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European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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1 STABILITY-INDICATING SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NALBUPHINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING FIRST DERIVATIVE OF RATIO SPECTRA AND RATIO DIFFERENCE METHODS, Khalid Abdel-Salam Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar, Ahmed El-Olemy *
Spectrophotometric stability-indicating procedures are described for determination of nalbuphine hydrochloride (NAL) in pure and dosage forms. First derivative of ratio spectra (1DD) and ratio difference methods are proposed for determination of nalbuphine in presence of its oxidative degradate. Beers law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-20 ?g/ml for both methods. The proposed methods can selectively analyse the drug in presence of up to 80 % of its degradate with mean recoveries of 101.26 0.48 and 98.850.61 for derivative ratio and ratio difference methods respectively. These methods were validated and successfully applied for the determination of NAL in its commercial preparation and the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level and no significant differences were observed regarding accuracy and precision.
2 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENINGS OF BIDENS SULPHUREA CAV., Tanzila Sultana, M. Mohi Uddin Chowdhury, Farhana Hoque, Md. Sajid Ashraf Junaid, Md. Mashnur Chowdhury and Md. Torequl Islam*
In the present study, the methanol extract of Bidens sulphurea Cav. (Asteraceae) was screened for its phyto-constituents and pharmacological activities. Phytochemical investigation for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of reducing sugar, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and gums. In the antimicrobial activity test by disc diffusion method, the extract at the dose of 500 ?g/disc strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella paratyphi. Same dose of the extract found to be active against almost all the tested fungi. The crude extract of the plant showed the presence of strong analgesic, antipyretic and antifungic activity; moderate antiinflammatory, amylase inhibition activity and mild membrane stabilization and clotlysis activities. It was also found that the extract has a positive neuropharmacological activity on Swiss mice.
3 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENINGS OF BIDENS SULPHUREA CAV., Tanzila Sultana, M. Mohi Uddin Chowdhury, Farhana Hoque, Md. Sajid Ashraf Junaid, Md. Mashnur Chowdhury and Md. Torequl Islam*
In the present study, the methanol extract of Bidens sulphurea Cav. (Asteraceae) was screened for its phyto-constituents and pharmacological activities. Phytochemical investigation for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of reducing sugar, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and gums. In the antimicrobial activity test by disc diffusion method, the extract at the dose of 500 ?g/disc strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella paratyphi. Same dose of the extract found to be active against almost all the tested fungi. The crude extract of the plant showed the presence of strong analgesic, antipyretic and antifungic activity; moderate antiinflammatory, amylase inhibition activity and mild membrane stabilization and clotlysis activities. It was also found that the extract has a positive neuropharmacological activity on Swiss mice.
4 PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENINGS OF BIDENS SULPHUREA CAV., Tanzila Sultana, M. Mohi Uddin Chowdhury, Farhana Hoque, Md. Sajid Ashraf Junaid, Md. Mashnur Chowdhury and Md. Torequl Islam*
In the present study, the methanol extract of Bidens sulphurea Cav. (Asteraceae) was screened for its phyto-constituents and pharmacological activities. Phytochemical investigation for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of reducing sugar, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and gums. In the antimicrobial activity test by disc diffusion method, the extract at the dose of 500 ?g/disc strongly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella paratyphi. Same dose of the extract found to be active against almost all the tested fungi. The crude extract of the plant showed the presence of strong analgesic, antipyretic and antifungic activity; moderate antiinflammatory, amylase inhibition activity and mild membrane stabilization and clotlysis activities. It was also found that the extract has a positive neuropharmacological activity on Swiss mice.
5 EFFECT OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM LEAVES ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND LIPID PROFILE STATUS IN CCL4-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS, *Aanuoluwa James Salemcity, Victoria Obiageli Nwaneri-Chidozie, Olakunle Oladimeji, Emmanue Ekpa, Blessing Titilope Olugbemi, and Esther Ojomenewu Ukwedeh
Effect of methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaves on lipid peroxidation and lipid profile status in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats was investigated for a period of two weeks. Thirty rats were divided into six groups: Group A (Normal rats), Group B (CCl4- induced rat) and Group C, D, E and F (CCl4 + various doses of the extract). There was no significant difference (P
6 METHANOLIC EXTRACTS: ANTI-ATHEROTHROMBOSIS ACTIVITIES, Md.Torequl Islam*, Ayesha Mahmood, Abdullah Al Faruq and Ali Ahmmad
Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs the blood flow through the circulatory system leading to hypertension, heart stroke, anoxia and so on. The complete deprivation of oxygen during infarction is the cause of the cell death. Crude biologicals and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. This study was aimed to investigate thrombolytic activity of methanol extracts of four traditionally used medicinal plants. For this an in-vitro thrombolytic study was carried out along with streptokinase and methanol were taken as reference standard and negative control respectively. Two doses (5 ?g/?l and 10 ?g/?l) were selected for the methanolic crude extractives. The highest lysis (55.15%) activity was observed with the Plumbago indica extract at the dose of 10 ?g/?l. Then followed by 28.29%, 26.53% and 17.26% for the Ficus racemosa, Alstonia macrophylla and Alstonia scholaris respectively at the same dose. With some exceptions all the extractives showed graded dose responses. Preliminary chemical group identification test revealed the presence of alkaloids, lycosides,steroids, saponins and terpenoids, tannins and reducing sugars important secondary metabolites.
7 PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC DRUGS INCLUDING DPP-4 INHIBITORS AND THEIR ADVERSE DRUG REACTION IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, Ijhar Ashraf, Abul Kalam Najmi, Prem Kapur, Mohd. Aqil, Mohd Akhtar*
Objective: This study envisaged the drug prescribing pattern and adverse drug reaction (ADR) profiling of different oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) including DPP-4 inhibitors. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 123 patients of HAH Centenary Hospital, New Delhi. Parameters recorded for different oral hypoglycemic agents prescribed including DPP-4 inhibitors were gender distribution, average age range, patients history, average number of oral hypoglycemic drugs per prescription, blood glucose levels, compliance or adherence etc. The data was collected from physicians prescribing records and patients medication profile. Results: Among the total 123 type 2 diabetic patients, 56 patients were male while 67 were female. The maximum number 41 (33.33%) fell under the age group of 51-60. A total of 21.95% patients had a family history of diabetes. The average number of oral hypoglycemic agents per prescription was 1.76. The mean fasting blood glucose level was 158.8 76.6 mg%. The Morisky score 4 was observed in only 8.94% of the patients. The study population showed 46.34% adherence with the prescribed treatment. Metformin (33.4 %) was the most commonly prescribed followed by glimepride (21.5 %), ioglitazone (17.8 %) and vildagliptin (7%). Maximum numbers of ADRs were reported with metformin. The most commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic class was biguanides (metformin) followed by sulfonylureas (glimepiride), thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone), DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin and sitagliptin) and alphaglucosidase inhibitors (voglibose). Conclusion: The most common oral hypoglycemic class prescribed was determined as biguanides followed by sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, DPP- 4 inhibitors and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. The incidences of ADRs were higher with metformin.
8 SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY (WILKIES) SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT, Sushil Damor, Jigar Shah*, Sachin Veer, Nirmeet Patel
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon cause of proximal intestinal obstruction. Obstruction results from the vascular compression of the third portion of the duodenum between the aorta and the SMA. We describe a case of SMA syndrome in a 17-year-old male who presented at our emergency department with a 4-day history of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The diagnosis was established by abdominal KUB,upper GI endoscopy, high resolution USG and color Doppler findings. and computed tomography. He received medical and surgical treatment-duodenojejunostomy, which resulted in a good outcome.
9 PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF HELICANTHES ELASTICA GROWING ON NERIUM INDICUM, Ajith Kumar T G* and Lizzy Mathew
Loaranthaceaen members are not widely exploited for obtaining the medicinally active compounds. Helicanthes elastica commonly called mango mistletoe infests various other plants too. This plant growing in Nerium indicum was studied for the occurrence of various secondary metabolites by extracting with various solvents. The studies revealed the presence all the major compounds like alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides, phenols and tannins, triterpenoids, saponins etc. The organoleptic studies showed the powder of this plant has an astringent bitter taste, coffee brown colour and characteristic odour. The behavior of the powder with various chemicals and fluorescent studies showed characteristic colourations.
10 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE, Mukesh P.Ratnaparkhi* and Ashvini S.Kadam
Mouth dissolving drug delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups. Fast dissolving oral films (FDOFs) are the most advanced form of oral solid dosage form due to more flexibility and comfort. It improve the efficacy of APIs by dissolving within minute in oral cavity after the contact with less saliva as compared to fast dissolving tablets, without chewing and no need of water for administration. In the present research, rapidly dissolving films of Amlodipine Besylate were developed using HPMC E-5 & Pullulan as film forming polymers. HPMC & Pullulan are water soluble synthetic & natural polymers which were used as a film former from many years, PEG 400 and PEG 4000 used as a plasticizer. These two variables were studied at two levels using surface response method. The films of Amlodipine Besylate were prepared by solvent casting method using Ethanol & Distilled water as solvents. The prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, folding endurance and disintegration time. The in vitro and ex- vivo dissolution study of the optimized formulation was found to be 95.98% in 2 minutes and 88.49% in 3 minutes respectively. The prepared films exhibited good integrity and thickness. DSC and FTIR studies showed no drug polymer interaction.
11 A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF ASSOCIATION OF VITAMIN D LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC MUSCULO-SKELETAL COMPLAINTS, *Shankaran P and Sarve P
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in chronic pain status. Hence, the present study was a retrospective analysis of data from patients with chronic pain including non-specific musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Patients of either gender, aged between 18 and 75 years, presented with any form of musculoskeletal complaint for at least 3 months and who had checked their vitamin D levels were included in the study. The following details were extracted from the patients records: age, sex, diagnosis, duration of symptoms, presence of any co-morbid illness, vitamin D levels, and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. Results: Data from a total of 98 patients were included in the analysis. The median (range) vitamin D levels were 16.1(3-100) ng/ml. A total of 69 out of 98 (70%) study participants were found to be deficient in vitamin D and 19 (19.4%) with insufficient levels.Of those with non specific musculoskeletal pain (n=50), 40 (80%) had deficient levels and 8 (16%) had insufficient vitamin D. However, a trend (P=0.06) was observed between the duration of symptoms and vitamin D levels. A statistically significant difference (P=0.01) was seen in vitamin D levels [median (range) 13.1 (3-51.5) ng/ml] in those with non specific musculoskeletal pain and other diagnoses had Vitamin D level [median (range) 18.6 (6.2-100) ng/ml] in the sub-group analysis. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency may result in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hence, a high index of suspicion of hypovitaminosis D is necessary from the physicians when patients with non specific musculoskeletal complaints are encountered in their clinical practice.
12 EVALUATION OF HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF WHOLE PLANT OF ClerodendrumPaniculatum IN RAT FED WITH HIGH FAT DIET, C.D.Shaji Selvin * and Rakhi A.R.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the methanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum Paniculatum in reducing the cholesterol levels in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. The acute toxicity study was found that methanolic extract was safe up to 2000mg/kg, so one tenth of this dose was consider as evaluation dose. The methanolic extract of Clerodendrum Paniculatum was administered in single doses of 200mg/kg/day and double dose of 400mg/kg/day to rats fed with high fat diet to assess its possible lipid-lowering potential.The elevated levels of total cholesterol, ester & free cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein due to HFD. Administration of methanolic extract of Clerodendrum Paniculatum(400mg/kg)was significantly (P
13 SIMULTANEOUS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF GUAIFENESIN AND PSEUDOEPHEDRINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING DERIVATIVE OF RATIO SPECTRA AND RATIO DIFFERENCE METHODS., Khalid Abdel-Salam Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar, Ahmed El-Olemy *
Two simple, accurate, precise, reproducible, requiring no prior separation and economical procedures have been developed for the simultaneous analysis of binary mixture of guaifenesin (GUI) and pseudoephedrine hydrochlorid (PSD). The first method is the derivative of ratio spectra, where the absorption spectra of each drug were divided by a suitable absorption spectrum of the interfering drug (divisor) and then the first derivative (for PSD) and second derivative (for GUI) of these ratio spectra were recorded. The second method is the ratio difference, where The difference in peak amplitudes between two selected wavelengths in the ratio spectra were recorded for each drug. Beers law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 2-40 and 5-40 ?g/ml for GUI and PSD respectively for both methods. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of the two compounds in synthetic mixtures and in commercial drops.
14 ASSESSMENT OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SUDANESE PREECLAMPTIC PREGNANT WOMEN, Elhashimi E. Hassan*, Wiaam Sir Elhhatim, Siham M.Bakhit, NassrEldin M.A.Shrif, Mohammed A.Huneif
Background: Preeclampsia is a common gestational disorder which complicates 5-8% of pregnancies and it is associated with maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Minerals have important influence on the health of pregnant women and growing fetus and their Alterations in serum have been suggested as effective factors in causing preeclampsia. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the serum trace elements; zinc, copper and magnesium levels in preeclamptic and normal pregnant women. Methods: Hospital-based matched case control study was conducted during the period from October 2013 to April 2014. Cases were One hundred twenty two preeclampatic women and controls were 79 apparently health pregnant women from the Khartoum Teaching Hospital and Omdurman maternally hospital in Khartoum state, Sudan. Blood specimens were collected from both groups and serum levels of Zn, Cu and Mg were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The characteristic base line data were collected using structural questionnaire. Processing and analysis of data was carried out by means of statistical package for social science (SPSS version 16). Results: The means of serum trace elements zinc, copper magnesium levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia were significant lower (49.4 17.0), copper (47.9 20.0) and (1.23 0.38) compared to (90.3 16.8) , (91.7 23.2) and (2.04 0.22) in healthy pregnant women , respectively . The trace elements zinc,copper & magnesium levels were found to be significantly decreased in pregnant women with preeclampsia. The maternal mean serum level of Zinc, Cu and Mg were lower among the severe PE patients compared to the mild patients (P.value < 0.05). There was no correlation between Age, parity and gestational age and serum level of zinc, copper and magnesium in mild and severe preeclamptic women (p. value
15 ASSESSMENT OF DRUG INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN PATIENTS TREATED FOR TB/HIV CO-INFECTIONS IN AYDER REFERRAL HOSPITAL ART CLINIC, MEKELLE; ETHIOPIA, Minyahi A. Woldu1*, Addishiwot G. Zewde and Jimma L. Lenjissa
Background: Concomitant use of treatment for tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is complicated by the adherence challenge of polypharmacy and overlapping side effect like drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatotoxicity in patients treated for the co-infections of TB/HIV using serum ALT levels as marker of hepatotoxicity. Result: The most frequent type of hepatotoxicity grade observed was toxicity degree type one, which was observed in 45% of the patients. Five percent of female and 10% male on HAART and anti-TB medications developed hepatotoxicity. Patient in age between 19-62 year were develop almost double the prevalence i.e 10%, compared to 4% in /=63 year. The prevalence of severe hepatotoxicity (grade 2 or more) was 15 (15%). There was no significant correlation in toxicity grade at baseline ALT measures, (Spearman Correlation Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)= .878). However, the ALT measure after three month showed that significant association with the grades of toxicity, (Spearman Correlation Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) = .000). HCV infection was significantly associated with the risk of hepatotoxicity, which occurred in 3 out of 4 of the study participants (OR, 22.7; P.value, 0.34). Conclusion: The prevalence of hepatotoxcity in the study area was comparable to other similar studies. HBV co-infection was an independent risk factor for hepatotoxicity. Clinicians must consider the possibility of drug-induced liver injury in the management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those with certain risk factors such as co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV).
16 PREPARATION OF IRBESARTAN NANOPARTICLES FOR DISSOLUTION RATE ENHANCEMENT, Hatem Sarhan* and Usama F. Aly
Nanoparticle technique offers promising methods for the formulation of poorly water soluble drugs. The objective of the present investigation was to enhance dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble irbesartan (IBS) by preparing stable nanoparticles. IBS nanosuspensions were produced by antisolvent precipitation under sonication. The physicochemical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and solubility studies, as well as measuring the particle size and in-vitro drug dissolution.The physicochemical results indicated that the antisolvent precipitation process led to the amorphization of IBS without drug-polymer chemical interaction. IBS nanoparticles increased the saturation solubility of drug almost sixteen fold. The in vitro studies showed a marked increase in the drug dissolution rate After 60 min, nanoparticles were almost dissolved completely but only 53 % of unprocessed IBS and 70 % of physical mixture (PM) had dissolved owing to its crystalline nature and larger crystal size. The combining of the methods was a promising method to produce uniform nanoparticles of IBS with remarkable improvement in dissolution rate.
17 PREPARATION OF IRBESARTAN NANOPARTICLES FOR DISSOLUTION RATE ENHANCEMENT, Hatem Sarhan* and Usama F. Aly
Nanoparticle technique offers promising methods for the formulation of poorly water soluble drugs. The objective of the present investigation was to enhance dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble irbesartan (IBS) by preparing stable nanoparticles. IBS nanosuspensions were produced by antisolvent precipitation under sonication. The physicochemical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and solubility studies, as well as measuring the particle size and in-vitro drug dissolution.The physicochemical results indicated that the antisolvent precipitation process led to the amorphization of IBS without drug-polymer chemical interaction. IBS nanoparticles increased the saturation solubility of drug almost sixteen fold. The in vitro studies showed a marked increase in the drug dissolution rate After 60 min, nanoparticles were almost dissolved completely but only 53 % of unprocessed IBS and 70 % of physical mixture (PM) had dissolved owing to its crystalline nature and larger crystal size. The combining of the methods was a promising method to produce uniform nanoparticles of IBS with remarkable improvement in dissolution rate.
18 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: A TECHNIQUE FOR PROVIDING NOVELISTIC PLATFORM TO DEVELOP QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY IN PHARMA SECTOR, Abhijeet Ojha*, Mini Ojha
The article highlights various aspects associated with technology transfer in the pharma sector. Technology Transfer in Pharmaceutical Industry has been viewed from the perspective of Innovation and Research & Development The success of any particular technology transfer depends upon process understanding or the ability to predict accurately the future performance of a process. Technology transfer is a process to transfer information and technologies necessary to manufacture quality drug product consistently or technology transfer is the process of taking an invention from its inception in a laboratory to a commercialized product. The Pharmaceutical technology transfer are based on to transfer product and process related concept between initial stage of development and manufacturing stages, or between manufacturing sites to achieve product realization. This concept forms the basis for the manufacturing process, control strategy, process validation approach and ongoing continual improvement.
19 A SIMPLE AND EFFECTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MANGANSESE (II) WITH RESACETOPHENONE GUANYLHYDRAZONE (RAG), V.A. Divate, P.S.Manoli* and S.R.Dhongade
In present work we report here a new simple effective spectrophotometric method for the determination of Manganese(II) with Res-acetophenone guanylhydrazone [RAG]. A standard procedure of the absorption spectra of the reagent and the complex is recommended. The absorbance measurements are carried out at 410 nm [Molar extinction co-efficient is 0.7604 x 104 lit. mole cm-1] at pH 8.9. Beers law is valid up to 10.0 ppm. Sandells sensitivity of the method is 0.0616 ?g/cm2. The Jobs variation and mole ratio method show that the composition of Mn(II) RAG complex is 1:2. The instability constant is 1.378x10-11. The method is applied for the determination of manganese in mild steel, tea leaves and coffee powder.
20 STANDARDISATION OF QUALITY PARAMETER AND QUANTIFICATION OF 6-SHOGOAL IN CHATURBHADRA KVATHA CHURNA - A POLYHERBAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION, U. Prakash Kumar, Indira Balachandran & A. B. Rema Shree*
Ayurvedic finished medicines belong to diverse classes or categories e.g. churna, kvatha churna, gulika (pills), kashayam, lehyam, gulam, tailam, ghritam, lepa, kuzhambu, asavam, arishtam (besides bhasma, sindoora containing minerals and metals) etc. Standardized ayurvedic formulations of uniform quality are essential for beneficial therapeutic use. As the global market for herbal medicinal product is increasing tremendously, need for quality control parameters which are accepted globally, is being felt. Therefore an attempt has been made in developing standardization parameters covering physico-chemical parameters and TLC/HPTLC/GC profile for the ayurvedic compound formulation Chaturbhadra kvatha churna. Three batches of churnas were prepared; physico chemical parameters and extractions were carried out. The HPTLC analysis was performed on pre-coated silica gel plate 60F-254 plate using n-butanol: acetic acid: water (5: 2: 2) as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber. Camag TLC Scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. GC was carried out in Agilent GC equipped with HP-5 (5 percent phenyl methyl siloxane) capillary column (30 m x 320 ?m x 0.25 ?m) with gradient temperature programme. Tests for aflatoxins G1, G2, B1 and B2 were done according to standard procedure. The development of pharmacopoeial standards of Chaturbhadra kvatha churna was based on the outcome of physicochemical, TLC, HPTLC, GC finger print profiles and aflatoxin tests. As a quantitative marker for the churna, 6-Shogaol and 8-gingerol were tried in the chloroform extract (non-sequential) of the churna,using mobile phase hexane: acetone (7:3). Amount of 6-Shogaol present in the churna samples was quantified and it was found to be 0.007, 0.008, 0.0075% with respect to churna. Spectrum of 6-Shogaol and corresponding spot in churna samples were compared. HPTLC profiles of three different batches of CBK churna were compared. The results were found to be highly accurate, quick and reliable for routine monitoring in compound preparations. With the growing demand of herbal drugs market, it is suggested that this standardization tool will help in maintaining the quality and batch to batch consistency of many ayurvedic raw drug powder based preparations.
