean±SD; minimum and maximum. Age was categorized into two groups (21 – 30 and 31 – 40) years while Body Mass Index (BMI) was also categorized into two; normal weight (18.5 – 24.9 designated ≤ 25.0) and slightly overweight (25.0 – 30.0 designated ≥ 25.0). Independent sample t-test was therefore carried out to determine significant difference in the measured anthropometric variables across age and BMI groups. The confidence interval was set at 95%, therefore p< 0.05 was considered significant. Impact of age and variations in BMI were also observed in the anthropometric parameters. These anthropometric values will find use in medical sciences and forensics.
422 LINEAR ANTHROPOMETRIC BODY DIMENSIONS OF IGBOS OF NIGERIA , Okoh P. D.* and Amadi M. A.
The study aimed at investigating the linear body anthropometric dimensions of the Igbos of Nigeria. The research design was a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. The study utilized a total number of four hundred (400) participants randomly selected who ages ranged between 21 to 40 years and BMI range of 18.50 to <30.00. Minimum sample size was determined using the Taro Yamane’s formula. BMI and linear body anthropometric measurements were taken using standiometer, calibrated flexible meter tape, meter rule and weighing scale. Statistical analysis was done using statistical package for the social science (SPSS version 25.0) and Microsoft Excel 2019. Continuous variables were presented as mean±SD; minimum and maximum. Age was categorized into two groups (21 – 30 and 31 – 40) years while Body Mass Index (BMI) was also categorized into two; normal weight (18.5 – 24.9 designated ≤ 25.0) and slightly overweight (25.0 – 30.0 designated ≥ 25.0). Independent sample t-test was therefore carried out to determine significant difference in the measured anthropometric variables across age and BMI groups. The confidence interval was set at 95%, therefore p< 0.05 was considered significant. Results were presented in tables. Age related changes and variations in BMI were also observed in the anthropometric parameters. These anthropometric values will find use in medical sciences and forensics.
423 A PERSPECTIVE OF FAMILY PLANNING MEASURES THROUGH AYURVEDA , Dr. Preethika*, Suryavamshi Satish, Byadagi Sarojini and Prathima
Family planning means well oriented plans, for the upliftment of health. Our exploding birth rate has tremendously jeopardized economic and technological growth and achievement. Indians stands in-second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people. With the proper family planning the economical, educational, social and professional status of the family can be raised. But this can be fulfilled with control of population or birth control and contraceptives and other measures. In Atharvaveda, Brhadaranyakopanisat and Kausikasutra explains chanting of mantras, surgical measures like crushing of testis, vasectomy and hysterectomy. Administration of ekamuliya dravya and external administration of dravyas having property of antifertility, antispermicidal are used to produce sterility and infertility in both male and female.
424 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PEDIATRIC TASTE MASKED ORAL SUSPENSION OF SATRANIDAZOLE , Ambadas Chikkale*, Parmar Shruti and Rajesh Kumar Nema
Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of drug in pediatric and geriatric formulations is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. In order to ensure patient compliance taste masking becomes essential. The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Satranidazole using ion exchange resin and to formulate oral suspension of the taste masked drug for pediatric patient. When suspension is swallowed bitter taste may not be felt because ion exchange resin complex does not release drug at salivary pH. When it comes in contact with acidic environment of stomach, the complex will be broken down releasing the drug which may then absorbed. Batch method was used for formation of drug resin complex. Various ion exchange resins such as Kyron T-134, Kyron T- 104 and Indion 234 were tried to obtain taste masked drug resin complex (DRC). Optimization of drug loading was carried out. With Indion 234, the drug-resin complex in the proportion of 1:1 achieved equilibrium in 8 hours. 93.74% w/w of drug loading was possible by this method. Complex formation was confirmed by DSC and IR studies. Oral taste masked suspension was prepared using xanthum gum and was evaluated with respect to parameters such as Colour, pH, Viscosity, Sedimentation volume, Redispersibility, Assay, Drug release. Taste masking was evaluated with the help of panel of human volunteers and Rat Behavioral Avoidance Taste Model. Taste masked suspension showed easy redispersibility and 87.93 % of the drug release within 60 minutes at pH 1.2. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful taste masking and formulation of suspension with taste masked drug especially for pediatric, geriatric, bedridden, and non cooperative patients.
425 AYURVEDA AND MODERN PERSPECTIVE ON CONCEPT OF IMMUNITY (VYADHIKSMATVA): AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , Dr. Parag Vasudev Yadav*
The concept of immunity described as Vyadhiksmatva in Ayurveda as defensive mechanism against afflicted diseases. Immune power helps to identify harmful antigen and eliminate them by producing antibodies. The Ayurveda terms “Ojas” and “Bala” are related to immunity resembling defense mechanism of human body. The good state of Vyadhiksmatva or Ojas or Bala helps to maintain optimum health status by preventing provenances of common infectious diseases while weakness of immune system manifested as pathological consequences. Ayurveda prescribed various drugs for the empowerment of immune system like; Turmeric, Ginger, Tulsi and Amalaki, etc. Considering importance of immune power present article explored Ayurveda and modern concepts of immunity.
426 OVERVIEW ON: STEM CELL BOON FOR MANKIND , Tripathi Purnima*, Nayak Satish, Garima Indurkhya and Shukla Shivakant
Adult stem cells, also called tissue-specific stem cells or somatic stem cells, are multipotent cells, which are responsible for replacing damaged and dead cells in the body (tissue maintenance role). They are found in specific microenvironment called stem cell niche. Adult stem cells are often isolated from bone marrow, blood, adipose tissue, liver and skin. However, as a natural consequence of aging, their quantity and quality decreases with the age. Aging of stem cells affect regenerative potential, growth, and divisions. Stem cells are a current focus of intense scientific and clinical interest, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS) where inherent repair is inadequate and functional damage is often permanent. The prospective therapeutic power of stem cells lies in their ability to generate new cells of many types and to effect tissue repair. By definition, a stem cell is multipotent, with the capacity to self-renew.
427 REVIEW ON OBJECTIVE OF FORCED DEGRADATION STUDIES ITS IMPORTANCE AND OVERVIEW OF REGULATORY GUIDANCE , Hina Yerne* and Madhavi Game
Force Degradation study is most important tool in pharmaceutical research and development to develop stable formulation. It provides information about the degradation pathway and degradation product of the drug substance and helps in the elucidation of the structure of drug products. This review article discusses about regulatory guideline and factor affecting degradation to provide knowledge of the current trends in performance of force degradation studies and also helpful for development of stability indicating method.
428 A REVIEW ON SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Sunitha Reddy M.* and Pallavi Dongre
The oral route is the most preferred route for the drug administration. But the major problem in oral drug formulations is low bioavailability which leads to poor water solubility. Some approaches are being studied for the improvement of solubility and bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble drugs such as BCS class II and class IV drugs. One of the novel approache is Self-emulsifying drug delivery system. SEDDS are isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactant, solvents, and cosolvents/surfactants. These forms fine emulsion in the GI-tract upon mild agitation produced by gastric mobility. Present review describes about composition, Mechanism of self-emulsification, Advantages and Disadvantages, and evaluation of Self emulsifying drug delivery system.
429 PUTA: A CLASSICAL METHOD OF BHASMA PREPARATION , Dr. Varun Sharma and Dr. Suman Purohit*
Bhasma is a herbo-mineral preparation manufactured from metal / mineral after following complex Ayurvedic pharmaceutical processes, Shodana (purification) and Marana (incineration). The measurement of heat required for Marana process in converting metal / mineral into Bhasma form is known as Puta and this heat amount is substance specific and measured in terms of fuel used while in Muffle furnace the subject material is isolated from the fuel. It is usually a front-loading box-type oven or kiln for high-temperature applications. The furnace is usually heated to desired temperatures by conduction, convection or blackbody radiation from electrical resistance heating elements. Objectives of this study is to see comparison between Bhasma prepared by Puta or by muffle furnace.
430 PARALLELL ANALYSIS OF NADUKKU VATHAM IN SIDDHA LITERATURE WITH THAT OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE , Saraswathi B.1*
The Siddha system of medicine has its origin in South India and is rooted and grounded in Tamil culture as a combination of ancient medicinal practices and spiritual disciplines. Recently there is an emerging increase in traditional medicine research primarily based on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. Still there exists a lacuna in the analysis of ancient literature which is the backbone of this system and has its own principles and philosophies. The present review is a literary research on the parallel analysis of Nadukku vatham which is one among the eighty types of Vatha disease with that of Parkinson‟s disease (PD) of conventional medicine. All the signs and symptoms of Nadukku vatham that have been indicated in the selected ancient texts Yugi vaithiya kaviyam, Para rasa sekaram, Agathiyar-2000, Dhanvantri vaithiyam, Therayar vaagadam were analysed, interpreted and compared. Through this review, it has been revealed that though these literature were written by ancient sages of South India thousands of years ago, it is quite interesting to know that these age old poems have revealed its correlation with modern texts and terminologies.
431 ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECT OF CONDUCTION OF AWFUL AHARA-VIHARA; AN AYURVEDA PERSPECTIVE , Dr. Jyotsna N. Gangasagre* and Dr. N. S. Gangasagre
Ayurveda the one of the important stream of medical science focuses on health and well being, in this regards Ayurveda described many principles and approaches for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Ayurveda not only confined to management of disease but it also described general rule to remain healthy and free from diseased conditions. The concepts of Ahara and Vihara described by Ayurveda as principle approach of health and well being. The person who follows good conduct of Ahara and Vihara acquire good health status while awful conduction of Ahara and Vihara can lead many adverse health effects. The Ahara and Vihara can acts as nectar or as poison, considering the importance of this aspect present article explored adverse effects related to the misconduct of concepts of Ahara and Vihara.
432 SURGICAL AND NON SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF DISEASES RELATED TO CHILDREN; AN AYURVED REVIEW , Dr. Vinay Kumar Singh*, Dr. Vidhya D Sarode, Dr. Anant Kumar Shekokar, Dr. Kanchan Borkar, Dr. Dhanashri Madhukar Chaudhari
Ayurveda described childhood age as Bala or Kumara Avastha and Kumara Shrira is main characteristic of this age group. Kaumarabhritya is stream of ayurveda that deals with healthcare management of growing children. The pediatric diseases (Bala Roga) are need to be cure with different perspective as compared to diseases related to adult person since physiological responses of children differs from adult one. The vitiation of Dosha, Mala and Agni causes disease prevalence which mainly require non-invasive management while some diseases requires minor surgical intervention in childhood age. Considering this present article summarizes general considerations related to the management of Bala Roga.
433 MANAGEMENT OF ANXIETY DISORDERS THROUGH YOGA W.S.R. TO SHAWASAN: AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , Dr. Yogeshwar Ashok Tikle* and Dr. Bandapalle Dattu Narayanrao
Indian system of medicine Ayurveda elaborated various treatment methodologies for the management of different diseases and Yoga is one of them. Yoga helps to balance Doshas, enhances appetite, nourishes Dhatus and detoxify body therefore helps to manage normal health status. The Vedic system itself presented concept of Yoga that means history of Yoga is old as Ayurveda. Nadis, Chakras and Kundalini Shakti are major considerations related to the Yogic Kriya. This article described Ayurveda perspective of Yoga. Shawasan is one of the important Yoga pose that offers several health benefits and helps in mental disorders. Considering this present article explored role of Shawasan in anxiety disorders.
434 AN AYURVEDA REVIEW ON KHAGESHWARA RASA W.S.R. TO METHOD OF PREPARATION , Dr. Swati Dongre* and Dr. Rakesh Ganvir
The holistic science of India Ayurveda offers several theories and principles for the maintenance of healthy wellbeing and in this regards Ayurveda described use of many classical formulations that helps to remain healthy. The unique, original and logical fundamentals of Ayurveda provide efficient and safer ways to remain free from diseased condition. Rasashastra is one such modality of Ayurveda that deals with science of Rasa; mineral, metals and herbal poisons. The formulations prepared from concepts of Rasashastra (Rasaushadhis) offers quick action, effect in small dose, palatability and good bioavailability therefore provides several health benefits in many health ailments. Khageshwara Rasa is one such drug that used for various purposes, considering importance of this formulation present article reviewed some aspects of Khageshwara Rasa.
435 EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE SEEDS OF LUFFAACUTANGULA ROXB IN ANIMAL MODEL , Burhan Ali*, Biswaranjan Ray and Bipin Bihari Panda
Objective: To evaluate the acute anti-inflammatory properties of different doses of ethanolic extracts of leaf of Luffa acutangula Roxb on carrageenan induced paw oedema of rats. Material and methods: The three doses of Luffa acutangula Roxb was extracted by using Ethanol. The anti-inflammatory profile of these extracts was investigated on the basis of paw edema induced by carrageenan. The animals were divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each. Group I served as control. Group II served as standard and Administered Aspirin. Group III and IV and V were treated orally with 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg extract body weight respectively. Results: All the extracts showed considerable dose dependent activity. However ethanol extract 200mg/kg showed higher activity than other extracts. Conclusion: The different doses of leaf extract has anti inflammatory property. Further study needed to put the anti inflammatory Property in a precise way.
436 ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF VILDAGLIPTIN BY USING QUALITY BY DESIGN APPROACH , Amruta S. Khurd*, Pankaj B. Miniyar, Sandip R. More, Kajal V. Doshi, Vandana Gawande, Abhijeet S. Sutar, Arun M. Kashid, Shraddha V. Tathe, Shubhangee S. Gaikwad
The objective of this study was to develop a new rapid and robust high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for estimation of Vildagliptin in tablet dosage form using quality by design approach. Chromatography was performed using pre-coated silica gel aluminium plate 60 F254, (10 ×10 cm) as stationary phase and Isopropyl alcohol:Methanol:Ammonia Solution (6:4:0.2, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out at 222 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed r2 > 0.99 with a concentration range from 50-300 ng/band. A Box–Behnken experimental design with randomized response surface methodology was applied. Band length, saturation time, development distance was set as independent variables while CAAs identified were peak area and retardation factor. The Rf value was predicted for vildagliptin 0.50±0.05 to optimize the chromatographic conditions based on the preliminary trials. The optimized HPTLC method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guideline (ICH Q2 R1). The studies successfully demonstrate the use of QbD approach for developing the highly sensitive HPTLC method with enhanced method performance. Developed HPTLC method was successfully applied for routine analysis of Vildagliptin in bulk and tablet dosage form.
437 ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF VILDAGLIPTIN BY USING QUALITY BY DESIGN APPROACH , Amruta S. Khurd*, Pankaj B. Miniyar, Sandip R. More, Kajal V. Doshi, Vandana Gawande, Abhijeet S. Sutar, Arun M. Kashid, Shraddha V. Tathe, Shubhangee S. Gaikwad
The objective of this study was to develop a new rapid and robust high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for estimation of Vildagliptin in tablet dosage form using quality by design approach. Chromatography was performed using pre-coated silica gel aluminium plate 60 F254, (10 ×10 cm) as stationary phase and Isopropyl alcohol:Methanol:Ammonia Solution (6:4:0.2, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out at 222 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed r2 > 0.99 with a concentration range from 50-300 ng/band. A Box–Behnken experimental design with randomized response surface methodology was applied. Band length, saturation time, development distance was set as independent variables while CAAs identified were peak area and retardation factor. The Rf value was predicted for vildagliptin 0.50±0.05 to optimize the chromatographic conditions based on the preliminary trials. The optimized HPTLC method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guideline (ICH Q2 R1). The studies successfully demonstrate the use of QbD approach for developing the highly sensitive HPTLC method with enhanced method performance. Developed HPTLC method was successfully applied for routine analysis of Vildagliptin in bulk and tablet dosage form.
438 A RARE CYTOLOGICAL PRESENTATION OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA IN A YOUNG MALE – A CASE REPORT , Dr. Sai Sridevi Krishna M. MD* and Dr. Preethisri N.
Malignant melanoma present with diverse morphological presentations. However melanoma with osteoclast like giant cells is rarely reported and has an aggressive behavior. We are reporting this case of young male who presented with metastatic malignant melanoma with osteoclast like giant cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done and further the primary from anal canal was diagnosed. The significance of this finding is also discussed.
439 BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN AND THEIR IMPACT ON ABDOMINAL VISCERA , Dr. C. Rajmohan MS and *Dr. Selvan Ramamoorthy
Introduction: The care of the trauma patient is demanding and requires speed and efficiency. Evaluating patients who had sustained blunt abdominal trauma remains one of the most challenging and resource intensive aspects of acute trauma care. Blunt abdominal trauma is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among all age groups. Identification of serious intra abdominal pathology is often challenging. Many injuries do not manifest during the initial assessment and treatment period. Missed intra abdominal injuries and concealed hemorrhage are the cause of increased mortality and morbidity especially in patients who survive the initial phase after an injury. Aim Of The Study: Based on this our study aimed to evaluate multiple factors as follow, First to study the effect of blunt injury abdomen and their impact on abdominal viscera, Also to evaluate factors like pattern of distribution as age , sex and organ involvement, To evaluate various associated injuires in blunt injury abdomen, To focus on clinical signs & prioritize them as the prime tool in early diagnosis, To Correlate the findings of abdominal sonography in trauma with laparotomy findings and finally to analyze mortality with regarding to individual visceral injury. Materials And Methods: Thirty Four cases of blunt abdominal trauma admitted in all surgical units at Tirunelveli Medical College Hospital, Tirunelveli during the period of December 2010 to November 2011 were taken for this study. The cases were selected in such a way that only those patients with definitive history and clinical findings suggestive of injury to Viscerae which were later confirmed by investigations, laparotomy and autopsy. Detailed history regarding the mode and nature of injury were taken, The clinical features were studies in details with special note to any associated injuries like head injury, chest injury and fracture limbs. Basic investigations viz. blood Hb, blood urea, blood sugar, serum creatinine and blood grouping were done in all cases. Plain X-ray of the abdomen in erect posture was taken in most of the cases expect in those who were admitted in a critically ill condition. Radiographs of other parts were also taken to find out associated injuries. Under aseptic precaution using sterile 18 G needle peritoneal tapping done in all the four quadrants, in all patients with the history of blunt abdominal trauma. Postoperative complications were specifically looked for, if present were treated appropriately. Conclusion: The most commonly injured organ is spleen in blunt abdominal trauma which is similar to other studies. RTA accounted for majority of cases of blunt injury abdomen which is around 64.70%. Similar to many large series males are more often affected in blunt abdominal injuries than females and middle aged persons are more often affected than extremes of age. Commonest associated injuries occurred in our study was chest injury in eight cases. FAST is rapid cheap noninvasive procedure used for screening in the emergency ward itself while the patient is resuscitated. Biochemical investigations are not of much help. The investigations only complimentary to clinical diagnosis. In the unstable trauma patient, a positive FAST eliminates the need for further tests and indicates the necessity for abdominal exploration the emergency ward itself while the patient is resuscitated. Diagnostic paracentesis is a rapid, bedside tool for diagnosis immediately at the bedside arrival of the patient. Thorough initial clinical evaluation, repeated clinical examinations monitoring vital signs are essential in minimizing the chance of missing life threatening intra abdominal injuries. The mortality in this study is related to severity of injuries. Severe the grading of injury more is the mortality.
440 ROLE OF C-PEPTIDE LEVELS AND THE RISK OF DIABETES AND PRE-DIABETES AMONG WOMEN WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES , Ravikumar Gopalakrishnan*, Pradeepa, Sugapradha G. R., Senthamilselvi R.
Background: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus GDM have a significantly increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Connecting peptide (C-peptide), produced in equal amounts to insulin, is known to be a useful marker of beta-cell function and can be used to assess endogenous insulin secretion. Objective: To assess the role of C-peptide levels and the risk of diabetes and pre-diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes. To verify whether C-peptide can be used as a marker to screen people at a higher risk of diabetes mellitus. Methods: A cross sectional study in women with the history of gestational diabetes of 1-5 years after delivery was conducted in Thanjavur Medical College Hospital, Thanjavur from April 2013 to March 2018. All participants’ venous blood samples were collected before fasting at least 12 hours and 2 hours after the ingestion of 75g glucose. Fasting plasma C-peptide was measured on an automatic analyser. In addition, HbA1c was also measured. Results: 20 out of 76 GDM patients (26.31%) showed increased levels of C-peptide levels. 12 out of these 20 patients developed type 2 diabetes after four years. 2 patients were diagnosed of prediabetes after two years. Obesity and increased BMI were also significant in these patients. Conclusions: Fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy and postpartum, and post-partum C-peptide levels are significant risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with GDM. Elevated C-peptide levels may be a predictor and a screening tool of postpartum diabetes and pre-diabetes among GDM women.
441 INFLUENCE OF SODIUM CHROMATE TREATMENT ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF HORSE GRAM (DOLICHOS BIFLORUS LINN.) , *Jagpal K. and Vasantha Pillay S.
The Dolichos biflorus L. is a well-known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to on Sodium Chromate (Na2Cro4) contamination in water, soil and plants is a serious health problem throughout the world. We studied the effect of aqueous solutions of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 and 3.0% Sodium Chromate on seed germination and seedling growth of D. biflorus at the end of 20days of treatment, significant reduction in root length, shoot length, seedling length, Rooting length/shoot length ratio (cm) and fresh weight, % of germination were observed at increasing Chromate concentration. Responded differently on all growth parameters viz shoot, root, seedling length, seedling dry weight and root / shoot ratio of D. biflorus. There was also reducing rate of seed germination of D. biflorus with all treatment of chromium was recorded. The treatment of chromium at 3% produced significant 2.4 cm length of plant with effects on root, shoot and seedling length of D. biflorus as compared to control. The reduction in the seedling dry weight of D. biflorus at 3% of Sodium chromate was reduced and was more prominent with the increase in concentration at 3% of Sodium Chromate treatments. Tolerance indices and seedling vigor index of 3% for chromium treatment decreased with the increase in chromium concentration in the substrate as compared to control. More reduction in seedling tolerance and seedling vigor indices percentage of D. biflorus was recorded at 1.0% for chromium treatment. There was further reduction in seedling vigor and tolerance indices of D. biflorus at 3% of Sodoium chromate concentration as compared to control.
442 STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AS A CAUSE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN CENTRAL INDIA , *Swati S. Kale
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a relatively uncommon cause of urinary tract infection in the general population. However, recent epidemiologic studies indicate that S. aureus is an emerging cause of UTI in special patient populations, such as pregnant women and those with complicated UTI. Of particular concern, complicated S. aureus UTIs are frequently associated with the development of severe sequelae, leading to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Material and methods: Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various urine samples were studied from January 2015 to October 2017 in the Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory for their antibiotic sensitivity and co-morbidities. Results: A total of 2590 urine culture positive samples were received in Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory during the study period. Out of these S. aureus was found in 69 samples. (2.66%). Out of these 69 urine samples, 31(56.52%) were from Catherized and 38(50.72%) from non-Catheterized patients. Out of 69 samples 57 (82.60%) patients had some or the other co-morbidities such as Diabetes, Hypertension, post menopausal females, pregnant females etc. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done for all S.aureus isolates. Highest antibiotic sensitivity was seen towards Vancomycin and Pristinamycin(100%). Least sensitivity was seen towards Penicillin G in both MRSA and MSSA isolates. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections caused by multi drug resistant S.aureus is an emerging problem in hospitals. infection control practices play a vital role in controlling these life threatening infections. Vancomycin, cotrimoxazole and nitrofurantoin are good options for empirical treatment of MRSA UTIs. Pristinamycin is also a good option for treating UTI caused by MRSA.
443 EVALUATION OF THE MYCOCHEMICAL COMPONENTS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHLLUM MOLYBDITES (AGARICALES) , Paidi Rama Rao, Ratna Kumar P. K. and *Santhi Kumari G.
Metabolic extract of Chlorophllum molybdites was investigated for their biochemical components and antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion method. Bacteria such as Streptococcus progenies, Staphylococcus auras, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aureginosa.
444 ATTITUDE OF DOCTORS AND NURSES TOWARDS EUTHANASIA IN A SELECTED HOSPITAL AT MANGALURU: A PILOT STUDY , Viji Prasad C.* and Vina Vaswani
Euthanasia has been deliberated for the ethical, legal, religious and social allegations related to it. “Right to life” which is natural right, but euthanasia is an unnatural cessation of life. It is the duty of health professionals to recognize the needs of patients with terminal illness and to take steps on this understanding. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the attitude of doctors and nurses towards euthanasia at a selected hospital, Mangaluru, India. Materials and methods: Descriptive comparative research design was adopted for the study. A total of 40 samples (20 doctors and 20 nurses) were selected by using Non- probability convenience sampling technique Modified attitude scale was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric test (independent t test) was used to analyze the data. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Among the participants, 55% of doctors and 85% of nurses were favoured euthanasia. Doctors were more strongly favoured euthanasia than nurses. Comparison of attitude towards euthanasia was revealed that there was a significant difference between attitudes of doctors and nurses (t value-2.239, p value-0.037; p<0.05) Conclusion: While doctors and nurses were generally agreeing with ethical and legal aspects on euthanasia, their knowledge and attitude towards it needs to be strengthened. Limitations in this study exist in the form that the items used in the tool were focused to euthanasia in general and small sample size. Hence, study results suggest that similar study should be undertaken on a large scale.
445 EFFECT OF ALTERNATE HOT AND COLD COMPRESS ON WAIST HIP RATIO ON OBESITY , *Prashanth Shetty (BNYS, MSc, PhD), Shashikiran H. C. (BNYS, MD), Alina (BNYS) and Geetha B. Shetty (BNYS, MD)
Background: Alternate hot and cold compress is the naturopathy technique which is commonly used in the clinical practice of naturopathy and yoga for therapeutic purpose as well as to rejuvenate and restore normal bodily functions. Its effect was less understood and hence the present study was conducted to evaluate the waist hip ratio among healthy individuals. Materials and methods: A total of 50 Subjects with in age of 20 to 30 years and who have agreed to give consent for participation in the study are assessed at baseline. The subjects were applied alternate hot and cold compress for 20 minutes and various parameters being recorded before and after the practice. Result: There was a reduction in weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist hip ratio after the application of alternate hot and cold compress with the p-value < 0.05. Interpretation and conclusion: The present study concludes that, alternate hot and cold compress for 20 minutes have significant effects in reducing the weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist hip ratio in healthy individuals. Hence, the regular practice of alternate hot and cold compress for a period of 20 minutes daily by young healthy students has shown a positive influence on waist hip ratio.
446 EFFECT OF GANJI TURMERIC BATH ON HEART RATE VARIABILITY ON PRIMARY HYPERTENSION , *Prashanth Shetty (BNYS, MSc, PhD), Reeshika Rai (BNYS), Shashikiran H. C. (BNYS, MD) and Sujatha K. J. (BNYS, MSC)
Background: Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for both coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular accidents which can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and potentially heart failure. Hydrotherapy, formerly called hydropathy and also called water cure is a part of alternative medicine, in particular of naturopathy, occupational therapy and physiotherapy, that involves treating of various diseases using water. In this study we see the comparative effect of ganji turmeric bath in Primary hypertensive individuals. Methods: A total of 30 subjects were required for the study, with a mean age group of 30 to 75 years. Subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in research. Informed consent form was administered in English. All 30 subjects were given ganji turmeric bath. Assessments were made before and after the intervention. Results: Although results of the group have shown some changes, variables MEAN RR, RMSSD, NN50 is under consideration are significant as p. value < 0.05. Whereas, other variables like MEAN HR, LF are not significant as p. value >0.05. Conclusion: The Ganji turmeric bath has shown parasympathetic dominance and can be used in the treatment of hypertensive individuals.
447 EFFECT OF THERAPEUTIC MASSAGE ON VITAL PARAMETERS AMONG OBESE INDIVIDUALS , *Prashanth Shetty (BNYS, MSc, PhD), Janhavi Soni (BNYS), Shashikiran H. C. (BNYS, MD) and Geetha B. Shetty (BNYS, MD)
Background and objectives: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. It causes or exacerbates many health problems, both independently and in association with other diseases. Obese individuals with excess fat in intra-abdominal depots are at particular risk of negative health consequences. Massage is to rub and press someone's body with regular repeated movements. This study is conducted to know the effects of massage on vitals parameters of obese individuals. Materials and methods: Out of 33 subjects, 30 subjects were randomly recruited from SDM yoga and nature cure hospital, who are having BMI between 30-40kg/m2. Initially vitals parameters were recorded and massage is given, after massage the post vitals parameters were recorded and the results are compared. Results: There is significance difference observed in post data of vital parameters P<0.001 when compared with the pre vital parameters.
448 MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLE BY USING AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY , N. H. Bansod*
Development of green nanotechnology is creating interest of researcher towards synthesis of nanoparticles. In the present study, microwave assisted synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles by using aqueous root extract of Ocimum sanctum. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using UV–Vis, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. The observed peaks in XRD pattern corresponding to (111), (200) and (220) planes. The size of the synthesized silver nanoparticles in the range from 36-45 nm. Further Crystallinity of nanoparticle was confirmed by XRD pattern. The FTIR measurement was carried out to identify the possible bio molecules responsible for efficient stabilization of silver nanoparticles. The surface morphology reveals that silver nanoparticles have spherical shape. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticle was screened against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms.
449 CATATONIA- A CLINICAL IMPOSTER , Amit Chail, Hapreet Singh, Sargundeep Singh* and Bharat Khadka
Catatonia is a neuro-behavioural syndrome with autonomic, behavioral and motoric manifestation accompanying many medical and neurologic disorders.[1] It was first described in Karl ludwig Kahalbum in 1874 in his book Die Katatonie oder das Spannungsirresein.[2] During the early part of 20th century, it was considered a type of schizophrenia. However in the 1970s, it begin to be identified with many other disorders like mania and depression, as a toxic response and in general medical and neurologic illnesses.[3] Presently in ICD-10 it continues to be a part of Schizophrenai but in DSM-V it has been made a separate entity.[4] The draft version of ICD 11 also places it as a separate entity.[5] Two subtypes of the syndrome have been identified i.e retarded type and excited type.[6] Medical complications of the syndrome include aspiration, dehydration, pulmonary emboli, acute renal failure, cardiac arrest and death.[7] There are various conditions which mimics catatonia like Non-catatonic stupor, Encephalopathy, Stroke, Stiff-Person syndrome, Locked-in syndrome, Malignant hyperthermia, Status epilepticus etc.[8] Becuase of being not so common presentation, it is often confused with other diseases, so here we present a 21 years old student, who presented with two episodes of unresponsiveness and abnormal behaviour, initially was being managed as a case of Seizure disorder and Ictal Psychosis, however subsequent ward observation revealed otherwise.
450 A UNIQUE HERBAL COMBINATION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF KITIBH (PSORIASIS)-A CASE STUDY , *Dr. Jitendra D. Khot and Dr. Neha Navalchand Jain
Skin disorder is termed as kushta in Ayurveda. Psoriasis is described in Ayurveda as kitibh, it is type of kshudrakushta. The number of people suffering from Psoriasis all over the world is increasing progressively. Ayurvedic medicine is oriented toward prevention, health maintenance and treatment of diseases. There is large number of drugs of herbal and mineral origin mentioned in Ayurvedic texts, regarding the treatment of kitibh. The present case study is successful Ayurvedic management of a case of kitibha (psoriasis). Here a case report of a 35 Years-female having with the complaint of pad, prushta pradeshi twakavaivarnya, kandu, twakrukshta, kinkharsparshah etc. since 2 months. She was treated with Ayurvedic herbs & some panchkarma procedure which give effective result with Ayurvedic Management.
451 STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF RELATED COMPOUNDS IN THIOCOLCHICOSIDE FOR INJECTION , Jerripothula Ganesh* and Bandi Veerababu*
A novel stability-indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic (NP-LC) method was developed for the Estimation of Related Compounds in Thiocolchicoside for injection the following parameters give optimised results using columm Cosmicill Adore Ph 150 X 3.9 mm, 3μm with mobile phases Mobile phase A (20Mm of octane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt solution), Mobile phase-B: (100% Acetonitrile), Mobile phase-C(100% Tetrahydrofuran(THF)) with the gradient program with flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, wave length 360 nM, injection volume 10μL, Run time 45 minutes. The linearity equation were found to be for thiocolchicoside, Colchicoside, N-Deacetyl-N-formyl Thiocolchicoside. Colchicine Y= 19828X+415.6, Y=16424X+1324, Y=4626X+319.8, Y=26173+2468 respectively and LOD and LOD 0.17 and 0.51, 0.18 and 0.55 and 0.19 AND 0.58, 0.17 and 0.51 respectively, for related compound the relative retention time and relative response factor were found to be 0.49 & 0.83, 1.05 &0.23, 1.55&1.32 respectively. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak and its impurities, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness and system suitability.
452 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF KAPIKACCHHU GHAN VATI IN BHRAMA (VERTIGO) RELATED TO SENILE DEAFNESS , *Dr. Gajanan Balkrishn Patil M.S. Ph.D. (ENT) (Shalakyatantra)
Vertigo associated with senile deafness occurs usually after 45 years age. The spinning sensation or disturbance in equilibrium experienced by a patient causing one to lose balance or fall to the ground so there were mild, moderate or severe restriction in life style of patient. Bhrama (Vertigo) originally was not considered a separate disease but rather a symptom of other diseases. According to Ayurveda Badhirya and bhrama is mainly related with Vata dosha which is predominant in old age. hence, Kapikachhu (Mucuna pruriens bek) seeds are Ayurvedic medicine, Acharya Bhavprakash has mentioned that Kapikachhu have Vatghna, Balya and Vajikar properties. In the disease development process of vertigo related to senile deafness, mainly vitiated vata dosha alone or along with Kapha goes in Shabdavaha sira / strotas beacuse of that margavrodh occurs and leads to Badhirya and vertigo. So with help of Vataghnata the balya property of Kapikachhu it is useful in treatment of Badhirya and vertigo. This study is the view of ancient and modern science concerning with conceptual understanding of its etiology, diagnosis of Bhrama (vertigo) associated with senile deafness and its Ayurvedic treatment. The present study has shown that the kapikachhu Ghana vati is highly significant in the management of the vertigo associated with senile deafness.
453 RAPUNZEL SYNDROME , Chopade Jyotsna R.* and Kudale Madhuri R.
Rapunzel syndrome is a rare form of intestinal condition .The syndrome is name after a fairy tale princess who has incredibly long hair. It is an usual form of Bezoar which is extending from stomach to small intestine or beyond. Bezoar are concretion of human or vegetable fiber that accumulate in GIT. Trichobezoar (gastric hair ball) which a type of bezoar and it is common in psychiatric disorder where patient chew and swallow their own hair. People who compulsively chew or swallow their own hair are said to be have trichopagia. Such a cases are found in mentally retard or emotionally disturbed patients. Most of the cases of trichpbezoar are reported in females than males. The diagnosis of the syndrome is done by Contract- enhanced computed tomography(CT) imaging, Ultrasonography, contrast radiography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The main symptoms of Rapunzel syndromes are epigastric pain and vomiting. Here in this review we have discuss some cases related to Rapunzel syndrome.
454 RAPUNZEL SYNDROME , Chopade Jyotsna R.* and Kudale Madhuri R.
Rapunzel syndrome is a rare form of intestinal condition .The syndrome is name after a fairy tale princess who has incredibly long hair. It is an usual form of Bezoar which is extending from stomach to small intestine or beyond. Bezoar are concretion of human or vegetable fiber that accumulate in GIT. Trichobezoar (gastric hair ball) which a type of bezoar and it is common in psychiatric disorder where patient chew and swallow their own hair. People who compulsively chew or swallow their own hair are said to be have trichopagia. Such a cases are found in mentally retard or emotionally disturbed patients. Most of the cases of trichpbezoar are reported in females than males. The diagnosis of the syndrome is done by Contract- enhanced computed tomography(CT) imaging, Ultrasonography, contrast radiography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The main symptoms of Rapunzel syndromes are epigastric pain and vomiting. Here in this review we have discuss some cases related to Rapunzel syndrome.
455 DIAGNOSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS AND DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN PLHA (REGISTERED AT ART CENTRE TIRUNELVELI) USING CB-NAAT , Dr. Marchwin K. S., *Dr. J. Bharath and Dr. A. Ravi
Background: Tuberculosis is the commonest opportunistic infection seen in Patients infected with HIV and Pulmonary TB is the commonest form of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the role of CBNAAT in diagnosing tuberculosis and drug resistance in TB in HIV infected persons and its comparison with routine sputum AFB microscopy. Methods: Cross sectional descriptive study. 200 HIV infected patients were recruited for the study and the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was assessed both with sputum AFB microscopy and sputum CBNAAT. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis was identified with relevant tests. The epidemiological details of the patients were obtained and tabulated to derive the conclusions. Results: The prevalence of Tuberculosis in HIV infected individuals as per this study was found to be 15%.The overall prevalence of Pulmonary TB in the given population is 13% and extra pulmonary is 2%. This study also suggests that meals with HIV have a higher incidence of Tuberculosis. The study also revealed that sputum CBNAAT is more efficacious than sputum microscopy for detection of FB and the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in TB among HIV infected individuals was 10%. Conclusion: Sputum CBNAAT is a valuable test for diagnosing colossus both in HIV infected and non infected people and it has an additional advantage of identifying rifampicin resistance thereby making it and effective screening tool for MDR TB.
456 PARASPINAL NEUROBLASTOMA IN ADOLESCENT GIRL- A CASE REPORT , *Dr. Nupur Rastogi, M.D. Pathology
A 17 year old Indian female presented with lower backache since 2 months. MRI was done which revealed intradural extramedullary space occupying lesion at D12- L1 level with extension into neural foramina causing its widening, marked cord compression and compressive myelopathic changes. Histopathology of excision biopsy revealed histological diagnosis of Neuroblastoma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis as Synaptophysin and NSE were positive. Bone marrow aspiration and Chest X Ray did not reveal metastases. Generally neuroblastoma is a localized disease but in adults it is more aggressive. Neuroblastoma is the most common malignancy in children less than one year of age, but is rare in adults. In adults, classical features are lacking.