21 ENHANCED SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF TRISODIUM 2-HYDROXYPROPANE-1,2,3-TRICARBOXYLATE ON THE INHIBITION EFFICIENCY OF 5-METHYL BENZOTRIAZOLE SYSTEM ON BRASS IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENT, T.Gowrani*, P.Manjula, Nirmala Baby, K.N.Manonmani, R.Sudha, T.Vennila
The corrosion inhibition of brass in 3% NaCl in the presence of 5-methyl benzotriazole (MBT) and Trisodium 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate (TSPC) has been investigated using mass loss method, electrochemical techniques and solution analysis. Analysis of results revealed that of MBT inhibits 71% at optimum concentration(150 ppm). The addition of TSPC with MBT enhanced the inhibitive effect upto 90% and showed a synergism of inhibition. Potentiodynamic polarization results suggested that the MBT and the mixture of MBT and TSPC behave as mixed type inhibitors. The results of solution analysis by atomic adsorption spectroscopy showed that the mixture of MBT and TSPC effectively controlled the dezincification of brass. EDX analysis was used to determine the nature of the protective film formed on the metal surface.
22 SIMPLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF LABETALOL IN BULK AND MARKETED FORMULATION, Padmavathi P Prabhu*, Paramita Das, AnkurKaneria, Jithendar Reddy M
Two simple, sensitive and specific methods have been developed for the quantitative estimation of Labetalol in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Method A is based on oxidation of labetalol with ferric chloride followed by complex formation of resulting ferrous ion(Fe2+)with 1,10- phenanthrolin to form orange red colored chromogen which showed at 509nm.MethodB forms blue color chromogen with Gibbs reagent in alkaline condition by electrophilic aromatic substitution giving maximum absorbance 655nm.The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines.
23 SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF POTENTIAL COGNITION ENHANCERS DERIVED FROM M NITROPHENOL, Yogita Dobhal*, Richa Gupta and Anurag Krishna
Objective: Synthesis and evaluation of some potential memory enhancer derivatives from m-nitrophenol. Materials and methods: m-nitrophenol on refluxing with 1-bromo-3-chloropropane in ethyl methyl ketone in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate synthesize the intermediate (38) which on treatment with acylic/ heterocyclic ring systems ( N, N-diethyl amine and various cycloamino moieties such as pyrrolidine, morpholine, N-methyl piperazine and imidazole) synthesize target compounds ( D1-D5) which were screened for nootropic activity. Transfer latency on elevated plus maze was used an index of learning and memory process. Results: Pharmacological results are expressed as % retention (Mean SEM) using ANOVA followed by Dunnets test using Sigma stat. Conclusion: All compounds possess considerable memory enhancing activities when compared with control and standard drug, piracetam (1 mg/kg) of body weight.
24 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PULSATILE SALUBUTAMOL SULPHATE TABLET IN CAPSULE PULSATILE RELEASE DEVICE FOR ASTHMA, M.Gnana Prasanna Lakshmi*, M.Surya Prabha, S.S.Manikiran, N.Rama Rao
That the drug should not be released at all during the initial phase of dosage form administration. Such a release pattern is known as pulsatile release. In the present research work, we have attempted to develop a novel dosage form by using a chronopharmaceutical approach. This novel system or a technique consists of one i.e. the immediate release powder and the extended release tablet. This novel system is a so-called tablet in capsule. The object of this study is to formulate and evaluate pulsatile tablet in capsule device of salbutamol sulphate drug by using HPMC K100M and HPMC K15 polymers. Keywords: pulsatile drug delivery system, salbutamol sulphate, tablet in capsule device.
25 A VALIDATED NEW GRADIENT STABILITY-INDICATING LC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CILOSTAZOL AND ASPIRIN IN BULK AND TABLET FORMULATION, Archana M. Ambekar*, Dr. B. S. Kuchekar
A simple, precise and gradient RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Cilostazol (CIL) and Aspirin (ASP) in presence of their corresponding degradation products. The RP-HPLC method consisted of a Binary pumps (model Waters 515 HPLC pump) and auto sampler (model 717 plus) was used. Chromatographic separation was achieved with Nova-pack C18 (4.6mm x 250 mm, particle size 4?m) column using gradient mode of elution. The mobile phase comprises of Acetonitrile: Ammonium formate (10 mm) pH 3.5 (adjusted with Ortho Phosphoric acid) in gradient mode. The flow rate was 0.7 ml/min and column temperature maintained at 40C throughout separation. The eluent was monitored at 254 nm using photodiode array detector (Waters 2998). The retention times of CIL and ASP were 24.5 0.33 min and 16.3 0.19 min respectively. The method was validated in terms of specificity, accuracy, linearity, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. Linearity for CIL and ASP was in the range of 5 to 100 ?g/ml and 2 to 40 ?g/ml, respectively and percentage recoveries of both analytes were in the range of 100 ? 1.5% and % RSD was
26 COMPARISON OF SERUM PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPTIC WOMEN, Dr Sazina Muzammil* Dr Khalid Umer Khayyam Ali Nasir Siddiqui
The total proteins, albumin, globulin and A: G ratio not significantly change with increase in blood pressure in pre-eclamptic women. The serum proteins, albumin and globulin were decrease from 5.960.49 to 5.270.44, 3.130.22 to 2.650.3 and 2.810.37 to 2.520.33 respectively with increase in urine albumin with highly significantly while A: G ratio was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Total protein, albumin, globulin and A: G ratio are inversely proportional to the blood pressure and urine albumin.
27 PHARMACOGENOMICS AND CANCER: THE SCIENCE TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE, Kaiser Jamil*
This article on Pharmacogenomics influencing cancer therapeutics summarizes the work leading to the development of personalized medicine. We present here the evidence of several genes responsible for interacting with various neoplastic drugs and their role in influencing the drug resistance or susceptibility. This research article deals with a wide spectrum of cancer patients biopsy samples- from solid tumors and such as breast cancer and cervical cancer, and liquid tumors like Leukemias and correlated their SNP changes with respect to various chemo-treatments. We describe here the genomic instability in cancer genomes which occurs due to SNP changes affecting the drug response to chemotherapeutic agents. This leads to poor quality of life (QOL) of the patients, and increases their burden of suffering due to metastasis. Hence knowing the SNP changes or genotyping the tumor samples is of great advantage for better diagnosis and for selecting the right therapeutic agent depending on the patients tumor profile. It is an attempt to bring out these aspects in this presentation by refereeing to the research conducted by us on discovering Biomarkers for drug toxicities. SNPs in the following genes, CYP1A1, GST-T1 & M1, MTHFR, and MDR1 were found to interfere in chemotherapeutic responses in these cancer patients. Hence knowing the SNP changes or genotyping the tumor samples will be a great advantage forbetter diagnosis and for selecting the right therapeutic agent depending on the patients tumor profile.
28 EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THREE ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS, Ignace Kindo*, S.John Britto, M. Thamacin Arulappan, Sinjumol Thomas, Mariat George and Ranjit Marandi
The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cipadessa- baccifera, Didymocarpus humboldtiana synonym- (Henckelia humboldtiana) and Alangium salviifolium were analysed for antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract of the plants were tested for total antioxidant capacity and free radicalscavenging activity by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil). The ethanolic extract of leaf of Alangium salviifolium exhibited high free radical scavenging activity at concentration 0.5?g, followed by Didymocarpus humboldtiana (Henckelia humboldtiana)and Cipadessa- baccifera. The total antioxidant activity was also high in Alangium salviifolium, followed by Didymocarpus humboldtiana (Henckelia humboldtiana) and Cipadessa- baccifera.
29 BIOSYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, ANTIMICROBIAL,ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIOXIDENT ACTIVITY OF COPPER OXIDE NANOPARTICLES (CONPS), Mariat George* and S. John Britto
Biosynthesis of nanopraticles has attracted scientists attention in recent times because of the necessity to develop new, clean, cost effective and efficient synthesis techniques. In particular, metal oxide nanopraticles are receiving greater attention since there is more scope for varied applications. In this study, we describe cost effective and environment friendly technique for biosynthesis of stable copper oxide nanoparticles has been obtained in Curcuma aeruginosa by using its powdered rhizome extract. This extract was added to the 3mMol of copper sulphate solution and the change in colour indicates the formation of copper oxides. These biosynthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were characterized with the help of Vis spectrophotometer (UV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The CuO nanoparticles were found to exhibit antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity.
30 HIV AND DENTISTRY: BRIEF REVIEW, Saurabh Rastogil, Jyoti rastogi, Varsha H Tambe, Fareedi Mukram Ali*
In patients with HIV infection oral health status has a central role. After the discovery of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS)in late 1980s, the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has presented a global developmental and public health threat and is still spreading rapidly. Since oral lesions are quite common in HIV infected patients, dentists are the most ideal persons to identify, manage and treat HIV-associated oral manifestations and have a responsibility to themselves and to their patients to be up-to-date with the evolving area of HIV and related issues. Thus this review contains the important aspects of the HIV and AIDS related to dentistry.
31 CONVERSATIONAL HYPNOSIS IN DENTISTRY, Swapnadeep Pannu, Saima Khan, Anuroop Singhai, Fareedi Mukram Ali*,Neha Singh, Shashank Gaur.
Modifying patient behavior in order to deliver good dental care has remained a major issue over the years. And today being the era of integrative medicine, all efforts need to be made to combine traditional medicine with alternative to optimize dental care. Conversational hypnosis is just such a technique which maybe used effectively in dental practice to bypass the conscious barriers and achieve instant rapport with the subconscious mind of the patient. As it is an attempt to communicate with the patients unconscious mind without him noticing and often takes place in the course of a seemingly regular conversation, it is termed conversational hypnosis. Erikson H. Milton who is considered the father of conversational hypnosis developed this effective therapeutic technique which though not explicitly hypnotic, really combined extensions of hypnotic strategies and language patterns which came to be popularized as the Milton Model. The aim of this article is to view this technique objectively, demystify it, and try and derive whatever benefit that can be gained from it in daily dental practice.
32 FACTS OF MERCURY TOXICITY: A REVIEW, Dr. Varsha H Tambe, *Dr. Fareedi Mukram Ali, Dr. Kishor Patil, Dr. Prasant MC
Mercury is a highly potent cell toxin with various effects on human and animal nervous systems. Exposure to mercury can happen by various sources, of which dental amalgam filing is the one of the most common and prevalent source. Dental amalgam is a mixture of mercury and silver alloy power that solidifies at mouth temperature. It is a non-degradable environmental pollutant. Mercury has many toxic effects on the body systems, including most commonly effect on nervous system. This article provides an overview of various facts of mercury toxicity to create awareness about the safe handling and proper waste disposal of mercury.
33 COMPARISON OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM LINN FRUIT BY SOXHLATION AND MICROWAVE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE, Padmaa M Paarakh*
The aim of the present study is to compare the in vitro antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum fruit by two different technique of extraction viz., Soxhlation and Microwave extraction and correlate the antioxidant activity with the amount of flavonoids and phenol content present in the extract. Coriandrum sativum fruits were extracted separately in soxhlet and microwave extractor with distilled water,25% ethanol, 50% ethanol, 75% ethanol and ethanol respectively. The study were carried out with all 5 extracts by both methods using different in vitro antioxidant model viz., Phosphomolybdenum antioxidant assay, Reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Total flavonoid content and phenol content were also determined. The study exhibited strong antioxidant activity in different in vitro systems. The 75% ethanol extract showed better results than all other 4 extracts followed by 50% ethanol and 25% ethanol extract on evaluation with the different in vitro antioxidant methods. Flavonoid content and phenol content also correlated well the in vitro antioxidant activity. Microwave extraction values were better when compared to soxhlet technique. This experiment has concluded the strong in vitro antioxidant properties of C. sativum. 75 % ethanol showed the highest antioxidant activity when compared all other four extracts. Microwave extraction technique is better than soxhlet technique of extraction. The total flavonoid content and phenol content were also more when microwave extraction technique was used. Further, investigation on in vivo antioxidant activity has to be carried outto understand its mode of action and to discover the main constituent of C. sativum fruit. responsible for this antioxidant effect.
34 PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE RELATED EMERGENCIES IN DENTAL OFFICE, VivekKolhe, Ranjeet Mandwe, Surendra Daware, *Fareedi Mukram Ali
Life threatening emergencies may occur in the practice of dentistry. Although the occurrence of life threatening emergencies in dental offices is infrequent, a number of factors exist today that can increase the likelihood of such incidents. These includes i. The increasing number of older persons seeking dental care. ii. Medically compromised patients. iii. Growing trend towards longer dental appointment. iv. Increasing use and administration of drugs in dentistry. Fortunately other factors exist to minimize the development of life threatening situations. These include pre-treatment physical evaluation of each patient which includes medical history of patient, physical examination and possible modifications in dental care to minimize medical risks. Objectives: The aim of this article is to focus the management of patients with endocrine disorders in dental practice. Results and discussion: The article describes the nature of endocrine disorders, their manifestations in oral cavity and the special dental management that should be carried out in these patients.
35 FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE, Rahil G. Bhura*, Nilesh Patel, Mehul B. Vyas, Dr. Samir K. Shah
Rahil G. Bhura*, Nilesh Patel, Mehul B. Vyas, Dr. Samir K. ShahAim of present work was to provide quick onset of action due to rapid dissolution and disintegration of tablet and to prepare and evaluate orodispersible tablet of Metformin Hydrochloride by direct compression method. In current research, orodispersible tablet was prepared by using different super disintigrants like crosspovidone (CRP), sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and cross carmallose sodium (CCS). The formulations were prepared by using direct compression method. Nine batches were prepared as per 32 factorial design, to investigate the combined effect of independent effect of variables (X1= amount of cross carmallose sodium and X2= amount of crosspovidone) on dependent variables (disintegration time and % drug release release in 10 min). The prepared fast dissolving tablets were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters, such as weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time, % drug content and % in vitro drug release to optimize the formula. In preliminary trials two super disintegrants cross carmellose sodium and cross povidone were found more effective as compared to sodium starch glycolate. 32factorial design results showed that amount of cross carmellose sodium and amount cross povidone had significant effect on disintegration time and % drug release. Out of all nine batches batch F5 (cross povidone 30 mg and cross carmellose sodium 30 mg) was selected as optimized batch with lower disintegration time (10.15 sec) and % drug release (93.28%). So from this work it was concluded that orodispersible tablets of metformin hydrochloride were prepared successfully.
36 EFFECT OF ZINC SULPHIDE NANOPARTICLES ON GERMINATION OF SEEDS OF VIGNA RADIATA AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT ACCELERATION OF GROWTH IN PRESENCE OF THE NANOPARTICLES, Sutapa Ganguly, Sukhen Das, Sujata G.Dastidar*
The synthesis, characterization and biological application of synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. This study describes the synthesis of highly dispersed zinc sulphide nanoparticles using a simple aqueous chemical method. Such synthesized nanoparticles were tested for their effect on germination of seeds and on acceleration of seedling growth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph analysis of the zinc sulphide nanoparticles (ZNPs) indicated that they were well dispersed and ranged in size from 10-30 nm. ZNPs were employed to improve germination of seeds and rate of seedling growth of Vigna radiata. Three sets of seeds were allowed to germinate on water with two different concentrations (10 to 20 mg/ml) of ZNPs. Higher percentage (70%) of germination was found in treated seeds when compared to the control. The seeds that were in a Petri plate with sterile distilled water only took longer time (1- 2 days) to sprout, whereas all treated seeds sprouted within 6 hr. The maximum height (12.8 cm) was observed in seedlings treated with 20 mg/ml of ZNPs. The possible contribution of ZNPs was to facilitate the penetration of water and nutrients through the seed coat and accelerate the germination of seeds.
37 RABIES REVIEW, Rameshwar Nath Chaurasia (DM)
Rabies is an acute viral disease of the central nervous system (CNS)that affects all warm-blooded animals including mammals.[1] It is an acute infectious encephalomyelitis, caused by a number of lyssaviruses including: rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus.[2] Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories. More than 55 000 people die of rabies every year mostly in Asia and Africa. 40% of people who are bitten by suspect rabid animals are children under 15 years of age. Dogs are the source of the vast majority of human rabies deaths. Wound cleansing and immunization within a few hours after contact with a suspect rabid animal can prevent the onset of rabies and death. Every year, more than 15 million people worldwide receive a post-exposure vaccination to prevent the disease this is estimated to prevent hundreds of thousands of rabies deaths annually.[1] Several indirect estimates [3, 4] have suggested that modern. India has more rabid dog bites and human rabies deaths than any other country.
38 DETERMINANTS OF OUTCOME AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING CARDIAC EMERGENCY WITH ACUTE CHEST PAIN OF CARDIAC ORIGIN IN LUCKNOW DISTRICT, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA, Prashantha B*1, MZ Idris2, N Ahmad3, M Agarwal4, SC Yadav5, VK Singh6.
Background: India, accounts for 5.24 million deaths annually due to NCD s and 20 DALY s lost per 1000 population per year due to cardiovascular diseases. They also contribute to 35.3% of total morbidity. Objectives: To study the distribution of outcome and the factors contributing to complications and non-survival in patients attending cardiac emergency with acute chest pain of cardiac origin in Lucknow district. Material and Methods: A Descriptive Longitudinal Study was conducted in the cardiac emergency of CSMMU, a tertiary care center, following systematic random sampling technique on a sample size of 220 during study period of one year August 2010 to August 2011. Data was collected through preformed and pretested schedule and analysed using SPSS 17.0 software. Results: The rate of complications during hospital stay was about 29.1%, out of which 29.7% were persistent and the commonest complication was arrhythmias (22.3%), followed by LVF (7.3%). The rate of complications after 3 months of follow up was about 21%, out of which 27.9% were persistent and the commonest complication was recurrence of chest pain (9.5%), followed by LVF (6.3%). Overall in-hospital mortality rate of patients with acute chest pain of cardiac origin was 5% and total mortality rate upto 3 months of follow up was 13.7%. The factors responsible for complications in patients with acute chest pain of cardiac origin were: uncontrolled DM, stage I and stage II hypertension, presence of dyslipidaemia, lack of regular exercise and lower socio-economic class. The factors leading to non-survival were: uncontrolled DM, stage I and stage II hypertension, presence of LVF at admission, having renal or electrolyte abnormalities, LVEF
39 GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN ZEHNERIA SCABRA (L.F.) SOND. (TUBER), ORMOCARPUM SENNOIDES (WILLD) DC. (LEAF) AND BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA L. (LEAF), M. Thamacin Arulappan*, S. John Britto, Ignace Kindo
The investigation was carried out to determine the presence of secondary metabolites in Zehneria scabra (tuber), Ormocarpum sennoides (leaf) and Bauhinia tomentosa (leaf) by the qualitative analysis of Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and also other possible chemical components present in them were studied through GC-MS analysis. GC-MS analysis showed about 33 phytochemicals in Zehneria scabra and 18 phytochemicals in Ormocarpum sennoides and 25 phytochemicals in Bauhinia tomentosa (leaf). A wide range of fatty acids, heterocyclic compound which are having antifungal anti -inflammatory antibiotic activity, antioxidant were identified so that these medicinal plants can be recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.
40 CHONDRO MYXOID FIBROMA OF PROXIMAL END OF TIBIA A CASE REPORT, Dr.Siddaram Patil*, Dr.Sankar Rao. P, Dr.Raju, Dr.Veera shekar, Dr.Sahajahan Akthar, Dr.G. Sai Sumalika sree
Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign cartilaginous tumour of bone, can occur at any age, most occur in patients 10 30 years old. It occurs more often in males than females. representing less than 1% of all bone tumours. Although chondromyxoid fibroma in the proximal tibia is the most common location. Which was noticed in our case. We are presenting a case of CMF of 22 year old male involving proximal end of tibia.
41 BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO CHEMICAL QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER FROM HAND DUG-WELL IN ADIGRAT TOWN, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA, Zenebu Haile1, Alembrhan Assefa1 and Shilashi Badasa*
Lack of potable water has become a critical and urgent problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. A study was conducted to assess the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of water from hand-dug wells of Adigrat town. Four water samples were collected from four main hand-dug wells within the town between February and May 2014 and analyzed for bacteriological and physico - chemical characteristics. Macconkey and plate count agars were used for development of enterobacteriaceae and aerobic mesophilic bacteria, respectively. Water analysis revealed the presence of two types of pathogenic bacteria including enterobacteriaceae and aerobic mesophilic bacteria. The total aerobic mesophilic bacterial count of the samples analyzed was 4.3x104 CFU/ml and the mean count was 1.075x104 CFU/ml. The total count of Enterobacteriaceae was (156000 CFU/ml) and the mean count of Enterobacteriaceae was 3. 9 x 10 4. Temperature and pH levels were above WHO acceptable levels for drinking water in almost samples. Almost all samples tested did not meet the WHO bacteriological standards for drinking water. The presence of enterobacteriaceae and aerobic mesophilic bacteria should particularly raise serious public health concerns over the quality of the towns hand-wells water. Therefore, intervention measures including creating awareness and educating residents on hand-dung well construction, care, boiling of water and improving sanitation should be urgently instituted.
42 GIANT FIBROADENOMA PRESENTING LIKE FUNGATING BREAST CANCER A CASE REPORT, 1Dilip Choksi, 2Sushil Damor, 3*Jigar Shah, 4Sachin Veer, 5Pratik Shah 6Govind Dubey
Background: Giant fibroadenoma of the breast is a rare benign breast tumour which seldom grows to a giant size, it is even rarer for this benign tumour to grow rapidly, ulcerate pontaneously and present like a fungating breast tumour in a way mimicking breast cancer. Case presentation: This is a presentation of a 21 year old unmarried nulliparous Indian girl with a massive ulcerating and fungating left breast mass that was initially thought to be a fungating locally advanced breast carcinoma on clinical examination. Further examination of the morphology of the resected surgical specimen, histological and cytopathological examination confirmed it to be giant fibroadenoma of the breast. It was successfully managed by partial mastectomy with an excellent result and a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved. Conclusion: Though a rare clinical entity benign breast tumour can present like a fungating breast cancer and this must be bore in mind especially in young adolescent patients presenting with ulcerating breast tumour.
43 STERASE VARATIONS IN THE ARIAN ATER (blackslug) PHYLUM: MOLLUSCA, P. Swapna*, T.Ravinder Reddy. V.Vimala
Esterases from the six tissues (viz; Ctenidia, Hepatopancreas, Intestine, Mantle, Foot and tentacles) of the slug Arionater collected from the fields of komatipally village, extracted and analyzed using Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and nine esterase bands were detected in six tissues. The esterase bands were distributed in five main zones which could be classified as CE, AcE, ArE, Esdp and ER depending on the inhibition properties and relative mobility of esterase bands.
44 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYMERIC MICELLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CELECOXIB TO IMPROVE THE ORAL ABSORPTION, Anayatollah Salimi*1, Behzad Sharif Makhmal Zadeh1, Najme Mahmoudabadi1
Purpose: The aim of this study was to formulate polymeric micelle systemcontaining a lipophilic drug, celecoxib, and to explore the potential of carriers for such system. Methods: Full factorial design with three variables; drug percentage, type of surfactant mixture and co surfactant amount in two levels were used. The effects of variables on formulation characters; particle size, drug release and permeability from rat intestine were evaluated. Results: All formulations with particle size between 7.63 to 97.66 nm significantly increased celecoxib aqueous solubility that this effect is dependent to surfactant mixture. The results showed oleic acid as oil, labrafil -labrasol and Poloxamer - propylene glycol as surfactant mixtures, Capryol 90 as co-surfactant and lecithin as oily phase and membrane stabilizer agent prepared stable micellar formulations with sustained release property. Percent of drug release after 24 hrs. (% DR24) was between 11.95 to 46.82. All polymeric micelle formulations increased drug permeated through rat intestine. Maximum increase in p4 was 39.12 times compared to control. The result shows that drug percent and co surfactant amounthave a significant relationshipwith % P4. (p?0.05). All drug formulations containing 3% of drug, as compared to formulations containing 1% have a higher rate of gastrointestinal absorption. Conclusion: All formulations indicated sustained release profiles. Drug permeability through rat intestine was controlled by percent of drug and co surfactant amount in formulations so that higher permeability resulted with higher drug percent and lower co surfactant amount. This finding may be suggested un saturated intestine absorption of celecoxib.
45 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, Alex Martin* and Abhay Kumar Verma
The Pyrole ring is an ubiquitous structural feature of many synthetic compounds with diversified therapeutic efficacy. A large volume of published literature over the last few decades preludes a comphrehensive review. The major activities exhibited by the pyrrole derivatives are insecticidal, antibacterial, antiviral, sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and antiinflammatory activity. The article presents a comphrehensive review on the antimicrobial activities of some novel derivatives of pyrrole ring.
46 VISTAS ON ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF NOVEL OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES IN MODERN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, Rajeev Kharb*, Rupinder Kaur, Anil Kumar Sharma
1,3,4-Oxadiazole is a versatile heterocyclic nucleus containing two nitrogen and one oxygen atom which shows antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities etc. In recent time, microbial resistance to large number of antibiotics is observed so search of newer potent antimicrobial agent with different mechanism of action is a great need. This review article has summarized vital information on antimicrobial activity of 1,3,4-oxadiazole heterocyclic nucleus to provide effective antimicrobial drugs by solving the problem of microbial resistance towards currently used antibiotics.
47 EFFECTS OF ANTIDIARRHEAL AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CINNAMOMUM CECIDODAPHNE MEISSN. BARKS, Mohammed Aktar Sayeed1* Mohammad Fazlul Kabir 2, Rashedul Alam2, Rana Dhar 2,Limon Kanti Shill2, Naymul Karim2, and Ahsan Ullah2
Objective: To investigate the Effects of Antidiarrheal and Thrombolytic Activities of methanol extract of Cinnamomum cecidodaphne Meissn. Barks. Castor oil induced diarrhoea test were used to examine the in-vivo antidiarrheal activity in Swiss albino mice. Results: In vitro clot lysis model was undertaken to investigate the thrombolytic action of the extract. Data were analysed by using statistical software statistical package for social science (SPSS, version 19.0). In this study of antidiarrhel activity Loperamide was used as a standard. For thrombolytic test Streptokinase used as positive control. In case of antidiarrheal study value was found 76.36% 400mg/kg where standard was found 83.33% and the extract shown 35.08% of thrombolysis effect where streptokinase was found 77.06% of clot lysis effect. Conclusion: The extract showed significant activity as compare to standard drugs. Methanol extract of C. cecidodaphne Meissn barks might be triggering the premonition of novel drug discovery in future due to its antidiarrheal effect in animal model.
48 SYNTHESIS OF NEW TETRAZOLYL HYDROXYETHYL ACETAMIDES AS ANTI BACTERIAL AND ANTIPROTOZOAL AGENTS, Anitha Bhukya, Naresh K*, Madhava Reddy B, Harinadha Babu V
Present investigation describes about the synthesis of some novel tetrazolyl hydroxyacetamides. These compounds were designed, based on the structure of etanidazole, an imidazole containing antiprotozoal drug and its radio protective activity is under clinical trials. Some new N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(5-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-1-yl) acetamides (5a - 5h) were synthesized by 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of arylnitriles with sodium azide followed by reaction with ethyl chloroactetate and ethanolamine. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of physical, proton NMR, mass and IR spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antibacterial and anti protozoal activities and the results of some of the derivatives exhibited promising activities. The MIC values of the compounds 5b, 5e and 5h showed significant activity at a concentration of 1.56 and 12.5 ?g/mL. Highest antiamoebic activity was observed with compounds 5a and 5h possessing electron withdrawing substituents on phenyl ring.
49 ECONOMICAL AND ECO-FRIENDLY METHOD FOR THE REDUCTION OF HETEROCYCLICS POSSESSING ?, ? -UNSATURATED ACID SYSTEMS USING NOVEL REDUCTION METHOD, K. Naresh, B. Madhava Reddy, V. Harinadha Babu*
Reduction of hetero aryl acrylic acid to hetero aryl propionic acids was achieved using hydrazine hydrate and an oxidizing agent and yields were reported. Moreover, reduction of hetero aryl acrylic acids was also carried out using Palladium charcoal method and the yields of both the methods were compared. It was observed that though the yields were slightly less in hydrazine reduction method, the method appeared to be economical, eco-friendly with operational simplicity, reasonable yields and easy workup procedures which may be applied to large scale synthesis.
50 SACRAL CHORDOMA: A DIAGNOSTIC PREDICAMENT, *Sunita Bamanikar1,N.K.Panicker2, Nidhi Gupta3, Archana Buch4
Chordoma is a rare slow growing tumour that arises from the remnants of embryonic notochord. They present mainly in the axial skeleton with a proclivity for the spheno-occiput and sacral regions. Chordomas can pose diagnostic challenge and be confused with chondrosarcoma or mucinous carcinoma. We report here a case of classical chordoma in an elderly male patient which was provisionally diagnosed by cytology and frozen section examination and confirmed subsequently by histopathological and immunohistochemical study.
51 SUPRACUTANEOUS LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE FOR TYPE I & II COMPOUND FRACTURE IN DISTAL THIRD TIBIA FRACTURES, Dr.Siddaram Patil1*, Dr.Sankar Rao .P2 Dr.Rahul Reddy3, Dr.Pradeep3,Dr. Gauthami 4, Dr. Divya 4
Based on reported success treatment of distal tibial fractures, we used Supracutaneous locking compression plate, in Type I & II compound fracture in Distal Third Tibia Fracture. We prospectively assessed the outcome of open distal tibial fractures treated with, this method. From March 2013 through September 2014, 10 patients who sustained open distal tibial fractures were treated by Supracutaneous locking compression plate. Treatment consisted of low-profile, locking plates for external fixation after debridement and anatomic reduction, Followed by soft tissue reconstruction, where ever neaded, using minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis. All fractures were followed periodically for 18 months.
52 VARIATIONS IN THE EXTENSOR TENDONS OF HAND, B. R. Sontakke*1, S. Talhar2, A. M. Tarnekar3, J. E. Waghmare4, M. R. Shende5
Extensor Indicis (EI) and Abductor Pollicis Longus (APL) are known for different variations with respect to their attachments. During routing dissection of undergraduate students of batch 2013, in a 57 years formalin fixed old male cadaver, we observed two tendons of Extensor Indicis (EI) muscle bilaterally. One passes with Extensor digitorum (ED) tendon and other inserts on capsule of second metacarpo-phalangeal joint. We also noted that the tendons of Extensor Indicis (EI) lies on radial side of Extensor digitorum (ED) tendons. There were three slips (tendons) of insertion of Abductor Pollicis Longus (APL) on both the sides of cadaver. Knowledge of presence of such additional tendons is definitely useful for an operating surgeon performing tendon repairs, tenoplasties or tendon transfers.
53 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MORUS INDICA (MULBERRY) FROM CHHATTISGARH, Preeti, Chaitali Niratker*
The Methanolic and Ethanolic extract of Morus indica was screened against five different pathogens and showed significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium. It has been observed that ethanolic extract has maximum antibacterial activity against S.aureus (12mm). Among both solvents methanolic extracts has maximum antifungal. Activity against Aspergillus (30mm) followed by Penicillium (29mm). The present study shows that mulberry (Morus indica) leaf possess antimicrobial property as well as antifungal activity.
54 SOLITARY THYROID NODULE: CYTOPATHOLOGY AND HISTOPATHOLOGY, Kanya Kumari*1, Mrudula2, Ranveer3
Introduction: A thyroid nodule which is a palpable localised solitary swelling in the thyroid gland is a common clinical presentation for a variety of pathological disorders majority being asymptomatic. 5% of them are malignant which require extended surgery, hence correct preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. Aims and Objectives: To study & correlate cytopathology and histopathology of solitary thyroid nodule. Patients and methods: A Prospective study in the department of pathology, MIMS, Medchal from October 2011 to October 2013 evaluated 45 patients. The patients included those who presented with solitary thyroid nodule in ENT and surgery departments. They were evaluated with thyroid profile, Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) &finally Histopathology in few of them. Results: 45 cases were studied which had female preponderance (Female n=39; 86.6 % Vs. male n=6; 13.3%). The youngest patient of our series was a girl of 18 years with colloid goitre and the oldest patient was a man of 69 years, a case of follicular carcinoma. the most common non neoplastic lesion encountered in FNAC was colloid goitre 10(22.2%) and neoplastic being follicular neoplasm 19(42.2%) .Thyroid lobectomy was carried in 39 (86.6 %) patients, while the remaining 6(13.3%) underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. On Histopathological examination commonest non neoplastic lesion was 8(17.7%) Hashimotos thyroiditis and neoplastic lesion was Follicular adenoma 20(44.4%) Sensitivity . specificity,and accuracy of FNAC for detection of neoplasm were 73%,100% and 100%. Conclusion: The solitary thyroid nodule is a relatively common clinical finding which has a small but significant risk of malignancy. Fine needle aspiration has become the routine initial procedure. Cytological diagnosis is reliable, safe, simple, inexpensive, and reduces the number of unnecessary operations. But confirmation of FNAC diagnosis requires detailed histopathological examination to rule out vascular or capsular invasion.
55 EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF A HERBAL PRODUCT: THE CRUDE FLAVONOID EXTRACT OF GARCINIA KOLA HECKEL (BITTER KOLA) SEEDS INTO LOZENGES, *Uzondu, Akueyinwa. Lovet. E., Okafo, Sinodukoo. Eziuzo
Traditional medicine is the fore runner of modern medicine. There is usually lack of standardization in the methods of extraction and formulation of traditional remedies into dosage forms. The seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel have been chewed and used for medicinal purposes, such as alleviation of mild throat infections. This claim was based on the fact that flavonoids can be extracted from the seeds. This study was set to obtain a crude flavonoid extract from the seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel and to formulate it into lozenges for the treatment of mild throat infections. The seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel were peeled, sun dried to constant weight, and pulverised into coarse powder. Preliminary chemical tests were performed on the powder. Extraction of the crude flavonoid extract was done by maceration at room temperature (28 290C) and by soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were dried and weighed. The powdered extract was formulated into 100mg lozenges. The preliminary chemical tests performed on the powdered seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel revealed the presence of sterols and triterpenes, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, resins, tannins, starch and proteins. Alkaloids were not detected. The percentage yield of the extract by maceration was higher (12.83%) than by soxhlet extraction (4.6%). The extracts have a characteristic chocolate colour, and were stable at room temperature. This work showed that crude flavonoid extracts can be obtained from Garcinia kola Heckel seeds by eithermaceration or soxhlet extraction methods. The extract can also be conveniently formulated into lozenges.
56 SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AMONG ART AND NON-ART HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS IN LIVING WORD MISSION HOSPITAL, ABAYI, ABA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA., Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi1*, Dr.Okoroiwu Ijeoma Leticia2, Okoro Nnenna Kalu3, Agbo Ejiofor Christopher4
The study was carried out in Living Word Mission Hospital,Abayi,Aba,Abia State,Nigeria.The study was carried out among the ART and non-ART HIV patients attending the hospital.Some haematological and biochemical parameters values were compared among the ART and the non-ART HIV patients to ascertain if there is any significant change among those on treatment and those not receiving treatment.The total number of subjects for the study was 97(female=68, male=29).77 subjects were ART HIV patients(female=55,male=22) while 20 subjects were non-ART HIV patients(female=14,male=6). The result showed significant increase in Hb (P0.05) in mean value ,of PCV,RBC,MCV ,MCHC. The result equally showed significant increase (P0.05) in K+ ,but significant increase (p
57 SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AMONG ART AND NON-ART HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS IN LIVING WORD MISSION HOSPITAL, ABAYI, ABA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA., Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi1*, Dr.Okoroiwu Ijeoma Leticia2, Okoro Nnenna Kalu3, Agbo Ejiofor Christopher4
The study was carried out in Living Word Mission Hospital,Abayi,Aba,Abia State,Nigeria.The study was carried out among the ART and non-ART HIV patients attending the hospital.Some haematological and biochemical parameters values were compared among the ART and the non-ART HIV patients to ascertain if there is any significant change among those on treatment and those not receiving treatment.The total number of subjects for the study was 97(female=68, male=29).77 subjects were ART HIV patients(female=55,male=22) while 20 subjects were non-ART HIV patients(female=14,male=6). The result showed significant increase in Hb (P0.05) in mean value ,of PCV,RBC,MCV ,MCHC. The result equally showed significant increase (P0.05) in K+ ,but significant increase (p
58 GENOTYPIC AND PHENOLOGICAL PLASTICITY AMONG VARIOUS ACCESSIONS OF PLANTAGO OVATA (ISABGOL), Hafiz Muhammad Ziaullah 2*, Muhammad Shafiq1, Tasanum Naz1, Iram Fatima1,Sabahat Bano1
Plantago ovata is the cultivated and economically important species in the monotypic genus Plantago. P. ovata is a short-stemmed annual herb, 10-45 cm tall, generally used as a laxative, emollient and demulcent, and has great commercial and economic importance as well. The present experiment was designed to explore the germplasm variability among 47 accessions of P. ovata obtained from IABGR and PGRC (Pakistan Agriculture Research Council, Islamabad). Considerable variations were observed in five agro-morphological traits i.e., plant height, leaf width, length of ear, number of tillers per plant and number of seeds per ear. Among all test entries, the accession number 20555, 20671, 20666 and 20673 were found to be best in terms of all the parameters studied. These accessions may also be propagated in their original habitats to increase their productivity.
59 A REVIEW ON TOPICAL GEL, Bhandari Neeraj*, Pooni Neeraj, Verma pooja
Microemulsions are class of micro heterogeneous systems having unique features of stability, solubilization capacity, Structural morphology, physical properties and applicability. Microemulsion are stable, clear, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water with surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. They offer the advantage of easy formation, ease of manufacturing and scale-up, thermodynamic stability, and improved drug solubilization and bioavailability Preparing apharmaceutically acceptable dosage form demands a clear understanding of the micro-emulsion structure, phase behavior, factors leading to its thermodynamic stability and the potential uses and limitations of the microemulsion system. While microemulsion is used in several fields, in this review the pharmaceutical applications are emphasized. Several references are cited, but the list is by no means exhaustive.
60 INTESTINAL ATRESIA WITH MULTILOBED LIVER: A CASE REPORT, Dr Dnyaneshwar, Ch Sudhakara Babu
Objective To evaluate the causes, clinical presentation, diagnosis, operative management, postoperative care, and outcome in infants with intestinal atresia. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Pediatric tertiary care teaching hospital. Interventions Patients with duodenal obstruction were treated by duodenoduodenostomy , Patients with jejunoileal atresia were treated with resection and anastomosis; tapering enteroplasty, or temporary ostomy, web excision, and the Bianchi procedure . Patients with colon atresia were managed with initial ostomy and delayed anastomosis. Main Outcome Measures Morbidity and early and late mortality. Conclusions Cardiac anomalies (with duodenal atresia) and ultrashort-bowel syndrome (
61 MULTIDRUG RESISTANT POLYMICROBIAL INFECTION IN DIABETIC FOOT ULCER IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A CASE REPORT, Dr Kalidas Rit*, Dr Hirak Jyoti Raj, Dr Saswati Chattopadhyay, Dr Parthasarathi Chakrabarty
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most critical health conditions in India not only in terms of number of people affected, disability, and premature mortality, but also in regards to the health care cost involved in management of its complication. Foot ulcers are among the leading causes of morbidity in diabetes and are most common indication for admission in this population. Devitalized tissue is the site where the bacteria responsible for nonhealing ulcers inflict damage. Infectious agents are associated with amputation of the infected foot if not treated promptly. Here we review a unique presentation of a multidrug resistant (MDR) polymicrobial diabetic foot ulcer infection involving vancomycin resistant Enterococcus fecalis (VRE), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Corneybacterium amycolatum.
62 SERUM LIPID PROFILE STATUS IN EXAMINATION STRESS CONDITION, *A.I Uba1, M.K Atiku 2, A.M Wudil2, and M.S Aminu2
Proper understanding of the correlation between various forms of stress and lipid profile can help in the management of stress related diseases. This study was carried out to assess serum lipid profile in stress condition on a total of thirty (30) Bayero University, Kano students whose information on general lifestyle, including reading habits as well as anthropometric measurement were taken by means of semi-structured questionnaire. Their blood samples were taken before, during and after the commencement of examination and serum lipid profile was assayed. Mean serum Total cholestrol and mean High-density lipoprotein cholestrol were found to differ significantly (p?0.05) when compared on before and after the commencement of examination with higher mean value after the commencement of examination while no significant difference (p?0.05) was found with mean serum Triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein between these periods. Similarly, when compared on before versus during and during versus after the commencement of examination mean serum Triglycerides levels, Total cholestrol and Low-density lipoprotein levels were found to increase significantly (p?0.05) during the commencement of examination. However, the decrease in High-density lipoprotein levels was observed at this period. Moreover, the same parameters were found to be higher in male than in female subjects. Thus, the results of our study revealed an increase in serum Triglycerides, total cholestrol and low density cholestrol but decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during the commencement of examination; the period at which the subjects were thought to be under the highest stress condition.
63 A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ACTIVE IMPLEMENTATION VERSUS PASSIVE IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY ABOUT BACK CARE ADVICE IN NONSPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN AMONG PARAMEDICAL STUDENTS., Dr.Mona A. Salih*, Dr.Vijay Kumar**, Dr Siddaram Patil***
Lower back pain is ranked first as a cause of disability and inability to work, and expected to affect up to 90% of the worlds population at some point in their live.1It is the most common and costly musculoskeletal problem affecting the working population. The consequences to injured workers range from temporary discomfort to permanent disability. It is also leading cause of disability in people under 45 years of age and accounts for roughly 40% of all disability claims in the West. In India, approximately 35% people suffer from chronic back pain, which significantly hampers their day-to-day routine.[2]
64 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF THE METHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN), *Jack, I. R. and Nwachoko, N.
Psidium guajava linn commonly known as guava and belonging to the family Myrtaceae is widely used in folk medicine. The phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extract of the leaves showed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, proteins and triterpenoids but alkaloids and glycosides were absent. The presence of these phytochemicals indicates the pharmacological property and nutritive value of the plant. The sensitivity of five test organisms grown on MacConkey and blood agar were tested on the extract of different dilutions. The result showed that Escherichia coli indicated sensitivity with a zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 1.50cm only at full strength,Staphylococcus aureus with a (ZOI) of 2.5cm each at 50% and 100% strength and Proteus vulgaris with (ZOI) 0.60cm, 0.80cm and 1.00cm at 10%, 50% and 100% strength respectively. Streptococcus pneumonia and Pseudomonas spp. did not show sensitivity towards the extract.
65 APPLICATION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID AMONG PATIENTS WITH CARDIO-VASCULAR DISEASE, Dr.V. Petkova* and M. Dimitrov
The antithrombotic properties of acetylsalicylic acid and mainly its platelet-inhibitory effects made it widely used by patients with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study is to assess patients attitude towards application of OTC acetylsalicylic acid products in order to prevent and treat themselves from cardio-vascular diseases. Regardless of age, gender and education of patients they purchase products available without prescription, mainly containing acetylsalicylic acid and a large part of the demand is due to the advertising of the products
66 CHANGED C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND SERUM AMYLOID-A LEVELS IN BLOOD SERUM, ADIPOSE TISSUE AND LIVER OF OBESITY INDUCED RATS, Dr.Iliyan Dimitrov.1*, Dr.Vassil Kamenov MD1, Dr.Mariyana Argirova1, Dr.Anelia Bivolarska MD1, Dr.Penka Angelova MD2
C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are acute-phase proteins. These proteins are synthesized predominantly by liver during the acute-phase of inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that CRP and SAA are synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue as well, and increase in the mass of adipose tissue during obesity leads to elevated CRP and SAA levels in blood serum. A model of animal obesity was created using high-fat diet. Sixty, eight-weeks-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups 1) control group fed with standard rodent food and 2) experimental group fed with a high-fat diet. They were subjected on these regiments for fourteen weeks. Blood serum, liver and adipose tissue specimens were obtained from each animal at the end of the experimental period. The CRP and SAA concentrations were quantified by ELISA method. Higher blood CRP and SAA concentration and lower liver CRP and SAA levels were found for the group of obese animals compared to the control group. The concentration of SAA in adipose tissue was significantly higher in obese compared with the lean animals. No significant difference was found for the levels of CRP in adipose tissues obtained from the two experimental groups. No correlations exist between CRP and SAA levels in blood circulation, liver and adipose tissue. The changes in the concentration of CRP and SAA in blood serum, adipose tissue and liver, in experimental obesity might be an initial step in the development of low-grade, chronic inflammation.