457 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND THE SANITATION PROBLEMS OF PEOPLE LIVING IN SLUM AREA IN KATHMANDU , Sabyata Gautam*, Rojina Basnet
People living in slum usually suffer health problems due to poor sanitation. The study on sanitation condition of Slum Area of Balkhu-14, Kathmandu district was studied. In this descriptive study, data was collected from 100 households, selected by using simple random sampling. Most of the respondents were female i.e. 70%. More than half of the respondents were illiterate and 69% of them were common labor. Almost half of the respondents of the slum area, had knowledge about sanitation, i.e. only 43% of the respondents told the correct meaning of sanitation. Study revealed that only 58% of the respondents had a toilet in their houses, 74% of the respondents used to brush their teeth once daily and 19% twice a day, and only 81% used soap water for washing their hands after toilet. It was found that 72% of the respondents were found to use water without treatment. The main communicable disease occurring in the study area was found to be diarrhea. Since, the area was highly crowded and the low level of knowledge of the slum dwelling people, the sanitation condition of the slum area was not good. Thus, awareness raising program regarding the sanitation practices and cleaning their environment should be conducted and the policy makers should give priority for the improvement of lifestyles of slum dwelling peoples.
458 A COMPARATIVE, RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE BLIND, MULTICENTRIC, ACTIVE CONTROLLED, PARALLEL GROUP, TWO ARM, PHASE III CLINICAL TRIAL TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY, SAFETY AND TOLERABILITY OF FIMASARTAN TABLETS VS. LOSARTAN TABLETS IN PATIENTS WITH MILD ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION , *Dr. Shailesh Singh, Dr. Karuna Ramteke, Khushwant Khatri and Pravin Hule  
Background: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Fimasartan Tablets vs. Losartan Tablets in Patients with Mild Essential Hypertension. The main objective of the study was to evaluate mean reduction in the sitting clinic SBP from baseline to Day 90 (±2) after 10 minutes rest period, mean reduction in the sitting clinic DBP from baseline to Day 90 (±2) after 10 minutes rest period, mean reduction in ABPM Parameters from baseline to Day 90 (±2) (Mean 24hour SBP and DBP, Mean Day Time SBP and DBP, Mean Night Time SBP and DBP). Method: It was a comparative, randomized, double blind, active controlled, parallel group, two arm, multicentric clinical trial conducted in 13 center across India in patient with Mild Essential Hypertension. The recruitment has been started from Oct 10, 2017 to Feb 03, 2018. Total 215 patients (aged 18-65 years) were randomized in the ratio 1:1 in both arms. All the patients were advised to take one tablet daily either Fimasartan Tablets or Losartan Tablets in the morning as per randomization. The treatment continued for 90 days with periodic follow up on 7th, 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days from start of treatment. Result: The current study showed the mean reduction in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure as 14.48 mmHg and 9.46 mmHg respectively for Fimasartan tablets and 13.91 mmHg and 8.79 mmHg respectively for Losartan tablets. There were 19 adverse events reported (Fimasartan; 05, Losartan; 13) in the study and which were mild in nature. Conclusion: Fimasartan Tablets 60 mg / 120 mg was Non-Inferior to Losartan 50 mg / 100 mg in terms of efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with mild essential hypertension.  
459 A COMPARATIVE, TWO ARM, RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE BLIND, PARALLEL GROUP, MULTICENTRIC, NON-INFERIOR CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE EFFICACY, SAFETY AND TOLERABILITY OF IGURATIMOD TABLETS 25 MG AS AN ADD ON THERAPY OVER METHOTREXATE TABLETS 15 MG VS. METHOTREXATE TABLETS 25 MG FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS , *Dr. Shailesh Singh, Dr. Karuna Ramteke, Khushwant Khatri and Pravin Hule
Background: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Iguratimod Tablets 25 mg for the treatment of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. The objectives of this study were percentage of patients meeting ACR20, ACR50, ACR70 response criteria, mean reduction in DAS28 and HAQ score. Method: This was randomized, double-blind, study conducted in nine centers across India. The study was conducted in male or female subjects of the age 18 to 65 years. A total of 243 subjects were randomized in study. The treatment period was 28 week with follow-up on week 4, 8, 12, 18 and week 24 from the start of treatment. Results: At the end of study, 100% patients achieved ACR20, 73.45% patients achieved ACR50 and 19.47% patients achieved ACR70 criteria in Iguratimod group vs. 97.39% patients achieved ACR20, 61.74% patients achieved ACR50 and 10.43% patients achieved ACR70 criteria in Methotrexate group. The mean change in DAS28 at the end of study was -2.22 vs -2.0 in Iguratimod and Methotrexate group respectively. The mean change in HAQ score at the end of study was -0.91 vs -0.77 in Iguratimod and Methotrexate group respectively. There were 61 clinical adverse events reported in 45 subjects. No adverse event led to SAE. Conclusion: The add on therapy of Iguratimod Tablets 25 mg to Methotrexate Tablets 15 mg is statistically equivalent in achieving the ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 criteria and statistically superior to mean reduction in DAS28 and HAQ score as compared to Methotrexate Tablets 25 mg.
460 A STUDY ON PRESCRIBING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PRIOR TO INTERVENTIONAL TREATMENT IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Prasantha Kumari Mantada*, Tholam. Srilakshmi, Bojja Geetha Sudhakar, Tirumala Setti Mohana Priyanka, Kandhlavath Bharathi Bai
It is a prospective observational study of patients with Myocardial Infarction (MI) prior to interventional treatment conducted over a period of 6 months from October (2018) to March (2019) in the Department of Cardiology at Heart Care Center, Vijayawada. To study the prescription patterns in patients with Myocardial Infarction before angioplasty and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting because prevalence of Myocardial infarction is more frequent in India due to various lifestyle modifications. In this study, it was found that male subjects, age range from 46-55 years, alcoholic, smokers and anemic patients and with past history of both Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension have more prevalence towards the MI. Mostly Myocardial Infarction patients are with Non ST segment elevation (NSTEMI). Antiplatelets were frequently prescribed drugs followed by Antihypertensives and Antianginals. Combination of Losartan and Metoprolol were prescribed to more patients. Protocol of management strategy for Myocardial Infarction was compliance with standard recommended guidelines in this study. Many patients were recovered by medical management without surgery and recurrence under this study.
461 SERUM ANTIOXIDANT MINERALS AND LIPID PROFILE STATUS AMONG GERIATRIC SUBJECTS , Wali U.*, Jelani I., Kakako S.L., Yanusa N.D. and Jabir M.Y.
Aging has been inevitable processes which occur overtime even in the absence of injury and thought to be characterized by oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia. A total of fifty (50) apparently healthy geriatric subjects were recruited in the study and serum malondialdehyde (MDA), copper, manganese, and zinc and lipid profile (total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and atherogenic index) were determined and the results compared to thirty (30) apparently young adults of socio and economic status using standard chemical method and atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated significant increase (P<0.05) in MDA, TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, AIX and decrease in copper, manganese and zinc in geriatrics when compared to those of young adults (control). The results further revealed that gender had no effect on antioxidant minerals and lipid profile but antioxidant minerals and lipid profile are age dependent.The results suggest that oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia could be attributing factors for aging.
462 PARENTAL SATISFACTION REGARDING THE SERVICES PROVIDED TO CHILDREN DURING HOSPITALIZATION , Adhiya S., Akshara Babu, Alby Thoms, Blessy Babu, Manju Thomas, Pravitha M. S., Remya Jose and Priya Reshma Aranha*
Background & Objectives: Parental satisfaction on the care provided becomes a quality indicator for the hospital. The present study aims to assess the parental satisfaction regarding the services provided for the children admitted with pediatric illness. Methods: Non experimental descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. Sample of 100 parents having children aged 0 to 18 years were selected by using non probability purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted in pediatric wards of a tertiary care hospital. Demographic proforma and parental satisfaction scale was used to collect data. The data was collected and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical. Results: The study results showed that majority (36%) of the study participants were in the age group of 31 -35 years, majority (92%) were females, majority (49%) were homemaker, majority (65%) were residing in rural area, majority (79%) of the parent verbalized that they had previous hospitalization of family members, and majority (86%) had accompanied the family members during hospitalization. It was found that 93% of parents were extremely satisfied regarding the services provided. The mean parental satisfaction score was 201.56 ±16.59. The study also found that there is a significant association between parental satisfaction scores and educational status of parents (2=209.16, p<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: The study concluded that majority of the parents were extremely satisfied by the care provided to their children who were admitted to the pediatric wards. Quality patient care is one of the key indicator for the parental satisfaction.
463 PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF VAITARANA BASTI , Praveen Kumar K.S.*, Anup B. Thakar, Harisha C. R., V. J. Shukla.
Vaiatarana basti is a preparation mentioned for management of Gridhrasi by Vangasena and has Guda, Amlika, Taila and Go-payah as its ingredients. It is having Vata and Kapha samana properties and will help in normalizing doshas responsible for the disease condition. Gridhrasi comes under vatavyadhi and shoola (pain) is its major symptom. A pharmacognostical study involving the microscopy of liquid Vaitarana Basti and a physicochemical analysis of the same were carried out to evaluate the quality of the formulation and to develop its profile. On pharmacognostical study, acicular crystals and fibres of tamarind, loosely arranged mesocarpal cells with brown content of tamarind, oil globules of sesame oil and milk were identified. Analytical study showed 9 spots at 254 nm and 1 spot at 366 nm. The specific gravity of the sample was found as 1.079 and the density as 1.04188 gm/ml. The parameters presented in this paper may serve as standard reference for the quality control analysis of Vaitarana Basti.
464 SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF ARYL SUBSTITUTED 1,3-THIAZINE AND ITS NANOPARTICLES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PLANT PATHOGENS OF SOME VEGETABLE CROPS , Chhaya D. Badnakhe* and P. R. Rajput
The synthesis, spectral analysis and biological activities of 4-phenyl-2-hydroxy-chlorosubstituted-2-imino-1,3 thiazines have been carried out. In this case 4-(2'-hydroxy-3',5'-dichlorophenyl)-6-(4"-nitrophenyl)-2- iminophenyl-3,6-dihydro-1,3-thiazine (B) has been screened. The compound (B) was synthesized from 2'-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-4-(4”-nitrophenyl) chalcone (a) by the action of phenylthiourea. The compound (a) was synthesized from 2’-hydroxy-3’,5’-dichloroacetophenone by the action of p-nitrobenzaldehyde in ethanol and 40% NaOH. The nanoparticles of the compounds (B) has been prepared by using ultrasonic technique. The titled compound and its nanoparticles were assayed for antipathogenic impact against some common crop pathogens viz - Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani.
465 FROM THE POT TO THE FIRE-SHIFTING FROM SMOKING TO SMOKELESS TOBACCO-A CROSS SECTION STUDY , *Dr. Mansoor Ahmed, Dr. Jayanna Vinayak Bharateesh and Dr. Ganganna Kokila
Tobacco is a very harmful and addictive substance. Tobacco use leads to many disabling health conditions. Tobacco is used in many different forms. Cigarettes, Bidis, Hukka, and Chilam(Gaanja) are some of the products used for smoking. Smokeless tobacco is used in the form of Paan (betel leaf), Gutkha, Zarda, Khaini, and Dohra which are used orally. A lot of factors like social norms and acceptability, availability, individual attitudes and beliefs and advertising campaigns drive the consumption of Tobacco.[1]
466 A STUDY TO EXPLORE THE VIEWS OF FIRST YEAR B.SC NURSING STUDENTS REGARDING SEXUAL ABUSE IN SELECTED NURSING COLLEGE , Prof. S. Anand*, Dr. Anoopa K. R., Anu S. Khose and Sajini Raju
The objective of the study was to explore the views of first year B.sc Nursing students regarding sexual abuse. Ethnography design was used for this study. Convenient sampling technique was used to select the samples. Interview method was used to collect the data by using semi-structured focused questioner. The study included 10 Adolescence Girls between the age group of 18-19 years in Selected College of Nursing, Kollam. All samples were aware of sexual abuse problems as a common problem in our society. The act of sexual abuse is a social evil that must be eradicated from society. Participants emphasize the need of gender equality in our society and awareness classes to the parents regarding the safety of their children as strategies to prevent the incidence of sexual abuse in children and adolescents.
467 ASSOCIATION OF STORAGE AND SANITARY PRACTICES WITH BIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER AT HOUSEHOLD LEVEL IN NORTHERN INDIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY , Navneet Kaur, Sanjay Gupta, Preeti Padda*, Vishal Gupta, Shalini Devgan and Shamim Monga
Background: About two third of India’s surface water is contaminated which has led to crisis of ground water over use. The data available on quality of water supply at household level is limited. So, this study was conducted to assess the association of storage, sanitary practices with biological quality of drinking water. Materials and Methods: Required sample size was calculated using formula 4pq/E2 and equal number of households (170 each) were selected from urban, rural and urban slums of study area using Systematic Random Sampling (SRS). Prior to this, Probability proportionate to size (PPS) was used to select eight urban wards, ten villages and four urban slums from which a total sample size of 510 was drawn. After interviewing the eldest member of the household, information on socio-demographic profile, drinking water storage and sanitation practices followed at household level were recorded in a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Water storage practices at household level observed, majority 282 (55%) stored drinking water in camphor, 474 (93%) of containers had wide mouth (> 5cm) and 464 (91%) containers were covered. Out of 102 drinking water samples 73 (72%) were found to be bacteriologically contaminated and contamination was found to be associated with place of residence (aOR =1.7; 95% CI= 0.964-3.03), container without tap (aOR =3.6; 95% CI= 1.3-10.2) and drinking water treatment (aOR =1.9; 95% CI= 0.6-5.1). Conclusions: Overall water storage practices were satisfactory in the households of urban areas but bacteriological quality of drinking water was poor for all three areas under study.
468 COMBINED EFFECT OF YOGA AND NATUROPATHY TREATMENTS ON LIPID PROFILE AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS – A RANDOMISED TRAIL , *Prashanth Shetty (BNYS, MSc, PhD), Somisetty Koushik Gupta (BNYS), Shashikiran H C (BNYS, MD), Shivaprasad Shetty (BNYS, MSc)
Background: Diabetes Mellitus comprises of a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. The combined effect of Naturopathy and Yoga therapies was less understood on diabetes mellitus. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of Naturopathy and Yoga therapies on lipid profile among diabetic individuals. Materials and Method: Sixty (n=60) individuals with diabetes were selected for the study after proper screening according to diagnostic, inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were recruited from SDM Yoga and Nature Cure Hospital Shantivana, Dharmasthala. After a thorough and detailed case history. The lipid profiles were checked at the 1st day before we start with the Naturopathic and Yogic interventions and the post-data was collected on the 10th day. This procedure is done along with the Naturopathic Diet. Data were collected for the statistical analysis. Lipid profiles were checked. Result: After intervention with naturopathy and yoga there was a significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, apart from it, there was a non-significant elevation in HDL. Conclusion: Yoga and Naturopathy, being a lifestyle incorporating exercise and stress management training, targets the elevated blood glucose levels and lipid levels in patients with diabetes with integrated approaches.
469 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ICE MASSAGE AND COLD COMPRESS IN PRIMARY HYPERTENSION – A RANDOMIZED TRAIL , *Prashanth Shetty (BNYS, MSc, PhD), Sadhana Kotapati (BNYS), Shashikiran H. C. (BNYS, MD) and Sujatha K. J. (BNYS, MSc)
Background: Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for both coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular accidents which can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and potentially heart failure. Hydrotherapy, formerly called hydropathy and also called water cure is a part of alternative medicine, in particular of naturopathy, occupational therapy and physiotherapy, that involves treating of various diseases using water. In this study we see the comparative effect of ice massage and cold compress in Primary hypertensive individuals. Methods: A total of 60 subjects were required for the study, with a mean age group of 30 to 60 years. Subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in research. Informed consent form was administered in English. 30 subjects were giving ice massage and the remaining 30 subjects were given cold compress. Assessments were made before and after the intervention. Results: Although results of individual group have shown some changes, there is no significance in the form of (p<0.05) when compared in between cold compress and ice massage. Group 1 (cold compress) showed significant increase in NN50 and PNN50 and decrease in HR(p<0.05), Group 2 (ice massage) showed significant increase in NN50 and decrease in HR(p<0.05). Conclusion: Both cold compress and ice massage have shown parasympathetic dominance and can be used in the treatment of hypertensive individuals.
470 ROLE OF AGNI- KARMA (ELECTRO SURGICAL CAUTERIZATION) IN BREAST CANCER–STAGE-I (T1N0M0) AS A APUNARBHAVA CHIKITSA (NO RECURRENCE): A CLINICAL REVIEW STUDY , *Dr. Maheshkumar Nilkanth Chaudhari and Dr. Nilesh Chandak
 Purpose: The aim of this study is - to evaluate the effect of Agni-karma (Electro surgical cauterization) in Breast cancer surgery –Stage – I (T1N0M0) as a Apunarbhava chikitsa (No recurrence). Carcinoma of the breast is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in the India. 60 consecutive Stage -I breast cancer (T1N0M0) patients taken for modified radical mastectomy were evaluated prospectively. Electro surgical cautery (i.e. Group-A) was used in 30 MRM operations and no electro surgical cautery was used in another 30 MRM operations (i.e. Group-B) in random order. In the first 30 patients (Group-A)- electro surgical cautery dissection was used to develop the thin skin flaps, MRM & axilla clearance. In the second group of 30 patients (Group-B), sharp dissection by scalpel was used for thin flap elevation, MRM & axilla clearance. In the post operative period vaccum drainage amount, duration & surgery time as well as the start time of arm exercise & long term followup for non –recurrence & metastasis were recorded. Complications like seroma, surgical site infection, haematoma & flap necrosis were determined without following of chemo & radiation therapy the recurrence rate & development of metastasis were also determined for next 5 years. Age, body mass index, breast volume & other parameters were similar in each group. Blood loss during this procedure is frequently high, often necessitating transfusion. Unfortunately, complications of this surgery have been significant. In this study, blood loss and wound healing with and without the use of electrocautery, in radical mastectomy were evaluated from both clinical and laboratory studies. The average blood replacement for Group-A was 160 ml per patient when cautery was used vs. 560 ml per patient when cautery was not used (Group-B). The postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit values were statistically similar for both groups. Age - mean – 55 yr. & 53 yr. in Group-A & Group-B respectively. Vaccum drainage mean- 557ml & 840 ml in Group-A & Group-B respectively. Duration of surgical time decreased in Group –A by more than 30% to Group-B. Formation of seroma in Group-A is more than Group-B. Recurrence of disease / metastasis is nil & found 4 patients in follow-up of post operative 5 years in Group-A & Group-B resp. Average blood loss 160 ml & 560 ml in Group-A & Group-B resp. There was no statistical significance between the groups regarding time to start arm exercise, surgical site infection and flap necrosis were considered. Electro-Surgical Cautery is a new surgical instrument which provide atraumatic, scalpel like cutting incision, haemostasis, minimal tissue injury, so electro surgical cautery shortens the drainage amount, blood loss & duration of time compared to classical MRM operation of by scalpel method. As there is Agni- karma so there is less chances of recurrence or metastasis of disease too.
471 LAPAROSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY IN SUPER-MORBIDLY OBESE , Mriganka Shekhar Sharma, Sandeep Malhotra, Anshuman Kaushal, *Dhruv Kundra, Rajesh Agarwal and Saurabh Garg
Introduction: Super-morbid obesity is defined as BMI (Body Mass Index) of more than 50 kg/m2. Conventionally bypass bariatric procedures have been advocated for super-morbid obese patients. We studied effects of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on these patients. Material and Methods: 59 Super-morbidly-obese patients who underwent Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy between May 2008 and April 2012 were followed up till 2018. Their data was entered into a prospective data base, and retrospective evaluation of the data base was carried out for various parameters. Results: Mean follow up was 73.2 months. Mean age of patients was 46.5 years. Mean BMI was 59.4 kg/m2. The mean BMI of these patients at 73.2 months was 32.17 kg/m2. The % EBWL (Excess Body Weight Loss) at 73.2 months was 61.1%. The % EBWL ranged from 40.7% to 103.6%. The remission rates for diabetes was 90%, for Hypertension was 87% & OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea) was 85.5%. Conclusion: Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy can be safely considered a standalone bariatric procedure for super-morbidly obese patients with good EBWL and remission of co-morbidities.
472 HUGE MATURE CYSTIC OVARIAN TERATOMA; A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE , *Akpor I. O., Vhriterhire R. A., Ojo B. A., Ngbea J. A., Terkula D. G. and Agwa M.
Tumours of the ovary are ovarian teratomas in 15 to 20% of cases, of which most are the benign or mature cystic teratoma type. They characteristically commonly appear as unilocular cysts, but in the case we report predominantly multilocular cysts were seen, containing grumous sebaceous material and tufts of hair protruding from the tumour cysts. It is a case of bilateral mature cystic teratoma, that we have described and reported because of the very massive gross abdominal size it had caused, and an initial suspicion of a likely malignancy, but it turned out to be a benign lesion following histopathological examination and diagnosis.
473 STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ASCARBIC ACID AND N-ACETYL CYSTENE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION , Aruna Gundala*, Hari Krishna N. and Jayachandra Reddy P.
The present study was designed to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise and accurate stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Ascorbic acid and N-Acetylcysteine in bulk and tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Denali C18 (4.6 x 250mm, 5μm) as stationary phase with a mobile phase of 0.1% OPA: acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and PDA detection at 220 nm. The proposed method was validated for system suitability, specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and robustness as per ICH guidelines. The retention times of Ascorbic acid and N-Acetylcysteine were found to be 2.587 ± 0.06 and 3.254 ±0.05 min respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 25% to 150% of the working concentration (r2=0.999) for both the drugs in binary mixture. The accuracy was found to be 99.45% and 99.31% for Ascorbic acid and N-Acetylcysteine respectively. The LOD was found to be 0.51 μg/ml and 0.24 μg/ml and LOQ was found to be 1.55 μg/ml and 0.73 μg/ml for Ascorbic acid and NAcetylcysteine respectively. The percentage recoveries for both drugs were in the range of 99-100%. Hence the proposed stability indicating RP-HPLC ethod can be used in routine analysis of tablets containing Ascorbic acid and N-Acetylcysteine.
474 THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS HEPATOPROTECTORS ON PATHOLOGICAL SYNDROMES IN CHRONIC LIVER DISEASES AND DETERMINATION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF DRUG GROUPS , Nurbaev F. E.* and Jabborova O. I.
Chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver and their consequences remain a global medical and social problem in the world. In the clinical practice of previous years, a variety of drugs were used as means of pathogenetic therapy, many of which turned out to be ineffective and went out of use. At the same time, widely known data on the ability of liver tissue to regenerate allow a rather high assessment of the prospects and potential possibilities of pathogenetic therapy of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis using hepatoprotectors.[1,2,5] Drug therapy for patients with liver pathology should always be as economical as possible. In each case, it is necessary to compare the degree of necessity of prescribing the drug and the potential danger of its side effects. In the treatment of patients with liver diseases, polypharmacy is extremely undesirable, and the prescribed doses, as a rule, should not exceed the average therapeutic and course.[9,14,19]
475 ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF SPHAGNETICOLA TRILOBATA (L.) , A. K. Anjana, P. L. Rajagopal*, P. N. Sajith Kumar, I. Arthi, Meera B. Nair and S. Aneeshia
The aim of the present study is to carry out the invitro antiarthritic activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Sphagneticola trilobata. The activity was carried out using protein denaturation method. The leaf extract of the plant produced remarkable antiarthritic activity and the activity produced was comparable to activity produced by the reference standard used.
476 BIOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF MARINE SEAWEEDS COLPOMENIA SINUOSA AND HALYMENIA PORYPHYROIDES COLLECTED ALONG THE SOUTH EAST COAST OF TAMILNADU, INDIA , Dr. Vishnu Kiran Manam* and Dr. Murugesan Subbaiah
In the current study the biochemical evaluation of the seaweeds were conducted which were collected along the south east coast of India. The marine brown macro alga Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbes and Solier as well as the marine red alga Halymenia poryphyroides Boergesen were used in this study. The relationship between the nutritive components and the variation of the biochemical composition like organic and inorganic constituents were mainly analyzed in the current study. The present analysis revealed that both the seaweeds were rich in protein content whereas more carbohydrate content was observed in marine red alga Halymenia porphyroides compared to the marine brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa. Similarly the analysis of inorganic biochemical constituents revealed that calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus were present in higher amount in marine brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa whereas sodium and potassium contents were observed in higher amount in marine red alga Halymenia porphyroides. The presence of high organic and inorganic biochemical constituents in these seaweeds may be of economic importance and ass potential health food for human diets.
477 AYURVEDA TOWARDS THE MANAGEMENT OF VRANA, W.S.R. TO APPROACHES OF SHALYATANTRA: A REVIEW , Anantkumar V. Shekokar* and Vijay P. Ukhalkar
Vrana is one of the common pathological conditions encountered by many physicians during their daily medical practices. Vrana can be considered as ulcer in modern science and large number of global population affecting now a days with such types of problem. Technically Vrana can be described as discontinuity of skin or outer body layers due to the injury or cuts or wound. The chronic condition of Vrana turned to severe manifestation in the form of Dushtavrana. It is believed that injury leading to vitiation of Doshas & Rakta can initiate pathogenesis of Vrana. Management of Vrana can be achieved through various Ayurveda approaches including herbal drugs, classical Ayurveda formulation, Shodhna chikitsa and surgical interventions, etc. Surgical intervention and use of natural medicine can offers significant relief in case of Vrana. Present article summarizes Ayurveda aspects of Vrana and its management through Ayurveda.
478 CHANGES IN HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HYPOESTES ROSEA LEAF , Africa P. E.*, Nwachuku E. O., Tamuno-Emine D. G. and Bartimaeus E. S.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Hypoestes rosea on some haematological parameters packed cell volume; haemoglobin; red blood cell; white blood cell; neutrophil; lymphocyte, monocyte; eosinophil; platelet; mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration; mean corpuscular haemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. A total of hundred and sixteen (116) albino rats were assigned by weight into eighteen (18) groups. The duration of the study was fifteen (15) days for acute and thirty (30) days sub-chronic. The study groups comprised of two (2) treatment phases each (prophylactic and therapeutic) with nine (9) experimental groups in each of the study group. Ten (10) rats each were assigned for the two (2) positive control groups and six (6) rats each were assigned to the other experimental groups. These groups with an average body weight of 201±.65.20 to 232 ± 16.23 g were composed as follows: Healthy rats receiving de-ionized water (negative control); diabetic rats administered with streptozotocin (Positive Control); healthy rats receiving aqueous extract orally only (EC 100 mg/kg body weight) and diabetic rats administered with aqueous extract orally daily for fifteen (15) days and thirty (30) days (AEHR 100 ng/kg body weight, 200 mg/kg body weight and 300 mg/kg body weight; (diabetic treated group). Animals were fasted for 16 hr, weighed and painlessly sacrificed through the jugular vein on day sixteen (16) and thirty-one (31) respectively after the experimental phases. Blood samples were collected for the determination of haematological parameters using Automated Analyzer, Sysmex (XS-1000i) which principle is based on flow cytometry. Results showed that there were no significant difference between haematological parameters of streptozotocin induced rat group and those of the different dose-treated groups. This indicates that treatment with aqueous extract of hypoestes rosea does not affect haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetes rats.
479 GLOBAL EPIDEMIC OF CORONAVIRUS—COVID-19: WHAT CAN WE DO TO MINIMIZE RISKS , *Sunil J. Wimalawansa, MD, PhD, MBA, FACP, FRCP, FRCPath, DSc.
The 2019 coronavirus outbreak started in Hubei Province in China. Despite major travel restrictions, the virus spread across all China’s provinces. Based on the rapidity of the dispersion, coronavirus has become a serious public health concern in China and a few other countries. Coronavirus belongs to a large family of viruses that usually affect wild animals. Following gene mutations and with close exposure to infected animals, these viruses occasionally are transmitted to humans and subsequently spread among humans. Coronaviruses cause the common cold and more severe diseases, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). Such diseases are infectious at close range and spread via person-to-person contact, with an approximate death rate of 3%. An effective vaccine against the 2019/20 coronavirus is expected to be available within 6 months. Precautions taken to prevent the spread of the coronavirus are is similar to those used to lessen transmission of the common cold and flu-like illnesses, including minimizing exposure by limiting time in public places and public transportation, and frequently washing hands. This article is intended to provide a general description of the current situation related to the coronavirus outbreak and not to provide medical advice.
480 YUVANA PIDIKA; AN AYURVEDA PERSPECTIVE TOWARDS ITS CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW , Vikas Sharma*, Dr. Yogesh Wane and Dr. Prakash Joshi
Acne vulgaris is a disease involving pustules, nodules, papules and cysts over skin especially faces and upper trunk area. The disease mainly arises due to the obstruction of hair follicles and sebaceous gland. The disease mainly occurs in adolescent age and described as Yuvana pidika under the category of Kshudra-roga in ayurveda science. Pollution, consumption of Guru-ahara, Anidra, Madhya, Krodha, Savbhava and Santap, etc. are causative factors of Yuvana pidika. The disease mainly involves Vata, Kapha and Rakta vitiation. Ayurveda mentioned Shodhana-chikitsa and Shamana-chikitsa as therapeutic modality for Yuvana pidika. Considering high prevalence of Yuvana pidika (Acne vulgaris) in current scenario present article summarizes some ayurveda aspects of this disease.
481 PHYSIOLOGICAL, PATHOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPT OF PANCHAMAHABHUTA: A REVIEW , *Dr. Ashwini B. Jaiswal
Ayurveda the holistic science of health and well being encompasses several principles and theories related to the health management. The ayurveda principles not only considered physical and mental health but also emphasizes spiritual health. The all theories of ayurveda aimed to restore optimum health status and in this regards ayurveda presented many concepts to explore internal constitution of human body; the concept of Panchmahabhuta (five elements) is one of them. The concepts of Panchamahabhuta help to understand constitutional components of body and also provide understandings about pathology of diseases and their management. The concept of Panchamahabhuta described predominate factors of disease pathogenesis thus present article elaborated Ayurveda view of Panchamahabhuta and its correlations with pathological conditions and their management.
482 AYURVEDA AND MODERN PERSPECTIVES ON AHARA AND VIRUDDHA AHARA: A LITERARY REVIEW , Dr. Lokesh Chandra Sharma* and Dr. Ravi Prakash Sharma
The wellbeing of health status merely depends upon the quality and quantity of consumed food stuffs (Ahara) and Ayurveda described Ahara as one of the vital aspect of human life. The health benefits of Ahara only occurs when it is prepared and consumed in proper manner and inappropriate conduction of Ahara-Vidhi can leads many pathological events. In this regards Ayurveda mentioned concept of Viruddha Ahara which means incompatible food that can results harmful health effects. The considerations of concept of Viruddha Ahara are very important not only to remain healthy but also important to prevent disease pathogenesis. Considering importance of these entire aspects present article described general and pathological perspectives of Viruddha Ahara.
483 A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON THE EFFECT OF SCREENING SIGMOIDOSCOPY AND SCREENING COLONOSCOPY ON COLORECTAL CANCER INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY , Casem Ballouk MD*, Elmira Mofid MD, Abdul Majeed Zaki Akkawi MD
In the past few decades cancer has plagued the health of many people leading to rise in deaths globally. Colon and rectum cancer rates have increased over the past decade thus raising the need for awareness as well medical research on the best ways to either prevent or control its progression amidst its occurrence. Several tests have been developed to test and screen for colon and rectum cancer and the author is looking to address the benefits of these tests and early detection. Statistics of previous years deaths due to colon and rectum cancer will also be addressed in order to further understand the severity of the health condition thus leading to the populace influence of the dire need of always getting a checkup done. We performed a systematic review which included randomized controlled trials, prospective observational and retrospective studies. The intervention compared was endoscopy vs no screening. There was significant reduction in colorectal and colon cancer in all the studies for those participants who had had screenings before being diagnosed with cancer either screened with colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Significant reduction in the risk of mortality and incidence in cancer if people went for screening was noted. Such research will go a long way in improving the health sector of the countries. In conclusion awareness is now needed and health centers need to find a way of ensuring that screening is crucial especially for patients with high risk of colorectal cancer.
484 ATTITUDE, KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF HIV AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN THE RURAL AREAS OF IMO STATE , Barinua K. Gbaranor*, Nazor P. Barinua-Gbaranor, Clinton D. Orupabo, Martha O. Iwodi, Peace E. Okpara, Progress Dakuro Victor, Abiye Tamuno-Opubo, Boma Harris Opusunju, Ajie Pearl C.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which is known to be the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) affects people across the globe. HIV have been found to cause psychosocial problems among victims. However, success in stemming this dreaded disease in Nigeria has improved. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of awareness of HIV among pregnant women in the rural areas of Imo State. The study revealed that 96.7% (58/60) are aware of HIV and 3.3% (2/60) shows no awareness about HIV. Also 96.7% (58/60) agreed that HIV exist and 83.3% (50/60) have done HIV screening test. The data collected from the study shows that 74.5% (41/55) of the respondents knew they were HIV positive before becoming pregnant, 25.5% (14/55) did not know, with a null response of 5. Also 91.7% (55/60) have been counselled and 86.7% (52/60) are ART. Statistical analysis at P value < 0.05 is significant. It is very important to enlighten women in the rural areas about the disease HIV so as to avoid complications and unnecessary spreading of the HIV.
485 RENOTOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF WATER HYACINTH LEAF PROTEIN CONCENTRATE USING RAT MODEL , *Adeyemi O. and Osubor C. C.
This study evaluated the toxicological impact of water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate (WHLPC) on the kidney of albino rats. Rats were fed with various formulations (7.73, 15.46, 23.19, and 30.92) %w/w of WHLPC over a period of 20 weeks. A control feed contains soybean (15.46%w/w) in place of WHLPC. Rats were grouped into 5 groups in accordance with the feed formulations and the control. Each group contains 20 rats, 4 rats were removed from each group and sacrificed at the start of the experiment and on week 5, 10, 15 and 20 respectively. The kidney was isolated, a portion was fixed in buffered neutral formalin for histology studies and the other portion was homogenized for toxicology tests. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined in the kidney. Standard enzyme assays were conducted for catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (ASP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and -glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Results showed no significant difference (p>0.05) among all treatment groups including the control. Histology photomicrograph showed normal cellular architecture lending credence to the biochemical assays. Conclusively, WHLPC, at nutritional concentration used in this study may be considered safe for the kidney.
486 SURGICAL SUCCESS AND PATIENT SATISFACTION ANALYSIS IN DOING ENDONASAL AND EXTERNAL ENDOSCOPIC DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY DURING MANAGEMENT OF PRIMARY ACQUIRED NASOLACRIMAL DUCT OBSTRUCTION , *Dr. Nada Mohammed Fahad, Dr. Muthanna Abdul Khudhur dna Dr. Ghadah Hashim Hasan
This study aimed to analyze and compare between surgical success and patient satisfaction in doing external dacryocystorhinostomy and endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy for managing primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction at Al-Karama Teaching Hospital in Baghdad / Iraq. In this hospital-based prospective, comparative, nonrandomized, interventional study, a total of (50) patients, 25 patients in external DCR group and 25 patients in endoscopic DCR group, diagnosed as primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) who were meeting inclusion criteria were enrolled during the period from 1st June 2015 to 30th May 2016 with additional 6 months and consecutive 6 months follow up for all patients. Postoperative symptomatic improvement and patency of lacrimal passage on syringing were analyzed in each follow up. The success was defined by both symptomatic improvement and patent lacrimal passage on syringing at 6 months after surgery. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also evaluated. Patient satisfaction and quality of life were analyzed using Glasgow Benefit Inventory Questionnaire. Results showed that mean age of presentation in external DCR was 46.7±15.1 SD (range, 22-66 years) whereas in endoscopic DCR group it was 30.9 ± 10.8 SD (range, 17-49 years). Female preponderance was seen in both groups (F: M=20:5 in Ex-DCR group and 18:7 in En-DCR). Overall, success rate is 94.0% (n=47 out of 50) was demonstrated. Intergroup success rate was almost similar in both groups (Ex-DCR 24/25, 96.0% and En DCR 23/25, 92.0% with p value>0.05). The mean total score from GBI was 45.4±11.1 (95% CI, 21.2-74.0) and 63.2±17.1 (95% CI, 20.1-85.2) in Ex-DCR and En-DCR groups respectively, with P value<0.001. The mean general subscale score was 44.90±14.1(95% CI, 12.9-69.8) in Ex-DCR group and 64.9±17.2 (95% CI, 14.1-87.1) in En-DCR group with P-value<0.001. Social support subscale was 44.9±10.9 95 CI, 1-65.2) in Ex-DCR and 48.1±17.9 (95% CI, 1-75.2) in En-DCR group with p-value=0.276. Physical health subscale score was 57.1±16.1 (95% CI, 51-100) in Ex-DCR group and 73.8±19.9 (95% CI.-60-100) in En-DCR with p-value<0.001. The commonest intraoperative and post-operative complication was bleeding in both groups. It can be concluded from this study that surgical success rate is almost comparable in both groups. Endoscopic DCR was found to have better patient satisfaction compared to external DCR.
487 PAAT/RVET PULMONARY ARTERY ACCELERATION TIME IN DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION BY PULSED WAVE SPECTRAL DOPPLER TECHNIQUE , Dr. Ghazi Farhan, Dr. Wajih Qasim Taha and Imad Mahmood Hussein
Pulmonary hypertension is a pathophysiological, hemodynamic condition defined as an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mmHg at rest, assessed by right heart catheterization which is the gold standard investigation despite its own inherent risks. Transthoracic echocardiographic estimates pulmonary artery pressure conventionally calculated from the maximal velocity of the tricuspid regurgitation jet (traditional method). Pulmonary artery acceleration time is an accurate parameter reflecting pulmonary artery Systolic pressure independently of tricuspid regurgitation. This study aimed to assess echocardiographic pulmonary artery acceleration time in the diagnosis of PHT when compared with TR jet using pulsed wave doppler spectral technique in suspected patients with pulmonary hypertension. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study performed in Baghdad/ Iraq from June 2017 to May 2018 on 245 referred patients with unexplained shortness of breathing. Each patient was subjected to transthoracic echocardiogram using Pulsed-wave Doppler measuring pulmonary artery acceleration time, while the Continuous-wave Doppler was used to measure the peak velocity of TR, in addition to find the correlation between that Pulmonary Artery Acceleration Time and Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure. The patients were divided into 2 groups; 183 With no PHT & 62 with PHT. There was a significant correlation between Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure and Peak velocity of TR, Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure and Pulmonary Artery Acceleration Time /RV Ejection Time. Pulmonary Artery Acceleration Time was an excellent prediction of PHT, with (93.6% sensitivity), (95.1% specificity), it can be concluded that pulmonary artery acceleration time is a useful, valuable, easily obtainable and accurate Echo parameter when compared with Peak velocity of TR in the assessment of Pulmonary Artery Systolic.