67 STABILITY-INDICATING BIVARIATE AND MULTI-VARIATE METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF AMISULPRIDE IN PURE FORM AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION, Khalid Abdel-Salam M. Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar and Ahmed Mohamed Abdel-Zaher*
Simple, accurate, sensitive and validated UV spectrophotometric and chemometric methods were developed for the determination of amisulpride in the presence of its acidic degradation products and in its pharmaceutical formulation. Method (A) Bivariate method; the method was applied for analysis of amisulpride in presence of its degradation product this is done at 215 nm and 240 nm in the range of 2 12 ?g ml-1 with LOD of 0.164, 0.301 ?g ml-1 and LOQ of 0.548, 1.002 ?g ml-1, respectively. Method (B) Chemometric methods as principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS), classical least square (CLS), for the simultaneous determination of amisulpride in the presence of its acidic degradate, in pure form and in its tablets. The developed methods have the advantage of simultaneous determination of the cited components without any pre-treatment. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level and no significant difference was observed regarding accuracy and precision.
68 ACETYL-L-CARNITINE AND VITAMIN E PROTECT AGAINST INCREASED RISK OF CEREBRAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND HIGH BRAIN LIPIDS: BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, Afrah F. Salama1, Mahmoud E. Salama2, Ahmad A. El-Ebiary3 and Hamdy Sliem*4
Triton is a non-ionic detergent, which produces hyperlipidemia via inhibition of lipoprotein lipase. Oxidative damage takes place in plasma lipids, mainly LDL, leading to atherosclerosis. Complications of atherosclerosis, including cerebral atherosclerosis, constitute a major cause of death. Based on the anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and vitamin E, this study was designed to evaluate their protective role against triton-induced oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in the brain of adult male rats. The present study was performed on 50 male albino rats, weighed 15020 g. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups of ten rats each. Group I was used as control. Group II was injected I.V. with triton. Group III was treated with triton and ALC (I.P.). Group IV was treated with triton and vitamin E (orally). Group V was treated with triton and combination of ALC and vitamin E. Triton induced atherosclerosis via increased serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and LDL and total brain lipids. These effects were associated with decline in serum HDL level and total protein concentrations in the brain. Meanwhile, triton increased oxidative stress through an elevation in brain malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, associated with depletion of total thiol concentration, total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity. The use of ALC and vitamin E attenuated the toxic effects of triton on lipid profile, and it improved the antioxidant defense system of the experimental rats. The protective effect of the combination, with its antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, gives additive advantage, which exceeds that of ALC or vitamin E alone
69 SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM THE LEAVES OF CINNAMOMUM MACROSTEMON HAYATA, Cheng-Ta Li1, Chiu-Li Kao2, Hsing-Tan Li1, Shu-Ting Huang1 and Chung-Yi Chen1*
A chemical investigation of the leaves of Cinnamomum macrostemon Hayata (Lauraceae) afforded fifteen phytochemicals including three butanolides, obtusilactone A (1), isoobtusilactone A (2), and tenuifolide B (3); three coumarins, coumarin (4), isoscopoletin (5), and scopoletin (6); two steroids, ?-sitostenone (7), and ?-sitosterol (8); two benzenoids, cinnamic acid (9), and eugenol (10); two lignans, (+)-yangambin (11), and (+)-syringaresinol (12); three dibenzocyclo- heptenes, tenuifolin (13), reticuol (14), and subamol (15). The structural elucidation was performed mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectrum data. Compounds 1-3, 5, 6, 11, 13, and 15 were found for the first time from this plant.
70 ASSESSMENT OF DAMAGE TO CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVA) CAUSED BY THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA), *1Iram Fatima, 1Shagufta Parveen, 1Amber Raza, 2Muhammad Arshad Hussain, 1Abida Hussain
The root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita cause serious damage in the crop fields in many countries. Cucumber (Cucumis sativa) is one of the crops that are badly affected by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). The present studies were conducted to assess the damaging effect of root-knot nematode on different parameters of Cucumber by relating infectious plants with non-infectious plants at different inoculums levels. The data was recorded after five weeks of plant germination from inoculated and non-inoculated plants pots. At a level of 500 J2s reduction in growth parameters was 7.833, 28.133, 11.1666, 2.166, 3.6, 1.3 while at the inoculum level of 2000 J2s reduction in growth parameters was 5.333, 17.833, 8.1666, 1.433, 2.4333, 0.9666. Results revealed that affect of M. incognita on growth parameters correlate directly with inoculums levels. However, inverse relationship was found between reproduction factor and inoculum levels. With the increase in inoculums level, the growth parameters were decreased, however, the nematodes population was increased.
71 EFFECT OF VARIOUS FRACTIONS OF CAMEL MILK ON DIABETIC AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE PROFILE, *Sarwar M1, Mazin O. Mohager1 and A.Z. El-Bahrawy2
Diabetes is steeply turning into epidemic especially in third world countries. Efforts are being pooled to counter this present day menace. In this connection, existing diabetic treatment is expensive and at time with lots of side effects. Along with new regime of medicines, scientists are looking for complementary medicines. Camel milk has been shown in literature for its anti diabetic potential and a promising candidate as a complementary tool for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. In present study, camel milk was extracted with Alcohol, Chloroform and Ether at low temperature. Standard methods of extraction at low temperature have been adopted. Streptozotocin induced diabetes was produced in experimental mice with three consecutive intraperitoneal injections. Along with solvent fractions, left over residues have been collected and analyzed for anti diabetic activities. It was revealed that Residues of Extracted Camel Milk (RECM) have maximum hypoglycemic and reduction of Hb1ac activity. Alcohol ranked second in this line. Chloroform and Ether fractions also have anti diabetic activity but at lesser extent. RECM by stimulation or regeneration released more insulin in the blood of diabetic mice. RECM also raised Superoxide Dismutase in streptozotocin treated mice. Alcohol, chloroform and ether extracts also raised superoxide Dismutase. Elevation of Superoxide dismutase and suppression of glucose profile in response to various fractions of camel milk shows that it is a plausible agent to lessen the long term complications of diabetes and have potential to become modern day neutraceutical.
72 NEW SULFUR-CONTAINING AMIDES FROM CLINACANTHUS NUTANS, Iung-Jr Lin, Hsing-Tan Li, Cheng-Ta Li, Hung-Chun Yeh and Chung-Yi Chen*
Two new sulfur-containing amides, cis-entadamide A (1) and cis-entadamide C (2) were isolated from the leaves of (Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae)). The structures of two new sulfur-containing amides were elucidated by chemical and physical evidence.
73 DEVELOPMENT OF A THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF SALBUTAMOL ENANTIOMERS USING CHIRAL MOBILE PHASE ADDITIVES, Houda Chihab1, *Dr. Rachid Fegas1, 2, Said Zerkout1 and Michel Righezza2
A simple, rapid and accurate thin layer Chromatography method was developed for salbutamol enantiomers in tablet dosage form. The thin layer Chromatography method has shown adequate separation of salbutamol enantiomers in tablet Dosage form. The separation was achieved with mobile phase Acetonitril / Methanol/Cu2+, TLC plates: silica gel and cellulose, L-phenyl analine and histydine as selectors.
74 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL ESTER-ETHER PHENOL DERIVATIVES, Talal H. Zeglam, Omran N. R. Fhid*, Asma.Gebril, Massud A.S.Anwair, Reham M.Mufti and Zakia A.Ghanfoud
In the present study a new esterether phenol derivatives 2-5 have been synthesized and characterized. Their structures have been established on the physical and spectral analysis. The synthetic compounds were screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against: Metacillin resistance staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 11934, Extended spectrum B-lactamase (12,54,70), staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtales and Candida albicans (669,1047, 772, 1057, 660). The best result obtained at the concentration 100?g with compound phenyl benzoate 2 and 1-Nitro-4(phenoxymethyl)benzene 5 against fungus (Candida albicans 660, 1047, 1057 ). While Compound 5 possess significant active against gram positive and gram negative bacteria comparable to that of the standard drugs.
75 HEMATOLOGY IN THE SENESCENCE, Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi1, Okoroiwu,I.L.2, Daniel-Igwe,Gloria3, Ijioma Solomon Nnah4
The hematopoietic system is modestly affected by aging, and these effects become particularly notable after age 65. There is a continuous decrease in the volume of the hematopoietic marrow with age, which does not cause significant alterations in either granulocyte, monocyte, or platelet counts, although a slight 1.0 g/dl decrease in population mean hemoglobin concentration in men occurs. The recruitment of neutrophils in response to exogenous stimuli is slightly decreased, but the response to infection does not appear impaired. Neutrophil function is not significantly decreased with age of the subject. Although the population mean vitamin B12 and folate levels decrease with age, these changes do not result in decreased hematopoiesis as judged by blood counts, except in individual patients with significant deficiencies. Anemia in older individuals should be evaluated in the same manner as anemia in younger individuals. Certain coagulation proteins are altered significantly with aging, and a propensity to accelerated coagulation and compensatory fibrinolysis is present, leading to a new steady state. Decreased immune cell function is the most consistent change in older persons and perhaps the most important functionally. Although there is a tendency to decreased lymphocyte counts in the blood, the major effects are mediated by dysregulation of T lymphocyte function, perhaps as a result of the prolonged period since thymic atrophy in older subjects. This change affects both cellular immune functions and antibody responses to antigens because of the T helper cell function required. Many studies of aging have to be interpreted in the light of inadequate population samples for study, the difficulty and therefore the rarity of using longitudinal as contrasted with cross-sectional analyses, the small sample sizes after stratification for gender and decade of age, and the need to study smaller age intervals in the 8th through 10th decades of life because of more dramatic changes over short intervals at these ages. In 1998, individuals 65 years of age or older accounted for 12.7 percent of the population of the United States; this group is expected to grow to 23.0 percent of the population by the year 2040. Currently, there are 4.0 million people in the United States who are 85 years old or older.1 Data from 1985 through 1989 indicate that life expectancy at age 65 is 14 years for males and 18 years for females in most developed countries(Kinsella,1992). As a result, physicians are increasingly caring for older patients and are being called upon to interpret hematologic data in the context of the age of the patient. Age-related effects on cellular DNA results in a dramatic increase in the incidence of clonal hematopoietic diseases, especially leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and closely related diseases in the decades after age 50. In addition, the decrease in immune function has an impact on vaccine use and resistance to infection in older individuals.
76 EXTRACTION, ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CURCUMIN: A REVIEW ARTICLE, Pranali Waghmare, Dheeraj Patingrao and Dr. Pramod Kadu*
Curcumin due to its various medicinal, biological, pharmacological activities is high on demand and has high market potential, high cost. Curcumin naturally occurs from rhizhomes of Curcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae (Turmeric). Extraction is the first crucial step in preparation of curcumin formulations. This review article focuses on extraction of curcumin from turmeric using different techniques like, Soxhlet Extraction, Solvent Extraction, Maceration, Microwave Assisted Extraction, Sonication Extraction, Slurry Extraction and Refinement of Curcumin; further Isolation and purification and Identification of curcumin is also done.
77 A REVIEW ON ADVANCES IN TABLETING TECHNIQUES, Bipin R. Patel* and Dr. Rakesh P. Patel
The number of products based on new drug delivery systems has significantly increased in the past few years, and this growth is expected to continue in the near future. Tablet dosage form is most convenient and relevant dosage form. Innovation in tablet dosage form can be made to provide product of higher ?selectivity? for the drug for medical treatment. At present, there are so many existing drug delivery technologies that a total compilation is not within the scope of this article. Yet an attempt is being made to compile some of the most successfully marketed drug delivery technologies. The present review focuses on innovation in tablet system. Various systems like OSDrC concept, Accu-break technology, DiffCORE technology, GEOMATRIX technology, Tab in Tab technology are summarized in this article. Evolution of an existing drug molecule from a conventional form in to said technology can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, safety, and efficacy.
78 DEPRESSION AND ROLE OF MARINE BIOMATERIALS: A REVIEW, Vandita Namola*1, Parminder Ratan2 and Preeti Kothiyal3
Depression is the most common disorder nowadays seen in adults, old age and even children. It is one of the largest causes of morbidity, and is often accompanied with low mood, loss of appetite, insomnia. The major factors contributing to depression is deficiency of monoamines such as serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine in various regions of the brain. The rapidly growing number of patients suffering from depression has lead to an enormous increase in the research on antidepressant drugs, and as it is well known that synthetic drugs have various side effects therefore research on natural sources for treatment of depression is going on and marine sources being the most diverse of all natural sources is being studied extensively. Marine Biomaterials such as Bryostatin , and other biomaterials obtained from crustaceans , seaweed , algae are currently being researched as antidepressant leads . Hence, the objective of this review is to discuss various marine biomaterials that can serve as potent antidepressants.
79 RECENT ADVANCES OF BENZOTHIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS MARKER FOR VARIOUS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES, Gollapalli Naga Raju* and Rama Rao Nadendla
Benzothiazoles can serve as unique and versatile pharmacophore for experimental drug design. Benzothiazole moiety is very small but is fascinated by scientists because of the different biological activities by benzothiazole and their derivatives. The small and simple benzothiazole nucleus possesses numerous pharmacological activities like antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, and antidiabetic activities. This review was focused on the benzothiazole and its different derivatives that posses different biological activities.
80 FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS: AN OVERVIEW, 1*Gavandi Sandip, 2Jadhav Santosh, 1Patil Shivanand and 3Sapkale Geeta
Researchers throughout the world are focusing intensively on the methods for the development of new drug delivery systems to enhance patients compliance. Oral drug delivery remains the most preferred route for administration of various therapeutic agents. Oral delivery (viz., solutions, suspensions, tablets, and capsules) is currently the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most convenient and most economical method of drug delivery. A Fast dissolving tablet, orally disintegrating tablet or orodispersible tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited amount of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications. ODTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. FDDT formulation combines the advantage of both liquid and conventional tablet formulation while also offering advantage over both traditional dosage forms.
81 APPLICATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE FOLIN CIOCALTEU METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT FROM EXTRACTS OF TERMINALIA BELLERICA., Anjoo Kamboj*, Ritika Gupta, Ankita Rana and Ripanjot Kaur
Terminalia bellirica, is a perennial herb mainly distributed in the tropical regions and commonly found in South-East Asia, including Thailand. It is one of the ingredients of triphala, an Ayurvedic formulation that is believed to promote health, immunity and longevity. The fruit is reported to have purgative, cardiac depressant, hypotensive, digestive, expectorant, narcotic, ophthalmic, antipyretic, antiemetic and rejuvenating effect. Unripe fruit is a mild laxative and ripe fruit is an astringent. Seeds are used as aphrodisiac. Oil extract from the seed pulp is used in leucoderma and alopecia. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP) in an extract from T. bellerica leaves and fruits, by the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The crude extract was used to develop a method for TP assay in T. bellirica. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The optimum conditions for analysis time, wavelength and standard substance were 30 min, 760 nm and gallic acid as reference standard, respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved the method to be linear, specific, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform. This methodology complies with the requirements for analytical application and to ensure the reliability of the results.
82 COPPER(II) COMPLEXES AS IN VITRO ANTICANCER AGENTS AGAINST HUMAN BREAST CANCER MCF-7 CELL LINE: A REVIEW, Malathy Moorthy and Dr. Rajavel Rangappan*
In this review, we have discussed the in vitro antitumor potential of Cu(II) complexes synthesized from various ligands. Many copper complexes have been found to have potential for the treatment of cancers and many other diseases. Copper(II) complexes plays an important role as an anticancer drug, especially against the MCF-7 cell lines. The Anticancer activity of the Copper(II) complexes depends on the nature of the ligands. This review provides a birds eye view of the copper(II) complexes to a medicinal chemist for a target oriented information for the development of clinically viable anticancer drugs.
83 EVALUATION OF APOPTOTIC ACTIVITY OF BANGLADESHI PLANTS EXTRACT, Prawej Ansari1, 2*, Mustafe Khalid Mohamed 2, Sanjeeda Sarmin Badhan2, Md. Saiful Islam1, Md. Niaz Hossain3, Sabbir Anwar2, Md. Mustarek Uddin Meemo2
Objective: This study was carried out with four plants, Ixora nigricans, Neolamarckia cadamba, Dalbergia stipulacea and Hymendictyon excelsum, extract and was intended to investigate as well as compare their activity on physiological model by studying in vitro. Method: The in vitro cytotoxic or apoptosis study was made using Brine shrimp lethality a bio-assay method, most known, simple and reliable method in this field. Result: Results of this study were obtained by following graphical analysis and expressed as median lethal concentration (LC50). Among those plant sample the extract from Ixora nigrican was found with least value (LC50 = 44.7?g/ml) at 95% confidence limit it ranges from 43.94 to 45.52?g/ml, the lower the value of LC50, higher the toxicity. Conclusion: On the view point from this result, we can conclude by saying that the extracts we studied have some pharmacological property that can aid in the treatment of carcinoma. We need to identify the molecule that causing this effect and then we can move for clinical trial.
84 PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS AMONG CHILDREN IN A RURAL TEACHING HOSPITAL, TAMILNADU, Rajkumar Narasinghan1, S. Sakthi dasan2, Vijaya Rayapu3, Dhandapany Senthil Pragash3*
Hepatitis A virus infection is a major public health problem all over the world, especially in developing countries. It has a worldwide distribution. The common site of Hepatitis A infection is contributed to the liver, which leads to impaired liver functions. Hepatitis A belongs to the group of RNA virus which commonly spreads through oral route, food and water contamination. It may spread through blood products but the prevalence rate is very less. Hepatitis A can be prevented by vaccination, good hygiene and sanitation. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 121 children of age group 6 months to 15 years. The serum sample was tested for presence of anti-HAV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. Results From our study we concluded that Out of 121 children, 106 were found to be positive for anti-HAV antibody. The anti-HAV positivity rates were different among different age groups and the occurrence of anti-HAV antibody among children increased as age increases and was found to be maximum among the age group of 11 - 15 years. In the high socioeconomic group, the occurrence of anti-HAV antibody was low when compared to low socioeconomic group.
85 CLINICO-SEROLOGICAL PREVALENCE OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN AND AROUND PUDUCHERRY, Dhandapany Senthil Pragash1*, Latha Ragunathan2, Vijaya Rayapu1, Sakthidasan3
Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the Spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It affects humans worldwide, in both urban and rural areas and in temperate and tropical climates. There has long been under-reporting of these cases in India, mainly due to non-availability of diagnostic methods. Methods: Our study was mainly aimed at detection of leptospirosis along with clinical correlation. We carried out a prospective study in clinically suspected patients with leptospirosis over a period of 2 years. A total of 202 patients with clinical suspicion of Leptospirosis were categorized by age, sex, occupation and important clinical manifestations. Results: Out of the 202 cases screened, 81 (40.1%) were positive by dark field microscopy (DFM) and 76 (37.62%) by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The disease showed peak during rainy season. 76 positive cases by MAT, gold standard method, were followed up for epidemiological pattern, clinical features and laboratory parameters. Mean age of patients was 32.6 years (4 years to 70years) and males (56.58 %) were predominantly affected than females (43.42 %). The most common symptom observed in this study was fever (100%), myalgia (91%), headache (87%), conjunctival suffusion (50%), jaundice (39%) and oliguria (37%) and laboratory parameters as follows: raised ESR (100%), followed by abnormal LFT (72 %) and thrombocytopenia (54%). Conclusion: We conclude that, there was a positive correlation between clinical features and laboratory diagnosis. So patient can be started on empirical therapy using clinical features and later confirmed with laboratory diagnosis.
86 COMPARISON OF FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEI ON LESIONAL AND NORMAL SIDE IN PATIENTS WITH TOBACCO INDUCE KERATOSIS & LEUKOPLAKIA: THE PILOT STUDY, 1Dr. Sonune Shrikant*, 2Dr. Patil Ashok, 3Dr. Kandalgaonkar Shilpa, 4Dr. Suyog Tupsakhare, 1Dr. Mahesh Gabhane and 1Dr. Patil Kishor
The assessment of micronuclei in exfoliated cells is a promising tool for the study of the effect of carcinogens on oral epithelium. The technique involve examination of epithelial smears to determine the prevalence of cells containing micronuclei, extra-nuclear bodies composed of chromosomes or chromosomal fragments that failed to be incorporated into daughter nuclei at mitosis. Usually the neoplastic changes take place at the site of chronic stimulus. It passes through various phases of dysplastic changes. Clinically, shows varied spectrum of red and white lesions. Thus it can be hypothesized that micronuclei frequency is higher in that particular lesional tissue compare to normal contra lateral side. Aim of the present study was to compare frequency of micronuclei in Leukoplakia & tobaccos induce keratosis to that of normal contra lateral side. The study consist of 10 patients with clinical diagnosis of Leukoplakia, tobacco induce keratosis. Oral exfoliative cytology from the lesions as well as normal mucosa stained with papanicolaou stain used for counting micronuclei. Result shows that statistically significant difference in frequency of micronuclei on lesional side and non lesional side was found. Perhaps the difference between the frequency of micronuclei on lesional side and normal side almost found to be constant. Thus it can be concluded that, higher frequency of micronuclei suggest the localized effect of carcinogens on the oral mucosa. Perhaps the difference between both sides that is lesional and normal almost remains constant which may be because of the generalized effect of carcinogen on the oral mucosa.