488 FREQUENCY OF BORRELIA BURGDORFERI WESTERN BLOT, ELISPOT AND LTT POSITIVITY AMONG AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS PATIENTS FROM TURKEY , Barbaros ÇETÄ°N*
In Turkey, Borrelia burgdorferi infections are not well known among physicians and almost completely overlooked. On the other hand, a small number of seropositivity studies (3.3%-73%) show that Borrelia burgdorferi is common in Turkey. Only clinical criteria used for diagnosis. These criteria is also compatible with other diseases. Lyme disease is currently among them. It was evaluated 81patients, between ages 3 and 19, with a definite diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, and it was founded positive Borrelia burgdorferi western blot, Elispot and LTT test results in 59 (72.7%) of them. Only 22 (27.3%) patients have negative test results. Of the patients with autism, 63 were males, 18 were females. The lyme test was positive for the mothers of some of the children who were tested.The results show that LYME disease is very common in Turkey and child and adolescens LYME patients with neurological symptoms are misdiagnosed with autism spectrum disorders.
489 CLINICAL STUDY ON POST OPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT WITH VEDANA STHAPAKA KASHAYA IN ARSHAS , Tanmay Malakar* and Mahabaleshwar S.
Background: Post-operative pain is the common outcome of the Surgery and the ability to alleviate this pain is one of the most important goals for surgery. In case of ksharasutra ligation the patient experiences agonizing pain in the wound which may persist for long time. To manage this we have to rely on the modern analgesics which are having lots of side effects. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Vedana Sthapaka Kashaya in post operative pain management of patients undergone ksharasutra ligation for Arshas. Methodology: In this study minimum 40 patients were selected and placed in two groups by simple random sampling method i.e. 20 in trial and 20 in standard groups. In trial group “Vedana sthapaka kashaya 35 ml TID” was given where as in the standard group “Tab. Diclofenac sodium 50 mg BD” was given. The therapeutic effects were analyzed by using the subjective parameter. The duration of treatment was 5 days and clinical assessment was done every day. Result: At the end of clinical study all 20 patients in group A and 20 patients in group B showed maximum improvement. Conclusion: The study showed both Diclofenac sodium and Vedana sthapaka kashaya were proved to be effective in the management of post operative pain in the patients who undergone ksharasutra ligation in arshas but comparatively, Tab. Diclofenac sodium was found superior than Vedana sthapaka kashaya.
490 CHARACTERIZATION AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF NICKEL(II), COBALT(II) AND COPPER(II) COMPLEX WITH LEWIS BASES , Birendra Kumar, Praveen Kumar Singh*, Rekha Rani, Dayanand Prasad, Sunny Kumar and Shivadhar Sharma
Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of dihydrobis(1-pyrazolyl)borate and their adducts with some Lewis bases have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV–vis spectroscopic techniques. The adducts were either 1:1 or 1:2 complexes depending on whether the Lewis base was bidentate or monodentate. The results indicate that adducts with 1,10-phenanthroline were the most stable due to the chelating effect of the Lewis base. The order of reactivity of the complexes was determined to be Ni(H2BPz2)2 > Cu(H2BPz2)2 > CoH2(BPz2)2 > Co(H2BPz2)2. The effects of various solvents (i.e., benzene, chloroform and DMF) on the structure were studied. The solvents appear to minimally affect the visible spectra of Co(H2BPz2)2. The Ni(H2BPz2)2 and Cu(H2BPz2)2 adducts exhibit a four-coordinate structure in non-coordinating solvents. However, in coordinating solvents, such as DMF, the adducts exhibit six-coordinate structures.
491 THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT (POLICE POWER, PATERNALISM) AGAINST THE OBESITY IN GULF COUNTRIES , Dr. Sultan AlNohair*
According to the new definition of the W.H.O for the obesity, it is consider as disease. I can consider it one of the serious disease because it lead to a lot of chronic disease (Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, metabolic disease, coronary heart disease…etc). Obesity usually determined by the body mass index which is affected by the weight and height. World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more and it considers the obesity increase quickly from 1980 – 2008 which consider as important health issue. Overweight defines as body mass index more than 25 and less than 30 which consider as risk factor for the metabolic disease. When look for the map of WHO which is explain the percentage of the obesity and overweight over the world, we can consider the countries in the gulf region at the highest prevalence with some variation from country to another country. The highest prevalence of the overweight among the gulf region is Kuwait by 79.3 % followed by the following (Qatar by 72.2%, Emirates by 72%, Bahrain by 72%, Saudi Arabia by 71.3% then finally Oman by 57.5%). Regarding the obesity over the world, we can find the highest prevalence among (U.SA, Gulf region, South Africa). In the gulf region also, the highest prevalence of obesity in Kuwait by 42.8 % then followed by Saudi Arabia by 35.2 % and the last will be Oman by 22%.[1]
492 BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS (DIET, FLUORINE, ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO) ON ORAL HEALTH , Lopes Cardoso I.*, Leal M.F.C., Santos D.R. and Azevedo W.S.
Nowadays, oral diseases are prevalent chronic diseases present in worldwide population. Dental caries results from a complex interaction between acid-producing bacteria, fermentable carbohydrates and host factors, including teeth and saliva. Risk factors for caries development include physical, biological, environmental, behavioral factors such as high numbers of cariogenic bacteria, inadequate salivary flow, poor oral hygiene and poor eating habits. Moreover, due to its efficacy in caries prevention, fluorine has been added to toothpaste, supplements and water. However, despite of its beneficial effect, excessive intake can lead to acute or chronic toxic effects, that depend on ingestion period and ingested amount, age, cardiovascular or renal problems and genetic changes. The most common adverse effects of excessive fluorine intake are dental and skeletal fluorosis. Another oral health problem is oral cancer, one of the most common cancers in the world and a highly relevant problem of global public health, mainly affecting lips and oral cavity. It is a preventable disease, where tobacco and alcohol, considered major risk factors, are present with a synergic effect in 90% of cases. Alcohol can act as a risk factor both locally and systemically, being causally associated with oropharyngeal and larynx cancer, esophageal cancer, among others.
493 STUDY OF CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RHEUMATIC FEVER IN AL-ALWIYA PEDIATRICS HOSPITAL IN BAGHDAD , *Dr. Sahar Awad Hassan, Dr. Ahlam Mohammed Jawad Ibrahim and Dr. Shatha Jaafer Naser
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) may have different clinical manifestations in different countries according to the genetic predisposition, prevalence of rheumatogenic strains, social and economic conditions. This study aimed to study was to determine the clinical characteristics of ARF in Al-Alwiya pediatrics hospital/Baghdad-Iraq and to improve the detection methods of the ARF cases. The current retrospective analysis included (60) clinical cases of inpatients aged (4-17) years and whose diagnosis with ARF was established according to Jones criteria and underwent treatment in Al-Alwiya pediatrics hospital during the period from 2009 to 2019. In this study, (63.3%) of patients showed fever and (65.0%) showed arthralgia which were the most common causes for admission to the medical care. The admission diagnosis was wrong in 24 (40.0%) children who underwent the treatment. The most frequent major Jones criteria of ARF were carditis (83.3%) and polyarthritis (55.0%). Chorea was significantly less common than carditis (P<0.001). The adequate treatment of the preceding streptococcal infection was administered in 17 children (51.5%). It can be concluded that the significant incidence of misdiagnoses in the ARF children during admission to the hospital, especially the interpretation of joint syndrome, indicates that physicians need an extra awareness. The lack of specific clinical signs of rheumatic carditis makes it a diagnostic challenge. The revised Jones criteria (2015) for the diagnosis of ARF can improve carditis detection. The adequate treatment of the preceding streptococcal infection may prevent ARF.
494 STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ANTI-MÜLLERIAN HORMONE AND OTHER REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME WOMEN , *Dr. Fidaa Najim Abdullah and Dr. Bushra Farhan Awadh
This prospective clinical study was performed to correlate Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels with years since menarche as well as to investigate the AMH association with ovarian morphology and levels of androgens in healthy normo- ovulatory women and in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Al-Falluja teaching hospital for gynecology and pediatrics at Falluja-Anbar /Iraq. In our study, (30) healthy normo-ovulatory women and (40) women with PCOS were recruited on the basis of the classic PCOS criteria (Rotterdam consensus meeting definition of PCOS (ESHRE/ASRM, 2004). Fasting blood was obtained from all women in the early follicular phase (days 5-6) after spontaneous or induced menses (in PCOS), and transvaginal ultrasound examination was performed. The values for follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), AMH as well as the years since menarche and ovarian volume were assessed. Results showed that AMH had a statistically significant positive correlation with the ovarian volume (r =0.625, r =0.581 P<0.01) and negative correlation with years since menarche (r =-0.745, r =-0.801 (P<0.01) in both study groups. In women with PCOS, AMH and years since menarche had a significant correlation with testosterone (r =0.450, r = -0.595, P<0.01). It can be concluded from this study the relation between AMH and years since menarche as well as the AMH differences in relation with certain clinical or endocrine characteristics between normal and PCOS women were underlined.
495 SOME INFLAMMATORY AND CARDIOVASCULAR MARKER LEVELS IN HUMAN IMMUNO – DEFICIENCY VIRUS SEROPOSITIVE INDIVIDUALS ON HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY WITH HYPERTENSION IN NNEWI , Osuafor Ogechi Christine*, Ifeanyichukwu Martin O., Ndiokwere Cynthia Kelechi1, Oshim Ifeanyi O., Ehiaghe F. Alfred and Iyida Peter Emeka
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the world’s most serious health and development challenge. Cardiovascular complications are more common in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals than in age matched uninfected individuals. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate some inflammatory and cardiovascular markers in HIV seropositive individuals on HAART with hypertension in Nnewi as a marker of inflammatory response and fibrinolytic activity in these subjects. Materials and methods: A total of 150 subjects were recruited and grouped using systematic sampling technique into 3 groups of 50 subjects each. Group1 were HIV seropositive individuals on HAART with hypertension, group2 were HIV seropositive individuals on HAART without hypertension. Control group were recruited among Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital HIV negative staff and students without hypertension. Interleukin – 6, D-dimer and CRP were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, BMI was calculated using the formular: BMI (kg/m2) = Weight (kg) divided by Height (m2). Results and conclusion: The study revealed significant higher levels of CRP (p=0.03) in HIV seropositive individuals on HAART with hypertension than in HIV seropositive individuals on HAART without hypertension, while IL-6, D-dimer and values of BMI showed similar mean values. There were significant higher levels in CRP (p=0.00) and D-dimer (p=0.02) with a significant lower levels in BMI values (p=0.00) in HIV seropositive individuals on HAART with hypertension than in HIV negative controls without hypertension, while IL-6 showed similar mean values. These levels might indicate increased inflammatory response and fibrinolytic activity in HIV infection.
496 A REVIEW ON GENERAL ROBOTIC SURGICAL SYSTEMS IN MODREN SCIENCES , Avinash* and Bhanu Prakash
The field of surgery is entering a time of great change, spurred on by remarkable recent advances in surgical and computer technology. Only recently have robotic systems made their way into the operating room as dexterity enhancing surgical assistants and surgical planners, in answer to surgeons' demands for ways to overcome the surgical limitations of minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. The first generation of surgical robots is already being installed in a number of operating rooms around the world. These aren't true autonomous robots, but they are lending a mechanical helping hand to surgeons. Remote control and voice activation are the methods by which these surgical robots are controlled. Robotics is being introduced to medicine because they allow for unprecedented control and precision of surgical instruments in minimally invasive procedures. The ultimate goal of the robotic surgery field is to design a robot that can be used to perform closed-chest, beating-heart surgery. Robots in the field of surgery have dramatically changed the procedures for the better. The most significant advantage to Robotic Surgery to the patient is the decrease in pain and scaring. The smallness of the incisions also causes many other advantages that make Robotic Surgery worth the risk. Besides the obvious rewards to the patient, Robotic Surgery is also very advantageous to the surgeon and hospital.
497 APPLICATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE POLYMER IN DENTISTRY , D. K. Awasthi* and Gyenendra Awasthi
Polymer has now become very useful for the treatment of dental problem. A fruitful and vast area of research on dental material is very important. Dental composites consists of a reinforcing filler of small inorganic particles, generally glass or quartz. Such materials are mixed in matrix of organic polymer A recently well known matrix is bis phenol A-glycidal methacrylate(bis-GMA). This is used because its di methacrylate monomer is difunctional, crosslinking and polymerization take place simultaneously, a product is obtained which is very hard material used in occlusive application. Methyl methacrylate(MMA)polymer is commonly used as group of polymers. It contains good mechanical properties like rigidity, wear resistance and strength and also has many useful processing properties as easy to mix, simple to process, cure and shapable. It is biocompatible i.e., non –toxic, non-irritating, tasteless, odourless and resistance to microbial colonization. MMA has aesthetic properties like translucency, transparency. It is chemically resistant in oral part of body. It had acceptable cost. Its density is 0.945g/Ml with 54.3KJ/mol heat of polymerization, colourless, immiscible with water but miscible in organic solvent and flammable in nature.
498 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON HOLISTIC APPROACH TO PRATISHAYA , Dr. Ganesh S. Waghamare*1, Dr. Vikas Jaybhay2, Dr. Gajanan A. Cheke3, Pooja Chaubey4
Pratishyaya is one the common disease which seen in the children as the immunity system of children is poor so they are easily exposed to the external environment, is more prone to all these causes and recurrent infections. Now a day, due to changing lifestyle, increased pollution, urbanisation and increase resistance to the antibiotics are responsible for prevalence of many diseases. The most common and frequent problem is Pratishyaya or Rhinitis. Repeated attack, improper management or negligence of the acute stage leads the disease to chronic phase (Dust Pratishyaya).Rhinitis causes various of symptoms such as blocking of nose hence leads to an irritable child. This causes panic in parents, hence a majority of patients are seen attending the opd with this complaint.
499 REVIEW ON: ANTIRETROVIRAL DOLUTEGRAVIR DRUG , Dr. Sonali P. Mahaparale* and Jayraj U. Deshmukh
Dolutegravir is that the newest integrase strand transfer inhibitor which is granted for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Dolutegravir is identical or preferred to existing treatment regimens in both patients i.e. treatment-naïve and experienced patients including those with previous raltegravir or elvitegravir failure. Dolutegravir exhibits rapid absorption, with a median time to the utmost plasma concentration (tmax) starting from 0.5 to 2 h. Switching to a two-drug regimen of dolutegravir plus rilpivirine was also related to high rates of virological suppression in real-world observational studies. Dolutegravir make the co-formulation with the two-nucleotide reverse -transcriptase inhibitors as a best treatment option because it has a consistent efficacy which include the excellent tolerability and infrequent drug - drug interaction. Thus, dolutegravir gives a favourable alternative treatment option for a few adults with HIV-1 infection and no history of virological failure who are already virologic ally suppressed on (and wish to modify from) their current ART regimen. This review gives an overview of the pharmacokinetics, adverse event profile, and efficacy of dolutegravir within the treatment of HIV.
500 DEVELOPMENT OF PROTEIN DRUGS , Shareqa Habeeb and *Raheemunnisa Begum
Therapeutic protein drugs are an important class of medicines serving patients most in need of novel therapies. Recently approved recombinant protein therapeutics have been developed to treat a wide variety of clinical indications, including cancers, autoimmunity inflammation, exposure to infectious agents, and genetic disorders. The latest advances in protein-engineering technologies have allowed drug developers and manufacturers to fine-tune and exploit desirable functional characteristics of proteins of interest while maintaining (and in some cases enhancing) product safety or efficacy or both. In this review, we highlight the emerging trends and approaches in protein drug development by using examples of therapeutic proteins approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration over the previous five years (2011–2016, namely January 1, 2011, through August 31, 2016).
501 A REVIEW ON CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND VARIOUS PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES POSSESSED BY MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA , Jyotsana Sharma*
Melaleuca alternifolia, is one of that plant which is blessed with so many properties. Anti-microbial property is possessed by this plant due to presence of essential volatile oil in it. Tea tree oil is confirmed with broad antimicrobial properties and hence it is used to treat various disorders like dermatoses, vaginitis and respiratory tract diseases. Because of this, it is used as one of the active therapeutic ingredient in most of topical formulations. In some parts of Australia, crushed leaves are used to treat cuts and wounds. They apply leaves paste directly on wounds as this shows excellent antiseptic property and prevent the spread of infection. The tea tree leaf has confirmed with powerful anti-fungal properties and is used effectively for the treatment of multiple dermatophytes. Study reveals that leaf extract possess the antioxidant property because of the presence of various secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and steroids. There are number of medicinal properties that are there in this plant such as it is used to treat the problem of dandruff. Because of its germicidal properties it is used to treat the vaginal infection. This oil shows significant action against the acne as it can easily penetrate the skin and unblock the sebaceous glands. In last, this can be concluded that Melaleuca alternifolia is a single herbal shrub with many advantages.
502 EVALUATION OF PACKAGING MATERIAL INTERACTION IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPRATION , Dinesh Kamdi*, Dr. K. B. Gabhane and C. A. Gulhane
Plastic materials are widely used in medical items, such as solution containers, transfusion sets, transfer tubing and devices. While an important performance characteristic of plastics used in medical application is chemical inertness, interactions between a plastic material and a contacted pharmaceutical Products are well documented. In the case of leaching, both the identity of the leached substances and their accumulation levels may impact the ultimate utility of the product. In this article Summarizes the packaging material interaction with; product material affects the product quality. A review is provided related to the accumulation of organic and inorganic leachable substances from DEHP plasticized PVC, polyolefin and various other related pharmaceutical plastic packaging materials.
503 A REVIEW ON PROTON THERAPY FOR VARIOUS CANCERS , Dr. R. Dhananjayan*
Proton therapy or proton beam therapy is a type of radiation therapy. It uses protons rather than x-rays to treat cancer. A proton is a positively charged particle. At high energy, protons can destroy cancer cells. This therapy can be used alone or it may be combined with x-ray radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and / or immunotherapy. It is a type of external-beam radiation therapy, which painlessly delivers radiation through the skin from a machine outside the body. It is useful for treating tumors which have not spread and are near important parts of the body, i.e., cancers near the brain and spinal cord. It is also used for treating children because it lessens the chance of harming healthy, growing tissue. This review is briefly focussed on the applications of proton therapy on various cancers.
504 FORMULATION APPROACHES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE DOSAGE FORM , Akash Umesh Mahajan and Ashish Prakash Gorle*
Oral route of administration is most convenient route of drug administration about 85% of available dosage form is in market are developed by considering oral route. The development of pharmaceutical dosage form like tablet requires considering the parameters like the bioavailability of API. The conventional tablets takes time to disintegrate, to overcome this development of immediate release tablet is done. The disintegration time of immediate release dosage form is lowered by using the superdisintegrants like Sodium starch glycolate, Crospovidone (Polyplasdone) and Carboxymethylcellulose (Croscarmellose). The superdisintegrants lead to rapid disintegration of tablet in stomach after administration and makes drug offered for dissolution. The fast disintegration is may be due to quick uptake of water from the medium and provides swelling and burst mechanism. This article provide the detailed information of significance of superdisintegrants in the immediate release of tablet and the mechanism of disintegration along with various conventional techniques and novel granulation technology used to prepare immediate release tablet.
505 LAKSHA HARIDRADI YOGA IN AIR POLLUTION: A REVIEW , Sunitha G.*, Gazala Hussain, Shivani Anil Kumar Chouksey and Arya Subhash
One of the greatest problems that the world is facing today is air pollution, increasing with every passing year and causing grave and irreparable damage to the earth. Air pollution has existed for centuries but only started to be significant following the industrial revolution in the 19th century. It exerts harmful effect not only on human health but also destroys the environment which is the ultimately results in the destruction of life on earth. Ayurveda being the science of life has solution for every problem of life whether it is physical, psychological, social or environmental. The main signs and symptoms of Dooshitha Vayu are kasa, prathishyaya, siroruja and tivra nayana aamaya. Laksha Haridradi yoga is a formulation mentioned for the management of dushita vayu that can be used as a dhoopana. The smoke emitted by the burnt drugs of this formulation should be spread all over to purify the toxic air and smoke.
506 YAKRUT DALUDAR MANAGEMENT THROUGH SHAMANA & SHODANA CHIKITSA; AN AYURVEDA AND MODERN REVIEW , Dr. Deepti L. Kawale* and Dr. Sharad Durgaprasad Tripathi
Yakrut daludar is considered as one of the Udara Roga which occurs due to the Mala samcaya and Dosha Samcaya associated with Mandagni and Srotorodha. The enlargement of liver or excessive enlargement of Udara is major feature of disease. As per modern science Yakrut daludar can be correlated with condition of accumulation of materials in peritoneal cavity due to the cirrhosis or other liver diseases. The problem affecting global population and current scenario causes more incidences of such health problems. Ayurveda mentioned various modalitites for managing such problems including use of single herbs, classical Ayurveda formulations, modification in living regimen and Shodhana procedures, etc. Present article described Ayurveda view on Yakrut daludar and its management through Ayurveda approaches W.S.R. to Shodhana procedures.
507 A REVIEW ON HERBAL EXCIPIENTS APPLICATIONS IN NOVEL AND TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS , *Dr. K. L. Deepthi, Jay Shree Ojha, D. Chandini, Uma Bhadravathi, S. Pravallika
Novel drug delivery systems and targeted drug delivery systems are mostly developed in pharmaceutical origin. The use of green herbal polymer as excipients in pharmaceutical preparations is expanding day by day. Safety, economical, availability, biodegradable are the major reasons that make them differ from other sources. So they can be used numerously in pharmaceutical products as excipients to serve the purposes. The aim of this article is to give an over view of the application of natural polymeric substances that can be used as excipients in pharmaceuticals and in novel drug delivery systems.
508 A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF DINACHARYA (AYURVEDIC LIFE STYLE) FOR HEALYHY LIVING IN MODERN AGE , *Dr. Hiremath Parameshwar and Dr. Savadi Basavaraj
Health is optimal well-being that contributes to quality of life. It is more than freedom from disease and illness, though freedom from disease is important to good health. Optimal health includes high-level mental, social, emotional, spiritual and physical wellness within the limits of one‟s heredity and personal abilities. Lifestyle change, more than any other factor, is considered to be the best way of Preventing the disease and early death in our society. When people in western society die before the age of 65, it is considered to be early or premature death. Many factors contribute to early death. The major causes of early death have changed from infectious diseases to chronic lifestyle-related conditions. The most important is unhealthy lifestyles that contribute to more than half of all early deaths. So our science is having 2 aims that is to maintain the good health of healthy individuals and also to cure the diseases of a diseased person. Health is 4 dimensions like physical, mental, social and spiritual (Sama -dosha, dhatu; mala and agni) Just as unhealthy lifestyles are the principal causes of modern-day illnesses, healthy lifestyles can result in an improved feeling of wellness that is critical to optimal health. An Ayurvedic lifestyle requires discipline and awareness, which we can develop by slowly integrating daily routines, or dinacharya, into your lifestyle.
509 REVIEW: ORAL FAST DISINTEGRATION TABLET , Shahebaz Ahmad* and Nishan N. Bobade
Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed.
510 A REVIEW STUDY OF ABHYANGA BENEFIT’S IN BALYA AVASTHA , *Dr. Mangesh Suresh Khillari, Dr. Vishnu Pralhad Chaudhari, Dr. Sadhana Prafull Babel, Dr. Mayur Shrikrishna Padol and Dr. Akash Macchindra Dighe
Ayurveda is an ancient science having lots of basic concept for living healthy life. Ayurveda is not only for the Vyadhit person, but also for Swastha person. In Ayurveda Various Aacharya have mentioned about Rutucharya, Dincharya and Ratricharya. In Dincharya, from waking up to going to bed, importance of all have been described. From these Abhyanga is one of them which is described by various Acharya. The process of application of oil on the body in general is called as Abhyanga. Acharya Charaka mentioned Lodhra- haridradi Sidha tail used abhyanga of Nabhi after Nabhinal Kartana for preventing abscess formation. After Nabhinal Kartana and before Snana Acharya Sushruta mentioned balataila Abhyanga. Acharya Charaka and Sushruta Mentioned Shiropichu in Sadyojat karma every day. Acharya Sushruta mentioned Balgraha treatment, Medicated Sneha Tail, Ghruta and Vasa use for Abhyanga.
511 A REVIEW ON TRANSUNGUAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM AS NOVEL DELIVERY , Meraj Siddiqui Israfil Siddiqui* and S. D. Pande
The body normally hosts a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. Some of these are useful to the body and others may cause infections.Nail plate is main route for penetration of drug. Nail plate is main route for penetration of drug. The nail grows at a rate of approximately 1.8-4.5 mm per month or 0.1 mm per day; thus, the average nail can regrow completely in 6-9 months. The hardness and the impermeability of the nail make it an unpromising route for the drug delivery. Topical therapy is most preferable option, due to its non-invasiveness, localised action, elimination of systemic adverse effects and drug interactions, increased patient compliance and possibly reduced cost of treatment. The nail unit is made up of nail plate; nail matrix, nail bed, hyponychium and also the proximal and lateral nail folds as shown. Onchomycosis generally affects 10-40% of populations. Topical nail preparations like lacquers, varnishes, enamels etc. are generally used to enhance beauty of nails, imparting color and luster to nail. Iontophores involves delivery of a compound across a membrane using an electrical field (electromotive force). Keratolytic agents (papain, urea, and salicylic acid) may be used to improve penetration of anti fungal drugs.
512 THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF VIDARIKAND AND BALA MUL W.S.R. TO THEIR BRIHANI EFFECTS , *Dr. Neeta Hake
The traditional system of Indian medicine described uses of mineral, herbs, herbo-mineral combinations and classical Ayurveda formulations for various therapeutic purposes. Ayurvedic medicinal plants offer several therapeutic benefits with fewer side effects. Many Ayurveda drugs obtained from plant sources possess Brihanii effects and helps in physical & mental development. Vidarikand and Bala are some them possess many health benefits like; Brihani, Jivniya, Rasayan, Vrashya, Shukral, Balya, Kanthya, Varnya, Dahahar and Mutral effects. Considering this aspect present article described importance of Vidarikand and Bala W.S.R. to their Brihani effects.
513 SIGNIFICANCE OF RAKTA DHATU AND SIRAVEDHA AN AYURVEDA REVIEW , Dr. Ranjit Solankar* and Dr. Rahul Bankar
Dhatus considered as major physiological entities of body and Rakta dhatu is one of them. Rakta dhatu performs many functions inside the body and mentioned as an essential physiological humour necessary for sustaining life. The pathological conditions like Kshaya and Vriddhi depend upon physiological state of Rakta. There are many therapeutic procedures related to Rakta which offers health benefits in various health problems and Siravedha is one of them. Siravedha means blood-letting which is a type of para-surgery used to cure Raktaj Roga. Present article mentioned Ayurveda perspective on Rakta dhatu, diseases of Rakta dhatu and therapeutic importance of Siravedha.
514 EFFECT OF TRAINING PROGRAM ON KNOWELDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF USE OF PARTOGRAPH AMONG STAFF NURSES WORKING IN LABOUR ROOM OF SELECTED HOSPITAL IN PUNE CITY , *Pratima Torne, Dr. Sharadha Ramesh and Kalpana Sawane
Background: Labour process is all different for different women. Maternal and fetal monitoring during labour is very important as this is the only way to assess the progress of labour and to identify deviations from normal. Pregnancy and child birth is a normal physiological process and every pregnant woman hopes to give birth safely. Partograph is a printed chart on which observation in labour are recorded in a graphic format to provide an overview of labour,aiming to alert midwifes and obstetricians regarding deviation in labour progress as well as maternal or fetal wellbeing.The aim of this study, to assess the effectiveness of training program on Knowledge, attitude, &Practice regarding use of partograph. Research Methodology: A Pre-Experimental:One Group Pre-test Post-test Design was used for the study involving 40 staff nurses as sample by using non-probability purposive sampling method. Pre test was conducted with help of structure questionnaire for knowledge, likert scale for attitude and observational checklist for practice. Teaching Program on use of Partograph given as intervention after pretest. Then post test was conducted after 2 days. The staff nurses working in labour room have cooperated during data collection periods. Result and Summary: Paired t-test was applied for the effectiveness of training program on knowledge regarding use of Partograph. Average knowledge score in pretest was 2.8 which increased to 3.25 in posttest. Corresponding p-value was small (less than 0.05), which means that the training program on partograph imparted to the staff nurses was effective in enhancing their knowledge. The effectiveness of training program on attitude regarding use of Partograph. Average attitude score in pretest was 25 which increased to 25.3 in posttest. Corresponding p-value was small (less than 0.05) which means that the training program was significantly effective in improving the attitude among the staff nurses regarding the use of partograph. The effectiveness of training program on practices regarding use of Partograph. Average practice score in pretest was 1.55 which increased to 2.25 in posttest. Corresponding p-value was small (less than 0.05)Which means that the training program on use of partograph imparted to the staff nurses was significantly effective in improving their practices of using partograph. The correlation between Knowledge, attitude and practices though positive is not significant.None of the demographic variables was found to have significant association with the knowledge, attitude and practices of the staff nurses regarding the use of partograph. Conclusion: The findings of the study shows that the effect of training program on use of partograph was effective as seen in the score of in pre-test and post-test, which will help the staff nurses working in labour room to increase the knowledge and practice towards use of partograph.
515 REVIEW ON ARAKODA (TAFENOQUINE) & ITS APPROACH AS AN ANTI-MALARIAL AGENT , *Mohsina Abid and Syeda Sana
Tafenoquine is an analogue of primaquine with an improved therapeutic and safety profile. It has a long half-life and activity against liver-stage malaria parasites, so may be useful for chemoprophylaxis. Antimalarial agents are drugs used for the treatment or prophylaxis of malaria. Malaria is caused by four species of Plasmodium, such as Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. vivax. ARAKODA contains tafenoquine succinate, an antimalarial agent for oral administration. The molecular formula of tafenoquine succinate is C24H28F3N3O3∙C4H6O4 and its molecular weight is 581.6 as the succinate salt. It is given in prophylaxis of malaria patient aged 18 years older. Tafenoquine is active against pre-erythrocytic (liver) and erythrocytic (asexual) forms as well as gametocytes of Plasmodium species. G6PD test is performed before giving the drug. Analytical studies were on NMR,IR,MS,HPLC, Flourimetry analysis. In vitro studies have shown that tafenoquine presents an average 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.436 mcg against blood stages of seven strains of P. falciparum. The long‐acting 8‐aminoquinoline tafenoquine (TQ) coadministered with chloroquine (CQ) may radically cure Plasmodium vivax malaria. Coadministration therapy was evaluated for a pharmacokinetic interaction and for pharmacodynamic, safety and tolerability characteristics. Volume of distribution. The activation of tafenoquine needs the activity of CYP 2D6 liver microsomal enzyme. Routes of elimination is through feces.
516 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL CONTROLLED POROSITY OSMOTIC PUMP TABLETS OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE , Midhun Kumar Duddu*, P. Renuka, J. Divya, Y. Madhusudhan Rao and Kishan Pavani J.
The Controlled porosity osmotic pump drug delivery system suitable for oral administration typically consists of a compressed membrane that is coated with a semi permeable membrane that has pore-forming water-soluble additives, which after coming in contact with water, dissolve, resulting in an in situ formation of a micro porous structure for drug release. Drug delivery from these systems is not influenced by the different physiological factors within the gut lumen. The main objective of this is to formulate CPOP for controlled release of a Diuretic, Hydrochlorothiazide, which is expected to improve patient compliance due to reduced frequency, it also eliminates the nead for complicated and expensive laser drilling and maintains continuous therapeutic concentration. Hydrochlorothiazide belongs to the thiazide class of diuretic. It has variable absorption from GI tract with oral Bioavailability of about 70% and a plasma elimination half life ranging from 5.6 to 14.8 hrs. CPOP formulation of Hydrochlorothiazide were prepared using different concentrations of solubilizing agent as it is belongs to poorly water soluble BCS class II drug and different osmogens at different concentrations by wet granulation technique. The tablets were coated by pan coating with cellulose acetate and PEG -400 as pore forming agent. Prepared tablets were evaluated for tablet thickness, hardness, weight variation and drug content analysis, drug release studies. As the osmogen concentration increases the rate of drug release was found to be increased and optimum concentration of osmogen was found to be 1:6. And it follows zero order release kinetics.
517 A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON POTENTIAL DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS THROUGH PRESCRIPTION ANALYSIS , Sai Theja Guduru*, A. Santhi Sri, S. Kalma, Y. Jessie Grace, K. Yalla Reddy, P. V. Madhav Reddy
A drug- drug interaction is a pharmacological or clinical response to the administration of two or more drugs which is different from the response triggered by the individual use of these agents. The risk of drug-drug interactions with increases exponentially with number of drugs prescribed and is estimated of approximately 6% when 2 to 4 drugs are used, 50% when 5 drugs and nearly 100% when 8 drugs are prescribed. Drug interactions can occur both in-vivo and in-vitro. Drug interactions outside the body can occur when different drugs are mixed in an intravenous infusion. Poly therapy increases the complexity of the therapeutic management and there by the risk of clinically important drug -drug interactions which can both induce the development of adverse drug reaction or reduce the clinical efficacy. In general, a drug is a chemical substance meant for rectifying the altered physiological condition in the body. But currently drugs are becoming an important entity in the daily life of many individuals as the use of poly medication is increasing irrespective of rationality. Whatever it may be the cause for poly-medication, each and every drug encounters when they are concomitantly administered. Our study on drug-drug interactions helps in assessing the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions and reducing their risk and adverse consequences also helps in focusing on the rational prescription of drugs. By minimizing the harmful drug-drug interactions as they are more in number when compare to beneficial interactions. Our study also aids in minimizing the medication related problems in patients at risk and improving the role of clinical pharmacist in pharmaceutical care.
518 THE VALUE OF TECHNETIUM (TC99M) THYROID SCANS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THYROID NODULES , Louai Al-Qatawna MD*, Amany Aljaafreh MD, Ahmed Albtoush MD, Khaled Alkhawaldeh MD, Omar Yaseen Al Shokibi, MD
The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the value of Technetium Pertechnetate (99mTc) thyroid scan in the assessment of thyroid nodules. Methods: Two hundred patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients had thyroid nodules (single or multiple thyroid nodules MNG, solid, cystic or combined) discovered by ultrasound and underwent thyroid scan 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-pertechnetate according to body weight. In addition, all patients underwent thyroid function test (TFT) and fine needle aspiration (FNA) after thyroid scan. Results: Patients with hyperthyroidism and those with inadequate specimen after final needle were excluded. 20% of patients had a nodule less than 1 cm and 65% had single nodule. Histopathology after FNA showed that 22(11%) of nodules were malignant, and 178 (89%) were benign. Thyroid scan revealed cold nodule in 14 nodules and normal in 8 malignant nodules. Thyroid isotope scan showed an overall sensitivity of 64%. The sensitivity for nodules more than 1cm was 90% and for nodules less than 1cmwas 3%. Conclusions: Tc99m thyroid has limited value in characterization of thyroid nodules and assessment of risk of malignancy. This scan has limited sensitivity and positive predictive value and normal thyroid scan cannot exclude malignancy, particularly in small nodules.
519 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DRAGON FRUIT FACIAL CREAM , Patil Trupti B.*, Patil Vaishnavi J., Patil Snehal U., Patil Amruta M., Patil Sulbha G. and Dr. Pawar Sunil P.
Hylocereuspolyrhizus and Hylocereusundatus are two varieties of the commonly called dragon fruits, belongs to the Cactaceae family. Dragon fruit contains several types of antioxidants (Betalains, Hydroxycinnamates, Flavonoids) which protect cells from unstable molecules called free radicals, which are linked to chronic disease risk and aging. Dragon fruit is also rich in phyto albumins and vitamin C which are highly valued for their antioxidant properties so make your skin tighter, more flexible and bless you with a beautiful healthy glow. Regular use of this prepared dragon fruit Cream on the face can help in slowing down the process of ageing. It is also used in treating acne and sunburn. Also known as Pitaya, each dragon fruit contains approximately 60 calories. Dragon fruits are rich in vitamins including vitamin C, B1, B2 and B3. They are also rich in minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium and phosphorus. They are also a good source of fibre, protein and omega essential fatty acids.
520 MANAGEMENT OF PARIKARTIKA W.S.R TO ACUTE FISSURE-IN-ANO WITH UDUMBARA TAIL PICHU – A CASE STUDY , *Dr. Mayur Shrikrishna Padol, Dr. Ramesh Vanaji Ahire, Dr. Aparna Abhay Raut, Dr. Ashish Shrikant Hastak, Dr. Shubhangi Shashikant Wankhedkar
The health of an individual depends solely on his diet and life style. Diet plays very important role in Parikartika which is evident by references. The earliest reference of „Parikartika’ is available from Sushruta Samhita (1500 B.C). Parikartika is referred in Brihatrayees not as an independent disease but as a complication of Bastikarma and Virechana (vyapath). About 30-40% of the populations suffer from proctologic pathologies at least once in their life. Anal fissure comprises of 10-15% of anorectal disorders and is characterized by excruciating pain during and after defecation, bleeding per anus with spasm of anal sphincter. Parikartika is one of the most common diseases of ano-rectal diseases. Parikartika resembles with „fissure in ano‟ having cutting and burning pain in guda (anus). It is most painful condition affecting the anal region. Various factors which contribute to development of fissure are hard feces, surgical procedures, diseases like Crohn‟s disease, ulcerative colitis, and enthusiastic usage of ointments and abuse of laxatives, sphincter hypertonia, improper diet etc. Constipation results in hard stool passage which is painful and resulting in fissure. In Parikartika, the local treatment is such as ointments, Ghrita, Taila and dilatation also known. In the present clinical study the Udumbara tail Pichu is taken as external application on fissure (Parikartika).