87 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FRACTIONATED PLANT EXTRACTS OF AMLA [PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA L.], TULSI [OCIMUM TENUIFLORUM L.] AND NEEM [AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.JUSS], Vedamurthy AB1, Padmaa M Paarakh2* and Sudisha Jogaiah1
Fractionated methanol extracts of dried leaves of Phyllanthus emblica, Ocimum tenuiflorum and Azadirachta indica, were evaluated for the antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity by spread plate method against Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus aureus. The antioxidant activity of these fractions were determined by DPPH [1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picryl Hydrazyl] assay. It was found that gram negative bacteria was largely inhibited by the fraction III of Tulsi than that of Neem and Amla against reference antibacterial drug like Tetracyclin. The zone of inhibition was measured which shows that fraction III of Tulsi is having highest antibacterial activity when compared to Neem and Amla.
88 A RARE CASE REPORT OF AUTOIMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY, Vidyashree J.B1, Harshini V.2*, Renuka Ramiah3
Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia ( AIHA) has rarely been reported in pregnancy.[1] AIHA is characterized by the development of antibodies directed against ones own red cell antigens. When such an autoantibody belongs to the IgG class, the condition is potentially dangerous to both the mother and the fetus, since IgG crosses the placenta readily.we report a case of pregnant woman who presented to us with anemia and was diagnosed with AIHA.
89 AYURVED MANAGEMENT OF LOW BACKACHE- A CASE STUDY, Dr. Tank Neha Girishkumar
Low back ache is a very common disorder having multiple causative factors. One of the major cause is degenerative disc problem which can be prolapse, herniation or annular tear of lumbo sacral intervertebral disc. The main symptoms are pain, muscle spasm, difficulty in movement, inability to stand for longer duration, numbness in legs etc. As the disease progresses patient is unable to do his routine activities which disturbs them mentally leading to anxiety, stress and sleeplessness. Various internal drugs for pain are available but, results are not satisfactory. The last available treatment is spinal surgery which is not much successful and therefore people with such disease are always in search of result oriented remedy. Classics of Ayurved have suggested some drugs and Panchakarma procedures through which correction of intervertebral disc can be obtained without surgery. Low back pain can be studied under Asthi Majjagata Vaata, disease mentioned under the chapter of diseases of Vaata and suggested line of treatment is Abhyanga, Swedana and Basti along with internal drugs which subsides the increased Vaata. Here, in the present case study patient had low back pain due to disc herniation at L3-L4-L5-S1 and she was treated with 2courses of "Kaala Basti along with Abhyanga and Swedana. Internal drugs were Yograj guggulu and Rasna Saptaka decoction. Patient recovered remarkably and had almost nil complain after two courses of Basti and could do all her routine activities.
90 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF METFORMIN ORAL MUCOADHESIVE TABLETS: EFFECT OF POLYMERS ON EVALUATION PARAMETERS, M. Ravindra Babu*, M. Lakshmi Pravallika and Rekha Rani
An attempt has been made to develop oral mucoadhesive tablets for a drug like metformin which shows antidiabetic action. Hydrophilic polymers like high viscous sodium alginate and low viscous sodium alginate were used in the preparation. By using these polymers six formulations of oral mucoadhesive tablets were formulated by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were subjected for evaluation of hardness, weight variation, thickness, friability, swelling behavior, mucoadhesion strength, invitro release rate study. Formulation F2 containing more amount of high viscous sodium alginate is found to be optimized formulation. The invitro release of F2 formulation exhibits sustained release of metformin.
91 STUDY OF PAINT APPLICABILITY AND BIODEGRADATION OF MICA BASED STARCH-G-PEHA/MICA BIONANOCOMPOSITE, Bipranarayan Mallick*1 and Prafulla K Sahoo2
2-Ethyl hexyl acrylate (EHA) was grafted onto starch with mica as additive to synthesize starch-g-Poly (2-ethylhexylacrylate)/mica bionanocomposites by emulsion polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The bionanocomposite was studied for greater biodegradability and water resistant property with varied range of mica content to be used in paint industry. The bionanocomposites were characterized by FTIR and TGA for grafting pattern, thermal behavior and morphological arrangement. The intercalated structure of (starch-g-PEHA)/mica due to dispersion of nano scale mica into galleries of starch-g-PEHA biocopolymer were characterized by XRD study and TEM micrography. The coating, antifungal activity and ageing properties were studied drawing thin films with the bionanocomposites and biodegradability with water resistant properties were compared to establish its novelty over the previously reported (starch-g-PEHA)/SS and (starch-g-PEHA)/MMT bionanocomposites.
92 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF AMLODIPINE IR TABLETS AS PER 2*2 FACTORIAL DESIGN (SELECTION OF BEST BINDER-DISINTEGRANT COMBINATION), V. V. L. S. P. Sowjanya*, D.Madhurya, G.Vineela, G.Sony Chaitanya, Kaneez Fatima, G. Sahithi, G. Anusha
Amlodipine, is a widely prescribed anti-hypertensive drug belongs to class II under BCS classification and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. It needs enhancement in the dissolution rate in its formulation development. Binders such as Acacia and PVP K30 and use of superdisintegrant primojel and potatostarch are tried for enhancing the dissolution rate of amlodipine tablets. The objective of the present study is selection of best binder- disintegrant combination in order to enhance the dissolution rate of amlodipine IR tablets by 22 factorial design to achieve NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min. A total of four amlodipine IR tablet formulations were prepared using selected combinations of the two factors as per 22 factorial design. Amlodipine tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate characteristics. The dissolution rate (K1) values were analysed by ANOVA of factorial design. The individual and combined effects of binder and disintegrant on the dissolution rate (K1) of amlodipine tablets are highly significant (P
93 STUDIES ON EFFICACY OF BAIT CARRIERS IN ENHANCING BAIT PREFERENCES AMONG BY THE LESSER BANDICOOT, BANDICOTA BENGALENSIS, D. Sudha Rani*, Ch. V. Narasimha Rao, Y. Suryanarayana and M. Bharatha Lakshmi
Rodents cause severe economic yield loss to various field crops. Among all the rodent species infesting field crops the lesser bandiccot, Bandicoota bengalensis is the major potential pest. The most common method of rodent management is poison baiting which often led to genetic resistance, poison aversion, bait shyness, behavioural avoidance, non target poisoning and environmental risks. To overcome the above a laboratory trial was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Maruteru ,West Godavari , Andhra Pradesh during 2012-13 to evaluate the effective bait carrier as an alternative to be used in poison bait against field rat infesting irrigated paddy. Six sets of rodents were used for each experiment in both no-choice and multiple choice feeding trials with seven different bait carriers namely, bengal gram, dry fish, moong dal, honey, jaggery, potato slices (fried), maize flour along with regular bait (Broken rice and Vegetable oil, 98:2) as control for six consecutive days. The average daily intake (ADI) of each bait by the rodents is recorded and converted to g/100 g body weight. Among all the bait carriers evaluated the fried potato slices (Broken rice- Fried potato slices- Vegetable oil , 96:2:2) has recorded above 100 per cent increase in ADI of food in comparison to normal bait (Broken rice- Vegetable oil, 98:2). The order of bait preference followed the same trend in both no choice and multiple choice trials as Fried potato slices >dry fish >moong dal >bengal gram >maize flour >jaggery >honey.
94 A NOVEL STABILITY INDICATING VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FORSIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF AZILSARTAN AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM, G.Kumara Swamy1*, 2JM Rajendra Kumar and 3J.V.L.N.Seshagiri Rao
A simple, precise, accurate and economical stability-indicating RP-HPLC assay method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Azilsartan (AZN) and Amlodipine Besylate (AMD) in bulk drugs and their combined commercial tablets. The method has shown adequate separation of AZN and AMD from their degradation products. Separation was achieved on a Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 250mm, 5?m, Make: Waters) or equivalent) column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of Acetonitrile: Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate buffer Adjust pH 3.0 with ortho phosphoric acid (70:30, v/v).a isocratic elution mode at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The retention times for AZN and AMD were found to be 3.5 and 2.3 min respectively. Both drugs and their combination drug product were subjected to acid, base, hydrolysis, thermal and photolytic stress conditions. Thus stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed analytical method. Validation of the proposed analytical method was carried out as per ICH guidelines Q2R1. Quantitation was achieved with PDA detection at 254 nm based on peak area with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges 2.5-20?g/ml for AZN and 10-80?g/ml for AMD (R2 > 0.9999 for both drugs). The LOD and LOQ were 3.09?g/ml, 2.90?g/ml and 10.1?g/ml, 9.84?g/ml for Azilsartan and Amlodipine Besylate respectively. The method was found to be specific and stability indicating as no interfering peaks of degradents and excipients were observed. The proposed method is suitable for application in quality-control laboratories for quantitative analysis of both the drugs individually and in combination dosage forms.
95 T-BOOH INDUCED DNA DAMAGE: PROTECTION BY COLEUS AROMATICA, Dinesha Ramadas1, Sachidananda Gurumahadevaiah2 and Subhas Chandrappa Mundasada3*
Objective: The main objective of the study is to find a natural resource towards preventing oxidative DNA damage induced by t-BOOH. Materials and methods: By using standard antioxidant Butylated Hydroxy Anisole, Coleus aromatica extract, Tertiary butyl hydroperoxide, calf thymus DNA. The sheared DNA was used in submarine agarose gel electrophoresis where DNA damage was done by using tertiary butyl hydroperoxide. Similarly, the cytotoxicity study was also done to know the natural antioxidant itself is not toxic to cells by using lymphocytes and these lymphocytes were isolated from fresh human blood. Results and conclusions: The agarose gel electrophoresis bands were visualized in Transilluminator where, it was confirmed that, tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced DNA damaged was successfully prevented by BHA (400?M) and Coleus aromatic (25?g) extract. In cell cytotoxicity studies, BHA and Coleus aromatica extract inhibits the cell damage 71% and 75% respectively. The results confirms that, Coleus aromatica extract can inhibit tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced DNA damage and is nontoxic to cells.
96 WARTHINS TUMOR: A CURIOUS ENTITY CASE REPORT, 1Dr. Vanita C Rathod, 2*Dr Sonam Agrawal, 3Dr. Siddharth Pundir, 4Dr. Sudhansu Dixit, 5Dr.Pankaj Kumar Agrawal and 6Dr. Swati Saluja
Warthin tumor was first described in the American literature, by Aldred Warthin, in 1929, the pathologist who named this tumor papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, but since then it was also known as adenolymphoma, cystadenolymphoma, and Warthin tumor. Because of its microscopically appearance and unknown origin, this tumor entity is still fascinating head and neck surgeons and pathologist. The etiology of Warthins tumors is controversial and whether they are true neoplasms or developmental malformations continues to be debated. Although this is the second most common benign tumor of the parotid, neither we nor our colleagues were familiar with it. Furthermore, we could find no mention of it in the family medicine literature. The following case illustrates a 50 year old male patient reported to our department with chief complaint of huge swelling on right side of face.
97 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE WATER-BODIES NEAR INDUSTRIAL AREA: DAGORI AND RAIGARH, Banerjee Priya1 and Dr. Sao Shweta2*
An investigation was undertaken on the areas like Dagori and Raigarh to see the effects of rapid industrialization on the water bodies of these two areas i.e shivnath river at Dagori and kelo river at Raigarh respectively. A Comparative study has been made by taking parameters like , Hardness, Total Solid, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) of these two rivers. The Potability of water was checked directly by collecting samples from the water bodies of these two areas. In the present investigation it was found that the maximum parameters of Shivnath river at Dagori were not at the level of pollution, but maximum parameters of Kello river at Raigarh shows that they are somewhat polluted and not potable. So, it is the need of the to take necessary steps for making the water potable for the survival of the living organisms on these water bodies.
98 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE WATER-BODIES NEAR INDUSTRIAL AREA: DAGORI AND RAIGARH, Banerjee Priya1 and Dr. Sao Shweta2*
An investigation was undertaken on the areas like Dagori and Raigarh to see the effects of rapid industrialization on the water bodies of these two areas i.e shivnath river at Dagori and kelo river at Raigarh respectively. A Comparative study has been made by taking parameters like , Hardness, Total Solid, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) of these two rivers. The Potability of water was checked directly by collecting samples from the water bodies of these two areas. In the present investigation it was found that the maximum parameters of Shivnath river at Dagori were not at the level of pollution, but maximum parameters of Kello river at Raigarh shows that they are somewhat polluted and not potable. So, it is the need of the to take necessary steps for making the water potable for the survival of the living organisms on these water bodies.
99 EFFECT OF ELECTRON BEAM RADIATION ON SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF ORTHODONTIC BONDING ADHESIVES, Dr. Shine Benny1* and Dr. M. S. Ravi2
Background and Aim: The goal of research developments in adhesive materials has been to achieve good and optimal bond strength during treatment and also enabling easy debonding and clean up procedures at the end of the treatment. Hence this study was designed to evaluate, the effect of exposure to electron beam radiation on shear bond strength of two commonly used adhesives in Orthodontics. Materials and methods: Lightcure composite and self cure adhesive was used for the purpose. 200 upper 1stpremolars extracted for orthodontic purpose was selected .In each group, upper 1st premolar; SS brackets were bonded with corresponding adhesive systems. The bonded specimens were subdivided into five groups for evaluation of bond strength before and after irradiation with 2kGy, 4kGy, 8kGy and 10kGy. The shear bond strength of the bonded specimens was tested using Universal Testing Machine. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using One- Way ANOVA. Results: When comparing before and after irradiation, the light cure adhesive had the shear bond strength significantly increased after irradiation with 4kGy and in Self cure adhesive the shear bond strength after irradiation significantly decreases. Conclusion: The electron beam irradiation had negative effect on the shear bond strength of self cure and light cure orthodontic adhesive; except for the radiation dose of 4kGy in case of light cure adhesive.
100 EVALUATION OF ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS OF ANTIGONON LEPTOPUS, Poonam Ranjan, Dilip Kumar Tiwari and Kishu Tripathi*
The objective of the present study is to investigate the antidepressant activity chloroform and ethanolic extract of leaves of Antigonon leptopusin Albino rat by tail suspension technique. The albino rats weighing about 100-150 gm were used and divided into seven groups, each groups containing six animals (n=6). Control group received distilled water (15 ml), Imipramine HCl (15mg/kg) for standard and test groups received chloroform and ethanolic extract of Antigonon leptopus in five different doses 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 150mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 250mg/kg per orally separately. They were evaluated for antidepressant effect by tail suspension model, after 30 minutes for ethanolic extract and after 60 minutes of drug administration. The immobility time was noted for five minutes for each rat in all groups. The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Dunnet?s multiple comparison test, p
101 A PROMISING FUNCTIONAL DAIRY FOOD USING PROBIOTICS WITH KALMEGH, Dr. Sunil S. Pande and Priyanka Gupta*
Kalmegh extract has well known nutritional and medicinal values. A probiotic yoghurt fortified with Kalmegh extract (KE) was manufactured using Lactobacillus acidophilus together with Bifidobacterium bifidum as a probiotic bacterial strains. Kalmegh extract was prepared and added at a concentration of 6% to Buffalo's skim milk. The effect on synersis, pH, TTA and sensory properties of the final product, as well as, the viability of the LAB were evaluated during 28 days of storage at refrigeration temperature. Lactobacillus acidophilus counts decreased from 36x108cfu/ml to 14x108cfu/ml and Bifidobacterium bifidum counts decreased from 100x109cfu/ml to 5x109cfu/ml, which is more than the recommended value of more than 107 throughout the storage period. Thus kalmegh fortified yoghurt could be used as a functional dairy food.
102 ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTY OF THREE ETHNO MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR WOUND HEALING., Abdul Latheef. K, Vineeth. T and A.B. Remashree*
Wound healing is a physiological phenomenon of tissue but it is interrupted by the bacteria, causing sepsis. If the bacterial growth is prevented by any antibacterial agents, the wound heals very fast. Now a day a variety of natural and manmade antibacterial agents are extensively used as antiseptic in the form of ointments, dusting powders and lotions. But there are a large number of ethnic communities which are far beyond the reach of modern antiseptics, treat common wounds of their pets and own with the commonly available plants or plant products. So the present investigation was undertaken to find out the antibacterial property of wound healing ethno medicinal plants in the form in which they commonly used to treat cuts and wounds. The study clearly showed that the ethno medicinal plants are having potential antibacterial activity comparable to the antibiotics which are commonly used. So there is a possibility of generating new antibiotics from cheap and widely available plant resources.
103 SCREENING OF ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PORTULACA QUADRIFIDA LINN ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS, Ashok Kumar D1, Mrinmay Das2*, Mastanaiah K2. and Arup Das2
The antidiabetic activity of whole plant extract of Portulaca quadrifida Linn. was investigated in a model of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. The biochemical parameters studied were: plasma glucose, degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, peripheral consumption of glucose levels on 1, 3, 7 and 10th day. Hydro alcoholic extract had shown significant protection and lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in glucose tolerance test. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after 2h at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight. The streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant reductions in biochemical parameter after treatment with the extract and Glibenclamide (used as standard) as compared to the diabetic controls. The results showed that the Portulaca quadrifida aerial parts have significant anti-diabetic activity. The results suggest the validity of the clinical use of Portulaca quadrifida in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type II.
104 OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF FORMULATION FOR pH DEPENDANT SOLUBLE DRONEDARONE HYDROCHLORIDE, K. Ramesh1, 3*, B. Chandra Shekar2 and P. Khadgapathi3
The brand name of marketed Innovator product for Dronedarone Tablets 400 mg is MULTAQ (dronedarone) 400 mg tablets, it is an antiarrhythmic drug indicated to reduce the risk of hospitalization for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients in sinus rhythm with a history of paroxysmal or persistent AF. The recommended dose is one tablet of 400 mg twice a day with morning and evening meals. Dronedarone hydrochloride is showing pH dependant solubility, the solubility of drug substance is more in the pH range of 3.0 to 5.0. In order to have a bioequivalent generic product to that of marketed Innovator product, it is recommended to have the similar dissolution profiles in FDA recommended dissolution media. The present work was attempted to map the dissolution profiles of Dronedarone from tablet dosage to that of corresponding innovator product (MULTAQ 400 mg tablets) profiles in FDA recommended dissolution media by optimizing the quantity of granulating fluid (Purified water), concentration of both surfactant (Poloxamer P407) and super disintegrant (Crospovidone). Based on the in vitro dissolution profiles of test product formulation, it was clearly evident that rate of dissolution of Dronedarone from tablet dosage form is showing increasing trend with decreasing concentration of Poloxamer P407 and increasing concentrations of Crospovidone and more over the quantity of purified water is also playing an important role with respect to granulation consistency, disintegration time and in-vitro dissolution profiles.
105 SURFACE MODIFIED CHARCOAL FOR SCAVENGING OF MANGANESE (II) METAL IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION, A.S. Dhote, A. K. Wanjari*, U. E. Chaudhari and S. S. Belsare
Adsorption is one of the most effective physical processes for removal of toxic metal from waste water. Adsorption has been proved to be an excellent way to treat industrial waste effluents, offering significant advantages like the low-cost, availability, profitability, easy of operation and efficiency. In this paper four parameter isotherm model namely Langmuir, three parameters namely Freundlich and Temkin were applied to describe the isotherm and to calculate their constant. The best estimation of the parameters of these models by non-linear regression analysis was obtained. A comparison between four and three parameters isotherm was reported. The characteristic parameter of each isotherm and related coefficient of determination (R2) have been determined. The effect of various parameters influencing the Mn(II) adsorptions such as effect of pH, Contact time, temperature, adsorbent dose have been studied. Maximum adsorption found to be 87.26 at pH 11.5. The results indicate that surface modification with Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) could be used to significantly enhance the capacity of granulated activated charcoal to adsorb Mn(II) metal ion.
106 RENAL ONCOCYTOMA - A RARE TUMOR, *Sunita Bamanikar1, Farhan Shaikh2, Harsh Kumar3 and Neeta More4
Renal oncocytomas are rare benign tumors arising from the distal tubular renal epithelial cells and have a good prognosis. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. We present here a case of a 36-year-old female in whom renal oncocytoma was diagnosed on histomorphological examination and confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. The patients one year follow up was uneventful.
107 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL N-ACYLHYDRAZONE DERIVATIVES, Pankaj K. Godhaviya1*, Praful K. Patel1 and Dinesh S. Kundariya2
A series of novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives was synthesized via condensation of acid hydrazide with different substituted acetophenone in the presence of catalytically acetic acid using methanol or ethanol as a solvent. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by using elemental analysis, Mass, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Also compounds were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activity (MIC) in vitro with two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and three fungal strains.
108 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS, Santhosh Kumar K1, Rajesh Kumar Putta*1, Ravi Shankar K1, Reddy GNVC2
The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of Benazepril by direct compression technique using various polymers like microcrystalline cellulose, starch, lactose and superdisintegrant like crospovidone using direct compression technique. Benazepril is an ACE Inhibitor used in the management of hypertension. The drug and excipients were subjected for compatability studies by FTIR. Later the formulations were evaluated for their pre compressional, post compressional parameters and In vitro drug release studies. The FTIR compatibility study revealed that there are no drug polymer interactions. The powder beds of all formulations exhibited uniform flow and ability and ease of compression. The prepared tablet showed uniformity with respect to their weight variation, thickness, friability and hardness; further the results indicated that the prepared tablets have sufficient mechanical strength and other parameters were within the specified limits. Different formulations showed disintegration time between the range of 2 min. In-vitro dissolution studies among all the formulations, formulation F6 containing (30 mg) Crospovidone showed 100% drug release within 45 min. Thus, formulation F6 was considered as optimized formulation than others. These results of the above study revealed that fast dissolving tablets of Benazepril could be formulated for immediate drug release to ensure symptomatic relief which leads to improved patient compliance.