521 ASSESSMENT OF SALIVARY PH AND FLOW RATE WITH TOBACCO HABITS: A CROSS SECTIONAL ANALYTICAL STUDY , Dr. Avani Modi, Dr. Dheeraj Kalra*, Dr. Purvi Bhate, Dr. Simran Aulakh, Dr. Pearl Jhirad and Dr. Sneha Jethwani
Background: Tobacco consumption is known to have various health effects and oral effects. Saliva is the first fluid that comes in contact with tobacco when consumed. Long term consumption of tobacco causes various alterations in functional activities of saliva. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of tobacco on salivary flow rate and pH. Material and methods: A total of 50 participants were divided into two groups –Tobacco consumers and Non Tobacco consumers. Unstimulated salivary samples were collectedand salivary flow rate and salivary pH was assessed. The data was statistically analysed using Chi Square test and Independent Sample t test. Results: The study showed that mean salivary flow rate score was lower among Tobacco user (6.9870.73) than non-Tobacco user (7.390.73) and the mean Salivary pH was lower in Tobacco users (0.2580.182) than Non-tobacco users (0.3450.164) and difference in both was statistically non-Significant. Conclusion: This study showed that consumption of tobacco causes decrease in salivary pH and flow rate among tobacco users than non-tobacco consumers. This show that tobacco consumption over period of time causes changes in salivary gland.
522 ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL STUDY ON NOVEL Ag(I)-15C5 COMPLEXES , Seema Chitlangia and Rajeev Ranjan*
Crown ether is a general name given to macrocyclic polyethers containing ethylene bridges separating electronegative oxygen atoms. They typically contain central electron rich hydrophilic cavity with diameter varying from 1.2-6.0 Å. Crown ethers have been used for the various studies pertaining to extraction equilibrium constant, stability constant and for determination of some of the alkali and alkaline earth elements and other elements from p, d and f-block elements. Crown ethers have a significant coordination power towards silver ion. The present paper describes synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial study of novel Ag(I) complexes synthesized by 15-crown-5 ether. The organic salts used for complexation were salts of nitrophenols. Products were isolated from silver salts of all the three nitrophenols, 2-nitrophenol(ONPH), 2,4-dinitrophenol(DNPH) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol(TNPH), having general formula of [Ag.L](Pic-), where L = 15C5 and Pic- = Picrate anion. Elemental analysis, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, IR, and 1H-NMR spectral analysis were performed for establishment of the structure of synthesized complexes. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized complexes were determined by using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the prepared complexes were determined and recorded by zone inhibition method.
523 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ASSAY OF NANOPARTICLES OF SUBSTITUTED 1,3-THIAZINES , Chhaya D. Badnakhe*, P. R. Rajput
The synthesis, spectral analysis and biological activities of 4-phenyl-2-hydroxy-chlorosubstituted-2-imino-1,3 thiazines have been carried out. In this case 4-(2'-hydroxy-3',5'-dichlorophenyl)-6-(hexyl)-2-imino-3,6-dihydro-1,3- thiazine (G) has been screened. The compound G was synthesized from 2'-hydroxy-3’,5’-dichlorophenyl-4-(hexyl) chalcone (a”) by the action of thiourea. The compound (a”) was synthesized from 2’-hydroxy-3’,5’-dichloroacetophenone by the action of heptanaldehyde in ethanol and 40% NaOH. The nanoparticles of the compounds G has been prepared by using ultrasonic technique. The newly synthesized titled compound and it’s nanoparticles were screened for their antibacterial activities against some Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. and Gram negative Pseudomonas sp. and Solmonella typhi pathogens. All the newly synthesized compounds were found to be active against test pathogens.
524 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ASSAY OF NANOPARTICLES OF SUBSTITUTED 1,3-THIAZINES , Chhaya D. Badnakhe*, P. R. Rajput
The synthesis, spectral analysis and biological activities of 4-phenyl-2-hydroxy-chlorosubstituted-2-imino-1,3 thiazines have been carried out. In this case 4-(2'-hydroxy-3',5'-dichlorophenyl)-6-(hexyl)-2-imino-3,6-dihydro-1,3- thiazine (G) has been screened. The compound G was synthesized from 2'-hydroxy-3’,5’-dichlorophenyl-4-(hexyl) chalcone (a”) by the action of thiourea. The compound (a”) was synthesized from 2’-hydroxy-3’,5’-dichloroacetophenone by the action of heptanaldehyde in ethanol and 40% NaOH. The nanoparticles of the compounds G has been prepared by using ultrasonic technique. The newly synthesized titled compound and it’s nanoparticles were screened for their antibacterial activities against some Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. and Gram negative Pseudomonas sp. and Solmonella typhi pathogens. All the newly synthesized compounds were found to be active against test pathogens.
525 DETERMINATION OF GENOTOXIC IMPURITY 2,3-DIMETHYLANILINE IN PARACETAMOL AND MEFENAMIC ACID GFOS USING RP-LC , Venkateswara Reddy Billa*, Prof. Anuradha Vejendla and Prof. Ramachandran Dittakavi
Highly sensitive method for the determination of genotoxic impurity such as 2,3-Dimethylaniline in Paracetamol and Mefenamic acid GFOS using RP-LC has been presented in the present paper. Quantification of 2,3- Dimethylaniline content in Paracetamol and Mefenamic acid GFOS samples by HPLC with UV Detector. 2,3- Dimethylaniline was determined by RP-LC method using Inertsil ODS-3V (250X4.6mm, 5μm) column as stationary phase. Mobile phase consisted of pH 6.50 phosphate buffer is used as Mobile phase-A and Methanol and water in the ratio of 90:10 v/v used as Mobile Phase-B, with the help of the gradient elution. Column temperature maintained 40°C, Injection volume 25μL, Flow rare was 1.0 ml/min and the separated 2,3- Dimethylaniline was detected using UV detector at the wavelength of 230 nm, sample cooler temperature 25°C and run time was 40mintues. The method validation has been carried as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines (ICH). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was found 0.08ppm for 2,3-Dimethylaniline.
526 DIRECT CHIRAL SEPARATION AND INVESTIGATION OF CHIRAL DRUGS IN BIOLOGICAL MATRICES WITH PROTEIN PRECIPITATION TECHNIQUES BY RP-HPLC , R. Sathiyasundar*, J. Karthikeyan, K. Prabhu, K. Venkatesan and M. Swamivelmanickam
The current research described about direct chiral separation method on chiral drugs in plasma sample by RP-HPLC method. The combination of Ezetimibe and Tramadol both the drug prescribed in the obesity related rheumatoid arthritis. The separation was done with Chiralpak-ASH analytical column (150 x 4.6 i.d mm, 3 μm) by using acetonitrile: methanol: diethyl amine: formic acid (98.5/1.5/0.1/0.1% v/v/v/v) as mobile phase were delivered at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min, the detection was measured in PDA detector at the isobestic point of 225 nm. The recovery of the spiked plasma was done with simple protein precipitation techniques. The mean, % recoveries achieved when analyzed plasma samples were, 97, 98% of (+) Ezetimibe and (-)Ezetimibe and 101, 102 % of (+)tramadol and (–)tramadol. The proposed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines and found to be specific, accuracy, precise, linear, selective, etc., The proposed method helpful for both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study at single stationary and mobile phase.
527 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VALIDATION OF RANOLAZINE AND LACOSAMIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS BY RP-HPLC METHOD , Masma Shaik* and Y. Sunandamma
A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of ranolazine and lacosamide in pharmaceutical formulations. A comparative study was made on the results obtained to evaluate the strong and weak aspects of the reported method. Hypersil BDS-C8 column with sodium acetate-acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase was employed for the determination of ranolazine in the range 0 to 150 μg mL-1. Completely resolved peaks were observed at 4.74 min and at 5.00 min retention times for standard and samples of ranolazine respectively. The precision (RSD = 0.2%) and accuracy (recovery = 100.4 – 100.5%) of the proposed method were found to be good. Lacosamide in pharmaceutical formulations was determined using Inert sustain HP C18 as stationary phase, a mixture of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 2.0) and acetonitrile (90 : 10 v/v) as mobile phase A, ,mixture of acetonitrile and water (60 : 40 v/v) as mobile phase B. The method with high precision (RSD 0.04 %) and good accuracy (recovery 98.8 – 101.4 %) is useful for the determination of lacosamide in the range 0 to 150 μg mL-1. Both the methods were found to be highly robust.
528 EFFICACY OF ADVANCED AGNIKARMA CHIKITASA (TAMRA SHALAKA WITH SNEH PICHU) ON FROZEN SHOULDER , Dr. Nitin Vishvanath Aalapure*, Dr. Aparna Abhay Raut, Dr. Ramesh Vanaji Ahire, Dr. Ashish Shrikant Hastak and Dr. Shubhangi Shashikant Wankhedkar
Frozen shoulder, also known as Adhesive capsulitis causes a significant loss in range of motion typically occurs in cycle of 3 stages. It predominantly occurs in females in their fifties. In textual references of Ayurveda Frozen Shoulder is closely related to Avabahuka. In this condition Vata is localized in the shoulder region, getting aggravated, dries up the bindings (ligaments) of the shoulders, constricts the siras present there and causes Avabahuka. Modern medicial science plays very less role in the management of Frozen Shoulder. In Ayurveda various para-surgical methods were mentioned for diseases of Vata and Kapha, in which Agni karma is one of them, that has been recommended in various musculoskeletal disorders. Hence a case study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy Advanced Agnikarma Chikitsa in frozen shoulder with out skin burn and post burn scar.
529 PRECLINICAL SAFETY AND TOXCITY STUDY OF WAMUPGEL IN WISTAR RATS , N. Danamurthy* T. Srisai Mounika, Chandramounika and Aishwarya Utham
WAMUP is an aqueous based gel formulation containing 5% L-Arginine for topical application for both males & females. It is indicated for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD), Dyspareunia and Lubrication of Dry Vagina and other menopausal disorders in females and mild to moderate erectile dysfunctions of males. The present study was performed to asses the systemic toxic effects of WAMUP GEL, when administered sub cutaneously to male and female Wistar Rats. All the animals were conditioned, randomized and divided in three groups (3 Females and 3 Males). Two groups of animals (TG-I and TG-II) were administered with 150mg/ml and 300mg/ml dose of L-Arginine respectively and another Group of 3 male and 3 female were kept as control (Group II-Control) and treated with vehicle solution. Animals were observed for a period 14 days after the administration. Parameters evaluated including clinical signs of toxicity, live phase of animals, cage side observations, and body weight and food consumption. Blood samples were collected on day 7 and 14 for hematology and clinical chemistry analysis. Animals were necropsied and vital organs were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination.[2,8] No mortality was observed in any group. There were no differences in body weight gains, live phase, physical activity and abnormal neurological observation between the control and test groups Rats throughout the study period. No major abnormal clinical signs were observed at the site of application. Their biochemical and hematological profiles were in normal range in all groups.[15] No significant differences were observed in the histopathology of various organs between control and test groups at different time points.[16]
530 EVALUATION OF COLLAGEN IN HEALING OF MUCOSAL DEFECTS AFTER VESTIBULOPLASTY: A CLINICAL STUDY , Dr. Sami Faisal Jamdar* and Dr Asna Fatima Jamdar
Background and objectives: Grafts are used in vestibuloplasty to avoid relapse due to secondary wound contracture as seen with secondary epithelization technique. Conventional methods like free mucosal grafts and split thickness grafts require the creation of second surgical wounds for use as donor site. Collagen is a biological skin substitute, i.e. natural, easily available, ready to use, has excellent tissue compatibility, non-immunogenic, and non-pyrogenic. Commercially available collagen sheets are used in the treatment of burns, ulcers, diabetic ulcers, bed sores etc as a biological dressing material. The main aim of the study was to evaluate clinically the efficacy of collagen sheet as replacement in the vestibular extension instead of mucosal or skin grafts. Methodology: 15 edentulous patients requiring vestibular extension procedure were included in this study. Clark’s secondary epithelization vestibuloplasty technique was followed in our study and the exposed periosteum was covered by collagen sheet and stabilized by surgical splint. Postoperative evaluation (after 24, 48 and 72 hours followed by 1st, 2nd and 3rd week) included efficacy of collagen as a temporary biological dressing material, promotion of wound re-epithelization, prevention of wound contracture and reduction of pain and swelling. Results: The post-operative course of all 15 patients was uneventfull. By the end of first week post-operatively, lysis of collagen sheet was evident with underlying hyperemic tissue. Healthy granulation tissue covered the entire surgical wound by the end of 2nd week and epithelization was complete by 3rd week. All patients had good hemostasis and marginal wound contraction. Most of the patients complained of only mild pain. The post-operative swelling was significant in all patients. Conclusion: Collagen sheet might be used as a potential graft material for vestibuloplasty.
531 UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ABSORBANCE CORRECTION METHODS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PERINDOPRIL ARGININE AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM , Murugan S.* and Vetrichelvan T.
Two UV-spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Perindopril arginine (PER) and Amlodipine besylate (AMD) in bulk and tablet dosage form. The Method A employs absorption correction method in zero order, the wavelengths selected were 229 nm for PER (but AMD shows absorbance) and 354 nm for AMD. Method B employs, absorption correction method in first order, the wavelengths selected were 204 nm for PER (but AMD shows absorbance) and 324 nm for AMD. For both the methods drugs were linear between the range of 5-25 μg/ml for PER and 6.925-34.675 μg/ml for AMD using methanol as solvent. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9994 for PER and 0.9992 for AMD for method A and 0.9996 for PER and 0.9999 for AMD for method B, respectively. The precision (intraday, interday) of methods was found within limits (RSD < 2%). It could be concluded from the results obtained in the present investigation that the two methods for simultaneous estimation of PER and AMD in bulk and tablet dosage form are simple, rapid, accurate, precise and economical and can be used, successfully, in the quality control of tablet formulations and other routine laboratory analysis.
532 EFFECTS OF EXTRACTED PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST FRESHWATER SNAIL LYMNAEA ACUMINATA BODY TISSUES , Ram P. Yadav* and Ajay Singh
Exposure to the sub-lethal doses of (40% and 80% of LC50 of 24h) Jatropha gossypifolia latex over caused significant alteration in carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism in nervous, hepatopancreas and ovotestis tissues of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata. The freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata also exposed to sub-lethal doses of 40% and 80% of LC50 of 24h of Jatropha gossypifolia latex+taraxerol, Jatropha gossypifolia latex+ellagic acids and Jatropha gossypifolia latex+rutin in binary combinations (1:1) exposed to the sub-lethal doses to freshwater Lymnaea acuminata to measure the carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism in snail’s body tissues i.e nervous, hepatopancreas and ovotestis in time and as well as dose dependent.
533 EFFECTS OF EXTRACTED PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST FRESHWATER SNAIL LYMNAEA ACUMINATA BODY TISSUES , Ram P. Yadav* and Ajay Singh
Exposure to the sub-lethal doses of (40% and 80% of LC50 of 24h) Jatropha gossypifolia latex over caused significant alteration in carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism in nervous, hepatopancreas and ovotestis tissues of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata. The freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata also exposed to sub-lethal doses of 40% and 80% of LC50 of 24h of Jatropha gossypifolia latex+taraxerol, Jatropha gossypifolia latex+ellagic acids and Jatropha gossypifolia latex+rutin in binary combinations (1:1) exposed to the sub-lethal doses to freshwater Lymnaea acuminata to measure the carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism in snail’s body tissues i.e nervous, hepatopancreas and ovotestis in time and as well as dose dependent.
534 CANINE EXPOSURE- A CASE REPORT , Barkha Jain, Himanshu Thukral*, Gyanendra Jha, Juhi, Karishma Thapa, Shelly Sharma and Shefali Khurana
Impacted tooth refers to a tooth that fails to erupt into the dental arch within a specific time.[1] Teeth frequently impacted are third molars, maxillary canines, maxillary and mandibular premolars and maxillary central incisors. Prevalence of impacted maxillary canines is 0.9–2.2% and of impacted mandibular canines is 0.05–0.4%.[2 3] Failure of eruption of the mandibular canine is an unusual event. It has been suggested that eruption disturbances of a mandibular canine are most often caused by local factors such as mechanical obstruction (supernumerary tooth/cyst/tumour), insufficient space in the dental arch and tooth-arch size discrepancy. Systemic factors such as genetic disorders, endocrine deficiencies and previous irradiation of the jaws also have been suggested to play a role. Surgical exposure and orthodontic management of impacted canines have been used to bring impacted teeth into occlusion. The following case report presents combined surgical and orthodontic management of an unerupted mandibular permanent right canine.
535 EFFICACY OF RASONADI KWATHA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF AAMAVATA W.S.R. TO RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. , *Dr. Abhimanyu Dasharath Lohar and Dr. Somadatta Bhaskarrao Kulkarni
Aamavata is disease of madhyama roga marga, there is predominance of aama and vata which vitiates tridosha. The disease affects sandhi marma which leads to morbidity. In the present era life style has become so complex and busy that millions of people in develop and developing country have become prone to aamavata. In the developing country like India 100 million people are suffering from aamavata. It has peak incidence or onset in 25-55 years of age, 2-4 times more common in women. Worldwide prevalence of Rheumatoid Arthritis is approximately 0.8% with about 0.5%-0.75% in India. In modern science the treatment is all together focused on reducing inflammation with use of NSAIDs, DMARDs. On the contrary Ayurveda follows a treatment strategy with Langhana, Swedana, and Tikta-Katu –Deepan dravyas etc. which help in reduction of Aama to break pathogenesis of the disease. So the study is designed to assess the effects of Rasonadi kwatha individually.
536 HYPOGLYCEMIC AND TISSUE-PROTECTIVE EVALUATION OF FICUS KRISHNAE IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS , Amarvani P. Kanjikar and Ramesh L. Londonkar*
Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder associated with carbohydrate metabolism and is a major cause of disability and hospitalization. Ficus krishnae belongs to the family Moraceae has been used in ancient folklore medicine the parts of this plant such as Stem bark and leaves are used to treat diabetes. Hence the present study is aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of methanol extract of Ficus krishnae Linn in alloxan induced diabetes albino rats. Alloxan was administered as a single dose (120 mg/kg, b.wt) to the normal rats to induce diabetes. Oral administration of methanol extracts from stem bark of Ficus krishnae at the dose of 200 & 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 14 days was treated to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The fasting blood sugar levels, body weight, serum biochemical analysis and histopathology study were conducted in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. On the basis of our findings, it is confirmed that the F.k stem bark could be used as potential antidiabetic agent for better management of diabetes mellitus.
537 RELATIONSHIP OF ISOKINETIC HIP ADDUCTOR STRENGTH WITH STATIC AND DYNAMIC BALANCE , Safa Anwar* Rizwan Khan and Nigar Shikalgar
Objective: Balance is considered an important aspect of performance which is achieved by a complex process involving the musculoskeletal and neurological systems. Hip adductor muscles play an important role in movement and stability at the hip joint. Isokinetic dynamometers are extensively used to evaluate muscular strength of leg muscles at various angular velocities.The difference in dominant lower limb (DL) and non-dominant lower limb (NDL) muscle strength will predict how balance could be affected and it will significantly help physical therapists to set goals in rehabilitation programs of patient with lower limb muscle injuries with impaired balance. Patients and Methods: 50 males subjects between the age group 18-25 years were recruited. Hip adductor muscle strength was measured by isokinetic dynamometer, dynamic balance was assessed by Y-balance test and static balance was assessed by single leg standing test. Results: Mean characteristics of the subjects were age (21.40±1.75) and BMI (21.3±1.77). Peak torque of adductor (Ptad) muscle in NDL was 56.10±20 whereas Peak torque in DL was 64.12±18.55. Pearson correlation coefficient between Ptad and dynamic balance was r=0.44 and between Ptad and static balance r=0.48, which suggest moderate positive correlation in both scenarios. Conclusion: Hip adductors are majorly responsible for our basic activities like in walking, sitting to stand washing or simple stair climbing. Therefore, knowledge about hip adductor strength and its relation to balance should be well assessed by the therapist to prevent injuries and design a treatment plan.
538 STUDY THE EFFICACY OF TALISAPATRA CHURNA ON KAPHAJA KASA IN CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 1 TO 5 YEARS , Dr. Jaideep Ramesh Aher*, Dr. Satish khatal and Dr. Ritesh jain
Ayurveda is the ancient experiential life-science. It’s having its own fundamentals and concepts regarding etiopathogenesis of diseases and its management whose efficacy is time-tested and time to time well established by our Acharyas. In classics, descriptions of disease Kasa clearly correlate with cough and its pathophysiology exactly correlates with the mechanism of cough reflex. Kasa is the debilitating disorder of Pranavaha srotas, when untreated, it may lead to serious disease conditions like Shwasa, Kshaya, etc. In Ayurveda Kasa (cough) is a separate vyadhi seen commonly in children. It is the 5th common symptom and most irritating in children. Kaphaja Kasa is undertaken for study because kapha is predominant in balyawastha and most of the Kaphaja vyadhi’s are seen in balyavastha. In 7 days of treatment with talisapatra churna in kaphaja kasa, drug show significant effect by reducing symptoms like kasa, pratishyaya, chardi, kaphanishthiavan and crepitation.
539 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF TILANALA KSHARA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VATASTHILA , Dr. Bharat Bhushan* and Dr. Amit A. Paliwal
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is among the most common urological diseases in men and estimated to be 26.2% in men between the age group of 40-60 and above. There is a benign overgrowth of prostatic tissue resulting in lower urinary tract symptoms. The condition further leads to interference in daily activity of patients and create a negative impact on the quality of life. The management of BPH can be done by medical and surgical interferences but they are associated with few limitations. Ayurveda has its own principles in treating the condition, among which use of Kshara is one of them. The present clinical study deals with administration of Tilanala Kshara in the patients with clinical presentation of BPH, along with comparative analysis in the patients by administrating Tamsulosine Hydrochloride. The assessment score using International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was carried out for changes in the subjective parameters. An effort has been made to evaluate the efficacy of Tilanala Kshara in patients with BPH, so that it can be used as an alternative treatment protocol for the disease BPH.
540 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY-INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF DABIGATRAN ETEXILATE MESYLATE , Yeragodala Narendra Reddy and Jadi Sreeramulu*
The main objective of the study was to develop RP-HPLC method development and validation of the Dabigatran Etexilate Mesylate in the pharmaceutical dosage form. The technique was developed and thoroughly validated based on ICH (International Conference on Harmonization) guidelines. The validation process was done by precision, linearity, robustness studies, accuracy, Limit of Detection, Limit of quantification and degradation studies. The robustness studies were observed by making variations in the mobile phase, temperature, and flow rate. The developed RP-HPLC method achieved good precision and accuracy. The developed and validated method was suitable for analysis of Dabigatran Etexilate Mesylate.
541 ROLE OF MITOCHONDRIA IN AGING RETARDATION IN RATS IN ONTOGENESIS AT FEEDING BY A LOW-CALORIE DIET , Mirzaolimov Mirzahid Mirzavaliyevich., Abdullayev Gafurdzan Rakhimdzanovich, *Akhmerov Rashid Nasypovich and Soliyev Elmurad
Feeding of growing rats by a calorie-restricted diet (CRD) leads to a pronounced threefold backwardness in body mass and more than twofold backwardness in the mass of the liver of animals from control values. Also, gas-oxygen metabolism is reduced when using CRD. It is shown that respiratory suppression of V3 and V4 in liver mitochondria is approximately 10-20% in succinate, and there is a NADH uncoupled oxidation decrease in mitochondria under these conditions to 40%, which can lead to the economical use of the organism’s energy resources. Peroxidation, in contrast, in liver mitochondria is maintained at approximately 20-30% higher level during the weight of the experimental period with CRD compared to the control. The role of the identified alterations in prolonging the life of animals is discussed.
542 IMMUNODEFICIENCY , Dr. Madleen Jawad Sobhe Abu Aser*, Dr. Amjad Alanqar and Prof. Abdalkarim Radwan
Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by defective or absent T cell and B cell function. Patients usually present in the first 6 months of life with sepsis, disseminated tuberculosis following BCG vaccine, candidiasis, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, severe viral infections, chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive and malabsorption. Primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) refers to a large heterogeneous group of disorders that result from defects in immune system development and function. PIDs are broadly classified as disorders of adaptive immunity T cell, B-cell or combined immunodeficiency or innate immunity phagocyte and complement disorders. Although the clinical manifestations of PIDs are highly variable, many disorders involve an increased susceptibility to infection. Early consultation with a clinical immunologist is essential, as timely diagnosis and treatment are imperative for preventing significant disease-associated morbidity. PIDs should be suspected in patients with recurrent sinus or ear infections or pneumonia within a 1 year failure to thrive, poor response to prolonged use of antibiotics; persistent thrush or skin abscesses; or a family history of PID. Patients with multiple autoimmune diseases should also be evaluated. Diagnostic testing often involves lymphocyte proliferation assays, flow cytometry, measurement of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, assessment of serum specific antibody titers in response to vaccine antigens, neutrophil function assays, stimulation assays for cytokine responses, and complement studies. The treatment of PIDs is complex and generally requires both supportive and definitive strategies. Ig replacement therapy is the mainstay of therapy for B-cell disorders and is also an important supportive treatment for many patients with combined immunodeficiency disorders. The disorders affecting the activity of the T-cell arm of the adaptive system, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, require immune reconstitution as soon as possible. The treatment of innate immunodeficiency disorders varies depending on the type of defect but may involve antifungal and antibiotic prophylaxis, cytokine replacement, vaccinations and bone marrow transplantation. This article provides an overview of the major categories of PIDs and strategies for the appropriate diagnosis and management of these rare disorders.
543 A REVIEW ON CORONA VIRUS DISEASE , Neha A. Khadse*, Anjali M. Wankhade, Swapnil R. Patil and Sayali V. Kathale
At this times, several life-threatening viruses have emerged and coronavirus are one of these. Corona virus (CoV) is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in human. Coronaviruses are characterized by crown-like spike that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, replication strategy. We also discuss the coronavirinae are subdivided into four groups i.e. α, β, γ, δ coronaviruses. In the past 14 years, the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have HCoVs into spotlight of the research community due to their high pathogenicity in humans. They have infected with human and animal hosts, causing illness and respiratory tract infection in humans. In this article, we provide a introduction to coronaviruses discussing their structure of virus, replication, prevention and treatment.
544 REVIEW ON EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE: ITS OUTBREAK AND CURRENT STATUS , Swapnil R. Patil*, Sandeep C. Atram, Sayali V. Kathale, Neha A. Khadse
Ebola virus, formerly designated Zaire Ebola virus, is one of the five known viruses within the genus Ebola virus which cause disease in humans. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. The natural reservoir of Ebola virus is believed to be bats, particularly fruit bats, and it is primarily transmitted between humans and from animals to humans through body fluids. Ebola is RNA virus that belongs to the family filoviridae, genus Ebola virus. The viruses (EBOV) are enveloped, non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. Ebola virus disease (EVD) was first described in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in 1976. The exact origin, locations and natural reservoir of Ebola virus remain unclear. People can be exposed to Ebola virus from direct contact with the blood and/or secretions of an infected person. Hunting and butchering of wildlife (great apes and fruit bats) has been identified in previous outbreaks as a potential source of infection. The onset of Ebola virus disease is sudden and early symptoms includes; fever and headache, followed by vomiting and diarrhea. Patients in the final stage of disease die in the clinical picture of massive bleeding, severe dehydration, hypovolemic shock and multi-organ failure. Ebola virus infections can be diagnosed by detecting antigens with an antigen capture ELISA and by detecting viral RNA with Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). No specific treatment has been demonstrated yet to be safe and effective for Ebola virus. Standard treatment currently consists of supportive therapy, including maintenance of blood volume and electrolyte balance, as well as standard nursing care. Prevention and control is mainly based on appropriate precautions to break ways of transmission.
545 INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF BIPHASIC MEDIA IN THE CULTURE OF BRUCELLA , Noha A. Helmy* and Sally M. Abd Elsalam
Brucellosis is a common and significant bacterial disease among the world. Infected animals are generally detected by serological tests. Brucella culture and identification provide a definitive diagnosis but it needs several days. The aim of this study is to propose a biphasic media to cultivate Br. abortus S99for diagnostic and research purposes and to compare it with the glycerol potato agar OIE medium that is frequently used in routine preparing antigens and to assess the effectiveness in culturing Br. abortus S99. The culture obtained from biphasic media was evaluated microscopically, biochemically and molecularly .Rose Bengal antigens were prepared and compared with the one prepared by classical culture of Br. Abortus S99. All sera samples were tested by plate for all antigens prepared. The three antigens were prepared from biphasic media had the agreement with classical Rose Bengal and SAT. The biphasic media exhibited good growth of the strain in less time. The present study depicts the facilitate manipulation, low cost effective that help in cultivation of brucella without doing subculture and may use with limited expertise or equipments if all safety precautions are taken.
546 A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE HAEMATOPOIETIC POTENTIALS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF TALINUM TRIANGULARE, TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS AND AMARANTHUS HYBRIDUS ON 2,4-DINITROPHENYLHYDRAZINE (DNPH) INDUCED ANAEMIC WISTAR RATS , Chinko BC.*, Egbejimi AM, Hart VO., Okpalaji CB., Onyebuenyi MO., Okuremi HO. and Ododo A.
Anaemia is global public health problem with prevalence higher among low-income countries. The prohibitive cost of treatment has continued to fuel interest in the screening of medicinal plants for their anti-anemic potentials. This study is aimed at comparing the efficacies of Talinum triangulare, Telfairia occidentalis and Amaranthus hybridus on 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) induced anaemic Wistar rats. The study was conducted using 45 male adult Wistar rats. Anaemia was induced using a 10 days oral administration of DNPH. The animals were treated using 30 and 60mg/kg ethanolic leaf extracts and a standard anti-anaemic drug. Haematological parameters were analyzed using standard automated methods. Results from this study indicate that treatment with ethanolic leaf extracts of T. Triangulare, T. Occidentalis and A. Hybridus all caused significant increase in the mean values of PCV, HGB, RBC, MCH, MCHC and MCV compared with the untreated anaemic rats(P<0.05). A. Hybridus caused the highest percentage increase in PCV(59.7%), HGB(48.4%), MCH(18.7%), MCV(32.6%), followed by T. Occidentalis and T. Triangulare in a decreasing order. Also, T. Triangulare and A. Hybridus caused a significant reduction in the values of WBC compared to the untreated animals (p<0.05) while the ethanolic extract of T. Occidentalis caused a significant increase in WBC compared to the untreated animals (p<0.05). Only etA. Hybridus significantly raised platelet count compared with the untreated anaemic animals (p<0.05). The present study has further validated the anti-anaemic potentials of the individual extracts of T. Triangulare, T. Occidentalis and A. Hybridus while showing their various degrees of efficacy.
547 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF APHANAMIXIS POLYSTACHYA WALL. ROOT BARK EXTRACT IN VARIOUS SOLVENT , Sonar S. A.* and Bhor I. S.
The Present study of Aphanamixis polystachya Wall. root bark extract in various solvent as antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial activity is done in Potato dextrose agar medium against microorganism like E-coli, Bacillus Subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Xanthomonas citri. For this study disc diffusion method is used. It shows considerable activity as compare to standard drug (Ciprofloxacin).The results of the present study provide scientific information for the popular use of Aphanamixis polystachya Wall. root bark.
548 A CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF ASSESSMENT OF DOSHAJ ASHMARI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO UROLITHIASIS , *Vd. Pande Sumant Moreshwar and Prof. Dr. Mundane Rajiv J.
Urolithiasis is the third most common affliction of the urinary tract. In Ayurveda Urolithiasis is explained as Mutrashmari; which is considered as one among the Ashta Mahagada. The lakshanas of Mutrashmari explained in Ayurvedic texts resembles the signs and symptoms of Urolithiasis mentioned in the contemporary system of medicine. In Ayurvedic literatures the bheda of Mutrashmari is based on the lakshanas of Dosha and Ashma. In the same way, the classification of urolithiasis in western system of medicine is based on the symptoms, morphology, Location and chemical constitution of the calculus. This article is aimed at review on classification of Urolithiasis and Mutrashmari and comparing the same, which may help in accurate clinical diagnosis and treatment also.
549 EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER SUITABILITY FOR DRINKING AND IRRIGATION – A CASE STUDY OF YADAGIR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA , Kumara Naika, Ravikumar P. and K. L. Prakash*
An investigation has been made to study the ground water suitability in the Yadagir district. Ninety groundwater samples were collected randomly from Yadagir district during pre-monsoon season, 2018. The samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters and irrigation quality parameters of sodium absorption ratio (SAR), Percent sodium (%Na) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) as per Standard Methods. The results indicated that, the pH values of 8.82% of Yadagir, 60% of Shahapur and 87.1 % of Shorapur samples were above the BIS standard limit of 6.5-8.5. The higher level of pH value of groundwater samples was due to higher alkalinity and bicarbonate contents. Around 35% of the samples showed Electrical conductivity above 2000 μS/cm, which can be correlated with high range of TDS values. Among the irrigation parameters, around 8 % samples in Shahapur taluk showed excess SAR values of more than 18 and are unsuitable for irrigation purpose. A very high range of percent sodium values were observed in 34.3, 56 and 45.2 % of samples respectively among the Yadagir, Shahapur and Shorapur taluks and are also classified as unsuitable for irrigation. The RSC values (>1.25 meq/L) were reported for 44.1% (Yadagir), 72% (Shahapur) and 80.6% (Shorapur) of samples, makes these samples unfit for irrigation. Further, WQI values indicated that 65.6 % of the samples were considered as unsuitable for domestic and irrigation purpose, due to higher range of salts / salinity, total hardness, sodium and bicarbonates values.
550 THE CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS OF PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME AND THE PERCEPTION OF IMPACT ON THE PRACTICE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISES , Elisa Sech Ribas*, Maria Gisele Dos Santos and Ana Maria Da Silva Delai
Women go through hormonal changes that can result in symptoms that interfere in daily life. Thus this research aims to know the symptoms present in the premenstrual period, which may come to characterize the so-called pre-menstrual syndrome, and really see if these symptoms may or may not, have an impact on physical exercise. impact = 3) for symptoms, 28% felt the practice moderately affected, 24% reported being somewhat affected and 12% extremely affected. Only 4% of participants (n = 1) reported that premenstrual symptoms anything affect your physical exercise (degree of impact = 0). In the present study can be seen that, if not all women, but most of them presents any symptoms in the premenstrual phase, which may be physical, psychological or behavioral.
551 A REVIEW ON LIPOSOMES AS NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , *Sana Tabassum and Syeda Ayesha Farheen
The role of bilayerd vesicles as efficient carriers for drugs, vaccines, diagnostic agents and other bioactive agents have led to a rapid advancement in the liposomal drug delivery system. Moreover, the site avoidance and site-specific drug targeting therapy could be achieved by formulating a liposomal product, so as to reduce the cytotoxicity of many potent therapeutic agents. This article is intended to provide an overview of liposomal drug delivery system. It has focused on the factors affecting the behavior of the liposomes in the biological environment. Various aspects related to mechanism of liposome formation, characterization and stability of the liposomal drug product were also discussed in the article. Liposomes can be used as a therapeutic tool in the fields like tumor targeting, genetic transfer, immunomodulation, skin and topical therapy.
552 THE ILL-FATED JOURNEY OF A FISH BONE! , *Dr. Nithila C. Dnb Fiages, Dr. Sabu Jeyasekharan Ms., Dr. Bala Vidyasagar MS, DLS, FIAGES, DLS, Dr. M. Scott Arockia Singh MS, DNB, MNAMS, MRCSEd.
Foreign bodies, malignancy, trauma, tuberculosis, actinomycosis,leukemia, postoperative infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and simple skin infections have long been associated with anal sepsis. Fish bone ingested causing perianal abscess is a rare cause. We report here a case of ischiorectal abscess caused by fish bone.
553 ACUTE DISTENSION OF GALLBLADDER IN CHILDREN: REPORT OF CASE , Ibrahim Salih Elkheir*, Mohamed Elfattih Ahmed Elnour, Alshazly Mohamed Ahmed Abdalkareem, Tagwa Faisal Mohamed Alsadig
Acute Distension of gallbladder (ADG) or hydrous of gallbladder in children is rare disease characterized by massive distention of gallbladder with absence of stones, congenital anomaly or bacteria. Here we presented a 4 years old boy complain of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. On examination there was marked tenderness of the right hypochondrium and epigastrium. Tenderness was elicited in the right iliac fossa but here there was no rigidity a tentative diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made. Shortly afterwards the child had a severe attack of pain; he vomited profusely, and there was marked rigidity in the right hypochondrium so another tentative diagnosis of intussusception was made and the child prepared for operation. Under anesthesia a tense mass was palpable in the right hypochondrium. On displacing the transverse colon downwards, a large, tense gall bladder presented owing to extreme distention. So we treated our patient by doing colecystectomy so we recommend to the doctors to put acute distention of gallbladder in their differential diagnosis and make more concern regarding the complications of the disease.