109 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF ATENOLOL AND NIFEDIPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM, Dr. Bhavna A. Patel*
The aim of present work was to develop an accurate, simple, sensitive and Cost effective UV Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Atenolol and Nifedipine. The method has followed linearity in the range of 5-25?g/ml and 1.25-6.25?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine respectively. The value of correlation coefficient was 0.9987 & 0.9980 for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 274.5 nm and 0.9979 & 0.9970 for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 235 nm. Satisfactory values of Percent relative standard deviation for the intra-day and inter-day precision indicated that method is precise. Results of the recovery studies (97.77 % to 99.39% for Atenolol & 98.40 % to 100.37 % for Nifedipine) showed accuracy of the method. LOD calculated as 0.97?g/ml and 0.097?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 274.5 nm & 0.46?g/ml and 0.07325?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 235 nm. LOQ calculated as 2.94?g/ml and 0.322?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 274.5 nm & 1.41?g/ml and 0.222?g/ml for Atenolol and Nifedipine at 235 nm .The developed method was extended to the formulation for routine estimation of Atenolol and Nifedipine.
110 DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF ZOOPLANKTONS IN THE RIVER HIRAN, DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF ZOOPLANKTONS IN THE RIVER HIRAN
Present work was carried out to investigate the diversity and distribution of zooplanktons in River Hiran. Samples were collected from five sampling stations, namely Kimdeshwar, Khitoula, Ghat Simariya, Khinni and Hirapur for two consecutive years. The most dominant zooplankton species collected were Daphnia pulex, Macrothrix rosea, Diaphanosoma brachyaurum and Alonella sps., of phylum Cladocera were recorded from the River Hiran. A total of 50 species of zooplanktons were identified from Hiran River in the year 2006 and 2007. In which 14 species of Protozoa, 17 species of Rotifera, 14 species of Cladocera and 05 species of Copepoda were represented the zooplanktons density. Zooplanktons densities have gradually increased from 183.00org/1 in July (S-5) to 2680.50org/1 in March (S-2). The population of zooplanktons expressed as average numerical values, varied from 183.00org/l and 2680.50org/l during the study period. The maximum population was recorded in the month of March, while the minimum was in the month of July.
111 A GREEN METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES USING CASSIA AURICULATA LEAVES EXTRACT, Dr. G. Valli*1 and S. Geetha2
Knowing the importance of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and Cassia auriculata as revealed by various literature resources, Green synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata leaves were carried out. The formation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were identified first by observing the color changes of the extract. Secondly titanium dioxide nanoparticles were confirmed by the spectral studies like UV-Visible, FT-IR, X-Ray Diffraction and Field Emission Scanning ElectronMicroscopy. UV absorbance at 447.3 nm and M-O stretching at 516.92 cm-1 by FT-IR for the TiO2 nanoparticles were observed. XRD and FE-SEM analysis of TiO2 nanoparticles showed that they were found to exhibit spherical shape with an average size of 38.0 nm.
112 A CASE REPORT: PELVIC ABSCESS BY NON-TUBERCULAR MYCOBACTERIUM: A VERY UNUSUAL PRESENTATION, Rajendra Saugat1, Saroj Kumari2, Manish Chhabra1, and Dr. Akhil Kapoor*2
Most abscesses are caused by a bacterial infection like staphylococcal bacteria and streptococcal bacteria. Non tubercular Mycobactrial (NTM) is very rare infection for pelvic abscess. Most of time NTM causes abscess in breast and skin, lymph node, there may be rout of entry was infected syringe. Treatment with ATD can cure the disease.
113 IMPORTANCE OF RAW PAPAYA DRESSING IN DIABETIC FOOT ULCER A CASE REPORT, 1*Mehjabeen Fatimah, 2Saiyad Shah Alam and 3Hamiduddin
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused by absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Diabetic foot is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus. It increases the morbidity and mortality of the diabetic patients and is the major cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputations. This is a great concern for the society and the government. The management of diabetic foot ulceration is based on the control of blood sugar, wound debridement, identification and management of infection, proper dressing and definitive wound closure. Enzymatic wound debridement is an emerging concept in accelerating the wound healing process. A detailed literature search, some review articles and a few planned studies show the effectiveness of raw papaya fruit on wound debridement. The present article reports wound healing potential of raw papaya in case of diabetic foot ulcer.
114 ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA AGAINST NEUROBLASTIMA (IMR-32) AND COLON (HT-29) CELL LINES, M. Ponnanikajamideen1, M. Nagalingam2, M.Vanaja1, C Malarkodi3, S Rajeshkumar4*
Herbal medicine is established on the plants contains natural chemical substances that can promote health and have curative properties for illness and diseases. Medicinal herbs play an important role in the treatment of cancer. In this study we reported that potential anticancer activity of Sesbania grandiflora leaf extracts and compared with standard commercial anticancer drug. Water, ethanol and acetone extract of S. grandiflora leaves showed invitro anticancer activity against different human cancer cell lines like neuroblastima (IMR-32), and colon (HT-29). The potential of anticancer property of S. grandiflora leaf extract was assayed by MTT method. The activity was done at different concentration like 50-300 ?g/ml of the extract. From the analysis the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 200 ?g/ml against neuroblastima (IMR-32), and colon (HT-29) cell lines for all the extracts. While increasing the concentration of extracts showed decrease in cell viability. Extracts of S. grandiflora showed dose dependent reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis in the neuroblastima (IMR-32), and colon (HT-29) cell lines. This in vitro outcomes suggest a significant clinical effects of S. grandiflora against human neuroblastima (IMR-32), and colon (HT-29) cell lines.
115 SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TEA EXTRACTS, Soumen Banerjee and Sovan Bagchi*
Aqueous extracts of Camellia sinensis (C. sinensis) leaves show the presence of phytochemicals like alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, aminoacids, sterols, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds and tanins. Theaqueous leaves extracts of Camellia sinensis shows antibacterial efficacy against some pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial effect of tea against S. aureus proved very effective. Antibiotic sensitivity was done for all bacterial isolates of S. aureus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of tea extracts on different microorganisms such as Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aerogenosa and Escherichia coli. Different commercially available teas have been chosen like Black tea, Darjeeling Tea, Green Tea. The antibacterial activity of these different plant leaves extracts give an idea that which leaves extracts are effective against above mentioned bacteria. After the preliminary screening for antibacterial activity by well diffusion method, the MIC & MBC also determined against above mentioned bacteria. All the tea extracts like Black tea, Darjeeling Tea, Green Tea showed inhibitory actions against all the bacteria under study except E.Coli. Varying degree of inhibitory actions of tea are found against individual bacteria.
116 ALLOPURINOL AS A PROMISING ANTI-ANGINAL AGENT: AN OLD DRUG WITH NEW INDICATION, 1Virendra Kushwaha, 2Dr. Varun Sharma*, 3Arti Lalchandani, 4Neeraj Kumar, 5Shaheen Saeed, 6Anand Narayan Singh, 7Santosh Kumar Barman, 8Sangeeta Agrawal, 9Joginder Singh
Objective: To investigate protective role of Allopurinol (xantine oxidase inhibitor) in myocardial injury in patients with effort induced stable angina pectoris. Design: Prospective open label study. Setting: Tertiary care cardiac center. Patients: 14 Diagnosed cases of effort induced stable angina & 11 healthy volunteers for comparison. Interventions: Trade mill test (TMT) was performed in 14 patients of effort induced stable angina before allopurinol therapy and in 10 patients after two weeks allopurinol therapy (4 dropouts). Main outcome measures: Pre and post therapy total exercise duration, estimated maximum metabolic equivalents tasks (METs), % of target heart rate (THR) achieved and maximum ST depression. Pre and post therapy mean plasma levels of Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide- dismutase (SOD), and Catalase were compared mean levels of healthy volunteers. Results: In patients of effort induced angina, after receiving allopurinol mean walking time (Pre-therapy 235.5720.25; vs Post-therapy 368.322.65; p
117 SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ETILEFRINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN PURE FORM AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION, Khalid A. Attia, Nasr M. El-Abasawy and Ahmed M. Abdelraoof *
A Simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of etilefrine (ETI.) in bulk powder and in pharmaceutical preparation. This method is based on measuring the native fluorescence of ETI. in methanol at 304 nm after excitation at 276 nm using 1 ml of acetate buffer pH 4. All variables that affect fluorescence intensity such as diluting solvents, pH buffer and buffer volume were studied and optimized .The fluorescence-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.5-8 ?g/ml with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 0.121 ?g/ml and lower quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.367 ?g/ml. The method was validated and successfully applied to the determination of ETI tablets with an average percent recovery RSD% of 100.05 0.991. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method by applying t- test and F-test at 95% confidence level and no significant difference was observed regarding accuracy and precision.
118 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTION WITH SECOND LINE DRUGS AMONG PATIENTS TREATED FOR MULTI DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS, Rajendra Prasad1*, Abhijeet Singh1, Nikhil Gupta2, Giridhar B. Hosmane1
Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is considered to be a global public health problem with notoriously difficult and challenging treatment. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with Second Line Drugs (SLDs) can have severe impact on efficient management of patients with MDR-TB. It is necessary to estimate the frequency of ADRs encountered during the treatment with SLDs. Various studies have reported that gastrointestinal ADRs are most common followed by ototoxicity with more than half of patients requiring either regimen modification or discontinuation. MDR-TB can be cured successfully with appropriate combination of drugs if adverse events associated with them can be can be managed aggressively and timely. There is urgent demand for newer and less toxic drugs to treat MDR TB patients.
119 STABILITY INDICATING CHEMOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF CEFACLOR IN PRESENCE OF ITS ACID INDUCED DEGRADATION PRODUCT., Khalid Abdel-Salam M. Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar, Ebrahim Abolmagd*
Three simple, accurate and Precise multivariate calibration methods, including classical least square (CLS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS), have been used for the determination of Cefaclor (CFC) in the presence of its acid induced degradation product. The CLS, PCR and PLS techniques are useful in spectral analysis because the simultaneous inclusion of many spectral wavelengths instead of the single wavelength used in derivative spectrophotometry has greatly improved the precision and predictive abilities of these multivariate calibrations. (CFC) was analyzed with mean accuracies 100.08+1.83, 100.09+1.81 and 100.1+1.82 for CLS, PCR and PLS, respectively. The developed methods were statistically compared with a reported method and no significant differences were observed regarding both accuracy and precision, all the developed methods have been validated according to ICH guidelines.
120 MICROWAVE SYNTHESISED POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND ITS DERIVATIVES AS BIO ACTIVE AGENT, Krishna Ranawat1, Dr. N.S.Chundawat1, Dr. G.P. Singh*1, Dr. Sadhan Singh2
The biological activity of anthracene derivative have been evaluated against, gram positive and gram negative bacterial strain by pathogen city tests. These tests were carried out by cup or agar well assay method. The screening data indicates that among the anthracene and their derivatives, the compounds were found to show moderate to excellent activity against the strains of bacteria used. Compounds 1.3 and 1.4 showed good to excellent activity against the bacteria B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa whereas compounds 1.3 and 1.4 showed moderate to good activity against the same bacteria. Compound 1.4 showed excellent activity against bacteria E. Coli.
121 STABILITY INDICATING CHEMOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF CEFACLOR IN PRESENCE OF ITS ACID INDUCED DEGRADATION PRODUCT., Khalid Abdel-Salam M. Attia, Mohammed Wafaa Nassar, Ebrahim Abolmagd*
Three simple, accurate and Precise multivariate calibration methods, including classical least square (CLS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS), have been used for the determination of Cefaclor (CFC) in the presence of its acid induced degradation product. The CLS, PCR and PLS techniques are useful in spectral analysis because the simultaneous inclusion of many spectral wavelengths instead of the single wavelength used in derivative spectrophotometry has greatly improved the precision and predictive abilities of these multivariate calibrations. (CFC) was analyzed with mean accuracies 100.08+1.83, 100.09+1.81 and 100.1+1.82 for CLS, PCR and PLS, respectively. The developed methods were statistically compared with a reported method and no significant differences were observed regarding both accuracy and precision, all the developed methods have been validated according to ICH guidelines.
122 MICROWAVE SYNTHESISED POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND ITS DERIVATIVES AS BIO ACTIVE AGENT, Krishna Ranawat1, Dr. N.S.Chundawat1, Dr. G.P. Singh*1, Dr. Sadhan Singh2
The biological activity of anthracene derivative have been evaluated against, gram positive and gram negative bacterial strain by pathogen city tests. These tests were carried out by cup or agar well assay method. The screening data indicates that among the anthracene and their derivatives, the compounds were found to show moderate to excellent activity against the strains of bacteria used. Compounds 1.3 and 1.4 showed good to excellent activity against the bacteria B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa whereas compounds 1.3 and 1.4 showed moderate to good activity against the same bacteria. Compound 1.4 showed excellent activity against bacteria E. Coli.
123 MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF BENZOCOUMARIN-BENZOTHIAZEPINE HYBRIDS AS POTENT ANTI-TUBERCULAR AGENTS AND THEIR DNA CLEAVAGE STUDY, Kallappa. M. Hosamani1* Dinesh S. Reddy1 and Kanchugarakoppal S. Rangappa2
An efficient and expeditious method has been developed for the synthesis of benzocoumarin-benzothiazepine hybrids, under microwave irradiation. The present methodology is cost-effective in addition to other advantages like mild reaction condition, high yields of products in shorter reaction time and simple workup procedure. The structure of all the newly synthesized compounds was confirmed by elemental and spectroscopic analyses. All the newly synthesized compounds (2a-2j) were evaluated for their in-vitro antitubercular and DNA cleavage study. Among all the screened compounds, (2h) showed most pronounced activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) obtaining MIC of 3.12 ?g/mL. The compounds were further subjected for DNA cleavage study by agarose gel electrophoresis method, which revealed that compound (2h) inhibits the growth of the pathogenic organism by cleaving the genome as no traces of DNA were found.
124 FIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF AMISULPRIDE IN PURE FORM AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM, Khalid A.M. Attia, Mohammed W.I. Nassar and Ahmed M. Abd El Zaher*
Five Simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of Amisulpride in bulk powder and in pharmaceutical preparation. Method (A) First derivative method(1D), Method (B) Ratio derivative method(1DD), Method (C) Ratio difference method, Method (D) Mean centering method, Method (E) Dual wavelength method are used for the determination of intact Amisulpride in presence of its degradation product. The methods were validated and successfully applied to the determination of Amipride 50mg tablets with an average percent recovery RSD% of 100.26 1.097 for method (A), 98.177 1.130 for method (B), 99.60 1.371 for method (C), 101.9 1.349 for method (D) and 98.85 1.007 for method (E). The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level and no significant difference was observed regarding accuracy and precision.
125 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF HANDWASHING IN PAKISTANI AS PREDICTOR OF PATIENTS HEALTH, 1*Adnan Bashir Bhatti, MD, 2Muhammad Usman, MBBS, 3Farhan Ali, 4Siddique Akbar Satti and 5Nabiyah Bakhtawar, MBBS,
Background: One measure that can definitely put a stop to the cross-transmission of micro-organisms is hand hygiene. The compliance of nurses the practice of washing their hands is pivotal when it comes to hospital acquired infections. There is lack of studies in Asia addressing this matter. Objective:This study is meant to assess the attitude, knowledge and practice of hand washing among nurses. Moreover, this study will also address the concern of availability of such services for the nurses. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongthree hundred (300) nurses comprising of 150 head/staff nurses and 150 student nurses. Subjects were consented and selected through non probability convenient sampling. Study Design: The study design was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study Setting and duration: The study was conducted in different wards of Capital Development Authority Hospital.The duration of study was about 3-4 months i.e. from September 2014 to December 2014. Inclusion criteria: All the nurses either head nurses, staff nurses or student nurses were included in the study. Data Collection and analysis:A precoded proforma was used to collect the information.Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data by calculating the frequency and percentage or mean and standard deviation of each response accordingly. Inferential statistics were also applied using Chi-square and t-test. P-value ? 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results:Basic facilities of hand washing were available at most places. It was found that 57.9% of staff/head nurses have good knowledge score while 42.1% of student nurses fall in this category. Regarding attitude, almost 35% said that their reason for non compliance to hand washing was non availability of hand hygiene facilities, 27.7% blamed time factor, 22% said due to poor quality of soap provided by the administration and 11.7% said due to lack of suitable environment. Regarding practice, it was seen that 4% of respondents do not wash hands at all. 80% washed their hands both before and after procedures. This practice was significantly higher (86.8%) in student nurses as compared to staff nurses (74.5%). Conclusions: The nurses had good knowledge on hand hygiene. However, attitudes, practices and facilities were average. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing were quite similar in staff and student nurses. The study highlighted the need for improvement of the existing hand hygiene training programs to address the gaps in knowledge, attitudes and practices. Policy message:Majority, despite having knowledge, need motivation and continuous education of hand hygiene. Facilities of hand hygiene should be made available.
126 FREQUENCY OF INTERNET ADDICTION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS; MALES VS. FEMALES, 1Adnan Bashir Bhatti, MD*, 2Muhammad Usman, 3Farhan Ali, 4Siddique Akbar Satti, 5Nabiyah Bakhtawar
Background: With the progressing easier access to internet; its addiction is increasing in students. This study shows the percentage of students who are mildly or severely addicted to internet and also compares the prevalence between the male and female gender. The study also throws lights on at which age the students are most likely to become addicted. Objective: Assess the frequency of internet addiction among medical students. Material and Methods: Study Design: Descriptive Survey. Study Settings: Capital Development Authority (CDA) Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Duration of Study: 1st May 2014 to 1st October 2014. Inclusion criteria: Medical students who were willing to participate in the study. Boys and girls will be included in the study. Data Collection and analysis: An internet addiction Performa will be given to participants. Collected data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The internet addiction criteria showed that 20.3% of students had problems due to internet usage. Male gender is more affected than female gender with 26.7% of males being addicted to internet and 14% of females addicts. Only 19.4% of students in age range of 17-20 years were addicted to internet; whereas it was much higher in age group 21-24 years with 21%. Conclusions: Male students are suffering from internet addiction more than female students. Students above the age of 20 years are more addicted to internet.
127 ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF POLYALTHIA CERASOIDES STEM BARK EXTRACT ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS., Bhargavi G1, Josthna P2 and Naidu CV1*
The present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of ethanolic extract of Polyalthia cerasoides stem bark (PcEE) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single intra peritoneal injection at a dose 45mg/kg body weight. The rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=6). Group I and II (normal and diabetic controls), Group III (normal rats fed with 400 mg of PcEE), Group IV (diabetic rats fed with 400mg of PcEE), Group V (diabetic rats fed with 20 mg of Glibinclamide). PcEE was administered to the rats at a dose 400mg/kg body weight for 21 days. Tissues were collected after the 21 days treatment. The antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated by measuring the activity of enzymes sush as Catalase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidise (GPX), Glutathione reductase (GR) and Glutathione S-transeferase (GST) in liver and kidney of normal and diabetic treated animals. These enzyme levels in diabetic rats were decreased compared to normal rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of P. cerasoides stem bark were significantly (P
128 ASSESSMENT OF LIPIDS PROFILE IN SUDANESE LEUKEMIC PATIENTS, 1Nahla I. Ibrahim, 1Sohair A. M, 2Gadalla Modawe, 1*AbdElkarim A. Abdrabo
Background: A number of studies have been published in recent years showing a significant association between leukemia and low plasma cholesterol levels. Objectives: We measured lipids profile which includes plasma total cholesterol, low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins in patients with leukemia in comparison with age and sex matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 normal healthy controls and 100 patients with leukemia (64 acute and 36 of them are chronic). Cholesterol profile was estimated using spectrophotometer method. Results: Mean SD of total cholesterol, LDL and HDL in leukemic patients were (120.86 23.04, 29.47 10.76, 29.38 8.45mg/dl) respectively, while the mean SD of healthy person were (168.00 14.73, 61.94 14.64, 62.50 10.60mg/dl) respectively. This result show highly significant difference which was lower in the leukemic patients compared to the control with P value (0.000). Conclusion: This study concluded that the strong association between leukemia and plasma cholesterol can be used as markers for bad prognosis, degree of maturation of leukemic cells and follow up of treatment. Also LDL may be used as a carrier targeting lipophilic cytotoxic drugs to leukemic cells.
129 A REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL USES OF VIOLA CANESCENS, Devender Sharma*, Hemraj Vashist and R.B. Sharma
Viola canescens commonly known as Himalayan White Violet belongs to Violaceae family. It is found in the Himalayan regions of India, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan. It is a perennial herb which mostly prefers to grow in the shady and moist places. V. canescens is an important medicinal plant which is mostly used in the traditional medicinal system for cough, cold, flu, fever, and malaria and is also given as anticancerous drug. So far, violin (alkaloid), viola quercitrin, methyl salicylate, and saponins are the different phytochemicals which are extracted from this plant. Molecular studies on V. canescens suggest that, in case of adulteration in the powdered form of Viola species, they can be distinguishable by the lengths of their spacer regions. Because of the overexploitation of V. canescens for medicinal purposes, the conservational status of V. canescens in different regions became endangered. It is the need of the hour to utilize different conservational strategies and save this precious medicinal wealth from extinction. The medicinal importance of Viola canescens is importantly needed to be brought in notice of every concern man. therefor the present study has been focused on the review of literature on this plant.
130 PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS ON MURRAYA KOENIGII-A REVIEW, Deepak Sharma*, HemRaj Vashist and RB Sharma
The present study has been restricted to the Pharmacological review on Murraya koenigii. The plant grows in forests of 500-1600 m height. M. koenigii is an unarmed, semi deciduous aromatic shrub or small tree with slender but strong woody stem and branches covered with dark grey bark, leaves are imparipinnate, glabrous, and very strongly aromatic. The plant has gained good reputation traditional medicinal system to overcome several ailments like diabetes, diarrhea, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory and so many. The plant exists from ancient time in the Ayurvedic therapy system for several ailments. Leaves of plants are frequently used in cooking of curry so called the curry leaves. The literature survey studied here includes reported traditional uses, phytochemical aspects and pharmacological activities on the plant.