554 REVIEW ON NIPAH VIRUS , Sayali V. Kathale*, J.V. Vyas, Neha Khadse and Swapnil Patil
Overcrowding and unfavorable environment causes various adverse effects on human and animal health i.e. new vector borne diseases, skin problem like allergy, asthma. Several times many untreatable viral disease becomes a serious death threat in many countries. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and outbreak of NiV infection and to discuss the preventive and control measures across different regions. Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus related to Hendra virus, first emerged in Malaysia in 1998. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Malaysia has had no more cases since 1999, but outbreaks continue to occur in Bangladesh and India. The latest outbreak of NiV has been recorded in May, 2018 from Kerala, India which resulted in the death of 17 individuals. Due to lack of vaccines and effective antivirals, Nipah encephalitis poses a great threat to public health. Routine surveillance studies in the infected areas can be useful in detecting early signs of infection and help in containment of these outbreaks. In the Malaysia-Singapore outbreak, transmission occurred primarily through contact with pigs, whereas in Bangladesh and India, it is associated with ingestion of contaminated date palm sap and human-to-human transmission. Bats are the main reservoir for this virus, which can cause disease in humans and animals. There are currently no effective therapeutics, and supportive care and prevention are the mainstays of management. Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging bat-borne pathogen. It was first identified 20 years ago in Malaysia and has since caused outbreaks in other parts of South and Southeast Asia. It causes severe neurological and respiratory disease which is highly lethal. It is highly infectious and spreads in the community through infected animals or other infected people. Different strains of the virus show differing clinical and epidemiological features. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of infection control measures are essential to contain outbreaks. A number of serological and molecular diagnostic techniques have been developed for diagnosis and surveillance. Difficulties in diagnosis and management arise when a new area is affected. The high mortality associated with infection and the possibility of spread to new areas has underscored the need for effective management and control. However, no effective treatment or prophylaxis is readily available, though several approaches show promise. Given the common chains of transmission from bats to humans, a One Health approach is necessary for the prevention and control of NiV infection.
555 SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF PALLADIUM (II) WITH ALLYLALCOHOL , Kalpana Trivedi, Namrata Dwivedi and I. P. Tripathi*
The Palladium (II) is situated in 10 group of the periodic table. A new series of ligand coordination compound of Palladium having square planner stereochemistry, around the metal ion with the general formula [PdL2Cl2] where L= Allyl Alcohol has been isolated in the solid state by the interaction of with the aforesaid ligands. The synthesized coordination compound has been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic measurements, UV spectra, infra red spectral measurements, NMR studies and cyclic voltammogram. A square planner structure has been proposed for square planner complex. The antioxidant property of Pd is analyzed with DPPH, free radical by spectrophotometric method and result them as an antioxidant. It exhibit strong antibacterial as well as antioxidant properties. It is observed that, the synthesized compound is green in colour. The complex has anti tumor activity.
556 CONTRADICTORY OPINION OF THE TERMINALIA CHEBULA LINN. -LITERATURE REVIEW , Dr. G. Sakthi*
Terminalia chebula is used as common and effective herb in traditional, Siddha & Ayurvedic medicine as Indian Medicine. In siddha medical system know as “Mother of Herb” is mentioned in manuscripts texts. In this research paper objected as enumerate the side effect or toxicity effect from Gall Nut or safe drug for all by searching the literatures in books and articles. Finally concluded by collected data results as; continuous drug period of intake for up to 3 months. And drug interactions reported as; Taking Terminalia along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. In toxicity studies shows as; In the acute phase of the study, the safe dose was ≤5000 mg/kg for both extracts. In sub- acute phase, LD50 (95% CI) of Terminalia chebula extract 2754.436 (2438-3114) mg/kg. The highest dose of T. chebula extract induced few histopathological changes.
557 IMPACT OF WOMEN’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS ON THEIR KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACEPTIVES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY , Chikere A. Anusiem* and Oliver Uchechukwu Eze
Appropriate use of contraceptives in family planning has proved to be a very cost effective exercise that has reduced the number of maternal deaths by 40% over the past 20 years, and appreciably improved infant survival rates. The uptake of family planning services and the type of contraceptive adopted by couples are influenced by several factors including knowledge of the meaning of family planning and knowledge of family planning methods. In this paper we report a study of the impact of women’s socio-economic characteristics on their knowledge of contraceptives. A pre-validated questionnaire was used to carry out a cross-sectional survey of women of child bearing age at antenatal clinics in major hospitals in Enugu metropolis Nigeria on year 2017. The hospitals were chosen by multistage randomized sampling. Data analysis was carried out using Epi info and SPSS version 20 computer softwares. Significance of any differences was determined at p ≤ 0.05. Two hundred and sixteen completed questionnaires were obtained from three busy hospital antenatal clinics. All respondents were between the ages of 18 years and 45 years. Among the respondents 85.2% were urban residents and over 90% of them were literate. As much as 80% had a good knowledge of what family planning meant and the methods. There was no association of knowledge of methods of family planning with age or marital status. There was an association between Knowledge of hormonal contraceptives with the level of education attained by the women. There was no association of knowledge of family planning methods with marital status, parity, past history of multiple births, or location of residence but there was an association between Knowledge of family planning methods with past history of caesarian section. Formal education of women improves their capacity to have correct knowledge of family planning services. As rational use of antifertility medicines and devices leads to improvements in maternal and infant health and survival, more efforts should be made to increase the access of women to education and to family planning services.
558 WOUND HEALING, IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO ANTI STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ACTIVITIES OF LIBYAN MYRTUS COMMUNIS L. , Salwa I. Eltawaty*, Muna A. E. Mohammed, Amal S. M. Oteer, Sanaa. O. Yagoub, Aisha Z. Almagboul, Mohamed-Elfatih A. Omare and Asma Alramli
With take in consideration the varied medicinal value of medicinal plants (due to a different environmental condition) and the infection complications in general and wound healing retardation in specific, this study aimed to evaluate the Wound healing, In-vitro and In-vivo anti Staphylococcus aureus activities of Libyan Myrtus communis L. Methods: Standard methods and designed animal models were used to achieve the study aim. Results: The result proved that leaves of the Libyan Myrtus communis constitute polar compounds showed in-vitro active growth inhibition zones against standard Staphylococcus aureus ATCC23925 (22mm± 1.06 with MIC of 6.25mg, n=3) as well as the clinical MRSA isolates (25mm± 6, n=31). In wound healing activity assay and with Post Hoc analysis, high significant differences in performance (P value ≤ 01) were shown in treatment days between control and tested groups, where results showed that Myrtus communis enhances the wound healing process by reducing healing period from 12 to 8 days compared to control group. In addition, in the in vivo study, Myrtus ointment actively treated wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus in 8 days compared with 7 days along with Fucidin ointment. Conclusion: This study suggests that Libyan Myrtus communis is promising as wound healing accelerator and powerful anti-Staphylococcus aureus agent and introduces it as an alternative to Beta-lactam antibiotics and also to Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin concerning to their side effects after deep clinical evaluation to assess its safety.
559 PREVALENCE OF INFERTILITY AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG COUPLES IN BUGUMA, ASARI-TORY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. , Ibinabo Fubara Bob-Manuel* and Abel Fortune Charles
Introduction: This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of infertility and its associated factors among married couples in Buguma, Asari-toru local government area of Rivers state. Three objectives and research questions each and two hypotheses guided the study. Methodology: The sample size was 422, using a prevalence of 48.1% (Adeyemi et al., 2009), analyzed using SPSS version 20 and presented in tables and graphs. Results: The study was male dominated, 239(56.64%), most of them between 25-34 years and married, 206(48.82%). They were mostly traders, 192(45.50%) or civil servants, 121(28.67%), almost all Christians, 413(97.87%), with 226(53.56%) having tertiary education. Similarly, 144(34.12%) have been married for 6-10 years, 53(12.56%) for over 16 years and mostly have between 1-2 children, 215(50.95%). 138(75.41%) females had been pregnant, of which 63(45.65%) had been pregnant once and 47(34.06%) twice, while 158(66.11%) males have not impregnated a woman before. About half of the respondents, 229 (54.27%) belief age plays crucial role in fertility, while 201(47.63%) strongly agreed and 221(52.37%) agreed that certain occupations can cause infertility. 301(71.33%) strongly agreed infertility can be due to infection, while 227(53.79%) and 195(46.21%) knew infertility can occur in both married and unmarried couples respectively, with 111(26.30%) strongly agreeing and 112(26.54%) agreeing it can be due to satanic attacks. Pursuit of education and career was strongly agreed 183(43.37%) to contribute to delay in child bearing, with age of a woman been agreed and strongly agreed, 79(18.72%) and 331(78.44%) as factor that influence child bearing, while 272(64.46%) agreed that male fertility declines in mid-30s. Generally, the respondents knew about infertility, the causes and factors associated with it. However, they have poor health-seeking attitude and belief, and as such focus on other causes of infertility. Awareness campaigns should be vigorous to ensure that more coverage is done.
560 PREVALENCE OF INFERTILITY AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG COUPLES IN BUGUMA, ASARI-TORY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. , Dr. Ibinabo Fubara Bob-Manuel* and Abel Fortune Charles
Introduction: This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of infertility and its associated factors among married couples in Buguma, Asari-toru local government area of Rivers state. Three objectives and research questions each and two hypotheses guided the study. Methodology: The sample size was 422, using a prevalence of 48.1% (Adeyemi et al., 2009), analyzed using SPSS version 20 and presented in tables and graphs. Results: The study was male dominated, 239(56.64%), most of them between 25-34 years and married, 206(48.82%). They were mostly traders, 192(45.50%) or civil servants, 121(28.67%), almost all Christians, 413(97.87%), with 226(53.56%) having tertiary education. Similarly, 144(34.12%) have been married for 6-10 years, 53(12.56%) for over 16 years and mostly have between 1-2 children, 215(50.95%). 138(75.41%) females had been pregnant, of which 63(45.65%) had been pregnant once and 47(34.06%) twice, while 158(66.11%) males have not impregnated a woman before. About half of the respondents, 229 (54.27%) belief age plays crucial role in fertility, while 201(47.63%) strongly agreed and 221(52.37%) agreed that certain occupations can cause infertility. 301(71.33%) strongly agreed infertility can be due to infection, while 227(53.79%) and 195(46.21%) knew infertility can occur in both married and unmarried couples respectively, with 111(26.30%) strongly agreeing and 112(26.54%) agreeing it can be due to satanic attacks. Pursuit of education and career was strongly agreed 183(43.37%) to contribute to delay in child bearing, with age of a woman been agreed and strongly agreed, 79(18.72%) and 331(78.44%) as factor that influence child bearing, while 272(64.46%) agreed that male fertility declines in mid-30s. Generally, the respondents knew about infertility, the causes and factors associated with it. However, they have poor health-seeking attitude and belief, and as such focus on other causes of infertility. Awareness campaigns should be vigorous to ensure that more coverage is done.
561 REVIEW ON BASIC FACTS & INFORMATION OF CORONAVIRUS , Vipul Hanskumar Jain*, Sulbha Gopal Patil, Sandip Amarsing Tadvi and Sunil Pandit Pawar
Coronaviruses are enveloped non-segmented positive-sense RNA viruses belonging to the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales which is broadly distributed in humans and other mammals. Although most human coronavirus infections are mild, but the epidemics of the two beta coronaviruses, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have caused more than 10,000 cumulative cases in the past two decades. And now a novel coronavirus namely called as 2019-nCoV is a new strain which has not been previously identified in humans emerged as major global health threats. Thus this study aims to assess the awareness of this novel coronovirus among general public and to provide some basic facts & information on this novel coronavirus. This study basically involves the general guidelines for public that how one should react in concern of coronavirus. Also it includes the recommendations from WHO for general public that how to protect oneself from this life threatening virus. Our recommendation is to conduct a continuous health education campaign about the awareness of coronavirus and also to provide the general guidelines & some basic information about symptoms, spreading pattern, mutation, infection, care and treatment of coronavirus among general public.
562 ANDREWS BRIDGE: REHABILITATION OF ANTERIOR TEETH WITH PREFABRICATED PRECI -HORIX ATTACHMENT , Dr. Pratiksha Premdas Sahare*, Dr. Angadi Gangadhar S., Dr. Deshpande Abhijit S., Dr. Gojiri Shinde Deshmukh and Dr. Shreeya Kulkarni
The level of aesthetic requirement in clinical practice has increased over the past decade, and this has made it necessary for dentist to explore this field in order to satisfy the existing demand in this field. There are various causes of tooth loss including caries, periodontitis, trauma, and extraction as a part of surgical excision of tumours. The various treatment option for the anterior rehabilitation are implant, fixed dental prosthesis and the removable dental prosthesis. Andrews bridge is yet another aesthetic option for a fixed removable prosthesis for improved aesthetics and function. This case report shows the fabrication of a fixed-removable partial denture using the Andrews Bridge philosophy where a removable prosthesis is retained by a bar and sleeve attachment to fixed retainers on the either side of the edentulous space. This prosthesis is designed to meet the requirements for aesthetics, comfort, phonetics, hygiene, and favourable stress distribution to the abutments and soft tissue.
563 FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION: STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS, SITE AND TYPE OF FOREIGN BODIES IN CHILDREN , Khaled Alhomsi*
Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze epidemiological data of patients with foreign body aspiration (FBA) and to show the most common type of foreign bodies (FBs) and the location of them. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study composed of all files of children who were diagnosed with foreign body aspiration after visiting different pediatric clinics between 1/1/2017 and 1/2/2020, and had foreign body aspiration. This study included 314 cases with foreign body aspiration. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 25.0. Results: Patients between one to two years old were the most common age for FBA with 38.3%. Males were more common with 55.7% than females. Seeds were the most common foreign body found. Most of the FBs were located in the two main bronchi. Mortality rate was 0.3%, which is classified as very low. Conclusion: Parents and guardians should be educated about the potential dangers of aspirating foreign bodies, especially in very young children, and the need to create a safe environment for them.
564 A REVIEW ON COVID 19: SPREAD AND ITS ADVERSE IMPACT ON GLOBAL ECONOMY , Ajit G. Gaiki* and Shraddha V. Tathe
Coronaviruses is one of the virus from several life-threatening viruses. They have infected a variety of human and animal hosts that may cause upper respiratory tract infections, pneumonia in humans. The first human coronavirus was first identified as cause of the common cold in 1960. The genome of coronavirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA. It is a negative strain virus of about 60-220 nm in diameter and has club-shaped projection on surface. This review discuss the current knowledge on structure of coronavirus, life cycle of virus, treatment and impact of corona on world economy. There is no specific vaccine or treatment for COVID19 infection. Also discuss the impact of corona on world economy, impact on hospitals and health care centers and on pharma industries and stock markets.
565 AYURVEDA AND MODERN PERSPECTIVE ON FEMALE INFERTILITY AND MANAGEMENT THROUGH TRADITIONAL APPROACHES , Dr. Ajayraj Vishwanath Bal* and Dr. Vikas Vallabha Kasture
The inability to carry out successful pregnancy period and failure to deliver child birth can be defined as infertility. Ayurveda described term Bandhytva for female infertility and mentioned various factors responsible for such conditions including Sadbhavas Vikriti, Abhighata, Artavahasrotas abnormalities and anovulation, etc. The abnormalities of Kshetra, Ritu, Beeja and Ambu mainly lead conditions of infertility. The stressful life style of current time enhances prevalence of infertility and not only physical stress affect capacity of fertilization but psychological stress also causes female infertility. Ayurveda mentioned uses of Vatanulomana drugs, Sodhana therapy, dietary modification and Yoga for the treatment of female infertility. Present article explored ayurveda perspective on female infertility.
566 AYURVEDA AND MODERN PERSPECTIVES ON YONI-KANDA & YONI-ARSA: A REVIEW , *Dr. Vidhya D. Sarode
Ayurveda classic described several gynecological disorders; Yonikanda & Yoni Arsa are some of them. The common features of Yoni Vyapat are itching, white discharge, foul smelling, burning micturition, vaginal discharge and pain, etc. The Sthanik Chikitsa is one of the common approaches to manage such disorders. Ayurveda herbs, use of detoxification measures and conduction of balanced life style can provides health benefits in Yoni Vyapat. Excessive sexual misconduct, infections, surgical trauma, Diwa swapna, misconduct of Ahara-Vihara, Ati krodha, stress, anxiety and frequent miscarriages, etc. can cause Yonikanda & Yoni Arsa. Considering these all aspect present article emphasizes ayurveda and modern perspectives on Yonikanda & Yoni Arsa.
567 EMULGEL: MODERN TOOL FOR TOPICAL DRUG DELIVERY , Imran Husain Ahmad Husain* and V. P. Wankhade
Topical drug delivery is most widely employed for the local dermatological action, but now a day’s new techniques are also utilized to enhancing its systemic effect. They are generally adopted for the purpose as antiseptics, antifungal agents, skin emollients, and protective. The activity of topical preparation reveal the various factors as drug solubility, contact time to skin, its lipophilicity, its permeability. Gels are a quite newer class of dosage form formulated by entrapment of large amounts of aqueous or hydro-alcoholic liquid within the network of colloidal solid particles. Gel formulations generally provide faster drug release as compared to conventional topical drug delivery formulations. In spite of many advantages of gels, a major limitation is in the difficulty in delivery of hydrophobic drugs. So to overcome these limitations, emulgels are prepared. When gels and emulsions are used in combined form, the dosage forms are known as Emulgels. Emulsions have a certain degree of elegance and they are easily washed off whenever desired. Emulgels have numerous advantages in the area of dermatology such as being thixotropic, greaseless, easily spreadable, easily removable, emollient, nonstaining, long shelf life, bio-friendly, transparent and pleasing appearance. Emulgel are being used for the delivery of analgesics, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-acne drugs and various cosmetic formulations with still wide range to explore.
568 STUDY OF DETERMINANTS OF KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE OF YOUTHS TO SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR FAMILY HEALTH PLANNING AND POLICY , Adeyemi Ogunleye, *Akinwumi Ayodeji Akinbodewa and Oluseyi Ademola Adejumo
Backgound: The study was conducted to identify determinant factors associated to knowledge of, perception and attitude to sickle cell disease. Methodology: A total of 1,010 undergraduates of a Nigerian Federal tertiary institution aged 17-37 years participated in this questionnaire-based survey in 2016. Their haemoglobin genotype was determined by standard electrophoresis. Results: Participants included 202 males (20.0%) and 808 females (80.0%). Their mean age was 23.0±2.8 years. Among the respondents, 25.5% had good knowledge of sickle cell disease while 33.6% and 40.9% had average and poor knowledge respectively. Their mean score was 5.54±2.26. Eight hundred and twenty seven (81.9%) participants were not aware of their haemoglobin genotype at the time of the study; 914 (90.6%) were aware that marriage between HbAS pairs could result in a HbSS offspring. One hundred and twenty eight (12.7%) would proceed to marry a partner with HbAS genotype despite having HbAS genotype. Female gender (p=0.001), being a Christian (p=0.013) and studying degree-awarding courses (0.018) were significantly associated to higher mean scores. Conclusion: Knowledge of sickle cell disease was poor. In spite of high awareness level of sickle cell disease, a sizeable portion would proceed with marriage if they and their partners were HbAS. Female gender, Christianity and educational exposure influenced knowledge positively.
569 MEDICATION ADHERENCE OF WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINICS IN A SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIAN TOWN , Chikere A. Anusiem*, Okechukwu Hector Obianyido and Chigorom Angela Anusiem
Background: Medication adherence is vital for success in pharmacotherapy. Non-adherence to medical advice on the other hand has been identified as a public health problem worldwide and extends beyond the use of medicines to other forms of therapeutic interventions. Medication non-adherence could lead to failure of treatment, avoidable or prolonged hospitalization and increased cost of medical treatment. It is commonly observed among persons on treatment for chronic illnesses as well as among pregnant women. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional survey using pre-validated questionnaire to investigate the extent of medication adherence among pregnant women and the impact of their socio-demographic characteristics on their adherence profile at Enugu a major town in southeastern Nigeria. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20 (IBM corporation, New York, USA) computer software. Statistical differences were determined at p < 0.05. Results: The proportion of respondents who adhered strictly to their antenatal clinic prescription for prenatal vitamins and minerals supplements was 60.6% and non-adherence recorded was 39.4%. The proportion of respondents who adhered strictly to their antenatal clinic prescription for malaria prevention using (Fansidar®) was 76.9% and non-adherence recorded was 23.1%. There was evidence of association between adherence to prescription for prenatal vitamins and supplements with maternal age, educational level attained, marital status and parity but there was no association between adherence to prescription for malaria prophylaxis and the women’s socio-demographic characteristics. Adherence of pregnant women in this study was better than adherence statistics found in published peer reviewed literature for chronic disease patients. Conclusion: Clinicians are encouraged to crosscheck for adherence when faced with patients who seem to be doing poorly despite appropriate prescription and assist where necessary to promote medication adherence.
570 DIABETES MELLITUS: CHRONIC COMPLICATIONS , *Fabiano De Macedo Salgueirosa and Maria Gisele Dos Santos
In the years before the onset of DM2 symptoms, despite insulin resistance being observed, there is an increase in insulin secretion, that is, compensatory hyperinsulinimia, maintaining normal glycemic concentrations until dysfunctions occur in beta cells and inability to control glycemia leading to thus to the diagnosis of DM2 (CEFALU, 2001).
571 EFFECT OF PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE ON OBESITY AMONGST THE POPULACE IN OKRIKA , *Gbaranor K. B., Ofuya Z. Y., Victor P. D., Amadi C. N, Nmehielle I. and Famba Famba D.
Effect of peak expiratory flow rate and blood pressure on obesity has increased across the globe and care must be taken to reduce the trend. Results shows that 72.7% of the male and 70.0% of the female had normal blood pressure (BP) while 27.3% of the male and 30.0% of the female had abnormal (increased BP) blood pressure. Peak expiratory flow rate for obesed subjects had mean 351.60±26.25 and 427.22±43.73 for non-obesed. The obesed subjects had systolic BP mean 137.37±12.06 and non obesed 115.41±10.71 and diastolic BP 82.84±9.23 for obesed and 77.15±8.15 for non-obesed. The body mass index (BMI) of obesed subjects had mean 35.28±4.72 and 22.64±3.05 for non-obesed. Also, the study shows that the mean age for obesed subjects is 39.68±9.86 and 37.85±12.02 for non-obesed subjects. The study shows that 52 subjects were engaged and 37 of them had normal BP and 15 had abnormal BP. 13 out of the 15 subjects that had abnormal BP were obesed and 2 were non-obesed.
572 THE EFFECT OF SENGGANI LEAVES (Melastoma malabathricum L.) EXTRACTION METHOD ON TOTAL PHENOLIC LEVELS, TOTAL FLAVONOIDS, AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES , Sri Luliana, Isnindar* and Tion Rusmawijayanto
Extraction method is important in maintaining the stability of the target compound. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of the extraction method on total phenol levels, Total Flavonoids levels, and antioxidant activity. The extraction process used percolation and soxhletation methods with 96% ethanol as solvent. Preliminary tests of antioxidant activity were carried out by TLC with silica GF254 stationary phase and mobile phase using chloroform: methanol: ethyl acetate: water (80: 12: 6: 2). Positive results are characterized by pale yellow spots after being sprayed with 0.2% DPPH. Total phenol levels, Total Flavonoid levels, and antioxidant activity with the percolation method were 255.89±3.16 mg GAE/g sample; 36.92±0.22 mg QE/g sample; 16.00±1.76 μg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, total phenol levels, Total Flavonoid levels and antioxidant activity with the the soxhletation method were 268.76±2.77 mg GAE/g sample; 41.01±0.35 mg QE/g sample; 15.13±2.67 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, extraction method affected the total phenol levels and Total Flavonoids levels (sig p <0.05), but not antioxidant activity (sig p> 0.05).
573 BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL AND SERUM LIPID PROFILE OF WISTAR ALBINO RATS FED FOUR SPECIES OF LOCAL BEANS CONSUMED IN SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA , Chukwuebuka Egbuna*, Jonathan C. Ifemeje, Andrew C. Nwaka, Michael Chinedu Olisah, Colin B. Lukong, Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, Maryjane O. Ifemeje, Ikechukwu Harmony Iheukwumere, Iheukwumere C. M.
The glycemic and lipid profile status of Wistar albino rats fed four local species (C. Cajan, V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis, P. vulgaris L „Red kidney‟, and P. vulgaris 'Black turtle‟) commonly consumed in South-east, Nigeria was examined. The experimental design comprises of 30 male Wistar rats distributed into 5 groups of 6 rats each. The effects of the beans on the glucose level suggests that the fasting blood glucose levels was higher in the group fed C. cajan while Red kidney group had the least fasting blood glucose levels. The effects of the beans on the lipid profile shows that P. vulgaris L „Red kidney‟ group had a higher serum cholesterol and HDL compared to the control while C. cajan had a higher LDL cholesterol than others while there was a general decrease in TG and VLDL across the group.
574 PLASMID CURING POTENTIALS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST CITRATE NEGATIVE MOTILE SALMONELLA SPECIES , Iheukwumere I. H.*, Dimejesi S. A., Iheukwumere, C. M., Chude C. O., Egbe P. A., Nwaolisa C. N., Amutaigwe E. U., Nwakoby N. E., Egbuna C., Olisah M. C. and Ifemeje J. C.
Studies have shown that about 80% of multiple antibiotics genes, which possess threat to public health, are encoded in the plasmid. This study was undertaken to evaluate the plasmid curing potentials of Zingiber officinale (ZO), Ocimum gratissimum (GO) and Xylopia aethiopica (XA) extract against different strains of citrate-negative motile Salmonella species. Water samples were drawn from different water bodies closed to different hospitals, and screened for the presence of citrate-negative motile Salmonella species using pour plate technique. The isolates obtained were appropriately characterized. The resistance strains were detected by subjecting the isolates to antibiotic susceptibility test using disk diffusion technique. The plasmid curing potentials of the extract were ascertained by exposing the resistance isolates to different concentrations (1 %, 2 %, 3 %, 4 %, 5 %, 6 %, 7 % and 8 %) of the extracts, and subsequently to susceptibility test. The study revealed that 86 %, 71 %, 64 %, 55 % and 44 % of the citrate-negative motile Salmonella species (G, P, H, M and N) showed multiple antibiotics resistance to Ceporex (CEP), Ciprofloxacin (CPX), Ampicillin (PN), Septrin (STX) and Streptomycin (S). The multiple antibiotics resistance isolates were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by ZO (19 %, 12 %, 0 %, 0 %, 0 %), OG (33 %, 24 %, 7 %, 18 %, 0 %) and XA (43 %, 35 %, 29 %, 18 %, 11 %) extracts. From the above study, the extracts possessed pronounced plasmid curing potentials, of which ZO extract was most effective against the resistance strains.
575 PLASMID CURING POTENTIALS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST CITRATE NEGATIVE MOTILE SALMONELLA SPECIES , Iheukwumere I. H.*, Dimejesi S. A., Iheukwumere, C. M., Chude C. O., Egbe P. A., Nwaolisa C. N., Amutaigwe E. U., Nwakoby N. E., Egbuna C., Olisah M. C.7 and Ifemeje J. C.
Studies have shown that about 80% of multiple antibiotics genes, which possess threat to public health, are encoded in the plasmid. This study was undertaken to evaluate the plasmid curing potentials of Zingiber officinale (ZO), Ocimum gratissimum (GO) and Xylopia aethiopica (XA) extract against different strains of citrate-negative motile Salmonella species. Water samples were drawn from different water bodies closed to different hospitals, and screened for the presence of citrate-negative motile Salmonella species using pour plate technique. The isolates obtained were appropriately characterized. The resistance strains were detected by subjecting the isolates to antibiotic susceptibility test using disk diffusion technique. The plasmid curing potentials of the extract were ascertained by exposing the resistance isolates to different concentrations (1 %, 2 %, 3 %, 4 %, 5 %, 6 %, 7 % and 8 %) of the extracts, and subsequently to susceptibility test. The study revealed that 86 %, 71 %, 64 %, 55 % and 44 % of the citrate-negative motile Salmonella species (G, P, H, M and N) showed multiple antibiotics resistance to Ceporex (CEP), Ciprofloxacin (CPX), Ampicillin (PN), Septrin (STX) and Streptomycin (S). The multiple antibiotics resistance isolates were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by ZO (19 %, 12 %, 0 %, 0 %, 0 %), OG (33 %, 24 %, 7 %, 18 %, 0 %) and XA (43 %, 35 %, 29 %, 18 %, 11 %) extracts. From the above study, the extracts possessed pronounced plasmid curing potentials, of which ZO extract was most effective against the resistance strains.
576 SEQUENTIAL PATHOLOGICAL SCALES OF KERATINOPHILIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM GEOPHILIC SOIL SAMPLES , Iheukwumere C.M., Iheukwumere I. H.*, Chude C. O., Nwaolisa C. N., Okoye K. C., Nwakoby N. E., Egbe P.A. and Egbuna C.
Keratinophilic fungi have been reported as one of the principal cause of cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses among individuals living in developing countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the pathological scale of keratinophilic fungi isolated from different soil in Uli community, Ihiala L.G.A, Anambra state in immunocompetent and immunocompromised albino mice. A total of 30 soil samples were collected randomly from poultry farm, goat farm and garden soil and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting technique. The isolates obtained were characterized and identified using their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The pathological scale of the isolates was assessed by administering the broth culture of the isolates topically on the albino mice and this was observed for period of 3 months. Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum nanum, Microsporum audouinii and Microsporum gypseum were isolated from the soil samples, and the organisms were detected mostly in goat farms and least from poultry farm. T. mentagrophytes recorded significantly (p < 0.05) the highest occurrence skin of the infected mice, which were mild, moderate or severe depending on the alopecia or scaling nature and presence of inflammatory crust, and this features were seen most among the mice infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and those infected with T. rubrum. This study has revealed the presence of Keratinophilic fungi in the studied soil samples.The isolates showed more obvious pathological features among the infected immunocompromised mice than in the infected immunocompetent mice, of which T. mentagrophyte and T. rubrum proved to be most pathogenic.
577 HEALTH RELATED PHYSICAL FITNESS OF PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS IN MONTENEGRO , Vesna Samardžić*
Physiotherapist are aspected to have a good level of physical fitness to meet their proffesion demands. Physiotherapy professional bodies recommend for physiotherapist to adopt healthy lifestyle habits. As the physical fitness is the measurable outcome of physical activity and exercise it is important to evaluate physical fitness level. Physiotherapy students, future healthcare providers, need to carry out healthy lifestyle routine in everyday life so they can meet the demands of the profession. The aim of the study was to find out the health related physical fitness of physiotherapy students in Montenegro. The measured level of physical fitness was determined by using Boddy mass index, Waist hip ratio, Sit and reach test, Scratch test, Push-ups and Squat test. A total of 62 students (42 female, 20 male) of physical therapy aged from 19 to 25 years were enrolled in this study. Body composition of students was satisfactory. The muscle endurance was better in lower extremity then in upper extremity. The flexibility was better in upper extremity and better in female students. The health related physical fitness level was not satisfactory as compared to the physical demands of the profession. Our results suggest to improve the fitness level of physiotherapy students. The study reinforces the need to change students attitude toward regular physical activity.
578 NUTRITIONAL PROFILE, BIOACTIVE COMPOUND CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS , Ani Onuabuchi Nnenna*, Ani Okwudili, Asogwa Kingsley Kelechi, Onyishi Chukwuebuka Kenechukwu, Ujah Innocent Izuchukwu and Ebulue Maximus Mayer
This study evaluated the proximate, vitamins, minerals, anti-nutrients composition and bioactive compounds present in the ethanol leaf extract of Eucalyptus tereticornis as well as its antioxidant potential. Standard biochemical methods were used for the various evaluations. The antioxidant potentials were measured using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, iron reducing power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and Nitric oxide scavenging antioxidant systems. The proximate analysis revealed that the leaf contains carbohydrate (41.07%), crude protein (13.8%), crude fiber (34.50%), crude fat (2.62%), ash (7.71%) and moisture (0.25%) while the anti-nutrient screening confirmed the presence of tannins, oxalate, phytate and saponin. The study revealed that the leaf extract contains significant amounts of vitamin B1 with appreciable amounts of vitamins B2, B9 and C. The studied mineral composition showed that Iron, Zinc and Sodium were the most abundant elements in the leaves while calcium and cobalt were recorded in trace amounts. The leaf extract also contains rich amount of Phenol, Flavonoids, Beta-carotene and Lycopene. The antioxidant activities of the plant extract increased with increase in concentration. The extract showed potent DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity comparably with the standard (Vitamin C) used. From the reducing power assay, the extract displayed a high H+ donating potential. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation of plant extract was also high. The plant has potent antioxidant activity and could serve in protecting the cells from deleterious effects of free radicals. The general results show that the plant contains high amounts of nutrients and bioactive compounds which are believed to have contributed to high antioxidant activities observed.
579 SEX AND STATURE PREDICTION AMONG ADULT LAGOS DWELLERS USING FOOT ANTHROPOMETRY , Nwachukwu Mike Ibeabuchi, Ikpa James Onah*, Salawu Ahmed Akinjide, Obi-Ojinika Chukubueze, Aderibigbe Mojirade Kudirat
The need for identification may arise in cases of homicide, suicide, bomb blasts, terrorist’s attacks, wars, air plane crashes, road and train accidents, as well as natural mass disasters like tsunami, floods, and earth quakes. The main aim of the examiner or forensic anthropologist will be to identify the deceased with respect to sex, stature, race/ethnicity and age. The aim of this work was to measure the anthropometric parameters of foot of adult males and females and generate equation models for estimating gender and stature. The study comprised 222 subjects (115 males and 107 females) of Nigerian parentage, aged 18–65 years who volunteered and satisfied the inclusion criteria. Following institutional approval, anthropometric measurements of Stature, Foot Length (FL), Foot width (FW), Bimalleolar breadth (BB), Navicular height (NH), Medial malleolar height (MMH), Lateral malleolar height (LMH), Heel Breadth (HB) were measured. The data was analyzed for descriptive and inferential statistics using the SPSS statistical package version 25 and Microsoft excel 2016. The results of the present study recorded Mean stature values of 176.44 ± 6.47 cm, 164.71 ± 6.70 cm, and 169.80 ± 8.79 cm for the males, females, and the pooled sample respectively. Independent t test exhibited statistically significant gender differences (P < 0.05) for all the parameters, with the males having consistently higher values than the females. Paired t test revealed the existence bilateral asymmetry on bi-malleolar breadth navicular height and medial malleolar height (P < 0.05). Significant positive correlation coefficients of stature with the foot length and breadth dimensions were found to range from 0.307to 0.485 in the study. Single and multiple logistic regression models were created for predicting gender, single and multiple linear regression models were also created for stature determination This study has demonstrated that stature can be predicted from foot dimensions, with left foot width showing more accuracy and reliability than the other foot dimensions. The prediction models established from this study will be very useful in disaster victim identification from mutilated or dismembered human remains to aid medico-legal practice in Nigeria.
580 COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF PALM KERNEL OIL, OLIVE OIL, CRUDE OIL AND HONEY ON LIPID PROFILE, BODY WEIGHT AND HEARTS OF MALE ALBINO RATS , Chinedu Imo* and Oluwafemi David Sunday
Comparative effects of palm kernel oil, olive oil, crude oil and honey on lipid profile, body weight and hearts of male albino rats was evaluated in this study. This is because they are widely used for various reasons in traditional medicine. Thirty-five male albino rats were used and randomly placed into five groups. Six animals were placed in each group. They were administered the corresponding chemical substances for twenty-one days before being sacrificed. Their body weights were recorded before and after administration of the substances. Their blood samples and hearts were collected for biochemical and histological analysis respectively. Total cholesterol reduced non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2 and 3, but increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 4 and 5 compared to the control. Triglycerides increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2 and 3, but increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 4 and 5 compared to the control. HDL reduced non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2 and 4, but increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 3 and 5 compared to the control. LDL reduced non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 3 and 5, but increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2 and 4 compared to the control. Weight difference after the administration of the chemicals increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in group 2, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 3, and non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 4 and 5 compared to the control. Photomicrograph from heart section of normal rat showed normal features of the cardiac tissue with unremarkable muscles fibres within which are seen bare nucleated cells and endothelial cells at the periphery. Photomicrograph from heart section of all rats administered the chemical substances showed normal features of the cardiac tissue. No pathological changes were seen/identified in them when compared to cardiac tissue of normal control. Crude oil and palm kernel oil may mildly influence lipid profile negatively. Administration of olive oil and honey improved the synthesis of HDL, though they also encourage the synthesis of triglycerides. Olive oil could be used for body weight reduction or control, while honey and palm kernel oil may cause an increase in body weight. The long-term intake of crude oil may lead to set back in growth and improvement of body weight. Administration of the chemical substances as used in this study may show no pathological changes in cardiac tissues.
581 STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC ASPECTS OF ADULT UMBILICAL HERNIA IN RAMADI CITY/IRAQ , *Dr. Mohammed Abdullah Mohammed, Dr. Thaker Thiab Hmoo and Dr. Allawi Muhi Jasim
The current retrospective and descriptive study was carried out in the visceral surgery department during 3 years (January 2017 to December 2019) on umbilical hernias in adults. The study aimed to report epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic results. In this study, (50) patients underwent herniorraphy. The average age was 50 years. The female gender was dominant (60.0%). Physical work, multiparity, overweight were the predisposing factors. The aesthetics of the abdominal wall, mimic abdominal pain, hernial infatuation were the reasons for consultation. The dimensions of the collar were classified into 3 types: Small hernia: diameter of the collar <2 cm (n = 22; 44%), medium hernia: diameter between 2 and 4 cm (n = 18; 36%) and bulky hernia: diameter > 4 cm (n = 10; 20%). The approach was a laparotomy. The herniorraphy by simple suture (n = 20), the herniorraphy by plasty according to Mayo (n = 5) and prosthetic hernioplasty (n = 25) were the operating techniques. The polypropylene prosthesis was placed in 23 patients with retro aponeurotic pre-peritoneal and 2 in pre-aponeurotic retro muscle in case of laborious dissection. The results were excellent in 45 (90%) patients. The morbidity was 5 cases (10%) including: 2 parietal infections, 1 seromas, 1 hematoma and 1 recurrence. It can be concluded that it is important to decide on a wall repair before complications arise, and we support prosthetic hernioplasty in adult umbilical hernias.