131 OCULAR SAFETY AND TOXICITY STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC HERBAL EYE DROP FOR DRY EYE SYNDROME, 1N. Srikanth, 2*Sharad D. Pawar, 3Arjun Singh, 4S. N. Murthy and 5R.R. Padmavar
Acute Eye Irritation study of an Ayurvedic herbal eye drop containing herbal ingredients viz. Berberis aristata and Glyeyrrhiza glabra formulated for dry eye syndrome (DES ) complying the standards of Indian Pharmacopeia (IP.) was performed in New Zealand White rabbit as per the OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals (acute eye Irritation/corrosion) after fulfilling ethical requirements. 0.1 ml of the drop was placed in the conjunctival sac of one eye of each animal after gently pulling the lower lid away from the eyeball. The lids were then gently held together for about one second in order to prevent loss of the material. The other eye, which remains untreated, serves as a control. Eye drop did not cause irritation to mucous membrane of eyes of rabbits, no evident signs of toxicity and clinical changes were observed. The eye drop in New Zealand White rabbits was found to be nonirritant to the ocular mucous membrane.
132 INPATIENT DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS AND PHARMACIST INTERVENTION AT A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA-A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY, Mounica. Bollu*, Nalluri. Kranthi Koushik, Muddana. Nagalohith, Guduru.Venkata Sudheer, Nallani. Venkataramarao.
BACKGROUND: Now-a-days drug related problems were seen very commonly within the health care practice. These could result in the medication errors,adverse events,drug interactions and harm to patients. Pharmacist has an identified role in minimizing and preventing such type of problems. OBJECTIVES: To detect the incidence of drug related problems for the hospitalized patient, and to analyze the clinical pharmacist interventions performed during the review of prescription orders of the general medicine, psychiatry, surgery, pediatrics, gynaecology units of a large tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODS: It was a retrospective, observational and interventional study .The analysis took place daily with the following parameters: dose,rate of administration, presentation and/or dosage form, presence of inappropriate/unnecessary drugs, necessity of additional medication, more proper alternative therapies, presence of relevant drug interactions, inconsistencies in prescription orders, physical-chemical incompatibilities/solution stability. From this evaluation, the drug therapy problems were classified, as well as the resulting clinical interventions. For a period starting November 2012 until December 2014, the inpatient medication charts and orders were identified and rectified by ward and practicing clinical pharmacists within the inpatient pharmacy services in a tertiary care teaching hospital on routine daily activities.Data was collected and evaluated. The causes of this problem were identified. RESULTS: A total of 360 patients were followed .Male (71.66%) predominance was noted over females (28.33%). Drug related problems were more commonly seen in patients aged in between 31-60. Most of the DRP observed in the study resulted from the dispensing errors(26.11%),improper drug selection (17.22%),followed by untreated indications (14.4%) Majority of the clinical pharmacist recommendations were on need for proper dispensing(26.11%), and drug change (18.05%). Minor significance of DRPs were noted high (41.11 %), whereas (35.27 %) were moderate and (23.61 %) were major. The acceptance rate of intervening clinical pharmacist recommendation and change in drug therapy was found to be high (86.66%). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the prescriptions reviewed had some drug therapy problem and the pharmacist interventions have promoted positive changes needed in the prescriptions. In this context, routine participation of clinical pharmacists in clinical medical rounds facilitates the identification of DRPs and may prevent their occurrence.
133 TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDER AN ENIGMA, Bhuwan Saklecha1, Maj Amit Jain2, *Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale3, Rahul Sharad Kulkarni4, Vishwas Diwakar Acharya5, Ravindra Gedam6, Dr. Chetankumar O. Agrwal7
Introduction: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is defined as ?functional disturbances of the masticatory system?. It has been a matter of controversy for a long time, yet it is imperative to have a sound knowledge about it for physiological reestablishment of the stomatognathic system. Etiology: The etiology of TMDs is multifactorial which includes occlusal factors, trauma, stress, parafunctional habits etc. which may lead to degenerative changes in the TMJ. Diagnosis: With proper history, physiological evaluation and in chronic cases behavioural or psychological assessment, TMDs can be diagnosed. Various imaging techniques including various radiographs, lateral and computed tomography, joint arthrography and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are used to confirm the diagnosis. However, recently MRI has become the gold standard for evaluation of soft tissue and the positional abnormalities of the joint disc. Management: The noninvasive management of non specific TMDs includes, patient education, exercise therapy and occlusal appliance therapy.
134 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING HPTLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PRASUGREL AND ASPIRIN, B.A.Patel*, S. Alvi* and S.J. Parmar*
A simple & precise Stability indicating HPTLC method has been developed & validated for the simultaneous estimation of Prasugrel (PRA) & Aspirin (ASP) from Dosage form. The method employed TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 GF 254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system comprised Carbon Tetrachloride: Ethyl Acetate: Acetic Acid (7.5:2.4:0.1, v/v/v). This system was found to give good result for both the drugs (Rf value: of ASP 0.34cm & PRA 0.58cm).Spectrodensitometric scanning-integration was performed at a wavelength of 240nm.The calibration curve was found to be linear within the concentration range of 150ng/spot to 900ng/spot for PRA and1125-6750 ng/spot for ASP. The regression data for calibration curve shows good linear relationship with r2 = 0. 9981 & 0.9979 for PRA & ASP respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Thus, the proposed method can be used successfully for routine analysis of PRA & ASP from dosage form.
135 SYNTHESIS OF SOME SUBSTITUTED IMINES CONTAINING TRIFLUOROMETHYL PYRIDINE AND EVALUATION OF ITS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY, Kaushik Narbherambhai Patel*1, Jayesh Jivanlal Modha2, Hardik Ashokbhai Mehta3
Pyridine moiety shows high anti-bacterial activity, so to synthesis newer pyridine containing imine derivatives 2-fluoro-6- (trifluoromethyl)pyridine and 4-hydroxymethylbenzoate were reacted in DMF to get pyridine moiety having ether linkage, which was further treated with hydrazine to get benzohydrazide, which on reaction with different substituted acetophenones to get different imines containing trifluoromethylpyridine. Reaction progress were checked by TLC method and Characterization was done by different spectroscopic method. On microbial screening against gram +ve and gram ve bacteria and fungal strain. Many of them shows significant activity.
136 EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF GREEN TEA (CAMELIA SINENSIS) INFUSIONS WITH LEAVES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT HEIGHTS OF DARJEELING HILL, WEST BENGAL, Karabi Chakraborty and Sauryya Bhattacharyya*
Tea (Camelia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage and is also known for its medicinal value. The leaves are processed industrially for commercial usage or processed traditionally for preparation of infusions in different cultures of different countries. The present study was undertaken to find out whether the antioxidant activity and the content of tea bioactives change after processing by a local traditional process. Fresh tea leaves were collected from six different altitudes of Darjeeling hill, viz. 6900, 5800, 4500, 3600, 2500 and 500 feet. The assays performed included ABTS and DPPH radical decolorization assays and contents of total polyphenols, tannins, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid. It was observed that ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging abilities as well as ascorbic acid content were reduced in the leaves collected from higher altitudes, suggesting probable depletion of the antioxidant bioactives on exposure to extreme climatic conditions as well as elevated UV radiations. This was substantiated by the fact that total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were higher in the higher altitude leaves. Tannin contents were almost unchanged. The study indicated that the medicinal value of the tea infusions remained almost unchanged irrespective of altitude.
137 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EGATLOV MEASUREMENT IN ISOLATED ADIPOCYTES CELLS FROM OBESE TYPE TWO DIABETIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY CONTROLS, Hasan F.Al-azzawie1*, Nabaa S.Ibadi1 and Mohammed F.Al-Kotobe2
Obesity is associated with several chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. All of these are risk factors that contribute to metabolic syndrome, which in turn can lead to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we aimed to measure the voltage of adipocyte cell membrane and to show the relationship between its measurements with insulin resistance and serum levels of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokines, in obese type 2 diabetes compared with non diabetic obese subject. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, and glucose were measured in 50 obese men (BMI > 29) with type 2 diabetes, aged 37 to 53 years and having a body weight of 80 to 100 kg. Insulin resistance index values were calculated using measurements of fasting glucose and insulin levels. Using Pearsons correlation test, the relationship of serum adiponectin concentration with insulin resistance, serum glucose, and insulin levels, was determined.The results showed a significant inverse relationship between adiponectin concentration and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients (p = 0.000, r = -0.59). In addition, a significant relationship was observed between fasting glucose and adiponectin levels (p = 0.005). The relationship between insulin and adiponectin levels was not significant (p = 0.196). Our findings indicate that the concentration of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic marker, is a precise insulin resistance predictor in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.There was a significant difference in voltage value of adipocyte cell membrane isolated from diabetic patients (-34.05mv) compared with (-61.140 mv) in healthy group and these value negatively correlated with insulin levels(r= - 0.67,P
138 DISASTER MANAGEMENT WITH MODERN TECHNOLOGY, Anitha S. Pillai1* and Dr. Rekha Gupta2
A Disaster is Natural and Man-made, the premier is a natural phenomenon the consequences of when a potential natural hazard become a physical event while the later includes an element of human intent it may be technical or sociological. Whether it is natural or man induced, play havoc with the lives of millions and destroy billions of dollars of property each year around the globe. Disaster cannot be stopped and it is impossible to recoup the damage caused by the disasters. But we can mitigate the impact by preparedness and long term risk reduction measures. Each nation need a plan and review the same in a regular manner how to tackle the disaster or an emergency situation. Timely disaster response and recovery efforts required in order to save lives and property. The prime concern during any disaster is the availability of the spatial information and dissemination of the information to all concerned. Information and communication technology has better management and planning implementation of disaster mitigation measures.
139 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A HIGHLY SENSITIVE LCMS/MS METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF DAPOXETINE IN HUMAN PLASMA: APPLICATION TO A BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY, Hamed Hamed Abu Seada1, Khalid Abdel-Salam Attia1, Mohammad Wafaa Nassar1, Ahmed El Hamouly2*
In this study, an attempt was made to describe and validate a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of dapoxetine; a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor in human EDTA Na2 plasma according to the current bioanalytical guidelines. The internal standard used was reboxetine. The separation was performed on a Luna C18 5?m, 100A (50 x 4.6 mm), (Phenomenex) column under isocratic conditions using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.5% formic acid in water 80:20 (v/v) at ambient temperature with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection of dapoxetine and the internal standard was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using a Triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS Mass Spectrometer with electro spray ionization, operating in positive ion mode. The human plasma samples (0.25 ml) were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with tertiary butyl methyl ether. The method shows a good linearity (R2 > 0.996), precision (CV< 8.8%) and accuracy (bias < 8.5%) over the range of 0.1-1200 ng/ml dapoxetine in plasma. The recovery was between 82.03 and 84.6%. The limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/ml. The analysis required only a 1.2 minutes run. The developed and validated method for the determination of dapoxetine in human plasma was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study, for analysing approximately 800 subjects samples.
140 BOTANY, TAXONOMY AND CYTOLOGY OF CROCUS BIFLORI - SERIES, R. B. Saxena*
Crocus series : (i) Crocus versicolores[1], (ii) Crocus speciosi[2], (iii) Crocus scardici[3], (iv) Crocus flavi[4], (v) Crocus longiflori[5], (vi) Crocus Autumn[6], (vii) Crocus verni[7], and (viii) Crocus sativus[8] have been studied. Now the sub- genus crocus-crocus biflori series are closely related, and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a comples cytology. Botany of crocus biflori- series, taxonomy of their species and their Infra specific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology, description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification.
141 A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO EQUIPMENT QUALIFICATION, Dr.S.Venugopal*
Equipment qualification is a key element in the pharmaceutical quality system. In recent times Regulatory agencies are more focusing on qualification of equipment. During the investigation of process deviations and complaints, equipment is a key element to consider. For example 6M methodology men, machine, method, material, mother nature and measurements. Machine is the most key element in investigations because with out equipment manufacturing and testing isnot possible. Qualification of the equipment starts from design of the equipment based on the user requirement specification and functional requirement specification. Equipment qualification is carried out in various steps as mentioned below.
142 A COMPARATIVE IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF COLLOIDAL SILVER AND CHITOSAN STABILIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON MCF-7 AND HEPG2, P.Prema*1 and S.Thangapandiyan2
Recently nanotechnology research was discussed for the generation of nanoparticles as anticancerous agents. It is mandatory to elaborate the application of colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized silver nanoparticles in general and anticancerous property in particular. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity effect of colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized silver nanoparticles against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and liver cancer cells (HepG2) towards the development of anticancer drugs. The colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized silver nanoparticles were fabricated by using sodium borohydride as novel reducing agent. It was well characterized by UV, SEM, EDS, XRD, and AFM studies showed spherical shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 20-40nm and in slightly agglomerated form. Surprisingly it also showed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines were confirmed by MTT and cell viability assays. There was an immediate induction of cellular damage in terms of loss of cell membrane integrity, oxidative stress and apoptosis were found in the cell which treated with colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized AgNPs. This may be a first report on anti- MCF-7 and anti-HepG2 property of colloidal silver and chitosan stabilized AgNPs in the fourth generation of nanoparticle research. It is necessary to study the formulation and clinical trials to establish the nano drug to treat cancer cells.
143 INGRADIENTS IDENTIFICATION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF SAMVARDHANAGHRITA.-A AYURVEDIC POLYHERBAL FORMULATION, Satyawati Rathia1*, V.K. Kori2, Rajagopala S.2, C. R.Harisha3, V.J.Shukla4 and K. S. Patel5
Samvardhana Ghrita is an Ayurvedic formulation recommended by Acharya Kashypa in the management of various nervous system related problems both physically and mentally like Pangu (Lame), Muka (Dumb), Ashruti (Deaf) and Jada (Mentally deficient / Idiot) child. The present study deals with the pharmacognostical identification of ingredients of Samvardhana Ghrita and its physio- chemical analysis. Pharmacognostical study consisting of both macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drugs revealed the quality and genuineness of the constituents of Samvardhana Ghrita. Organoleptic features of fine powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standards prescribed.Loss on drying (Trace), refractive index (1.4630) specific gravity(0.9145).Thin layer chromatography results showed 5 and 6 spots when the plate was scanned at 254 nm and 366 nm respectively.
144 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEMONGRASS (CYMBOPOGON FLEXUOSUS) OIL AGAINST SOME SELECTED PATHOGENIC BACTERIAS., Archana Vaishnava* and Susweta Samanta
In this study the lemon grass oil was extracted from the plant sources Cymbopogon flexuosus antibacterial activity. Results of this study showed that most antibacterial effect of lemon grass and essence was against Gram positive bacteria. According to the considerable antibacterial effect of methanol extract of lemon grass leaves on pathogenic bacteria especially Gram positive bacteria that are involved in creating variety of nonsocial and malicious infections this extract can be considered as a natural antibacterial herbal product. Finally it is concluded that the mixture of lemon grass oil is used to treat bacterial infections. It is concluded that, in the present study, the plant contains potential antibacterial components that may be useful for evolution of pharmaceutical for the therapy of ailments. The antimicrobial activity was determined by well diffusion method. The activity was determined for different concentration of lemon grass oil against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Both Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtalis had the highest microbial sensitivity and this inhibitory effect increased with increasing methanol extract concentration. Also results obtained showed that growth inhibitory effect of methanol extract of lemon grass oil on tested Gram negative bacteria was very low, so that no growth inhibition effect on the Proteus valgaris and detected slight inhibitory effect against Escherichia coli at the highest extract concentration used (120 mg/ml concentration). These results indicated that among tested bacteria in term of sensitivity to methanolic dilution of lemon grass oil there was a significant difference.
145 WHITE ADIPOCYTES BIOMARKERS: UPDATE OF MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PROGRESS IN OBESITY, Dr. Abousree Taha Ellethy*
Increasing prevalence of obesity has increased unexpected series of different metabolic diseases and adipose tissue inflammations. Health organizations committees are looking forward to find specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers for obesity perception. Biomarkers can measure staging, grading, and therapy for a whole spectrum diagnosis of obesity and complications. Molecular genetics advances in obesity researches have generated many biomarkers with clinical importance of adipocyte. White adipocytes (WAC) are stores for excess calories in the form of triacylglycerols then, released as energetic molecules through different metabolic pathways. Getting excess calories will enhance non blocked synthetic pathways of adipose tissue that in turn develop overweight and/or morbid obese. Adipocytes in visceral fats than subcutaneous fats are related to metabolic dysfunctions e.g. insulin resistance (IR) and cardiac diseases. Current researches are interested in molecular characterization of biochemical secretions of WAC effects as a way to tackle obesity and its progress. The present study was to get knowledge around white adipocytes secretions that might be considered as biochemical diagnostic markers for the early obesity and risks in the future.
146 ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF HERBAL FORMULATION OF EQUISETUM ARVENSE, Snehal Singh1*, Biresh Kumar Sarkar2, X. Fatima Grace3, Manish Devgan4
The aim of this study was to formulate an herbal cream of Equisetum arvense extract and its antimicrobial evaluation. Disk diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial activity of Equisetum arvense extract. Herbal cream formulation was prepared by incorporating various ingredients together followed by the addition of herbal extract. The cream formulation was evaluated for the quality parameters. Results showed that Equisetum arvense was effective on S. aureus and E. coli. The antibacterial activity increases with the concentration of extract. The values of quality parameters lie within range. Study established cream formulation of Equisetum arvense as a stable herbal formulation which can be utilized for topical infections.
147 A REVIEW ON ROLE OF AMA IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF DISEASE, S. N. Tiwari*
The concept of Ama is unique to Ayurveda. Which acts as underlying cause of various disorder. Many factors play an important role in the production of Ama but in ayurveda, pragyaparadha act as a chief contributory factor. The term Ama means unripe or undigested food material.[1] Vagbhatta firmly believe that due to hypo-functioning of Agni the first Dhatu viz. the Rasa or chyle is not properly formed, instead the Annarasa undergoes fermentation or putrefaction being retained in Amashaya. It is a state of Rasa which is called as Ama.[2] By observing of different Samhita, few valuable and occult concepts comes into light which contribute Ama formation such as Mandagni, Dhatwagni-mandya and Mala Sanchaya etc. These factors facilitate Amotpatti and participate in the pathogenesis of several disorders such as Amajeerna, Vidagdhajeerna, Vistabdhajeerna ,Jwara, Atisara, Grahani Dosha and Amavata etc.[3] In the other hand the text of modern science states that due to disequilibrium of digestive juices, an oxidants (Ama) is produced which is a toxic byproduct & its peak level triggers the pathogenesis of different disorder.
148 OPTIMIZATION OF PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND SOME NUTRIENTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF L-LYSINE BY A MUTANT Micrococcus glutamicus SG300, Subadeep Ganguly and *Kunja Bihari Satapathy
L-lysine is an essential amino acid used as a feed supplement. It is produced by chemical, enzymatic and fermentation processes. In our present study, a mutant strain Micrococcus glutamicus SG300 developed in our laboratory, had been employed for optimization of different physlcal environmental conditions and some nutritional parameters especially carbon and nitrogen sources for L-lysine production. Initially, the strain accumulated only 6.2 g/ L of L-lysine in the fermentation broth. After optimization of different parameters, the production appreciably enhanced 17.8 g/L with pH, 7.5; temperature, 320C; fermentation time , 72h; volume of medium, 20ml; inoculums size, 10% with cell density 107 cells/ml; agitation, 200rpm by using biotin, 0.2?g/ml; glucose, 10% and urea, 10%. [Lysine, amino acid, Micrococcus glutamicus, physlcal environmental, nutritional parameters].
149 APPLICATION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID AMONG PATIENTS WITH CARDIO-VASCULAR DISEASE, Dr.V. Petkova* and M. Dimitrov
The antithrombotic properties of acetylsalicylic acid and mainly its platelet-inhibitory effects made it widely used by patients with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study is to assess patients attitude towards application of OTC acetylsalicylic acid products in order to prevent and treat themselves from cardio-vascular diseases. Regardless of age, gender and education of patients they purchase products available without prescription, mainly containing acetylsalicylic acid and a large part of the demand is due to the advertising of the products.
150 EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN IRAQI PATIENT WITH MAJOR BETA THALASSEMIA, Hasan F. Al-Azzawie* and Ali T. Kamil
The antioxidant status and oxidative damage to children with Iraqi ?- thalassemic major children were evaluated. Samples from 80 children with ?-thalassemic major and 40 healthy controls were used. All children were under 13 years of age. Our results showed that plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were elevated in ?- thalassemic children compared to controls together with compensatory increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GPx)activities and decrease in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione(GSH),Vitamine E and C. Elevated serum ferritin showed positive correlation with elevated liver enzyme levels except gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), confirming liver involvement due to iron overload. Serum ferritin also showed a positive correlation with elevated TBARS and SOD, suggesting that iron overload is involved in the oxidative stress shown in cells.
151 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF ALTERNANTHERA SESSILIS (LINN.) R. BR. EX DC., 1Alok Kumar, 2Abhishek Kumar, 3Ravindra Singh, 4Pawan Ahirwar, *5Manoj Kumar Tripathi
Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R. Br. ex DC. is a small prostrate perennial herbs belongs to family Amaranthaceae, widely used to treat the diabetes and skin diseases and also other various ailments. All the part of this plant are reported for various ethnomedicinal and therapeutic uses.Vegetative aerial parts viz. root, leaf and stem were collected in various seasions and studied for macroscopical, anatomical, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical, fluorescence and HPTLC studies. Microscopically root of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R. Br. ex DC. Showed presence of cork cells in surface view, reticulate thickening. Stem showed spiral and annular thickening, phloem fibres, cortical parenchyma filled with starch grains and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate, thick walled cork cells, collenchymatous cells, leaf showed palisade cells, cluster crystals of calcium oxalate, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, lower epidermis with stomata, upper epidermis with stomata, fragments of trichome characteristics feature of the family Amaranthaceae. Phytochemivcally, the various extract showed the presence of diverse phytochemicals such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, saponin steroids and triterpenoids tannin, proteins flavanoids content as compare to root and stem. The physicochemical analysis explored the loss on drying at 105oC , water soluble extractive value, alcohol soluble extractive value, Total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, Phytochemicals were evaluated for the plant Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R. Br. ex DC. Using HPTLC fingerprinting.