582 THE EFFECT OF INTEGRATED HEALTH AND SOME SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING , *Dr. Ahmed Oraibi Salman and Dr. Saad Tawfeeq Najm
Breastfeeding provides amazing benefits for the health of the child and the mother. WHO and UNICEF suggest a mother should be able to practice and maintain exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of her baby's life. This study aimed to analyze the effect of integrated health and some socio-economic factors on exclusive breastfeeding. The current cross sectional study was conducted in Fallujah Teaching Hospital in Anbar province/Iraq during the period from August to September 2019 on 100 nursing lactating mothers who had children aged (7-12) months and selected by stratified random sampling. The dependent variable was exclusive breastfeeding, while the independent variables were maternal age, education, occupation, type of birth delivery, knowledge, attitude, family support, and social level. The data were collected by a questionnaire form and analysis by logistic regression. Results showed that mothers aged (20-34) years (79%) gave more exclusive breastfeeding than mothers aged <20 or ≥ 35 years, mothers with education level ≥ high school (89.6%) gave more exclusive breastfeeding results than those with education level < high school, women who work outside the house (34.8%) provided less exclusive breastfeeding than those who work at home, women who delivered by caesarean section (52.2%) gave less exclusive breastfeeding than mothers who gave birth normally, women with good knowledge (87.7%) gave more exclusive breastfeeding than those with poor knowledge, women with positive attitudes in relation to exclusive breastfeeding (87.8%) gave more exclusive breastfeeding than mothers with negative attitudes, women with strong family support (89.7%) gave more exclusive breastfeeding than mothers with weak family support and finally, women with strong social state (91.7%) gave more exclusive breastfeeding than mothers with weak social state. It can be concluded that exclusive breastfeeding increases with maternal age (20-34) years, high maternal education, good knowledge, positive attitude, strong family support, and strong social state. Exclusive breastfeeding decreases with mother working outside the house and caesarean section, and integrated health post has a strong contextual effect on exclusive breastfeeding.
583 STUDY THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AND PRETERM AND TERM DELIVERY , *Dr. Arabiya Abdulghafoor Ahmed
Bacterial vaginosis is a clinical condition caused by replacement of the normal hydrogen peroxide producing Lactobacillus spp. in the vagina with high concentrations of characteristic sets of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis is believed to be a risk factor for preterm delivery. Bacterial vaginosis is reported in 10-41% of women with an evidence of maternal and fetal morbidity. Studies have shown that spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery (PTD), premature birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid infection, postpartum endometritis are increased because of infection with bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. This observational study aimed to study the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in women presenting with preterm and term delivery, to analyze the causal relationship between BV and PTD and to analyze the maternal and fetal complications associated with bacterial vaginosis. This current study included 30 patients with preterm and 50 patients with term delivery at Haditha General Hospital/ Iraq. Bacterial vaginosis was determined to be present or absent on the basis of Amsel’s criteria. The proportion of patients who fulfilled Amsel’s criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was significantly higher in preterm delivery group as compared to term delivery group. In preterm delivery group, a higher number of neonates born to women who had bacterial vaginosis had low birth weight as well as neonatal complications as compared to those born to women without bacterial vaginosis. Maternal postpartum complications were also higher in women with bacterial vaginosis as compared to women without bacterial vaginosis in the preterm delivery group. It can be concluded that bacterial vaginosis is a major risk factor for preterm delivery. Therefore, testing for bacterial vaginosis and its prompt treatment may reduce the risk of preterm delivery. This will also go a long way in the prevention of neonatal complications due to prematurity.
584 STUDY OF PERCUTANEOUS CHOLECYSTOSTOMY OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED FOR ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS , *Dr. Jameel Abdul Jabbar Salman and Dr. Mohammed Saeed Hasan
Our study aimed to examine outcomes and prognosis of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) in patients hospitalized for acute cholecystitis. We compared clinical profiles, length of hospital stays and survival between patients with acute calculus cholecystitis who did (n=15) and did not (n=150) undergo percutaneous cholecystostomy. Those who underwent PC were older and with a poorer clinical profile; and their 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were higher (11% vs. 1.5%, and 22% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p<0.001 for both). In a logistic regression model, PC status was associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR 3.051, 95% CI 0.798-10.354, p=0.195) after adjustment for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, disease severity index and cholecystectomy. The most deleterious effect on hospital stay was observed among patients with moderately severe disease. Percutaneous cholecystostomy should be offered only to very high-risk patients. In patients unresponsive to conservative treatment with moderately severe disease, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment. It can be concluded from our study that percutaneous cholecystostomy in patients with acute calculus cholecystitis is associated with worse prognosis, longer hospitalization periods, and higher 30-day and one-year mortality.
585 PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROME IN YOUNGER MEN AND ITS IMPACT ON QUALITY OF LIFE , Anurudda Udaya Bandara Pethiyagoda*, Kalyani Pethiyagoda, K.M.V.K. Kothwela and J.A.A.C. Jayakody
Introduction: Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Disorder (CP/CPPS) has a high predominance among men worldwide where it imposes adverse effects on QoL. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of CP/CPPS-like signs and to evaluate the effect of each symptom on the NIH-CPSI-QoL score in a group of male undergraduates in an educational facility. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 178 male undergraduates in Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya in 2019. Symptomatology and quality of life were evaluated by self-administered questionnaire using NIH-CPSI as a model. Microsoft Excel 2010 was used to calculate all the percentages. Results: The mean age of 178 subjects was of 23.1 years with an age range of 20-26 years. Out of the group, 16.85% of subjects experienced interference to their usual activities due to pain. Men of 26 years of age were the commonest (n=25). Post ejaculatory pain and pain or burning during urination was experienced by 20.78% and 26.96% of the group respectively. Of the sampled population n=13 men had prostatitis-like symptoms and an index QoL score 5 or greater (5- Mostly dissatisfied to 7- Terrible). Conclusions: Pelvic pain, urinary symptoms and post ejaculatory pain were the commonest symptoms among patients with CP in the study group. The symptoms displayed a wide range of degree of severity and the quality of life was affected in the majority. Further extensive research involving wider coverage of patients is required.
586 BERBERINE AND ITS PHARMACOLOGY POTENTIAL: A REVIEW , Prajwala B., Raghu N., Gopenath TS, Shanmukhappa B. Kaginelli, Karthikeyan M., Ashok G., Ranjith MS., Srinivasan V. and Kanthesh M. Basalingappa*
Berberine is a naturally occurring yellow plant extract with a long history of medicinal uses in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicines. It is an alkaloid present in root, stem, bark, leaves and rhizomes of Berberis vulgaris, Tinospora cordifolia and many other plants. Berberine activates the enzyme called AMPK, which regulates biological activities that normalize lipid, glucose and energy imbalances. Studies have shown that berberine has various pharmacological functions such as anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory effects. Berberine is possibly safe to most adults for short term use and it is unsafe to newborn, infants, pregnant and nursing women and diabetic patients. The present review summarizes the pharmacology and medicinal uses of berberine.
587 EFFECTIVENESS OF STRUCTURE TEACHING PROGRAMME ONKNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES REGARDING ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL MEDICATION AMONG STAFF NURSES , *Komal Jain, Dhanamma Pujari, Jeba B., Chandbibi Pathan, Salim Shaikh, Pravesh Shukla, Dr. Sharadha Ramesh (Director and Professor) and Dipali Dumbre (Tutor)
Some staff nurses may seem to literally do not have knowledge about administration of oral medication. This study focuses on to check the effectiveness of structure teaching programme on knowledge and practices regarding administration of oral medication. Total numbers of 40 staff nurses their knowledge and practices were assessed through the pre-test and post-test. This pre experimental pretest postest design conducted to assess the knowledge and practices of staff nurses about administration of oral medication. Objectives: 1. To assess the preinterventional knowledge and practice regarding administration of oral medication. 2. To assess the effectiveness of structure teaching programme regarding administration of oral medication. Methodology: In the present study, Quantitative research approach is applied and pre experimental, one group pretest postestonly design is used. The settingof the study was selected hospital of Pune. The sample size for pilot study was 30, selected byusing Non probability convenient Sampling Technique. The structured questionnaire andobservation checklist were administered. Result: The result shows that mean post-test practice score (9.8) of the staff nurse regarding administration of oral medication are significantly higher than their mean pre-test practice scores (8.475). In order to find out the significant difference between the mean score of pre and post-test practice score of the staff nurses regarding administration of oral medication, paired ‘t’ test was computed. The calculated value is higher than the table value, the p value (.002383 p≤.05) is less than .05. Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected, and the research hypothesis was accepted. Hence the researcher concluded that change of practice is not by chance but by structured teaching programme on administration of oral medication.
588 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: DRUG TARGETING TO BRAIN , *Syeda Nashra Khalid and Dr. S. Shahid Mohammed
Nowadays, most of the dosage form has a poor pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical properties Hence there is need to develop a suitable drug system that distributed the active drug molecule only to the site of action without affecting other tissues or organs. Targeted drug delivery is a method of delivering drugs to the patients at the targeted site or the site of action. The central nervous system, one of the most delicate microenvironments of the body, is protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulating its homeostasis. BBB is a highly complex structure that tightly regulates the movement of ions of a limited number of small molecules and of an even more restricted number of macromolecules from the blood to the brain, protecting it from injuries and diseases. However, the BBB also significantly precludes the delivery of drugs to the brain, thus, preventing the therapy of a number of neurological disorders. As a consequence, several strategies are currently being sought after to enhance the delivery of drugs across the BBB. Within this review, the recently born strategy of brain drug delivery based on the use of nanoparticles, multifunctional drug delivery systems with size in the order of one-billionth of meters, is described. The review also includes a brief description of the structural and physiological features of the barrier and of the most utilized nanoparticles for medical use. Finally, the potential neurotoxicity of nanoparticles is discussed, and future technological approaches are described. The strong efforts to allow the translation from preclinical to concrete clinical applications are worth the economic investments.
589 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: DRUG TARGETING TO BONE MARROW , *Shireen Kahkashan Fatima and Dr. S. Shahid Mohammed
Targeted drug delivery (TDDS) an advanced method of delivering drugs to the patients such that increases the concentration of delivered drug to the targeted body parts only (organs/tissues/ cells) which in turn improves efficacy of treatment by reducing side effects.. Basically, targeted drug delivery assist the drug molecule to reach desired site i.e., bone marrow. Bone marrow is the organ which is responsible for production of blood cells in humans beings. BM also the 4th largest organ of the body by weight, consisting of bone, muscle, and fat. It is the seat of production of haematopoietic cells. It is estimated that, in humans, bone marrow accounts for approximately 4–5 % of the total body weight. The stem cells lines in the bone marrow produce new blood cells and stromal cells. It has been estimated that as many blood cells are eliminated from the blood circulation per day in adult human. Development of effective targeted bone marrow drug delivery systems is an important goal for development of diagnostic, protective, and/or therapeutic agents for hematopoietic disorders and infectious diseases.
590 OCCURRENCE OF ANEMIA AMONG COPD PATIENTS AS COMPARED TO HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN POPULATION OF NORTHEASTERN UTTAR PRADESH , Dr. Pulkit Gupta*, Dr. G. N. Srivastava, Dr. Anbarasan Thiru, Dr. A. Chokhani, Dr. Gowthami B., Dr. A. Jain, Dr. S. S. Dash, Dr. K. S. Sravani and Dr. A. Suresh
Aim: To study the frequency of occurrence of anemia among COPD patients. Methods: This was a single centre case control cross-sectional observational study design including 50 cases and 50 controls. COPD patients more than 40 years of age, having acute exacerbation were included in the study after proper screening. CBC, hb, LFT, RFT, ABG, hsCRP, Spirometry, ECG, ECHO was performed and data was collected and recorded for analysis. Results: Among COPD patients 92 % (n=46 out of 50) had anemia compared to 30 % (n=15) among healthy volunteers at a hemoglobin cutoff of: <13.5 gm/dl for male and <12.5 gm/dl for female. Most of the anemic cases both in control as well as cases were females. Conclusion: Anemia rather than polycythemia is commonly seen among COPD patients in this population group. 92% of cases were anemic as compared to control in which 30% of the population was found to be anemic.
591 REVIEW ARTICLE ON ROLE OF VIRECHANA AND PHALAGHRITA ORALLY IN BANDHYATVA W.S.R ANOVULATORY FACTOR IN FEMALE INFERTILITY , *Dr. Jyoti Rani M. D., Dr. G. M. Kavya, Dr. Pravesh Kumar and Dr. R. K. Gautam
Infertility primarily refers to inability of a person to conceive after one or more years of regular intercourse. Women who are able to get pregnant but then have repeated miscarriages are also said to be infertile. Infertility is of 2 types-primary and secondary. Primary infertility denotes those couple who have never had a child. Secondary infertility is failure to conceive following a previous pregnancy In Ayurveda infertility may be correlated with bandhyatva and bandhya yonivyapad .In ayurveda importance of shodhana is described. In shodhan Panch types of karam has described, Vaman,Virechana,nasya,Basti,Raktamokshan. Out of five Virechan is easy, compatible process. Virechana karma also indicated in the treatment of all the yonirogas .Virechana is also said to be helpful in beejam karmukatavam that can be correlate with ovulation. Virechan clears the srotas , So it is helpful in artava vaha srotoshudhi also. In Ayurvedic texts, Virechana karma has effect on agni and with this it pacifies the vitiated kapha and vatadosha and removes vitiated pitta and thus do raktashodhan. It increases quality of srotoshodhan So it may help in artavvaha srotoshudhi also. Vyadhiharam, Apatyam, Vrushataa, balam etc result can be achieved through virechana .Phal ghrita is described in so many ayurvedic texts in bandhyatav.
592 NOACS FOR STROKE PREVENTION IN PATIENTS WITH AF AND VTE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META ANALYSIS , Nabila Unnisa Begum and Sathish Kumar Mittapalli*
The long term anticoagulation with warfarin has black box warning from Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bleeding problems warning, pregnancy warning, calciphylaxis warnings associated with various bleeding risks and drug-drug interactions and act by blocking vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) enzyme complex which led to development of novel drugs. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are replacing warfarin for many indications. These agents include dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin, and rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, which inhibit factor Xa for treatment of venous thromboembolism and rivaroxaban and apixaban are approved for thromboprophylaxis after elective hip or knee arthroplasty. The NOACs are effective as warfarin in reducing stroke and systemic embolism through anticoagulation with in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring but also are safer because they are associated with less intracranial bleeding, notably have prophylaxis for VTE after an orthopediac surgery and to prevent stroke in AF patient,a decreased risk of significant bleeding and other secondary adverse events. This review aims that beneficial effects of NOACs, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, mode of activities, common drug-drug interactions, pharmacological and identifies the doses of each approved indication, provides an overview on ongoing studies, the emerging real-world data and highlights the potential opportunities to identifies the remaining challenges.
593 MATRUSTANYA (BREAST MILK) - A REVIEW , Dr. Shubhangi K. Thakur*
Ayurveda, the science of life, bestows upon prevention of disease and maintenance of healthy life. Breast feeding is a pivotal part of child care which needs enormous importance. It is widely recognized that breastfeeding is the best nutrition for human infants. Breast milk is the optimal food for almost all infants in the first year of life. The breast milk provides numerous health benefits to both mother and baby. Breastfeeding should begin soon after birth. Ayurvedic texts, formation of stanya (breast milk), causes of stanya pravriti (or milk ejection), dhatri (wetnurse), dhatri-pariksha (examination of wet-nurse), stanapan-vidhi (breast feeding), stanyasampat (merits of breasts), stanyanasha hetu (causes of cessation of milk formation), stanyaviridhi dravyas (drugs increasing quantity of milk), stanya apanayakala (weaning period), abnormalities of breast-milk and its treatment etc. are discussed in detail. This paper helps to explain the importance of breastfeeding with ayurvedic aspects.
594 DIABETIC STIFF HAND SYNDROME / (DIABETIC CHEIROARTHROPATHY) , Dr. Avanthi Sharma* and Kamma Bhanu Prakash
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with several musculoskeletal disorders[MSD]. The incidence of MSDs in the diabetic patient have increased, resulting in the increased prevalence and clinical importance of musculoskeletal alterations in diabetic subjects. The exact pathophysiology of most of these musculoskeletal disorders remains obscure. Connective tissue disorders, neuropathy, vasculopathy or combinations of these problems, may underlie the increased incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in DM. The development of musculoskeletal disorders is dependent on age and on the duration of DM; however, it has been difficult to show a direct correlation with the metabolic control of DM. Most of these disorders can be diagnosed clinically, also some radiological examination may help, especially in differential diagnosis. No specific treatment is available, and treatments used in the general population are also recommended for diabetic subjects. Infectious complications affecting the musculoskeletal system are common in DM subjects, and these, possibly life-threatening, complications should be systematically discussed. Diabetic patients may suffer from a wide range of musculoskeletal disorders that can cause pain and some dysfunctions in the patient and affect the treatment negatively or reduce the quality of life by causing problems in the implementation of exercise programs, which are very important in the treatment of patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Although most of these problems are also seen in non-diabetics, they are more frequently observed but are not specific to diabetics. Their physiopathology is not fully understood; there is some evidence suggesting that macro and microvascular complications of diabetes are responsible. A diagnosis of musculoskeletal dysfunctions in diabetic patients is made by clinical findings, If the treatment of problems requires corticosteroid use, diabetes can be hard to manage. In this review, we summarized the general features, diagnosis, and treatment modalities of frequent and important musculoskeletal disorders in diabetic patients.
595 ROLE OF MINERAL OIL IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW , Uday Prakash*, Dr. Atul Kumar Gangwar and Dr. Lalit Singh
Novel drug delivery systems are designed to achieve a continuous delivery of drugs at predictable and reproducible kinetics over an extended period of time in the circulation. Floating drug delivery system is the form of novel drug delivery system. That controls kinetic release rate of drug to a specific site for its pharmacological action. These are achieved by use of various oils including mineral oil. This delivery system prolongs the retention time of the drug in the stomach as compared to conventional dosage form. The present article highlights the use of mineral oil for the formulation of the floating drug delivery system especially with oil (mineral oil). The main goal of any drug delivery system is to achieve desired concentration of the drug in blood or tissue, which is therapeutically effective and non-toxic for a prolonged period. Oral delivery of drugs is by far the most preferable route of drug delivery due to the ease of administration, patient compliance and flexibility in formulation etc. From immediate release to site specific delivery, oral dosage forms have really progressed.
596 MANAGEMENT OF VARICOSE VEINS (SHIRAGRANTHI) OF LOWER LIMB BY JALAUAKAVACHARANA - A CONCEPTUAL STUDY , Dr. Mandeep Singh*, Dr. Vibhuti Mishra, Dr. Amruta Wali, Dr. Tarun Gupta
Varicose veins of the lower limbs are the penalty the man to pay for its long standing posture, functionally veins have to drain against gravity which affecting men and women both. When a vein becomes dilated, elongated and tortuous due to retrograde flow of blood, the affected vein is called as “Varicose veins”. The most common cause is incompetent valves in the vein, while increasing age, obesity, pregnancy, standing posture etc are risk factors. Shira Sankocha (tortuous veins), Shira Vakrata (irregular surface of veins), Shira utsedha (inflammation of veins) and Vishoshana (roughness and hardness of veins) are the clinical features of Shiragranthi. These features are helpful in correlating shiragranthi with Varicose veins. Raktamokshana is made of two words- Rakta (blood) and Mokshana (to leave), so Raktamokshana means to let out blood. The treatment of disease conditions with medicinal leeches is termed as Hirudo-therapy(Jalaukavacharana). Jalaukavacharana removes not only blood from the body but also injects biologically active substances which help to manage various disorders. The probable mode of action of Jalauka is purification of body by removing deeply seated toxins and pacifying vitiated Dosha. Positive Brodie Trendelenburg test gives indication for operative measures for the management of Varicose veins. But by following conservative treatment with Jalaukavacharana the surgical measure can be delayed or avoided.
597 SARS: A RATIONALE LITERATURE STUDY BASED ON ETIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT , Dr. Rosemol Geo*
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newfangled infectious disease instigated by a novel coronavirus that eventually result in deadly respiratory pathological complications. Owing to high spreading and death rate, SARS has progressed as a chief respiratory disease which may stumble upon ubiquitously around the world. The possible variability of the SARS-CoV genome may eventually give fresh SARS outbursts and several sections of the viral genomes open reading frames have been recognized which may provide to the intense harmfulness of the virus. The pathogenesis of SARS involves numerous mechanisms including both direct action on target cells as well as indirect action by means of the immune system. The utmost striking method to thwart novel epidemics of SARS is vaccination; nevertheless the expansion of vaccines is challenging owing to mislaid data on the part of immune system-virus relations and the highly probable mutability of the virus. Even though new infections are not reported currently, SARS leftovers as a foremost health hazard, as new epidemics may rise at any time. Consequently, advance experimental and clinical investigation is indispensable to halt the threat of this disease.
598 DENDRIMERS AND ITS APPLICATION: A REVIEW , Navneet Kumar Verma*, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Prem Chand Mall, Vikas Yadav, Rupali Jaiswal
A dendrimer is typically described as a macromolecule, which is characterized by its highly branched 3D structure that provides a high degree of surface functionality and adaptability. Dendrimers are a new class of polymeric materials. They are highly branched, monodisperse macromolecules. The structure of those materials features a great impact on their physical and chemical properties. As a results of their unique behaviour dendrimers are suitable for a good range of biomedical and industrial applications. The paper gives a concise review of dendrimers‟ physico-chemical properties and their possible use in various areas of research, technology and treatment. The bioactive agents can be easily encapsulated into the interior of the dendrimers or chemically attached that is conjugated or physically adsorbed onto the dendrimer surface, serving the desired properties of the carrier to the precise needs of the active material and its therapeutic applications. The review aims to stress on construction, characterisation, drug delivery and possible application of dendrimers in various areas of research, technology and treatment.
599 A REVIEW ON HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS USED IN NIDDM: MECHANISTIC ASPECTS , Maria Firdous and Sathish Kumar Mittapalli*
Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide rising concern that leads to an increased rate of morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires lifelong management to prevent complications such as cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Oral antidiabetic agents form an important therapeutic strategy in the management of diabetes after lifestyle modification. This review provides an overview of potential antidiabetic drugs, mechanisms, adverse effects and comparison between different clinical, pharmacological, adverse aspects and proved to be beneficial for NIDDM patients as well as several new agents available in the market including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been approved for use as monotherapy when diet and exercise are inadequate and also focused on other glucose-lowering agents other than insulin.
600 A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VESTIBULAR STIMULATION IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM , *Anis Choudhery and Tasmi Ansari
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and especially the minimally verbal, often fail to learn basic perceptual and motor skills. This deficit has been demonstrated in several studies, but the findings could have been due to the non-optimal adaptation of the paradigms. Responses to vestibular stimulation can, under well-controlled experimental conditions, provide a measure of brainstem function. Autistic children had significantly longer time constants during the primary nystagmus response and significantly fewer beats during the secondary response than normal children when stimulated with constant angular acceleration in complete darkness. These findings could not be attributed to gross differences in arousal, to developmental retardation, to associated clinical conditions, or to either the influence of vision or habituation. Rather, they are suggestive of a neurophysiologic dysfunction, perhaps involving the brain stem, and may be an expression of the process that underlies those autistic behaviors that suggest faulty modulation of sensory input and motor output. Brain-stem centers moduate both general sensory input and motor excitation and may play a role in the elaboration of the more complex adaptive and motivated behaviors that are also disturbed in autism. In this review, we have generally focused on the Autism Spectrum Disorder and their treatment by using a different techniques and therapies.
601 INSTITUTION-GAUHATI MEDICAL COL EGE, GUWAHATI , *Dr. Shaurya Agarwal and Dr. (Prof.) Parul Dutta
 29 years old female patient, hailing from Nagaon district of Assam.  Presenting features: Patient presented on 25.02.2019 with severe local lower abdominal distension, pain & nausea for last 3 days.  The distension and pain was located mainly in the right lower abdominal quadrant.  There was history of continuous bloating sensation in the abdomen but stools were normal.
602 CONCEPT OF KRIYAKALPA AND ITS THERAPEUTIC IMPORTANCE IN SHALAKYA TANTRA W.S.R. TO EYE PROBLEMS , *Dr. Sarita G. Gharde
The science of health management gives prime importance to all sense organs and ayurveda also emphasizes importance of eye (Netra) as prime sense organs. Shalakya tantra is branch of ayurveda which deals with health issues of sense organs and this branch paid huge attention for enhancing or restoring visual activity. In this regards ayurveda elaborated various concepts for taking care of Netra. Kriyakalpa is one such aspect which not only maintains health status of eye but also prevents pathogenesis of many Netra roga. Seka, Tarpana, Putpaka, Aaschyotana and Anjana are major approaches of Kriyakalpa utilizes for maintaining normal functioning of eye. Kriyakalpa help in various pathological conditions like conjunctivitis, watery eyes, burning sensation, itching, dryness of eye and photophobia, etc. Considering significance of Kriyakalpa present article described types, indications, mode of action and advantages of Kriyakalpa in Netra roga.
603 LINKING STRESS WITH TELOMERASE DYNAMICS: A REVIEW , T Jyothi Kiran*
Telomerase (the cellular enzyme primarily responsible for telomere length and maintenance) is a predictor of long term cellular viability. Telomerase activity is considered as a useful biomarker to understand the process of ageing. Evidence shows that chronic stress accelerates ageing by reducing telomerase activity resulting in the shortening of the length of telomeres. A correlation between telomerase activity and ageing has been established which proved that reducing psychological stress by intensive meditation training resulted in increased telomerase activity and telomere length which was correlated to increase in life span. In addition to telomere maintenance, telomerase has several non-telomeric functions that are still being explored. Recent studies have shown the neuroprotective effects of telomerase reverse transcriptase (the catalytic sub-unit of telomerase) in the brain tissue. Further research on the regulation of telomerase dynamics under stressful situations would offer the possibility of treating stress related and age related neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the telomeric and non-telomeric functions of telomerase with special emphasis on linking stress with telomerase dynamics and telomerase in the brain tissue.
604 A REVIEW ON SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES , M. M. Borade*, D. M. Shinkar1, V. T. Pathan2 and A. G. Jadhav3
Dissolvability is the wonder of disintegration of strong in fluid stage to give a homogenous sub-atomic scattering which is fundamental to medication's prosperity. However, greater part of the dynamic pharmaceutical fixings is poor fluid solvent, hydrophobic. The solvency, property of the medications gets one of the most testing perspectives in plan improvement. Poor watery solvency brings about significant items not arriving at the completed pharmaceuticals due to not accomplishing their maximum capacity and remedial range. Subsequently poor fluid solvency of medications is significant restricting variable with numerous new medications in their effective dispatch in showcase in spite of their potential pharmacokinetic action. Particles that would have exceptionally useful impact on their physiological objective would not be additionally created if their bioavailability is restricted by their dissolvability in water. Watery solvency of medication likewise influences physical, substance properties of the medication, portion, solidness in gastrointestinal track, cuts off as standard for trial of immaculateness, the pace of disintegration of strong, rate and degree of retention, accomplish wanted convergence of medication in foundational course for wanted (foreseen) pharmacological reaction. In this way solvency is a most significant idea introducing itself as important donor in the detailing of pharmaceuticals. On the off chance that the atom needs to endure the pharmaceutical improvement process the plan researcher needs to think of new API with extraordinary interest in showcase. The usable pharmaceuticals with poor dissolvability must be addressed well by solubilization strategies, for example, physical adjustment, complexation, utilization of surfactant which are turning out to be increasingly more critical to the pharmaceutical division by opening up pathway to get ready successful and attractive medications are examined in present survey article.
605 CORONAVIRUSES- REVIEW ARTICLE , Gyanendra Jha, Juhi Jha, Himanshu Thukral*
Coronaviruses (CoV) are a great family of viruses that cause ailment ranging from the common cold to more severe sicknesses such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).2-14 days represents the current official estimated range for the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak a pandemic and a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).
606 LYMPHOMA: A BRIEF REVIEW OF ROLE OF IMAGING IN STAGING AND FOLLOW UP , Dr. Zohaib Hussain* and Prof. Dr. Parul Dutta
Lymphoproliferative diseases are a group of cancers arising from B cells, T cells and natural killer cells (NK), which differ greatly in their nature, clinical path and therapeutic responses. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) constitute the 5th most common malignancy in the west. However incidence in India is one-fourth of that in the western world. The Ann Arbor staging system was first developed in 1971 and updated by "Cotswolds modification" in 1989 and refers to both HL and NHL. Additionally, the Lugano classification (2014) and more recently the RECIL 2017 criteria, have been introduced to simplify and standardize staging and treatment outcome evaluations with primary emphasis on Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) evaluation. CT and PET-CT are being utilized as primary techniques for staging, and MRI being a complementary tool. 18-F- Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18-FDG PET-CT) for functional imaging has now replaced Gallium scans. Lymphoma management depends on its subtype and clinical stage. An attempt is made to provide a better understanding of the Lugano classification and RECIL 2017 criteria that would benefit the radiologist to correctly plan management and achieve desired results illustrated by multiple cases evaluated at the authors’ institute. Cure is the goal of managing Hodgkin’s lymphoma and aggressive NHLs, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma or peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Imaging plays an indispensable role in achieving this goal.
607 RETOOLING BACTERIA BY RECOMBINANT DNA TO MILESTONE IN SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY AND CURE DISEASES , Prince Giri and *Jitendra Malviya
By manipulating DNA, researchers are trying to create microbes that, once ingested, work to treat a rare genetic condition a milestone in synthetic biology. Microbial biotechnology includes the exploitation, hereditary control and adjustments of miniaturized scale living beings to make business significant items and that likewise includes maturation and different upstream and downstream procedures. Microorganisms produce an astounding exhibit of significant items, for example, macromolecules (for example proteins, nucleic acids, starch polymers, even cells) or littler atoms and are generally separated into metabolites that are basic for vegetative development (essential metabolites) and those which give favourable circumstances over antagonistic condition (auxiliary metabolites). They typically produce these mixes in modest quantities that are required for their own advantage. The appearance of recombinant DNA innovation (likewise alluded to as quality cloning or in vitro hereditary control) has drastically widened the range of microbial hereditary controls. With the progression of recombinant DNA innovation, numerous novel host frameworks have been investigated to create industrially significant items like restorative proteins, anti-toxins, little particles, and biosimilars and so on.
608 NANOMEDICINE AS A THERAPEUTIC WINDOW FOR THE TREATMENT OF BRAIN CANCER: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS , Ashu Chaudhary*, Pinki and Ashima Sharma
Malignant brain cancer treatment is limited by a number of barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, transport within the brain interstitium, difficulties in delivering therapeutics specifically to tumor cells, the highly invasive quality of gliomas and drug resistance. As a result, the prognosis for patients with high-grade gliomas is poor and has improved little in recent years. Nanomedicine is a way in order to address these needs. The way through which cancer development and targeting therapy can be understood is detection of somatic mutations in tumors. The screening for BRAF V600E mutation is employed in clinical practice in Libya for its prognostic and potentially predictive role in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC). This review elaborate the obstacles that come in route of treatment, also it tell us about different ways nanomedicine have been used to overcome them with a focus on liposomal and polymeric nanoparticles.
609 HOMOEOPATHY IN COVID 19- A MULTI STAGE AND MULTI-DIMENSIONAL APPROACH , *Dr. Tridibesh Tripathy and Dr. Umakant Prusty
With a subdued celebration of World Homoeopathy Day on 10th April 2020 due to the on-going COVID (Corona Virus Disease) 19 epidemic, it is time to reflect what Homoeopathy can offer at this stage as a therapeutic system. Currently, Homoeopathy has not been tried on COVID 19 patients yet it has been reinforced that there is no cure to COVID 19 yet. It can be emphatically stated that Homoeopathy has proved its effectiveness in multiple viral diseases since its discovery in 1790. However, officially the AYUSH ministry through CCRH in January 2020 has already offered the Homoeopathic medicine Arsenic Album- 30C as a preventive medicine for COVID 19. The doses and frequency of the medicine are also clearly mentioned.[7,8] The related press release of AYUSH ministry mentions that health advisory of AYUSH ministry includes Arsenic Album-30 as a possible preventive for flu like illness such as corona virus infection.[7,8] The current article focuses on the curative approach that Homoeopathy has the potential to offer in COVID 19. Studies have indicated that the initial symptoms of COVID 19 disease lead to anosmia followed by fever, dry cough, respiratory distress through dry pneumonia respectively. The approach of treatment through the various stages has been dealt with in the article through application of multiple Homoeopathic medicines. The selected medicines are based on the principles of Homoeopathy using the Homoeopathic Materia Medica.
610 A REVIEW ON KRIMI ROGA (INTESTINAL WORMS) IN CHILDREN , Shiv Mangal Prasad, Bijendra Shah* and Bishun Dayal Prasad Patel
Ayurveda describes worm infestation as Krimi Roga. The Krimi may be various types on the basis of their origin; Kaphaj Krimi, Raktaj krimi and Pureeshaj Krimi. In Ayurveda Pureeshaja Krimi can be correlated with the helminthiasis. From various sources such as classical literatures of Ayurveda, modern texts, online searches and original papers, data were collected. In Ayurveda, the infectious diseases caused by krimi are explained under the topic of Oupasargikarogas. The term Krimi is a broad term which includes all types of worms, which may be pathogenic or non-pathogenic. Among them, pathogenic is harmful to human beings and helminthiasis specifically can be correlated to the Pureeshaja type of Krimi. Treatment like Apakarshana (elimination therapy), Prakriti Vighata (to create an unfavorable environment) and Nidana Parivarjana(avoiding the etiology) is found to be very effective against Krimi in Ayurveda. In addition it is more economical and painless treatment with no or minimum side effects. The present article reviews the concept of krimi and its management in Ayurveda for children.
611 CONCEPT AND MANAGEMENT OF OTORRHOEA (SAILAN-UL-UZN) IN UNANI MEDICINE , Abdul Nasir*, Zehra Zaidi and Gazala Fatma
The word otorrhoea is derived from a Greek word „otos‟ means a “ear” and „rhein‟ means discharge and Sailan-ul-Uzn is derived from a Arabic word „Sailan‟ means a “discharge” and „Uzn‟ means “Ear”. Most of the Unani physicians have defined the otorrhoea in the name of Sailan-ul-Uzn and explained “In this disease burning sensation develop in the external auditory canal, resulting discharge from the ear be continued and it is more common in children and having wet temperament patient”. According to Unani Medicine, such disease is commonly occurred in those who have excess rutubat (fluid) in the body and their temperament indicates balghami (phlegmatic). Symptoms appear as Waja-ul-Uzn (Ear pain/discomfort), Izdiyad-e-Hararat (increased body temperature), fullness in the ear, stabbing pain in temples, pressure build up in the ear. The unani medicine used orally in the treatment of otorrhoea mostly blood purifier, Muhallil, Musakkin, Dafe Ta‟ffun advia as well as Mujaffif for local application in the form of Dhooni (Fumigation) and Nafookh (Insufflation). However we have included all descriptions and management in unani system of medicine in this review.
612 “BRASSICA OLERACEA” A NUTRACEUTICAL: MODERN WORLD-TRADITIONAL MEDICINE , Humaira Fatima* and Mohammed Omer
This paper communicates the health benefits of nutraceutical plants from the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) or mustard family. Brassicaceae are regularly named as the ‘‘mustard’’(from the Latin mustum ardens) plant family due to the sharp, potent flavor attributable to their main metabolites, the glucosinolates (GLSs), which contain sulfur. Brassica is a genre of plants associated to family Brassicaceae commonly used as vegetables. Around worldwide it is predicted that most frequently consuming vegetables include cauliflower, cabbage, turnip, broccoli and kohlrabi. These vegetables are also a considerable source of valuable metabolites, which embrace anthocyanins, terpenes, S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, sulforaphane, selenium, coumarins and glucosinolates. Unitedly, brassicas deliver leaf, flower and root vegetables that are eaten fresh, cooked and processed. Brassica species is robustly linked with the prevention against threat of numerous types of chronic diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, age-related efficient waning and cataracts etc. and thus plays a demanding function in maintaining healthy human life.
613 MUCCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Shaikh Shakil Shaikh Khalil* and V. P. Wankhade
Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. Through this route it is possible to realize mucosal (local effect) and transmucosal (systemic effect) drug administration. In the first case, the aim is to achieve a site-specific release of the drug on the mucosa, whereas the second case involves drug absorption through the mucosal barrier to reach the systemic circulation. The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to overcome such obstacles include the employment of new materials that, possibly, combine mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory and penetration enhancer properties and the design of innovative drug delivery systems which, besides improving patient compliance, favor a more intimate contact of the drug with the absorption mucosa. This presents a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery and the anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanisms of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery systems and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations.
614 RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EIGHTY FIVE ORTHOPEDIC SURGERIES IN PATIENTS WITH HAEMOPHILIA – FROM A COMPREHENSIVE HEMOPHILIA CARE CENTRE OF WESTERN INDIA , *Aniket Mohite, Chandrakala S., Farah Jijina, Nilesh Wasekar and Manoj Toshniwal
Background: The severe hemophilia A and B are characterized by spontaneous bleeding into the joints. The most frequent targets joints are the knees, ankles, and elbows[1,2] and recurrent bleeding into these leads to chronic hemophilic arthropathy. This causes pain, deformity, work/ school absenteeism and affects activities of daily living. In such patients, surgical intervention is required as per joint status and function: surgical/radiation synovectomy, joint replacement, osteotomy. But surgeries in PWH are technically more demanding because of extensive fibrosis, bony deformity, and poor bone density. With improvements in surgical technique and medical management, satisfactory results have been obtained, but the optimal level and duration of replacement therapy required to prevent bleeding complications have not been established conclusively. This paper reports the experience of orthopedic surgeries in a single referral centre, largest data from a developing country, with the use of low dose of factor. Material and Methods: The data of 75 patients who underwent 85 invasive orthopedic procedures were collected from the hospital records retrospectively between 2004 and 2010 and prospectively thereafter through a well thought out proforma, which included the surgical procedure performed, replacement therapy used and complications encountered. Results: Out of 165 different surgeries done in our centre in 138 patients with haemophilia, eighty five orthopedic surgeries were done in 75 hemophilic patients in age range of 15 year to 62 years during this period. Of these, 62 were severe Hemophilia A without inhibitors and 2 with inhibitors, 10 were severe Hemophilia B and one patient with combined F V and F VIII deficiency. The orthopedic surgeries performed were Total knee replacement (24), Total hip replacement (2), Amputation (11), Pseudo-tumour excision (4), Fracture Internal fixation (28), Joint corrective surgery (8), Osteotomy (4), Prosthesis removal (3) and Ligament tear repair (1).These surgeries required factor concentrate 302.6 IU/ Kg/ Surgery total dose. Excellent hemostatic response was achieved intra-operatively and post- operatively in 77 (93.3%) surgeries and 5 surgeries (6.7%) had fair hemostatic response, that was managed with factor correction alone. 6 Patients (8%) developed inhibitors post operatively and 3 patients required revision surgery, 1 for prosthesis damage and 2 for infection. There was no death due to bleeding. Conclusion: The present study clearly shows that excellent hemostatic response can be achieved in orthopedic surgeries in patients with hemophilia with low dose of factor as compared to international studies.
615 A REVIEW ON WORLD’S PANDEMIC COVID-19 , S. Sirisha*
Coronavirus (COVID-19) is an enveloped RNA virus that are diversely found in humans and wildlife. The epicenter of infection was linked to seafood and exotic animal wholesale markets in the city. The pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China in December 2019 is a highly contagious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the ongoing outbreak as a global public health emergency. Currently, the research on novel coronavirus is still in the secondarystage. This review will introduce a general overview of coronavirus and summarizes the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of knowledge surrounding COVID-19. This review in the hope of helping the public effectively recognize and deal with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), and providing a reference for future studies.
616 SEEDS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF CANCER , Humaira Fatima* and Hussain Ali Khan
Cancer is a broad term. It describes the disease that results when cellular changes cause the uncontrolled growth and division of cells. Some types of cancer cause rapid cell growth, while others cause cells to grow and divide at a slower rate. Certain forms of cancer result in visible growths called tumors, while others, such as leukemia, do not. Most of the body‟s cells have specific functions and fixed lifespans. While it may sound like a bad thing, cell death is part of a natural and beneficial phenomenon called apoptosis. A cell receives instructions to die so that the body can replace it with a newer cell that functions better. Cancerous cells lack the components that instruct them to stop dividing and to die. As a result, they build up in the body, using oxygen and nutrients that would usually nourish other cells. Cancerous cells can form tumors, impair the immune system and cause other changes that prevent the body from functioning regularly. Cancerous cells may appear in one area, then spread via the lymph nodes. These are clusters of immune cells located throughout the body.
617 AN OVERVIEW OF ACAI BERRY (EUTERPE OLERACEA) AND ITS PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES , Humera Fatima* and Syed Zubair Hussain
Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a species of palm tree which comes under the family Arecaceae which is mainly cultivate for its fruit. It is a fruit which comes under the class of berries. Berries is defined as a common edible fruit which is rich in nutritional compounds such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. The Acai berry has been extensively studied for its various nutritional and pharmacological properties. Acai berry is purple colour berry which is natively grown in various areas of Amazon area in South America. The nutritional contents present in acai berry are calories, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, vitamins etc. acai berry has been widely investigsted for its chemical composition the most commonly found chemicals are anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenols and glycosides. The other constituents are fatty acids, minerals, amino acids, carotenoids and vitamins. Due to its chemical composition it has various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant activity, anti inflammatory, neuroprotective activity, anticancer effect, it is also used to cure renal diseases. It is used in cosmetics and also in food industry.
618 A CASE OF GIANT LYMPHANGIOMA OF NECK AND MEDIASTINUM PRESENTING WITH BREATHLESSNESS , *Dr. Vineeth Skariah Abraham, Dr. Hrishikesh Choudhury, Prof. Dr. Parul Dutta
Lymphangiomas are rare benign lesions of lymphatic origin mostly present at birth and consist of focal proliferations of well-differentiated lymphatic tissue. They represent 0.7%–4.5% of all mediastinal tumors, majority are discovered during the first 2 years of life. They are most common in the neck and axilla, and about 10% extend into the mediastinum. Approximately 1% of all Lymphangiomas are confined to the chest. In this study we present a case presented with breathlessness with an incidental right sided neck swelling noticed during examination. Patient was evaluated with chest X-ray, USG and CECT thorax which revealed a cystic mediastinal lesion with internal septa and superior extension to posterior triangle of neck on right side. The lesion was excised and the histopathological examination revealed features of Lymphangioma.
619 PERIODONTITIS AND INTERLEUKIN- 18 , *Dr. Aniket Ratanrao Gid, Dr. Roshani Thakur and Dr. Vidita Mahendra Mahesh
The occurrence and progression of the periodontal disease depend on periodontal microflora and the multifaceted response of the host, and these interactions are mediated by cytokines and chemokines. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 superfamily. The aim of the present review was the assessment IL-18 level in periodontal disease.
620 EFFECTIVENESS OF STRUCTURE TEACHING PROGRAM ON KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE REGARDING INFUSION PRACTICE AMONG STAFF NURSES , *Shruti Dabhade, Derin Okram, Elangbam Anibala Devi, Divyank Kalal, Bipasha Sharma, Najma Beg, Dr. Sharadha Ramesh (Director and Professor) and Dipali Dumbre (Tutor)
Infusion therapy is the commonest and first invasive procedure in the hospital. It is a fundamental responsibility of health care in the current era and is increasingly studied and critiqued component of hospital care. Most of the errors can be prevented if the nurse follows certain techniques that are proven to reduce the errors of infusion practices. The present study has been undertaken to study the effectiveness of planned teaching program on ‘knowledge and practices among staff nurses in the selected hospitals of Pune city. In the present study experimental pre-test post-test design and a 40 sample were selected by using convenient sampling technique. Out of total nurses surveyed in the present study 47.5%, 42.5% and 10% had a poor, average and good respectively in the pre-test. And in the post test the staff nurses have scored 0%, 5% and 95% as poor, average and good respectively. The results shows that the structure teaching programme is effective.
621 ANALYSIS OF CELECOXIB IN HUMAN PLASMA WITH MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATION BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY , Suneetha Achanti* and Sharmila Nandavarapu
This paper describes a simple and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the quantification of celecoxib in human plasma using celecoxib d7 as internal standard (IS). A Zodiac C18 (50×4.6mm) 3.0μm column with isocratic mobile phase of 5mM ammonium formate buffer, acetonitrile and methanol (20:20:60,%v/v/v) was used at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The proposed linearity for celecoxib was 5.047-2518.667 ng/mL. A total of five linearity curves were generated with quality control sample to calculate the precision and accuracy. Also the stability of analyte was extensively evaluated in plasma as well as in extracted samples and results met the acceptance criteria defined in USFDA guidelines. The chromatographic run time was set at 2.5 min which makes the proposed method high throughput. Intra- and inter-day precision defined by coefficient of variation was <10% and accuracy (bias %) was within 90–110%. Measurement uncertainty estimation was 11.2% for Celecoxib. The method has been successfully used for the analysis of celecoxib in human plasma.
622 CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTICANCER COMPOUND ISOLATED FROM PHYTOLACCA OCTANDRA AN IN VITRO AND IN SILICO ANALYSIS , D. Vithya Eswari* and S. F. Maleeka Begum
This study revealed an antioxidant and anticancer effect of the petroleum ether extract of P. octandra leaves. Qualitative analysis of plant showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, steroid, phenol, glycoside and terpenoid. Column purified and TLC fractionated compound with Rf 0.86 showed potent antioxidant property and significantly differ among tests by doses depend manner. However, a minimum of 57 and maximum of 317 μg/mL of EC50 was recorded against FTC assay and Superoxide dismutase respectively. a cytotoxic analysis was thus carried out with breast cancer cell lines, which evidently showed remarkable anti-proliferative activities with IC50 value 148.17 μg. The active compound H1 reveals the presence of aromatic protons of bromine containing phenyl ring and imidazole phenyl ring and C13 shows presence of carbonyl group as a functional group. NMR studies of predicted compound and GCMS database reveals that the active compound was -(3-bromobenzoyl)-4-(4-chlorophenyl) piperidino [3,4- b]benzopyrrole. The present study suggested that Phytolacca octandra plant extract possess strong antioxidant and anticancer property.
623 A PHARMACOVIGILANCE STUDY ON EVALUATION OF CORRELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT THERAPY OPTIONS, INHALATION-DEVICES, METHODS OF DEVICES AND SAFETY OUTCOME IN COPD PATIENTS , Bapna Rajendra Singh*, Nema Rajesh Kumar, Vyas Achla, Shrivastava Vivek and Jain Meeta
This MAIDEN study is an effort to observe multiple factors simultaneously with number of interesting findings. Study data were first analyzed with the help of PIVOT TABLE to see the correlation between any two or three factors and then statistical tests were applied. Patients with confirm diagnosis of COPD from 30 year to 90 year from both gender were enrolled and observed for four months with recording of all inputs (i.e. drug combination, device and compliance to device) and outputs (i.e. improvement in FEV1, category of disease stage, side effect, infection rate, blood pressure etc). All labeled side effects, including cardiac events were observed in each category and prevalence matched with earlier studies. However, there were patients who did not had any side effect in each drug combination, therefore an appropriate combination can be selected which does not affect quality of life adversely due to side effects and reduce burden of co-prescription. Vertigo and rise in blood pressure were found in significant percentage, which suggests conducting a long-term study to further confirm the causality of ADRs with COPD treatment. Patients receiving Theophylline should be monitored more closely for increase in ADR. 62% patients were not able to comply well with devices specially inhalers, suggesting spacer as better choice followed by Rotacap (DPI). A meticulous follow-up for 6 months after initiating COPD treatment is advised to select the best drug combination for optimum safety and correct use of device.
624 ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF STREBLUS ASPER AGAINST PHERETIMA POSTHUMA , Anil Kumar* and Saravanan Kaliyaperumal
Among the most common infections of digestive system in human beings are helminth infections. In developing countries they pose a large threat to the society. Such parasitic diseases cause severe morbidity, including lymphatic Filariasis, onchoserciasis and schistosomiasis. The present paper deals with anthelmintic activity of leaves of Streblus asper belonging to family Moraceae, a potential medicinal plant. The plant is used in traditional medicine for folk medicine for the treatment of different ailments such as Filariasis, Leprosy, Tooth ache, Diarrhea, Dysentery, and Cancer. The ethanolic, chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts were evaluated for its anthelmintic activity against adult Indian earth Worms (Pheretima posthuma). Three concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of each extract were studied, which involved for the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the test worms. It was found that ethanolic, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity while aqueous extract show least activity. The bioassay involved determination of the time of paralysis and time of death control. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/mL) was used as standard reference drug.
625 AGNIKARMA BY MRUTTIKA SHALAKA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VATAKANTAKA , *Dr. Prashant H. Suryawanshi, Dr. Nitin Nalawade, Dr. N.V. Borse, Dr. Rashmi R. Bhise and Dr. Sachin Deshpande
Vatkantaka (Calcaneal spur) is common source of heel pain causes excruciating type of pain in the heel and disability. Vatkantaka is one of the vatvyadhi. During walking or running on uneven road if the foot landed improperly, the vata ceases in khudukapradesh or gulf sandhi produces as if prick by the thorn hence it termed as a Vatkantaka. Calcaneus is the heel bone. When it is met with constant pressure, calcium deposition occurs beneath this bone and if the pressure continues, the deposition takes the shape of spur, causing pain. Pain on standing or while walking is the characteristic feature. People who need to stand for a long period of time, or those who walk on uneven surfaces tend to cause pressure beneath the heel bone, triggering calcaneal spur. Calcaneal spur condition of painful heel can be understood under the term Vatkantaka. In Ayurvedic literature. Acharya Sushruta has advised Agnikarma as a treatment modality for the management of Vatkantaka. This Agnikarma therapy is local management which relieves pain instantly I.e Sadyafaldayi chikitsa.
626 CLINICAL STUDY ON “DHAMA” (BRONCHIAL ASTHMA) AND EVALUATION OF A UNANI FORMULATION IN ITS TREATMENT , Naseer Ahmad Hakeem*, Haider Ali Quraishi, Rehana Yousuf, Saleem-ur-Rehman, Majid-ul-Majid and M. Y. Dinthoo
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are among the top ten most common diseases worldwide causing significant social and economic burden on the patient, family and health system. Despite the availability of safe and effective respiratory medication, problems such as under diagnosis, medication, adherence issue and poor understanding of asthma and COPD have led to the condition being poorly managed worldwide. The different organs in the body needs a constant supply of oxygen to produce energy to grow, repair or replace itself and maintain vital functions. The oxygen must be provided to the cells in a way that they are able to use it. It must be brought into the body as air that is cleaned, cooled or heated, humidified, and delivered in the right amounts. In this research efficacy of Unani formulation (test drug) has been evaluated on the basis of standard parameters. The efficacy of the test drug was compared with the standard drug ‗Ambroxol‘. The evaluation of the efficacy was based on subjective parameters like cough, sputum production and breathlessness and objective parameters.
627 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF ORAL FAST DISINTEGRATION TABLET OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE , Shahebaz Ahmad Mohd Jafar* and Nishan N. Bobade
Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed.
628 FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MATRIX TYPE TRANSDERMAL PATCH USING AN ANALGESIC DRUG , Mohit Saini*, Sneha Singh, Nita Mondal and Amit Kumar
Transdermal drug delivery guide direct admittance to the systemic circulation through the skin which bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to increase bioavailability. Tramadol HCl has been selected as model analgesic drug. The Tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique. Formulation of transdermal patches was selected by using different composition of polymers. Physicochemical properties such as thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, moisture content, percentage moisture uptake and content uniformity were determined on developed patches. In the present work an attempt was made to formulate the matrix type transdermal patch using Tramadol hydrochloride drug because it has low bioavailability.
629 APICALLY EXTRUDED DEBRIS AFTER RETREATMENT PROCEDURE WITH TWISTED FILE ADAPTIVE, PROTAPER GOLD AND PROTAPER NEXT , Dr. Sukhbir Kour*, Dr. Trishagni Chaudhury and Dr. Pradeep P. R.
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris with three endodontic rotary nickel-titanium instruments i.e Twisted File Adaptive System, ProTaper Gold and ProTaper Next, Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted non-carious 60 single rooted mandibular premolars were selected, prepared and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply, Germany) using the lateral compaction technique. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 for removal of the root filling material with TFA, PTG, and PTN files. The apically extruded debris was collected in pre weighted Eppendorf tubes. The time for gutta-percha removal was recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and 1- way analysis of variance tests. Result: The amount of debris extruded was PTG> TFA > PTN, respectively. Compared with the TFA group, the amount of debris extruded in the PTG group was statistically significantly higher (P<.001). There was no statistically significant difference among the TFA, PTN and PTG groups regarding the time for retreatment. (P >.05).
630 TO STUDY & ANALYSIS THE DIFFERENT SOIL COLLECTED FROM RANCHI AREA OF JHARKHAND- FIELD TO LAB BASED RESEARCH , *Rani Sweta and Dutta Amit Kumar
A complex mixture of minerals, water, air, organic matter and micro organisms is known as soil, which forms the intermediate zone between the atmosphere and the lithosphere. Soil has a considerable effect on human health, whether those effects are positive or negative, direct or indirect. Soil is an important source of nutrients in our food supply and medicines such as antibiotics. Nutrient management is very important. Nutrient management is dependent on the collection and analysis of soil and plant samples for nutrient assessment. If Failure to understand soil testing uncertainty associated with sample collection and laboratory analysis can lead to misinterpretation and nutrient management failures. When collecting a soil one should consider agronomic production practices and their impact on soil spatial variability and analyses measurement uncertainty. The fertility or the expected growth potential of the soil which indicates nutrient deficiencies, potential toxicities from excessive fertility and inhibitions from the presence of non-essential trace minerals can determine by soil test .Soil sampling removes part of the soil from its natural environment. The extent of the activity change depends on the size of the soil sample and the subsequent sample treatment (sieving, drying, or cooling of field-moist samples). The test is used to mimic the function of roots to assimilate minerals. With decreased tillage and transition to strip till systems there is an increase in nutrient spatial and profile heterogeneity. With regard to laboratory analysis soil tests are subject to bias and laboratory measurement precision which varies by the test method utilized and the performance capability of the testing laboratory. Soil test based fertilization has now been recognized as an effective technology for achieving better use efficiency of fertilizers and also for sustaining the productivity of agricultural soils. Ranchi consists of tabular landmass. Fertility of the soils is dependent upon both the macro and micronutrient reserve of that soil. Vegetation of same crop repeatedly causes nutrient stress in plants and ultimately lowers the productivity. The fertility status of the soils mainly depends on the nature of vegetation, climate, topography, texture of soil and decomposition rate of organic matter.
631 HAIR CARE: FROM NATURAL INGREDIENTS , Shukla Shivakant*, Mishra Kaushelendra, Singhai A. K., Shukla Purnima and Nayak S.
Hair is an important part of the body appeal and its look is a health indicator. Accordingly, recent advances in hair science and hair care technologies have been reported in literature claiming innovations and strategies for hair treatments and cosmetic products. The treatment of hair and scalp, primarily, involved the use of shampoo for an effective, but gentle cleansing; however, for years, the shampoo is considered not only as a cosmetic product having the purifying purpose, but it is also responsible for maintaining the health and the beauty of hair, imparting gloss and improving manageability. Shampoos are primarily been products aimed at cleansing the hair and scalp. In the present scenario, it seems improbable that herbal shampoo, although better in performance and safer than the synthetic ones, This review is largely focused on the description of natural shampoos, mainly based on the herbal ingredients. Together with other usual ingredients expected in a shampoo formulation.
632 FORMULATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS GEL , Jilsha G.*, Gopika Gopan1, Namitha P.R., Mukesh M., Sruthy P.N. and Tinu T. S.
The present study focuses on the antimicrobial activity of different leaf extracts and formulated gels of Alstonia scholaris was evaluated by agar well diffusion method against pathogenic species of Gram positive bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria viz. Klebsiella planticola. The different extracts prepared were chloroform extract, acetone extract, ether extract and methanol extract and the gel of corresponding extracts were also prepared. From the study it was observed that Alstonia scholaris gel containing methanol extract exhibited greater antimicrobial activity as compared to that of chloroform and acetone. As well as the antimicrobial activity of the formulated gels reveals that they possess potential broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.
633 CEPHALIC TETANUS: A CASE REPORT , Dr. Shrushti Dalal* and Dr. Yashesh Dalal (M.B.B.S, M.S General Surgery, M.Ch)
In a minute number of cases of tetanus, a cranial nerve palsy is evident, either as a presenting sign or developing later in the course of the disease. This variant is called cephalic tetanus. Cephalic tetanus is an uncommon form of tetanus defined as trismus plus paralysis of one or more cranial nerves. The most frequently involved cranial nerve is the seventh. It accounts for 1 to 3% of the total number of reported cases of tetanus and has a mortality of 15 to 30%. The incubation period is found to be approximately 1 to 14 days, and nearly two thirds of cases progress to generalized tetanus. The mechanism of the paralysis is not completely understood. Its features have been variously described as comprising causative injury to the head, face or neck, dysphagia, and cranial nerve palsy with or without signs of more generalized tetanus. Treatment involves debridement of wounds, administration of penicillin and tetanus immune globulin, aggressive supportive care, and initiation of active immunization. We report the case of a 20 year old tribal Asian male, who presented with cranial tetanus which progressed to generalised tetanus.
634 ASSOCIATION OF VARIOUS RISK FACTORS FOR INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGE IN PREMATURE NEONATES , *Sheikh Quyoom Hussain, Juvera Gul Wani and Waseem Rafiq
Background: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a serious complication of premature (<32 weeks) deliveries, especially in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500 g) neonates. Infants developing severe IVH are more prone to long-term developmental disabilities. We analyzed the risk factors for IVH in preterm VLBW neonates in tertiary hospital in Kashmir india. Methods: We included premature infants with IVH (n=92) and gestational age and birth weight-matched control group infants (n=92) admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Cases were divided into mild (grades I and II; n=52) and severe (grades III and IV; n=52) IVH groups. Association of IVH with risk factors in the first week of life was investigated. Results: The following risk factors were associated with severe IVH: lack of antenatal steroid administration (P<.001), pulmonary hemorrhage (P=.023), inotrope use (P=.032), neonatal hydrocortisone administration (P=.001), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (P=.005) Journal Pre-proof. Conclusions: Failure to receive antenatal dexamethasone, PDA, hydrocortisone administration for neonatal hypotension, was associated with severe IVH in VLBW neonates. Clinicians and healthcare policy makers should consider these factors during decision-making.
635 COPPER AND ASCORBIC ACID STATUS IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM LEPROSY , Prof. Rudra Nath Bhattacharya, Prof. Krishnajyoti Goswami* and Prof. Asok Bandyopadhyay
The abnormal pigment metabolism usually associated with leprosy led us to the study the biochemical role of ascorbic acid and vis-a-vis copper in this communicable disease. The subjects were all children aged between five to twelve years and chosen as no data are available in childhood leprosy of recent origin. Plasma dehydroascorbic acid, total copper, albumin bound copper, globulin bound copper, cerruloplasmin and serum γ - globulin were found to be increased with decreased level of plasma ascorbic acid and serum albumin in twenty two children suffering from lepromatous leprosy when compared with the data from twenty one normal child served as controls. The overall increases of copper content in all the compartments seems to be due to the lower level of ascorbic acid. It is suggested that a increased dehydroascorbic acid in leprosy could be related to its involvement in free radical metabolism.
636 PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF DURVA (CYNODON DACTYLON LINN.) , Dr. Shivanarayan Prasad Gupta, *Dr. Santosh Y. Mudakappagol and Dr. Rajendra Swami Hiremath
We find many references in Ayurveda regarding Durva in management of epistaxis, hematuria, scabies, fever, burning sensation, chronic diarrhea, dysentery, anasarca, dropsy catarrhal opthalmia, dysuria, bleeding piles, eye infection, epilepsy, hysteria, insanity[1] bleeding, wound healing and other purposes. It is used as ingredient of several important preparations like, Durvadi tailam, Durvadi ghrutam, manaasmitravatakam. Standardization of herbs is essential to assess the quality of drugs. This study reports on physicochemical standardization of durva. Durva churna was prepared by proper drying. Its methanol extract, ethanol extract, chloroform extract prepared by soxhlet technique and water extract prepared by cold maceration technique. It standardized on the basis of organoleptic characters, physical characteristics, Physico-chemical, properties and thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods. Foreign matter nil, Total Ash 8.287% w/w, Acid insoluble Ash 4.466% w/w, Water Soluble extract 15.596% w/w, Alcohol Soluble Extractive 11.04% w/w, Methanol Soluble Extractive 12.828% w/w, chloroform Soluble Extractive 3.740% w/w. Thin Layer chromatographic analysis (TLC) showed 3 and 6 picks at 254nm and 366nm respectively. This study was aimed at analytical parameters of Cynodon dactylon. These parameters help in standardizing the durva and give us an idea of photochemistry of durva according to extracts.
637 THE STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PROFILE OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS CAUSED BY STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN CENTRAL INDIA. , Dr. Swati Satish Kale*
Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common and serious complications following surgery. The incidence of the infected surgical wounds may be influenced by factors such as pre-operative care, the theatre environment, post-operative care and the type of surgery. S.aureus is the commonest cause of SSI and other nosocomial infections. The incidence of Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA) in various studies from India ranges from 30-70%. Material and methods: Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various pus and wound swabs of surgical site infection patients received in Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory at Government Medical College, Nagpur for the microbiological investigations were selected for the study. All samples were inoculated on Sheep blood agar and MacConkey’s medium and their antibiotic susceptibility was performed. Also the risk factors for SSI were determined accordingly. Results: A total of 158 pus samples were included in the study. Out of these, 48 Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates were isolated from specimens of patients with SSI (30%).Out of these isolates, 28(58.33%) were MRSA and rest of them were MSSA(Methicillin Sensitive S.aureus). Conclusion: Due to the increased morbidity and mortality which are associated with S.aureus, an early detection and intervention is a prerequisite in surgical patients. Infection control guidelines for SSIs play a key role in reducing such infections.
638 OUTCOME OF DOMICILIARY TREATMENT OF LOW DOSE ESCALATING FACTOR CONCENTRATE PROPHYLAXIS IN SEVERE PWH FROM LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STRATA , Dr. Aniket B. Mohite*, Dr. Chandrakala S., Dr. Farah Jijina, Dr. Mayura Bane, Akshata Rahate, Dr. Shrimati Shetty#, Dr. Rucha Patil
Hemophilia A has prevalence of 1 patient every 10,000 male births and Hemophilia B 1 patient every 30,000 male births.1-5 Due to lack of awareness, diagnostic as well as treatment facilities, many of the patients are on cryoprecipitate/ Factor concentrate, as episodic treatment only. All severe hemophiliacs between 1-10 years were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria and then enrolled in study after informed consent from parents. All patients were assessed for bleeding history, HJHS, FISH and CHAQ at baseline and every 3 monthly. Out of 35 patients, 7 patients were PUPs. Sixteen patients developed spontaneous breakthrough bleed during the study. There was 72.9% reduction in AJBR, 60.83% in ABR and 95.21% in school absenteeism. CHAQ score showed - 68.32% improvement and the joint scores improved significantly. 18 (51.42%) patients were on home-therapy. Most of these families (82.8%) were from lower strata of society belonging to Kupuswamy classification III and IV. The study had 100% compliance. The average dose of plasma derived factor required 11.663 unit/kg/patient/dose and 1209.89 unit/kg/patient/year. Conclusions: Prophylaxis with low dose factor concentrate with escalation protocol can decrease the frequency of joint and other hemorrhages, reduce school absenteeism and prevent joint damage in children with severe hemophilia. Home therapy is possible in the developing countries with dedicated training even in low socioeconomic strata of society.
639 CHEST TUBE AND LINES – USE WITH PRECAUTION , *Dr. Abhinav Aggarwal
Chest tubes are one of the most commonly used invasive instruments in routine practice. Although the technique of insertion of these tubes (especially nasogastric tube) is fairly simple, it is rarely practiced meticulously. Malpositioned chest tubes can lead to severe life threatening complications, especially since these patients are already suffering from long-term illnesses and are considerably debilitated. Chest radiographs are still the most commonly used method of diagnosis of a tube insertion misadventure, however newer modalities are now available which also aid in correct placement of these tubes.
640 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND BEHAVIOR OF COVID-19 AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS AT NORTH INDIA DENTAL COLLEGE- A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY , Dr. Joohi Chandra*
Background: The world is affected by the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Because of their direct contact with patients, health workers, especially dentist, play critical roles in the prevention of the COVID-19 outbreak through proper care and preventive procedures. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the awareness level of dental students in North India Dental college, during the current COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire containing knowledge questions was distributed to 340 participants to complete. Results: More than half of the dental students (56.5%) had good knowledge about sources, transmission, symptoms, signs, prognosis, treatment, and mortality rate of COVID-19. The sources of information for the dental students were the World Health Organization and the Ministry of Health (55.29%), social applications (48.23%), and media (42.35%). Conclusions: Dental students had almost good knowledge of COVID-19. However, the WHO and the Ministry of Health still must provide more information for the medical staff for better control of the infectious disease.
641 CONCEPT OF VIDDHAKARMA IN NETRAROGA , Dr. Geetanjali Akolkar* and Dr. Sushant Thorat
Ayurveda is one of the most ancient medical sciences of the world which is most rational and scientific. Among the classic granthas of Ayurveda which are available now, Sushrut samhita gives a wide description of diseases of shalakya tantra. Among five sense organs Sushruta has given the most importance to the eyes. While treating patients of netraroga on ayurvedic line of regimen we are always concerned to reduce the pain related to various discorders. A person having pain is always restless and demands quick pain relief. There are several drugs or injections in market for pain relief which are included under the name NSAID. These adversely affect Raktavaha and mutravaha strotas. The analgesic remedies in Ayurveda are not that much effective as NSAID. The benefits of snehana and swedana are limited to certain extents. In this condition the role of viddha chikitsa proves its effectiveness in reducing pain very quickly. Also it is very economical procedure and very simple to perform. Achyarya Sushruta has explained this in detail in Sushrut Samhita. Vyadha means to bore a hole to drain out. It must be done by hollow needle. That is the basic difference between viddha chikitsa and acupuncture which is done with solid needle. It is implied to give an instant and acute pain relief. It doesn’t require any internal medication as an addictive to enhance its effect. Viddha and siravedha is a part of ayurvedic treatment along with other ayurvedic treatments. The concept of viddhakarma will be discussed further.
642 TACROLIMUS ASSOCIATED POSTERIOR REVERSIBLE ENCEPHALOPATHY SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT , Dr. Jahnbee Sarma, Dr. Swapnil Verma, Dr. Siddharth Sharma and Dr. Abhinav Aggarwal*
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare clinic-radiological entity that presents with headache, generalized seizures, nausea, visual disturbances, altered mental status, focal deficits and coma. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive drug mainly used to lower the risk of transplant rejection in individuals who are post solid organ or hematopoietic transplantation. It acts via competitive inhibition of calcineurin that inhibits transcription of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) by T-helper lymphocytes and inhibits their proliferation. Although PRES is a suspected complication of tacrolimus therapy, the literature regarding management of this complication in the setting of immunosuppression is rare. In the present case study the authors would like to highlight the importance of early recognition, high index of suspicion, importance of symptomatic management with cessation of tacrolimus therapy.
643 DESIGN AND IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE TRANSITION SYSTEM USING RIVASTIGMINE TARTRATE FOR NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Nishan N. Bobade*, Chetan Kadam, Shrikant D. Pande and Kiran K. Tapar
Phase transition drug delivery systems are novel polymeric formulation which is generally present in sol state and become gel in human body. In present study, nine formulations were formulated by using variable such sodium alginate, gelllum gum and chitosan hydrochloride was also added to maintain muco-adhesive properties. The prepared formulations were evaluated for pH, gelatin time, gelatin temperature, viscosity, muco-Adhesion study, and release and permeation study. It was concluded that combination of polymers such gellum gum, sodium alginate, chitosan hydrochloride shows controlled release behaviors, good consistency and stability of formulation.
644 EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND GAME ON BOY’S PHYSIOLOGY AND SALIVARY ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES , Umesh Thakur, Deepak Thakur, Kriti Sharma, Neha Kumari and Dr. Arup Giri*
Background: This experiment was conducted to determine the exercise effects on anthropometric parameters and salivary antioxidant properties in boys. Material and methods: Saliva samples were collected from fourteen clinically healthy boys (for exercise-07 and game-07 boys). The body temperature, pulse rate (PR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured before the exercise and the game as anthropometric parameters. FRAP and DPPH levels were evaluated as the antioxidant parameters of all the saliva samples. Results: Results of two groups‟ viz. exercise and game showed the significantly (p<0.05) increased level of temperature, pulse rate, SBP, and DBP after the workout and game except for the insignificant (p>0.05) increase of pulse rate in the exercise group. Overall anthropometric parameters showed that exercise and game caused physiological stress. Total antioxidant power and total antioxidant scavenging activity were significantly higher after the workout and game. Conclusion: Therefore, from this study, it might be concluded that salivary antioxidant property was changed due to the produced stress after exercise and the game. Meanwhile, in stress, saliva may be useful as the stress biomarker. In the future, the study should be conducted on a large number of volunteers for the changes in the composition of salivary in a different time period of stress due to exercise and game.
645 HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT TO CHLORIDE AND COPPER IN DRINKING WATER OF RURAL REGION OF BHUSAWAL, MAHARASHTRA (INDIA) , Sanjay A. Nagdev*, Ashish B. Budhrani, Mayur R. Bhurat, Dr. Upendra B. Gandagule and Mrinal Sharma
The Present investigation was designed for the estimation of vital trace element Chloride and Copper in drinking water from the natural origin such as well, bore-well and river (Tapti) of Bhusawal (Maharashtra) (21.0455° N, 75.8011° E). Samples were evaluated as per Bureau of Indian standards 10500 for Chloride and Copper, Concentration of Chloride and Copper in water samples of River, well and Bore-well of Bhusawal region was found within the safe limits of World Health Organization guidelines and also study finding suggest that well is the better and rich source of Copper and Chlorides as compared to Bore-well and River and the human population living in the region and utilizing water from well would be less prone to Copper and Chloride deficiency and risks associated with it as correlated to human population utilizing water from various sources like Bore-well and River.
646 PREPARATION AND EVALUATIONS OF DIATRIZOATE SODIUM LIQUID ORAL FORMULATION , Vishal D. Dakhale*, Dinesh P. Kawade, Srushti L. Wairagade
X-ray diagnostic agents (contrast media) are widely used as adjuncts to diagnostic visualization techniques as they help to illustrate the differences between tissues by introducing them to the area of interest to increase its density and absorption of X-rays. Diatrizoic acid is radio opaque ionic contrast media utilized orally and parentrally for symptomatic purpose. The goal of this investigation is to develop a liquid oral contrast media and evaluate the physicochemical parameter were compared with the changes in accelerated stability testing for the documentation of these plan nearby with FTIR information. Quality of final solution was evaluated with the parameters: pH, iodine iodide test and drug content. Three batches were formulated of the solution. All the batches were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, pH and drug content. The formulated batches under gone stability studies, no turbidity were observed for 60 days studies. All the batches assure the reproducibility and each parameter were complying with specifications.
647 TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF VASADI KWATH IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ABHISHYANDA. , *Dr. Nikhil Dilip Chaudhari
Abhishyanda can correlate to Conjunctivitis. It is the common cause of ocular morbidity that may ultimately lead to Redness, Ocular pain, Discomfort, Watering etc. Objective of the present study was “To evaluate the efficacy of vasadi kwath in the management of abhishyanda.” Overall effect of therapies after 7 days of treatment showed that in this Group (Vasadi Kwath) complete improvement. Interpretation & Conclusion ï‚· Vasadi Kwath has very significant effect in the management of Abhishyanda. Marked reduction in clinical symptoms was well appreciated within 7 days. ï‚· Vasadi Kwath is proved to be cost effective, Easy to Administered, safe and better drug for Abhishyanda. An increased awareness of its efficacy is required among shalakya specialists to manage the disease from the root cause.
648 EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BARK OF MANGIFERA INDICA AGAINST INH AND RIF INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS , A. Avinash*, B. Pravallika, CH. Swathi, K. Bhanu Prakash, P. Swathi and T. Bhanu Sri
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of bark of Mangifera indica. It was evaluated in normal and Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liv.52 was used as a standard drug at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight given in oral route. Albino wistar rats with Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. Hepatoprotective effect as two different doses 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of Mangifera indica would be investigated for 28 days to evaluate dose dependent activity. Effect of methanolic extract of Mangifera indica on Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, Serum glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase Alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, total bilirubin were estimated for 0th, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th day and antioxidant parameters were checked on 28th day of the scarification.
649 COVID-19: IN THE LIGHT OF SUSRUTA SAMHITA KALPASTHANA , *Dr. Dilip Kr. Goswami
Susruta, the most beloved and brilliant disciple of Lord Dhanwantari, the advisor of Shalya Tantra (Surgery) is unanimously admitted to be the writer of the famous book “SUSRUTA SAMHITA”. Though Susruta Samhita basically deals with Surgery then also there are many valuable informations on other topics, like Medicine (Kayachikitsa), Eye and ENT (Shalakya Tantra), Demonology (Bhutavidya), Paediatrics (Kaumarabhritya), Toxicology(Agadatantra), Rejuvenation (Rasayana tantra) and Aphrodisiac (Bajikarana). Agadatantra (Toxicology) is the branch that deals with the poison and poisoning. COVID-19, the dreadful virus of present time is causing terror in the globe. Till now no scientist is being able to enter into the inside magic of the virus and no medicine/vaccine is coming to the market to fight with the virus/disease. The weapon and technique of fighting with CORONA VIRUS is remaining uncertain till now. While going through the branch “AGADATANTRA” of Susruta Samhita some very interesting facts that can be closely co-related with the present “COVID-19” comes to light which may give some new area for consideration for prevention and cure of the present crisis.
650 PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND ITS COMORBIDITIES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Juzer Sabuwala*, Zulfiquar Kagalwala, Ayesha Naaz, Farheen Sultana, Rashiqua Ather and Mohammed Abdul Mushtaq
Obesity, a metabolic disorder characterised with a build-up of fat in the body which deteriorates our health and is one of the major risk factors for most of the long term disease related to the cardiovascular system of the body. Obesity assessment can be made using the Body Mass Index Scales and relate the grade of obesity with various cardiometabolic diseases. The study aims to understand the relationship and prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases with the various grades of obesity. The study revealed that males are more prone to obesity 57.7% rather than females. It was also found that patients with underweight, normal, overweight, grade I obese, grade II obese and grade III obese was 5.19%, 44.1%, 25.97% 18.83%, 4.54% and 1.29% respectively of the total study population. It was concluded that one of the most modifiable risk factors of cardiometabolic disorders is obesity, and reduction of the excess body fat or maintaining a normal body mass index helps in delaying the progression of the chronic cardiometabolic disorders.
651 STUDIES OF MOLECULAR INTERACTION OF COMBINE DRUG IN 0.01M SODIUM CHLORIDE , Dr. A. N. Sonar*
Acoustical properties have been studied for combine drug in solution of 1% sodium Chloride at different temperature. The measurement have been perform to evaluate acoustical parameter such as adiabatic compressibility (s), Partial molal volume (v), intermolecular free length (Lf), apparent molal compressibility (), specific acoustic impedance (Z), relative association (RA), solvation number (Sn) and also studied the molar polarization.
652 CT FINDINGS OF COVID-19 VS TUBERCULOSIS: FINDING AN ANSWER TO DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA IN INDIAN SETTING , Dr. Abhinav Aggarwal*
Since the beginning of 2020 the world has been gripped by the pandemic caused by the Novel-coronavirus aka COVID-19.[1] Although the virus is supposed to have zoonotic origin widespread and fast human-to-human transmission has lead to a large number of cases worldwide resulting in thousands of deaths.[2] The common presenting symptoms include fever, cough, dysponea, headache, muscle soreness and fatigue.[3] Most of these symptoms are non-specific warranting need for imaging and laboratory investigations to confirm the diagnosis.[4,5] An incubation period of 1-14 days has been observed.[3,4,5] Since the outbreak of disease multiple studies have reported the imaging features on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of chest. These include consolidation, bilateral & peripheral disease, greater total lung involvement, linear opacities, crazy paving pattern and reverse halo sign.[2,6] A lot of these imaging features are separately seen in various infective pulmonary pathologies resulting in diagnostic dilemma.