152 SEPARATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS IBUPROFEN USING AMINO ACIDS BY TLC, Zohra Chakrar, Zerkout Said*, Berkoune Hayet, Chihab Houda, Rachid Fegas
The enantiomeric separation of racemic compounds of ibuprofen, was performed by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel plates impregnated with optically pure amino acids, as the chiral selector and by using different amino acids in acetonitrile-methanol-water as the solvent system as chiral selector. This is in order to determine the best experimental conditions that enable us to separate the enantiomers ibuprofen: mobile phase, stationary phase and the best amino acid as a chiral selector.
153 A REVIEW ON OXAZOLONE, IT S METHOD OF SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY, Niraj Sharma, Janmajoy Banerjee*, Nomi Shrestha and Deepak Chaudhury
Oxazolones are five membered heterocyclic entity containing oxygen and Nitrogen. It is important synthons for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and is an important pharmcophore of synthesized drugs. Oxazolone is being synthesized in many ways since 1883. It shows marked pharmacological activity such as: antimicrobial, anifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. In present article we review the mechanism of oxazolone formation, its chemistry, diversity oriented synthesis of oxazolone, various method of synthesis and pharmacological activity of synthesized compound along with SAR.
154 DEVELOPMENT OF REAL TIME PCR ASSAY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION IN IRAQI WOMEN, Rehab S. Ramadhan1* and Sara A. Jihad2
This study was constructed to discuss a Molecular Study of Cytomegalovirus isolated from women with repeated miscarriage in relation to immune response molecule Tall like Receptor2. About (100) blood samples from women suffering from infection with Cytomegalovirus were collected from infertility clinic of Kamal Al Sammaraee hospital and (50) samples from normal subjects served as control for comparison. Test subjects were divided into two age groups: 20-30 years old and 31-40 years old. The women distributed as (60) samples of infertile and (40) samples as miscarriage women. This study included Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test was used to detect anti- HCMV antibodies IgG and IgM in the patient serum samples. ELISA test result showed that the miscarriage women shown highest percentage of seropositive to CMV for IgG (40%) and (25%) IgM compared to infertile women IgG (20%) and (15%) IgM with a significant difference P
155 PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPARTIES, PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND USES OF MEDITIONAL PLANT FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN. (MORACEAE), Kesab Shrestha, Janmajoy Banerjee* and Ashis Shrestha
Ficus religiosa linn. known as Pippal (peepal) in nepali, Asvatthah in saskrit, belongs to family Moraceae. It is a species of fig native to Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri-lanka, South wast china. It is widely being used to treat various diseases like skin diseases, constipation, dysentery, snakebite and important constituent of traditional herbal preparation like chandraprabha vati shankha vati and kaminivindravan rasa. Bark powder is used to treat hypoglycemic, stomatitis and aphrodisiac. Stem bark is used for the ulcer treatment, asthma, parasympatholytic, viral infection, bacterial infection, protozoan infections, relaxant possess spasmolytic effects on smooth muscles and skin diseases. Latex has curing activity for toothache.The fruit extract have antitumor activity and is used to cure purgative and aphrodisiac. Ficus is used extensively used in traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha in the form of various formulations. Bark is used in healing ulcers, various skin diseases and scabies and in treatment of diabetes, the root bark is stated to be aphrodisiac. Ficus religiosa has been investigated for presence of a wide range of phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannin, terpenoids, sterol, volatile oils, carbohydrate, fatty matter, phytosterols, furanocoumarin derivatives, phenolic compounds etc.This compilation provides comprehensive review of its ethnopharmacological use, pharmacological activities, traditional use and medicinal use.
156 BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS FROM SESAME OIL WITH METHYL ACRYLATE AND METHYL METHACRYLATE CO-MONOMERS, Irin Sheela. C1* and Begila David. S2
In this study biodegradable polymers were synthesised by the polymerization of alkyd resin of sesame oil with co-monomers like methyl acrylate(MA) and methyl methacrylate(MMA). Monoglyceride of sesame oil(SOMG) was first prepared by the glycerolysis of sesame oil at 220 - 230C. Then the resin was prepared by the reaction of the monoglyceride with cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride at 80C for 2 hours. The cross linked biopolymers were prepared by the free radical polymerization of the resin with various concentration of different monomers in presence of benzoyl peroxide as initiator. The newly prepared polymers were analysed for thermal and mechanical properties. Biodegradation of the poymers were also tested by soil burial test and SEM micrographs assess surface damage and to look for the presence and nature of microbial growth. The reactions were followed by H1 NMR and FT-IR spectroscpy.
157 INVESTIGATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF FLOWERS OF CASSIA AURICULATA LINN, Venkatesh P.* and Hepcy Kalarani D.
Objective: An ethanolic extract of flowers of Cassia Auriculata Linn was investigated for its analgesic and antipyretic activity. Materials and methods: Hot plate method was followed for the investigation of analgesic activity and Yeast induced pyrexia method for antipyretic activity. 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Cassia Auriculata were used for the study. Aspirin and Paracetamol were used as a standard drug for the investigation of analgesic and antipyretic activity respectively. Results and Discussion: The study showed significant analgesic and antipyretic activity for the flowers of Cassia Auriculata. Conclusion: The results are comparable with that of the standard drug. The study accounts the scientific validation of reported use of the said plant in folklore use.
158 FREE RADICAL SCAVANGING ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF ADENOCALYMMA ALLIACEUM, Sati Ankita*, Sati Sushil Chandra and Tomar Arti
This study is done on leaves extract of Adenocalymma alliaceum.Extraction of leaves of Adenocalymma alliaceum yielded 15.12 gm of Pet.Ether extract, 4.60 gm of Chloroform extract,and 21.04 gm of methanol extract.Methanol extract of Adenocalymma alliaceum leaves showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to all extracts using DPPH method. The concentration of 500 ?g/ml of Methanol extract showed 85.83% anti-oxidant activity in comparison to all extract and standard drug. 500 ?g/ml concentration of Chloroform extract showed 73.94 % higher anti-oxidant activity in comparison to Petroleum ether. Both Pet. Ether extracts showed weak anti-oxidant activity. Ascorbic acid is used as a standard drug for comparison to all extracts.
159 PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS A AND E IN ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA, Dr. Raja Mukherjee1*, Dr. Saswati Chattopadhyay2, Prof. Dr. P. Sreelatha3, Dr. Kalidas Rit4, Dr. Tapajyoti Mukherjee5, Dr. Surya Jyati Chaudhuri6
Background and Objectives: Worldwide, viral hepatitis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Hepatitis A & E viruses, important causes of acute viral hepatitis, are transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Poor personal hygiene and inappropriate sanitary conditions favours their spread. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of both the viral infections in patients of acute viral hepatitis. Materials and Methods: Blood from 88 acute hepatitis cases of both sexes and of all age groups were collected from April 2011 to March, 2012. The serum was separated from the blood samples and IgM ELISA was conducted on them. Results and Conclusion: - 21 cases (24%) were sero-positive for Anti-HAV and 4 (5%) for Anti HEV. Males had higher prevalence (27.27%) of HAV infection while females (5.45 %) of HEV. More no. of cases was in the months of July- August. Thus sanitation and poor living standard play an important role in hepatitis A and E transmission.
160 THIAMINASE ACTIVITY OF THIAMINOLYTICUS CULTURE IN PRESENCE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF THIAMINE WITH OR WITHOUT VITAMIN C, *Sarwar M and Mazin O. Mohager
Vitamin B1 also called Thiamine when deficient caused Beri Beri and effects a large proportion of world population especially in third world countries. In Europe, North America and Australia, thiamine deficiency is common among alcoholics and usually manifests itself as the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome but has also been reported in patients on restricted diets for obesity, those who receive total parenteral nutrition and in those who are on fad diets or whose intakes are high in carbohydrate and low in thiamine. Thiaminase I is a transferase-type enzyme that catalyzes the displacement of the thiazole moiety of thiamine (vitamin B1) by a wide variety of nucleophiles: aromatic primary amines, heterocyclic compounds, and sulfhydryl compounds (i.e., co-substrates). Thiaminase activity occurs among cyanobacteria), plants, bacteria invertebrates, shellfish, and fish. Other enzyme, thiaminase II, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of thiamine occurs exclusively in microorganisms. While the thiaminase II in microorganisms seems to be involved in the thiamine salvage pathway the physiological significance of thiaminase I in species that contain the enzyme is not known and consequently there is a lack of knowledge concerning the possible agents or factors that cause the wide variation in thiaminase activity observed within organisms. The presence of thiaminase in the diet has been associated with the occurrence of thiamine deficiency symptoms among mammals, including humans. In present work it was in mind that in pure culture of thiaminolyticus effect of added thiamine in its various biological forms should be tested at different time intervals of the growing culture with or without the addition of vitamin C. It is revealed that maximum activity of the thiaminases of thiaminolyticus culture is found in 24 hours culture in presence of thiamine hydrochloride. Interestingly when Vitamin C is added it enhanced 13% more activity in thiamine pyrophosphate containing culture. Addition of Vitamin C also enhance 33% SOD activity in the culture containing thiamine pyrophosphate. Catalase activity was found to be increased from 5% to 9.1% in different forms of thiamine containing cultures. The addition of Vitamin C enhanced glutathion peroxidase activity from 8.5% to 13 %. It is therefore, concluded that addition of vitamin C can increase the thiaminases and anti oxidant enzymes activities in thiaminolyticus cultures and hereby indicates some underlying mechanism which needs to be explored in future. We also concluded that Vitamin C can be be beneficial in the deficiency of thiamine especially if it is caused by thiaminases through its antioxidant profile.
161 AN ORAL CAVITY PROTECTOR: MELATONIN- THE KNIGHT RIDER, 1*Dr. Vishal Mehrotra, 2Dr. Kriti Garg, 3Dr. Rohini Singh, 4Dr. Priyanka Sharma
Melatonin is a hormone that is primarily synthesized in the pineal gland. This hormone plays a vital role in protecting oral cavity from the harmful effects caused by various pathogens, autoimmune diseases and oral cancers. This protective action of melatonin comes from its immunomodulatory, antioxidant (free radical scavenger), proliferation and synthesis of Type I collagen, bone formation, oncostatic activity which includes anti-proliferative functions, stimulation of anticancer immunity, and modulation of oncogene expression, anti-Inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects. This article highlights the therapeutic effects of melatonin on the damages caused by mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries on the oral cavity, but also on the bone formation in various autoimmune disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.
162 ROLE OF VILDAGLIPTIN- DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE-4 INHIBITOR IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS - AN OVERVIEW, Revathi Pitchaipillai1*, Bhuvaneswari Shanmugasundaram1, Sarojini Kaliyaperumal2, Jeyaseelan Senthinath3 and Manickavasagam Subramania Pillai1
Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not produce or respond to insulin, a hormone that regulates the level of sugar in the blood. It is characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. They are classified into three categories Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (DM), Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Gestational diabetes. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing rapidly and plays a vital role in the genesis of the pathophysiological events. Oral hypoglycemic agents are used in the treatment of T2DM and they have their own limitations. Newer drugs have been invented for the treatment of T2DM. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors plays an important role in the treatment of T2DM. They are six DPP-4 inhibitor identified (Sitagliptin, Vildagliptin, Saxagliptin, Alogliptin, Linagliptin and teneligliptin). Vildagliptin is a second DPP-4 inhibitor approved by US FDA in February 2007. It is an orally active, potent, and selective DPP-4 inhibitor shown to be effective and well tolerated by patients with T2DM. It is rapidly and well absorbed with an oral bioavailability of 85 %. It is effective either as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents. It has got lower incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms when used as a monotherapy or combination therapy with other oral hypoglycemic drugs. Vildagliptin once daily or twice daily is found to be an effective, safety and well tolerated DPP-4 inhibitor as monotherapy or combination therapy with oral hypoglemic agents (OHA) or insulin in the treatment of T2DM patients.
163 EVOLUTION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND LIPID PROFILE ALTERATION IN CONTINOUS INTAKE OF MICROWAVE FOOD IN CHICKEN, Sharmila Banu Gani* and Pradeepa
Microwave (MW) technology has been widely used in different field in our lives. The microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimetre. Health consideration of microwave radiation has been the major subject of scientific investigation for the last decades. The present study was designed to study the 2.45GHz low level microwave exposed food for 3200 C for 10 mint broiler chicken. The main objective of this study to find out the effect of continuous intake of microwave exposed food for 30 days to the chicken. At the end of 30 days the chicken were sacrificed and biochemical parameters were determined in liver and muscles. It was observed that the level of lipid profile showed significant increase in experimental chicken as compared to control group. Feeding of microwave exposed food induced hepatotoxicity.
164 BIMANUAL TRAINING THERAPY VERSUS CONSTRAINED INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY ON UPPER LIMB FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH HEMIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY, Abdel Aziz A. Sherief*
Background and purpose: Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy have impairments in upper limb function beyond their unilateral impairments. The current study was conducted to compare the effect of bimanual training therapy versus constrained induced movement therapy (CIMT) on the affected upper extremity in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Materials and methods: Thirty hemiplegic children ranged in age from 8 to 10 years with hand spasticity ranged between 1 and 1+ grades according to the Modified Ashworth Scale participated in this study. They were assigned randomly into two equal study groups. Group A received a designed physical therapy program and constrained induced movement therapy, while the group B received the same physical therapy program in addition to play and functional activities that provided structured bimanual practice 1 h per day for bimanual intensive therapy. Both groups received treatment sessions three times per week for three successive moths .Each child in the two groups was evaluated before and after the suggested treatment duration for detecting the level of hand performance using the Peabody Developmental Test of Motor Proficiency while, hand grip strength by a hand held dynamometer and active abduction and external rotation range of motion were measured by a standard universal goniometer. Results: The results revealed non significant differences when comparing the pre-treatment mean values of all measuring variables for the two groups (p< 0.05), while significant improvement was observed in the two groups when comparing their pre and post treatment mean values. Also, significant differences were observed when comparing the post treatment results of the two groups in favor of the group B (p< 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that, hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy appears to have appositive impact on hand function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
165 A REVIEW ON TUBERCULOSIS, Ankush Thakur*, Hemraj Vashist and R B Sharma
Tuberculosis is a fatal disease associated with granuloma in different major organs of our body so called as granulomatos disease. The causative agent for the disease is Mycobacteria tuberoculosis aerobic bacillus bacteria. The disease highly communicable by droplet infection, by using towel, bed seat and by seating near to a patient. The highly effective drugs are available in market but DOT? the direct observation treatment is used to remove the infection from the body totally. for the patient and to the people around the patient should know about the disease and therapy so that they could follow the precautions to prevent the spreading of infection to nearer people. The present work is an attempt to in torch few aspects of this disease.
166 CORRELATION OF 2D:4D RATIO AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE: A STUDY IN NORTH INDIAN MALE POPULATION, Vikramjeet Singh1, Reena Singla2* and Nidhi Puri3
Background: Human 2D:4D ratio attract considerable research interest because they exhibit sexual dimorphism and are linked to several traits.The objective of this study is to find whether 2D:4D ratio could be used as a marker for predisposition to CAD as assessed by coronary angiography in north Indian male population. Material and Methods: This study includes 200 males; 100 subjects with CAD and 100 subjects without CAD between age 18-80 years. Finger lengths were measured twice for both hands using digital caliper. The results were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: 2D: 4D ratio was found more in men with CAD & p value was statistically significant. Cohens effect size was small for right and medium for left hand. Conclusion: The present study supports a positive correlation between high 2D:4D ratio and CAD in males. High 2D:4D ratio is predictive of CAD and may be used in diagnosis and in early life style intervention in Indian men.
167 ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT IN MICE MODELS OF DEPRESSION, Anekere Dasappasetty Sathisha, Priyanka Shivaprakash, Kyathegowdanadoddi Srinivasa Balaji, Vellingiri Vigneshwaran, Krishnaswamy Krupashree, Shankar Jayarama*
Depression is a common and serious mental disorder affecting 350 million people worldwide. Patients after being treated with current antidepressant drugs experience suicidal thoughts which are one of the major adverse effects caused by antidepressants. Herbal medicines have been proved to be potential therapeutic agents. In this study aqueous extract of Garcinia indica was used to evaluate for its antidepressant activity using forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Antidepressant effect was measured by means of decrease in the immobility duration exerted by fruit extract. As it was evident, oral administration of 50mg/kg of Garcinia indica effectively decreased the time of immobility in both TST and FST compared to control. Potentiality of Garcinia indica was almost similar to that of standard drug Imipramine in alleviating depression in both the animal models.
168 MASS PROPAGATION OF ACACIA MANGIUM THROUGH PLANT TISSUE CULTURE, Sonal Shukla1 and Dr. Sao Shweta2*
The present study on Mass Propagation of Acacia mangium Through Pant Tissue Culture was conducted at Dr. C.V. Raman University Kargi road Kota, Bilaspur (C.G.). The man objective of plant tissue culture of mangium initiation was to standardize protocol for mass multiplication of Acacia mangium. Healthy explants were taken from the selected elite mother plants from the selected elite mother plant from mngium field and dipped in the 2% hgcl2 for 10 min. the initiation of micro propagation of Acacia mngium encircles Media preparation which includes MS Medium containing known concentration of the media. Shooting for shoot proliferation and multiplication SM = II Media. i.e. MS salt supple meted with 2 mg/lit. BAP kinetin and 25mg/lit. adenine sulphate. Was found to be best compared to other media prepared through number of multiple shoots were more in SM-II media but was not appropriate for subcultoring. Rooting Best rooting obtained in RM-II Media i.e.1/2. Strength MS- media supplemented with 2 mg/lit. NAA. Hardening og tissue culture growth plantlets Tissue culture of raised plantlets were subjected to specified culture culture regimes aimed at making them. Capable of surviving the uncontrolled and narshar ere vitro environmentsthis was cultured rised plantlets were hardened in to coco pets info the green house.
169 THE EFFECT OF MEDIUM ON THE PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCT RAMIPRIL STABILITY, Hayet Berkoune, Said Zerkout*, Zohra Chakrar, Houda Chiheb and Rachid Fegas.
A simple, rapid and sensitive HPLC method for the determination of the stability of ramipril in the buffer solution with different pH was studied. This approach uses high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detector. The spectra of Ramipril were recorded using mobile phase Acetonitrile: sodium perchloride, at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min (linear gradient elution). A symmetry C18 (75 mm 4.6 mm 3.5 ?m) was utilized as stationary phase, with detection wavelength of 210 nm. The Ramipril sample: 1 mg of Ramipril was dissolved in 1 ml of ammonium phosphate buffer at different pH (pH 3, 5 and 8) and these solutions were stored at 90C for 60 min. No peaks for degradation products appeared in the chromatograms.
170 A COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR THE STERILIZATION OF MEDROXY PROGESTERONE ACETATE FOR PARENTRAL PRODUCT, 1Prof. Dr. Mahmoud M. Ghorab and 2*Dr. Tarek S. Makram
The sterility of parenteral product is an interesting subject to achieve stable formulae. The majority of solid active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) cannot be sterilized terminally since all sterilization techniques affect the quality of the product. The Aim of this study was to approach the best sterilization method for MPA solid micronized powders. Method sterilization of MPA powder has been done by three different techniques, namely, by autoclaving gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide. Studying the microbial, physical and chemical stability, the culture media Fluid Thioglycollate Medium ( FTM) and Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) covered the intended data required for detecting, the microbial free state and the validity of either of stabilization techniques. Chemical and physical stability studied by HPLC method, X-ray diffraction and IR spectrum and loser diffraction particle size analysis were done. Result The most suitable technique was gamma irradiation using the required dose to the maximum of 25 KGys and autoclaving with conservation from the exposure to the most steam that could be expected to deform the crystallinity of the hydrophobic powder. Conclusion sterilization by ethylene oxide was the worst technique due to particle growth, according to a long duration time under RH = 60 and the most serious drawback was the fact of remaining toxic residues from ethylene oxide.
171 OSTEOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF MORINGA OLIEFERA IN OVARIECTOMY INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS MODEL OF WISTAR RATS, Pragna Parikh*, Chirag Patel and Ayaz Rangrez
Osteoporosis is a bone condition defined by low bone mass, increased fragility, decreased bone quality, and an increased fracture risk. Due to lack of compliance in current pharmacological interventions targeting bone problems like postmenopausal osteoporosis, there is an urge for developing new alternative therapies for osteoporosis. In recent times, interest has been given to phytotherapy due their ease of availability and acquiescence. Hence, the present study demonstrates that supplementing ovariectomized (OVX) animals with Moringa oliefera (MO) flower. leaf and fruit extract have positive effect on bone health. Following ovariectomy there was a dramatic decrease in the serum calcium levels, with an increase in the excretion of calcium. Elevated TRAcP and ALP after OVX decreased with MO extract exposure, fall in both the markers clearly suggest that MO plant extract ameliorate the damage caused by estrogen deficiency. Further, phytochemical analysis showed an array of phytochemicals with anti inflammatory as well as antioxidant properties, proving its osteoprotective efficacy. In general, the presence of these Phytochemicals could account for the much touted medicinal properties. Because of the chemical complexity of the MO, one individual phytochemical cannot be given the credit for its pharmacological property. Some compounds may be collectively affecting broad aspects of physiology, detoxification mechanisms, reducing the stress and re-supplementing the lost hormones such as phytoestrogens.