653 KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF YOUNG ADULTS REGARDING SUICIDE IN VARANASI , Dr. Jyoti Srivastava*
Introduction: Suicide is a permanent act for a temporary problem. This is very difficult to discuss but silence can have tragic results and knowledge can save lives. Aims: To assess the knowledge and attitude of young adults regarding suicide. Methods: The cross-sectional-Descriptive Research Design, were used. The sample comprises of 50 young adults, a non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. The data were analyzed according to the objectives of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: 44% of the young adult were considered to have good knowledge, 50% average and 6% have poor knowledge about suicide. The Majority of 60% the young adult were agreed with suicides occur with no previous warning. Conclusion: Suicidal ideation is the main problem among young adults. So we can work on suicide by giving information to people. It can be prevented by increasing knowledge, awareness and emerging positive attitudes.
654 GLIOBLASTOMA MASQUERADING AS A TUMEFACTIVE DEMYELINATING LESION IN A PATIENT WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: A CASE REPORT , *Dr. Syeda Nilufar Islam, Prof (Dr.) Parul Dutta, Dr. Nabanita Deka,
Introduction: Increased incidence of gliomas has been reported in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Development of new neurological deficits in a patient of Multiple Sclerosis maybe due to relapse of the disease or development of a brain tumor. Distinction between the two is important as a high-grade glioma may mimic a tumefactive demyelinating lesion. Early and correct diagnosis is essential as they have different treatment strategies. Case report: A 30 years old female who was diagnosed to be a case of Multiple Sclerosis at 28years of age and was on oral steroids for 2 years presented to the Neurology OPD with development of new symptoms. She showed good response to oral steroids and was clinically stable until recently when she developed gradually progressive neurological deficits. An MRI brain done subsequently elsewhere gave the diagnosis of tumefactive demyelinating lesion. Based on the symptoms and MRI diagnosis, she was suspected of having a relapse of Multiple Sclerosis, so she was started on IV steroid pulse therapy. However, the symptoms of the patient continued to deteriorate despite IV steroids. An MRI examination of brain was then done in our Institute, based on which a provisional diagnosis of a high-grade glioma was made. The diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by histopathological examination to be a Glioblastoma. Diagnosis: Based on past and present radiological and histopathological findings, a final diagnosis of Glioblastoma with preceding Multiple Sclerosis was made. The patient was planned for tumor debulking surgery, however, she expired 1 day prior to the surgery.
655 SILVER AND COPPER NANO PARTICLES IN MASK FOR CORONA VIRUS -19 PROTECTION , *Sayani Maji, Arpita Biswas, Supradip Mandal, Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Dr. Beduin Mahanti
To prevent the community transmission people are used N-95 mask or simple mask. The diameter of the corona virus is 6 to 140 nm. So, this mask can’t prevent entry of this virus. So, a new redesigned mask is prepared, ‘CORO-X’ for the making of the mask nanoparticles are used. Total three layers are present in this mask. First and third layer is simple filtration layer and the second layer is nano particle layer where metals like silver and copper are present. Nano particles contain more surface area compare to microparticles. Polymer adsorption properties play important role to destroy the virus.
656 A CLINICAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFICACY OF PANCHATIKTA GHRUTA IN TREATMENT OF PARIKARTIKA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FISSURE IN ANO. , *Dr. Sreeshma Rajan, Dr. Aparna Abhay Raut, Dr. Ramesh Vanaji Ahire, Dr. Ashish Shrikant Hastak and Dr. Shubhangi Shashikant Wankhedkar
Approximately 30-40% of the society suffer from proctologic diseases at least once in their lifespan. Fissure -in- ano comprises of 10-15% of anorectal diseases and is distinguished by pricking pain and burning sensation during and after defection, bleeding per rectal with spasm of sphincter muscles at anal verge. The health of a person solely depends on their nutritious diet and pattern of living. In Parikartika diet has a crucial role. The foremost reference of ‘Parikartika’ is accessible from Sushruta Samhita (1500 B.C). Parikartika is referred in Ayurvedic texts not as an independent disease but as a complication to bastivyapad in charak samhita, by vagbhat in vataj atisara, in kashyap samhita in garbhini vyapad. Parikartika is very common disease of ano-rectal disorders. Parikartika resembles with ‘fissure in ano’ having pricking pain and burning sensation in guda (anus). It is most agonising state affecting the anal area. In this disorder the localised remedies such as lepa, Ghrita, Taila and dilatation also known. In the present clinical case study the panchatikta ghrta matrabasti is taken as a treatment.
657 A NOVEL SYNERGISTIC MEDICINAL COMPOSITION FOR TREATMENT OF COVID-19 , *Lalit Dhar Dwivedi and Prof. (Dr.) Satya Deo Pandey
Synergistic medicinal composition having anti bacterial, reduce pain, reduce swollen, the active principles in the clove are known to have antioxidant, antiseptic, local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, rubefacient (warming and soothing), carminative and anti-flatulent properties. The objective of present invention is to provide a pharmaceutical composition used. Copper sulphate (blue vitriol) (CuSo4.5H2O), Ocimum tenuiflorum use photochemical (oleanolic acid chemical formula is C30H48O3, Ursolic acid chemical formula is C30H48O3, rosmarinic acid chemical formula is C18H16O8, eugenol chemical formula is C10H12O2, carvacrol chemical formula is C10H14O, linalool chemical formula is C10H18O, caryophyllene chemical formula is C15H24), sample Sugar chemical formula is C12H22O11, Water chemical formula is H2O, Pure Clove oil include (acetyl eugenol chemical formula is C12H14O3, beta-caryophyllene Chemical formula is C15H24, and vanillin chemical formula is C8H8O3, crategolic acid C30H48O4, tannins such as bicornin C48H32O30, gallotannic acid chemical formula is C76H52O46, methyl salicylate (painkiller) chemical formula is C8H8O3, the flavonoids, eugenin chemical formula is C11H10O4, kaempferol chemical formula is C15H10O6, rhamnetin chemical formula is C16H12O7, and eugenitin chemical formula is C12H12O4, triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid chemical formula is C30H48O3, stigmasterol chemical formula is C29H48O, and campesterol chemical formula is C28H48O, and several sesquiterpene.
658 A REVIEW ON BIOSIMILARS , *Zaberunnisa, Dr. M. Vijaya Bhargavi, Nagma Begum and Dr. M. Sumakanth
Over the last three decades, the tremendous claim for the financial success of biopharmaceutical products have seen the accessible switch for close copies of these biological product (biosimilars). Biologics is considered as one of the fastest growing sectors of the pharmaceutical industry, whereas a biosimilar is formally organized and approved replica of an originator biologic therapies. As the use of biological therapies expands, the number and diversity of induced autoimmune disorders should be expected to increase. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. More specifically, the overarching aims of this article were to review the current issues revolving around biosimilar and take a critical glance related to definition; types of biosimilars, biosimilars differ from generic drugs, focusing/clinical standards on safety and efficacy, potential impact on financial burden in healthcare and future prospects of biosimilars in India, Europe and the rest of the world.
659 A STUDY ON CHALLENGES AND FEATURES OF NEEDLE AND SURFACE ELECTRODE FOR MUSCLE FORCE ESTIMATION , A. Arulkumar* and Dr. P. Babu
The magnitude of muscle force is important for analyzing joint loading in Biomechanics and many applications like Ergonomics, Biofeedback, Rehabitation and Sports medicine. But it cannot measure by directly. In this study, we present the procedure of acquiring EMG signal to measure Muscle force by Non-invasive and Invasive method. The Surface Electromyography is the Noninvasive (not inserting into muscle) and Needle Electro myography is Invasive (Inserting into muscle) method. The first sections in this document cover technical aspects such as Needle EMG inspection, types of needle electrode, How to insert the needle, Patient preparation, Needle movement, muscle selection, Examining resting muscle and contracting muscle. The second section covers features of Surface EMG including types, Multichannel SEMG and Electrode placements. Finally we compared both the methods and discussed about estimating muscle force by EMG magnitude.
660 ASTHMA-COPD OVERLAP PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS IN INDIA , Anbarasan Thiru*, Srivastava Govind Narayan, Pulkit Gupta, Bhupendra Kumar Rajak, Brighton Michael, Mishra J. K.
Background: According to Dutch hypothesis Asthma and COPD are the chronic airway diseases with different presentation which was determined by genetic and environmental factors. So Asthma-COPD Overlap (ACO) defined as a different entity by GINA and GOLD report. But the exact prevalence of the disease is not yet identified due to different diagnostic criteria applied in different studies worldwide. To solve this problem GINA reported a stepwise approach to the diagnosis of ACO. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of ACO in Patients who were receiving treatment for COPD. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in a tertiary care center. This study included 75 COPD patients who were identified by age ≥ 40 years, chronic respiratory symptoms with airflow limitation (FEV1/FVC < 0.7). ACO patients were diagnosed by the stepwise approach stated by GINA. Result: Our study has shown that the prevalence of ACO in COPD patients 36% (n=27). ACO patients were younger (ACO 60.19 years vs 66.44 years, p=0.004), higher Post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC Ratio (0.61 vs 0.53, p=0.001), higher Absolute Eosinophil Count (239.63 vs 105.75, p=0.004), higher Total Serum IgE (565.48 vs 333.08, p<0.001) than COPD only patients. Raised total serum IgE(>100) and Absolute Eosinophil Count(>300) are the significant biomarkers for ACO diagnosis (IgE p=0.001 & AEC, p=0.016). Conclusion: The results of our study shows that the ACO phenotype differs in clinical characteristics of COPD. GINA Stepwise approach is a helpful tool in identifying ACO. IgE and AEC are important biomarkers to differentiate ACO from COPD.
661 EVALUATION OF LIPID PROFILE OF HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) AND TUBERCULOSIS (TB) POSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN , *Omolumen L. E., Obodo B. N., Iyevhobu K. O., Okereke N. P., Idara I. U., Ebaluegbeifoh L. O., Ediale E. S. and Imodoye S. O.
Pregnancy is the time during which one or more offspring develops and is characterized by significant changes in metabolism, fluid balance, organ function and blood circulation. This study was set to evaluate the Lipid Profile of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus and Tuberculosis positive pregnant Women. A total of four hundred (400) subjects were recruited for this study which comprised of 150 HIV positive pregnant women, 150 TB positive pregnant women and 100 apparently healthy women which served as the control. Fasting Blood samples (4mls) were collected using standard aseptic technique into plain tubes for lipid profile estimation. The results revealed that the mean cholesterol values of HIV (197.45±38.56 mg/dl) and TB (185.65±18.88 mg/dl) positive pregnant women were not statistically significant (p>0.05) as compared to the controls (193.90±53.68 mg/dl). The mean values of Triglyceride (mg/dl) of the HIV positive pregnant women (181.53±26.31 mg/dl) was significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared with the control (148.32±49.98 mg/dl) and the TB positive pregnant women (128.55±22.64 mg/dl). High Density Lipoprotein was significantly higher (p<0.05) for HIV (47.75±7.53 mg/dl), but it was significantly lower for TB (37.95±3.60 mg/dl) when compared with the control (41.53±6.42 mg/dl). The mean values for low Density Lipoprotein for HIV (129.85±26.27 mg/dl) and TB (127.10±18.16 mg/dl) positive pregnant subjects was not statistically significant (p>0.782) when compared with the control (124.30±47.59mg/dl). There was no statistical significance (p<0.05) in the BMI (kg/m2) values of the HIV (25.35±2.21 kg/m2) and TB (24.30±2.36 kg/m2) positive pregnant women when compared with the control group, (25.35±2.21 kg/m2). However, this study revealed significant alterations in the lipid profile of HIV and TB positive pregnant women and hence could serve as a pointer in diagnosing and monitoring the progress of such patients.
662 IMPACT OF STATINS COMBINATION WITH DUAL ANTIPLATELET THERAPY ON ANTI-INFLAMMATORY FACTORS AND MYOCARDIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECTS IN ACUTE STEMI PATIENTS AFTER EMERGENCY PCI , Zakarya Ahmed*, MD, Hesong Zeng*, MD, PhD, Chang Xu, MD, PhD and NaNa Tang, BSN.
Background: Early reperfusion of the occluded coronary artery which cause an acute myocardial infarction extremely concerned important for the reduction of infarction size and the retrieval of ventricular function. A participation in microvascular injury, the balance between protective and harmful inflammatory factors may have roles in reperfusion injury and may affect final ventricular remodeling. AIMS: This Study aims to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of atorvastatin or rosuvastatin when co-administered with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel as a long-term treatment for AMI patients underwent urgent PCI. Moreover, to compare the effectiveness of NT-proBNP and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in predicting prognosis of STEMI. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 490 patients who underwent urgent PCI for AMI from 2015 to 2017 in our hospital. We compared the effects of four therapeutic groups (atorvastatin/ticagrelor AT, atorvastatin/clopidogrel AC, rosuvastatin/ ticagrelor RT, and rosuvastatin/clopidogrel RC) on the related indicators of serum inflammatory factors, NT-proBNP, and left ventricular remodeling. We also compared the combined endpoint which was cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke at 12 months after PCI. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the levels of HCY, MHR, NLR, NT-proBNP, LVD, LAD and LVEF at the admission time between the four groups (P>0.05); However, their levels most decrease was observed at group AT after 12 months (P<0.05). The incidence rates of ischemic endpoint events within 12months were lower in the AT group than in the other groups (3 (2.7%), 2(1.8%), 4(3.0%), and 3(2.2%) at groups AT, AC, RT, and RC) P<0.023. The occurrence rate of the major bleeding was similar in the groups AT, and RT (3 (2.6%), 2 (1.8%), 3 (2.2%), and 1 (0.7%) at AT, AC, RT, and RC groups, P<0.05, respectively. However, the differences noticed in the cardiac death, re-attack of myocardial infarction, urgent coronary revascularization, cerebral stroke, safety endpoint events, secondary bleeding events slight bleeding events were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusions: Among patients receiving DAPT, rosuvastatin but not atorvastatin is associated with an increased rate of HRPR for clopidogrel, without any influence on the antiplatelet effect of ASA or ticagrelor. Therefore, cautiousness should be exerted for clopidogrel and rosuvastatin therapeutic association.
663 BASTI CHIKITSA IN MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: CRITICAL REVIEW , Rishu Sharma*, Poonam Sharma, Gyanendra Datta Shukla and Parul Sharma
Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) affect people of all age groups in all regions of the world. Musculoskeletal conditions are characterized by pain, limitations in mobility, dexterity and functional ability which restrict a person‟s ability to work and participate in society which in turn affects mental well-being as well. According to the data by WHO 20-30% of people across the globe live with a painful musculoskeletal conditions. Pain and restricted mobility are the main features in MSD and the drugs used in contemporary medicine are analgesics, NSAIDS, DMARDS, corticosteroids etc. which are associated with long term adverse-effects. In Ayurveda Classics MSD‟s can be related with the various diseases described under Vata Vyadhi. Basti Chikitsa is the best line of treatment for treating all types of Vataj disorders.
664 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE AMOUNT OF DEBRIS EXTRUDED APICALLY USING CONVENTIONAL SYRINGE, PASSIVE ULTRASONIC IRRIGATION AND ENDOIRRIGATOR PLUS SYSTEM: AN IN VITRO STUDY , *Dr. Sukhbir Kour, Dr. Trishagni Chaudhury, Dr. Pradeep P. R.
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of conventional syringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and EndoIrrigator Plus on the amount of apically extruded debris. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars were selected and randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10). The root canals were irrigated with conventional syringe, PUI, and EndoIrrigator Plus. Sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant, and debris was collected in a previously described experimental model (Myers and Montgomery 1991). It was then stored in an incubator at 37°C for 10 days to evaporate the irrigant before weighing the dry debris. The mean weight of debris was assessed, one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of values, and post hoc Tukey’s test was used between groups (P = 0.05). Results: The EndoIrrigator Plus group extruded significantly less debris than PUI and conventional syringe groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, PUI group extruded significantly less debris than conventional syringe irrigation group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: 1. All the three irrigation systems were associated with apical extrusion of debris, 2. EndoIrrigator Plus system extruded significantly less debris than the PUI system and the conventional syringe irrigation system, 3. PUI system extruded significantly less debris than the conventional syringe irrigation system.
665 DOCUMENTATION OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE ON MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DRY DECIDUOUS FORESTS IN KOLLENGODE RANGE OF PALAKKAD DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA , Mohamed Shijad V.M.* and Khaleel K.M.
The ethnic people’s understanding and the use of medicinal plants are found to be grounded on traditional background. Knowledge transfer practice among the ethnic communities is reported to be received from generation to generation. Even though these indigenous communities contribute to a very small proportion of the country’s population, their knowledge is of a great cultural, social, and potentially economic value. This must be protected and utilized in a conscientious manner and at the same time we have to take steps to make sure there is no disturbance to its ties to the communities. The present investigation was to identify and document some of the plant species used for medicinal purposes by the tribal communities in Kollengode forest area of Palakkad District, Kerala, India. Data are collected through a combination of tools and techniques of questionnaire, interview and discussion. About 96 medicinal plants, belonging to 89 genera and 47 families largely used as medicine by tribals and local people of Kollengode forest area have been enumerated in this paper. The predominant families are Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae. These plants contain valuable chemical substances and are employed in the treatment of various ailments. The present survey offers a model for studying the relationship between plants and human beings and also traditional remedies of vast therapeutic importance.
666 RADIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MORQUIO’S SYNDROME- A RARE CASE REPORT , Dr. Prachya Jyoti Bora*, Dr. T. Sonowal and Dr. Parul Dutta
Purpose: To present a rare case of Morquio’s syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IV). Methods: A 4 yr 7 month old male child with complains of progressive widening of wrist and knees and progressive deviation of lower limbs since 1 yr of age was referred. Results: There was progressive widening of chest with episodes of dyspnea. His height and weight were – 84 cm (< 3rd percentile) and 10 kg (< 3rd percentile) respectively. The other positive clinical findings were: presence of Frontal bossing; depressed nasal bridge; Broken teeth; Pectus carinatum; Genu valgum and Kyphoscoliosis. Conclusion: Mucopolysaccharidoses Type IV is a rare disease entity and appropriate clinical and imaging features are essential for diagnosis.
667 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COVID-19 CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AND THEIR CURABLE HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES , *Ajinkya Sanjay Admane and Sima Machhindra Hipparkar
Due to present situation of COVID-19 pandemic, people who are infected unable to treat and cure because presently there is no any discovery of standardized vaccine. After completing the whole clinical study of signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection, we have find out some scientifically proven natural homeopathic remedies which gives exact similar principle's required to treat as well prevent the COVID-19 infection. According to our study if we will use some formulae with different proportion, we are sure that COVID-19 pandemic can be stop. To claim with surety we need to study further more with clinical trials. The homeopathic remedies which have high efficacy to prevent and cure COVID-19 infection are Eupatorium Perfoliatum, Allium Cepa, Belladonna, Engystol and Gripp-Heel, etc.
668 LIPOADENOMA OF PARATHYROID – A RARE VARIANT   , Dr. Priyanka Anand* and Dr. Poonam Sahni
Parathyroid lipoadenoma also known as parathyroid lipohyperplasia or parathyroid hamartoma, is a rare variant of parathyroid adenoma which shows a mixture of chief cells with abundant mature fat cells comprising 20-90% of the tumor. We report a case of a 40 year old female who presented with clinical manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism since 2 months. Parathyroid lipoadenoma is an unusual cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Patient had elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Computerized tomography findings revealed a right inferior parathyroid hyperenhancing lesion. Patient underwent surgical excision, the specimen was sent for histopathological examination and it was diagnosed as a parathyroid lipoadenoma which was confirmed subsequently on immunohistochemistry.  
669 CORRELATION BETWEEN SYMPTOMS OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS BY NASAL OBSTRUCTION SYMPTOM EVALUATION (NOSE) SCORE AND ABSOLUTE EOSINOPHIL COUNT – AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , Anil Kumar S. Harugop, Paramita Debnath* and Rajesh Radhakrishna Havaldar
Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem, it adversely affects the quality of life. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment play an important role in reducing the burden of the disease. Absolute Eosinophil Count is one such method of diagnosis allergic rhinitis which gives prompt results. The Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation score is one the most reliable, faster and responsible instrument that has been used in various outcomes studies in adults with nasal obstruction. It’s uses in diagnosing allergic rhinitis and assessing its severity has not been validated yet. The aim of the study is to assess the correlation between the symptoms of allergic rhinitis by using NOSE score and Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC). 60 cases of allergic rhinitis were investigated in 6 months by Absolute Eosinophil Count and NOSE score based on their symptoms and assessed for the severity of allergic rhinitis. Following this the correlation between absolute eosinophil count and NOSE score was obtained and positive correlation between Absolute Eosinophil Count and allergic rhinitis with p value of < 0. 0001 was found. Our study suggests that NOSE score provides a framework to diagnose the severity of the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. To conclude NOSE score is an effective tool that can be used to corelate with the severity of allergic rhinitis in clinical set up as an alternative to AEC count. It is faster, economical and non-invasive technique for assessing the severity of allergic rhinitis.
670 NEUTROPHIL TO LYMPHOCYTE RATIO AS A PROGNOSTIC MARKER IN GALLBLADDER CARCINOMA: META-ANALYSIS , Arun Bhattarai, Lan liu, Prateek Rajkarnikar, Qiu Zhao*
The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as prognostic factor of tumors are reported by many studies. By this meta-analysis, we have evaluated NLR prognostic role in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). Pubmed and Embase were searched for relevant studies. Study data and characteristics were extracted. Prognostic role of NLR was analyzed using hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Total of 4 observational studies with 892 patients were included for this meta-analysis. The pooled HR of 1.79 (95% CI: 1.51-2.13, P<0.01) showed patients having elevated NLR to have shorter overall survival (OS) after treatment. This meta-analysis suggests patient’s survival with gall bladder cancer can be predicted using elevated NLR.
671 ASSESSMENT OF FREQUENCY OF DYSMENORRHEA AND ITS IMPACT ON THE DAILY LIFESTYLE OF THE FEMALE MEDICAL STUDENTS OF GUJRANWALA MEDICAL COLLEGE , Ayesha Ali*, Aqsa Jaffar, Arooj Fatima, Ayesha Mubeen, Fajar Rafique, Anum Amin, Dr. Kausar Aftab, Dr. Rabia Javed, Maria Iftikhar and Duaa
Background: Dysmenorrhea is characterized by the presence of cramping lower abdominal pain during menstrual period. It is a common gynecological problem in females after the age of menarche and it mostly effects the daily routine life of females during their menstrual period. This study was carried out to evaluate the frequency of dysmenorrhea among young female students of Gujranwala Medical College and to determine its impact on their routine life style. Method: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 130 female students of Gujranwala Medical College. A self-reporting questionnaire was provided to each participant. Data was entered and analyzed in IBM SPSS version 23. Qualitative variables are expressed as frequency and percentages. Charts and Graphs are also used wherever required. Results: Among all the participants 66.92% were having dysmenorrhea. And majority of the participants with dysmenorrhea experienced general physical and psychological symptoms. 94.25% were having abdominal pain, 71.26% were having backache, 70.11% were having depressed mood and 72.41% were having irritability. Participants with dysmenorrhea were also having impact on their academic performance. 31.03% of dysmenorrheic girls skipped lectures while being in college, and 48.27% were not able to stay focused in lectures. 71.26% of dysmenorrheic participants were having disturbed physical activities. Consumption of hot beverages decreased the pain intensity among 86.20% and consumption of cold beverages increased the pain intensity among 78.16% participants. Conclusion: Majority of the female students experienced dysmenorrhea and it did not only affect their health and mood but also their academic performance and daily routine life adversely. This issue needs more exploration and education to minimize its adverse effects.
672 HERBAL MEDICINES: A BLESSING WITH SPECIFIC PATHOLOGY COMPLICATION , Dr. Dadakhalandar*, Dr. M. C. Patil and Dr. Suvarna Nidagundi
Herbal medicines and herbal treatments have been used for centuries and are widely recognized and so scientists are interested in this field. About 80 percent of the population relies on herbal products because they are deemed healthy, reliable and economical and have no side effects. The different parts of both plants (A. Indica and M. Koenigii) are also used by tribal communities and therefore the review focuses on certain pharmacological and biochemical molecular roles of the plant, such as cardiovascular, anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidaemia, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, cytotoxicity, diarrhoea activity, antifungal and a wide range of properties. They can therefore serve as an important and healthy supplement in the treatment of different pathological conditions.
673 ESTIMATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BIOMOLECULES IN “RICINUS COMMUNIS” , Kusuma Medara*
The plant of Ricinus communis is a type of blooming plant of the family Euphorbiaceae. This plant has special place with subtribe Ricininae and monotypic genus Ricinus. The development of plant and its connection to different plant species are at present considered utilizing current hereditary tools. This project aims to detect primary metabolites in Ricinus Communis plant. We followed standard protocol to detect different primary metabolites using two aqueous solutions. It was found that some are present with extraction of ethanol and some are present with extraction of ethyl acetate. In this reiew states that this plant extract has different metabolites like proteins, flavonoids, and other metabolites.
674 RESEARCH STUDYIES ON BIOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT , Kusuma Medara*
Over centuries, cultures around the world have learned how to use medicinal plants to fight illness and maintain health. The importance of natural product in the treatment of disease has been increased because of its natural source and comparatively lesser side effects as compared to the complexity in formulating chemical based drugs as well as uprising cost has led worldwide researchers to focus on the medicinal plant research. Natural Products are the rich source of biologically active compounds and today’s many medicines are either obtained directly from natural source. Medicinal plants contain some organic compounds which provide definite physiological action on the human body and these bioactive substances include tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids. These compounds are synthesized by primary or rather secondary metabolism of living Organisms. Secondary metabolites are chemically and taxonomically extremely diverse compounds with obscure function. The plant of Ricinus communis is a type of blooming plant of the family Euphorbiaceae. This plant has special place with subtribe Ricininae and monotypic genus Ricinus. The development of plant and its connection to different plant species are at present considered utilizing current hereditary tools. This project aims to detect primary metabolites in Ricinus Communis plant. We followed standard protocol to detect different primary metabolites using two aqueous solutions. It was found that some are present with extraction of ethanol and some are present with extraction of ethyl acetate.
675 HEALTH HAZARDOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF STYRENE IN BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN NEUROTOXICITY , Priya Das*, Aaheli Basu, Arpita Biswas, Supradip Mandal, Dr. Falguni Patra, Dr. Bankim Nandi, Dr. Khokan Bera, Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Dr. Beduin Mahanti
Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2. This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid although aged samples can appear yellowish. The compound evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations have a less pleasant odor. Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. Styrene is a chemical used to make latex, synthetic rubber, and polystyrene resins. These resins are used to make plastic packaging, disposable cups and containers, insulation, and other products. Styrene is also produced naturally in some plants. People may be exposed to styrene by breathing it in the air. Styrene is often detected in urban air. It can be found indoors as a result of operating photocopiers and laser printers, and from cigarette smoke. Small amounts may be eaten when styrene migrates into foods from packaging made of polystryrene. The human health effects from exposure to low environmental levels of styrene are unknown. Workers exposed to large amounts of styrene can develop irritation of the eyes and breathing passages. With long-term and large exposures, workers using styrene have had injury to their nervous systems.
676 HOW TO RESPOND TO THE ONGOING PANDEMIC OUTBREAK OF THE CORONAVIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19) , Ramin Zibaseresht*
The pandemic COVID-19 virus outbreak is drastically expanding and as its consequences the uncertainty, the fears and the anxiety of all societies including the publics, politics, economics, etc. have affected the global activities. We are aiming, based on the data reported by W.H.O., to evaluate the COVID-19 outbreak and to give information to the others what really is going on and what will most likely happen in the future. A variety of factors have been discussed which could be notably could be taken into account by governments based on their geopolitical conditions to be considered in order to slow down the outbreak which might result in less deaths with little struggles. Although epidemic curves have the capacity of showing progression of illnesses in an outbreak over time, but with regard to COVID-19 pandemic, it seems to be extremely complicated to give prediction close to a reality for the whole country where the epidemic is at its early stages of the outbreak. Countries are strongly suggested to take measures as early as possible before the spread of the infectious be far beyond their capacities.
677 PREVALENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ADEN CITY-YEMEN , Mohammed A. A. Al-Baghdadi*, Alawi A. A. Al-Haddad, Lamya G. S. Moqbel and Nasmah Z. G. AL-Hamadi
Background: Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common in pregnant women. Pregnancy will enhance the progression of cases from ASB to symptomatic bacteriuria, which if left untreated, could lead to maternal & infant complications. A higher incidence of perinatal problems in pregnant women occurs with ASB. Acute pyelonephritis and other adverse outcomes such as prematurity-postpartum hypertensive disease, anaemia, Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and higher fetal mortality rates. Aims: To identify the prevalence of ASB, the most common causative microorganisms and the antibacterial susceptibilities of the isolated microorganisms at a Maternal-Child Health Care & Al-SADAQ Teaching Hospital in Aden city-Yemen. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 150 pregnant women were screened for either having symptoms of UTIs or not by questionnaire. The type of the study was a cross sectional study conducted from the 1st of December 2018 up to 1st of April 2019. Urine was obtained for culture, and then the isolated bacteria were subjected to the most common antibiotics used in such cases. Results: Out of 150 pregnant women the mean age was 24.4 (±4.8 SD), the minimum and the maximum age of such participants were 15-43 year with rang of 28 year. The overall UTI was 64(42.7%); the asymptomatic UTI among the pregnant women was (4.7%). The most isolated bacteria were E. coli 57/150(38%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus 5/150(3.3%). Escherichia coli were found to be sensitive to Imipenem & Ceftriaxone 100% & 96.5%, respectively, followed by Ciprofloxacin & Norfloxacin 98.2%. The least sensitivity was for Amoxicillin 22.8%. Conclusion: The prevalence of UTI among pregnant women was high, particularly E. coli. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected among pregnant women so early screening of ASB is essential to reduce maternal and child complications. Every positive case should be treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy.
678 EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE PROFILE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM WOUND. , *Orjiakor I. P., Olowomofe, T. O., Ajayi A. O., Fatoyinbo, A. A., Ukhureigbe O.M. and Femi-Ola, T.O.
Staphylococcus aureus has always been reported for the clinical importance in infection while the industrial potential can easily be overlooked; therefore this research was designed to study the extracellular lipase activity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from surgical wound culture. Forty-one isolates of Staphylococcus sp. were collected, inoculated and incubated; the isolates were confirmed using cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined qualitatively using Tributyrin agar. The lipase produced was further quantified. Twenty-six (63.4%) of the isolates fermented mannitol. The isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were coagulase and catalase positive. All the confirmed twenty-six isolates were also positive for lipase production by hydrolysing the media. The specific activities of lipase produced by the Staphylococcus aureus strain ranged from 0.008μm/min/mg to 0.050μm/min/mg. The Staphylococcus aureus strains reached their peak of lipase production at different time intervals. Twenty-seven percent of the isolate reached a peak of lipase production between 20-25hrs of incubation while twenty-three percent (23%) each reached peak between 10-15hrs and 15-20hrs, the next twelve percent (12%) reach their peak between 35-40hrs and approximately four percent (4%) attained their peak between 25-30hrs and 30-35hrs. The differences in the growth rate and attainment of peak of lipase production may be an indication that the Staphylococcus aureus varied widely in their physiological and biochemical properties.
679 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM RECREATIONAL WATERS IN ADO-EKITI METROPOLIS. , Oluyege J. O., *Orjiakor P. I., Olowomofe T. O., Anyanwu N. O., Ayannuga O. D. and Eze, C. N.
Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from Recreational waters in Ado-Ekiti metropolis were investigated in this study. Recreational waters were sampled before and after swimming. The visitors who came to swim were about an average of 4 per day. The Mean Total Bacterial Count was 3.49x102 cfu and the mean Coliform Count was 3.50x102cfu.The pH of the pool waters varied between a range of 6.50 – 7.30 over the sampling period. Pool turbidity range varied over a narrow range of 4.5 – 6.5 NTU, the nitrate range was 2.0 – 5.0 mg/L, while the magnesium hardness range was 20 – 60 mg/L respectively among other parameters. Four gram positive bacteria were isolated namely: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidemidis, Enterococcus sp., Enterococcus faecalis, while seven gram negative bacteria were isolated namely: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp. Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella sp., Mycobacterium choloriae. 16 gram positive bacteria isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidemidis, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to Pefloxacin, Gentamicin, Ampiclox, Cefuroxime, Amoxicillin, Rocephin, Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin, Septrin and Erythromycin in the range of 4 – 100% resistant pattern, while 35 gram negative bacteria isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas spp. Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella spp., Mycobacterium choloriae were resistant to Ofloxacin, Reflacin, Ciprofloxacin, Augmengtin, Gentamicin, Streptomycin, Cephalexin, Naudixic acid, Septrin, Ampicillin in the range of 20 – 100% resistant pattern, some of the isolates were less resistant to Ciprofroxacin. The results of this study indicated that most of the swimming pools studied did not meet the WHO (2011) guidelines for drinking water. This can lead to serious public health implications since Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which were present in the swimming pools pose health risk as swimmers may accidentally swallow some of the pool water.
680 CORMIC INDEX AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN OGONILAND, RIVERS STATE , Okoh P. D. and Amadi M. A.*
Measurement of body proportion is useful not only in studying nutrition-related disorders of clinical and public health concerns such as overweight and obesity but also in determining growth patterns of individuals of a certain category, and in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the cormic index of school children and adolescents in Ogoni, Rivers State, Nigeria. This study was a cross-sectional survey that made use of three hundred (300) randomly selected school children and adolescents in Ogoni, Rivers State between the ages of 8 - l4 years. Measurements were obtained from subjects in primary and secondary schools in Ogoniland. Standing height of subjects, the maximum distance from the floor to the vertex was measured with subjects standing erect and barefooted in anatomical position whereas sitting height, the measured distance from the vertex to the seated buttocks was measured with the subjects’ heads in natural head position. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 23.0 and presented as mean±SD. Result showed Sitting Height (69.82±3.96), Height (140.73±6.84), Subischial Leg Length (73.41±4.67) and Cormic Index (49.53±1.02). All studied parameters increased with increase in age. With the exception of subischial leg length which was higher in females, other parameters were higher in males. Correlation analysis showed a relationship between sitting height, height, subischial leg length, cormic index and age. People with relatively long lower limbs tend to have low cormic index. Variation observed in our finding could be attributed to environmental and racial variations as it has been suggested that differences between populations in body size are more likely to express the impact of environmental factors on growth than the variation in genetic potential for growth of different ethnic groups. Our finding therefore may provide an insight into the influence of age on growth and the role of body segments in body shape and growth assessments.
681 LENGTH TO WIDTH RATIO OF THE LIPS OF ADULT ORON POPULATION OF AKWA IBOM STATE OF NIGERIA , Okoh P. D. and Amadi M. A.*
Anatomy and facial dimensions are handy to surgeons carrying out repair and reconstruction of facial deformities to maintain optimal relationships among facial structures. The aim of the study was to determine the length to width ratio of adult male and female lips in Oron people of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria to ascertain what describes a normal lip dimension for the Oron people. Lip size (length and width) was measured in a total number of one thousand (1000) apparently healthy subjects divided into 500 males and 500 females who were randomly selected. The subjects were healthy adults aged between 18 – 45 years without any lip injury or known history of lip surgery. Measurement was taken using a digital Vernier caliper with precision of 0.1mm. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis and results were presented in tables. Result showed that mean lip length for the males was 52.26±0.16mm and width 24.06±0.13mm while the lip length for the females was 52.70±0.15mm and width 24.29±0.13mm. Mean lip length to width ratio of the males was 2.20±0.25 and that of the females was 2.20±0.27. Our finding leaves the ratio of length to width measurement of adult male and female lips in Oron at 1:1. Though the mean male value was higher than that of the females, no statistically significant difference was observed. It is therefore not sexual dimorphic. This study could be useful in maxillofacial surgery and anthropological studies.
682 SPECTRUM OF ORBITO-OCULAR LESION IN MAKURDI, NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA , *C. O. Ojabo, B. A. Ojo, I. Ugwu, E. Umabong, J. Ngbea, R. Vhriterhire, I. Akpor and C. Udu
This was a retrospective study of all ocular lesions requiring biopsy seen in the department of Anatomic pathology, Benue State University Teaching Hospital, (BSUTH) Makurdi, Nigeria between September 2012 and December, 2019. It was a retrospective review of clinico-pathologic profile of orbito-ocular lesions diagnosed at BSUTH. Sixty (60) cases representing 12% of all histopathology specimen processed by our laboratory during the index period were reviewed. Pediatric age group defined as age equal or less than 21 years of age accounted for 17 (28%) of cases while adults accounted for 43 (62%). The male to female ratio was 1.14:1. The most common site of lesions were intraocular (35%), conjuctival (30%), eyelid (28%) and orbit (12%). Squamous cell carcinoma (37%), retinoblastrona (13%) and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (8%) were the common lesion seen in the study.Squamous cell papilloma represents the most common benign lesion (7%). A case of a premalignant condition, primary acquired conjuctival melanosis, a lesion whose nature and importance is controversial was seen representing 2% of the total of all lesions. Our findings are in keeping with previous work in Nigeria and to some extent, Africa. The high rate of squamous cell carcinoma in our work may be a reflection of HIV/AIDs epidemic in Nigeria, as Makurdi, Benue State in Nigeria has a prevalence rate that is higher than the natural average.
683 ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF CONTAMINATION OF MARKET GARDENERS IN LEAD AND CADMIUM: CASE OF LETTUCE AND CABBAGE IN THE AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT OF ABIDJAN (CÔTE D’IVOIRE) , Gouli Bi Irié Marc*, Yao Brou Lazare, Bamba Ibrahim, Tano Kablan and Trokourey Albert
The main objective of this study is to assess the level of contamination in trace metal elements (Pb and Cd) in lettuces and cabba