1 Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soil Using Seeds as Bioindicators, Jaqueline Matos Cruz, Paulo Renato Matos Lopes, Renato Nallin Montagnolli, Ivo Shodji Tamada, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra Silva, Ederio Dino Bidoia
The evaluation soil quality after bioremediation processes solely on chemical data does not include the effects of toxic substances in organisms. Thus, ecotoxicological assays with seeds are applied to assess the effect of toxic substances in organisms according to their germination sensitivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate a contaminated soil with diesel, biodiesel and waste lubricat oil in ecotoxicological bioassays using seeds of Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Brassica oleracea (kale) and Barbarea verna (cress) as test organisms. The sample of contaminated soil was buried to allow contact with microorganisms that are naturally present in the soil and can be capable to biodegrade the contaminant. Each soil sample was removed monthly and the potential toxicity of contaminants was evaluated by examining germination rates according to biodegradation time in soil. The results indicate that the species Barbarea verna is not a good test organism due to its low germination rate. The study suggest that the contact of waste lubricant oil and diesel with the embryo was hampered by the seed coats and the hydrophobicity these substances, preventing the entry of substances which may be toxic to the embryo. Also, Cucumis sativus and Brassica oleracea showed that after two months of biodegradation, biodiesel is the most toxic contaminant during seed development.
2 The Effect of Treatment of Alstonia acuminata Bark-Based Active Compound on the Hematology and Histology of Tiger Grouper Fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus), Jane L. Dangeubun, Hardoko, Andayani S., Risjani Y.
Tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) was very susceptible to the poor environment and therefore, it was weak against infection. A solution to this problem was by increasing immune response of the fish. The objective of research was to understand the effect of Alstonia acuminata on the hematology change in order to increase the survival rate of tiger grouper fish. Research was experimental and conducted at laboratory for 3 months. Parameters observed were the hematology of tiger grouper fish (including leukocyte total, monocyte, neutrophile, and lymphocyte) and the survival rate. Result of research indicated that leukocyte total had increased from day-1 to day-5, but decreased at day-7. The highest level of leukocyte total, monocyte, neutrophile, and lymphocyte was obtained at 200 ppm dose. The highest leukocyte total was found at day-5 precisely for 72,666 cells/mL, while the lowest was obtained at 0 ppm (control) dose exactly for 24,433 cells/mL. The highest monocyte percentage was attained at day-5 with 8.67 %, while the lowest was obtained at 0 ppm (control) dose with 2.33 %. The highest neutrophile was achieved in 200 ppm dose with 11.67%. The highest lymphocyte rate of tiger grouper was known at day-5 with 83.33 %, while the lowest was recognized at 0 ppm (control) dose. The highest survival rate was 94.44 % and obtained at 200 ppm dose. Result of research concluded that the treatment of Alstonia acuminate crude extract could influence the hematology and increase the survival rate to 94.44%.
3 Effects of Probiotic Bacillus subtilis on Intestinal Microbial Diversity and Immunity of Orange Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides, Anggraini Ratih Purwandari, Houng Yung Chen
Groupers are an important mariculture in Taiwan and Southeast Asian countries. The rapidly growing orange spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides has experienced relatively severe bacterial disease problems. The proliferation of pathogens in fish can be suppressed by commensal microbe. In this research, probiotic seem to offer an attractive alternative. Bacillus subtilis is a probiotic bacterium that is administered in diet to suppress proliferation of pathogens. In the present study, E. coioides were fed for 6 months with diets contain B. subtilis. Percent weight gain and feed efficiency of the fish fed diets containing 0.1% or 1% probiotics (w/w) were significantly better than the control. The innate cellular response, respiratory burst of the supplemental groups was significantly higher compared to the control on 10 or 20 days after feeding, and even more significant on 30 days. Probiotic B. subtilis increased the intestinal microbial diversity by stimulating the bacterial populations of Paenibacillus sp, Lactobacillus oeni strain 59 b, and Methilacidophilum infernorum strain V4 that are beneficial for E. coioides. The best dose of probiotic B. subtilis based on growth performances, innate cellular responses and microbial profile of fish intestines is 0.1%, which showed equal efficacy as the 1% diet.
4 Promising Antifungal Effect of Rice (Oryza sativa L.), Oat (Avena sativa L.) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Extracts, Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt, Cristiana Costa Bretanha, Larine Kupski, Jaqueline Garda-Buffon, Eliana Badiale-Furlong
The antifungal activity from rice, oat and wheat crude proteic extracts on the development of Fusarium graminearum CQ244, Aspergillus flavus CCT 1217 and Rhizopus oryzae CCT 7560 was investigated intending to identify their potential as natural fungicides. The crude proteic extracts from cereals were prepared in ethanol and the antifungal properties were evaluated using the glucosamine, produced by the biomass as a response. F. graminearum was inhibited by wheat extracts, while that A. flavus was inhibited by oat extracts. R. oryzae was few inhibited. Proteic extracts in higher concentrations may be applied in field and/or storage, as natural antifungal.
5 Inoculation of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Ochrobactrum intermedium, Brevibacterium Sp. and Bacillus cereus Induce Plant Growth Parameters, Muhammad Faisal
The impact of chromate resistant bacteria Ochrobactrum intermedium, Brevibacterium sp. and Bacillus cereus was observed on Lens esculenta plant under two different concentration of K2CrO4 (0 and 300 ?g ml-1). Bacterial inoculations enhanced the seed germination while chromium alone reduced seed germination (60%) and emergence (10%). About 27 and 21% reduction in root and shoot length was recorded at 300 ?g ml-1 of K2CrO4. Chromium salt drastically reduced root and shoot length, number and weight of grains per pod, and number and weight of grains per plant, but bacterial strains enhanced these parameters. Plant accumulates chromium in its root and fewer amounts are transferred into shoot, leaves and pod.
6 Effect of Disinfectants on Antibiotics Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Majid H. Al-Jailawi, Rasha S. Ameen, Montaha R. Al-Jeboori,
Disinfectants are widely used to get rid of microorganisms whether in hospitals, health centers or for normal domestic use. Some suggested that when disinfectants are incorrectly diluted the disinfectant might promote the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, therefore, in this study pathogenic bacterium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), isolated from patient with urinary tract infection, treated with two locally popular disinfectants (Claradone and Sarttol). Results showed that the bacterial growth was affected by both disinfectants. The lowest concentration of Claradone that inhibit the growth of this bacterium is considered as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), this was 30%, while the lowest effecting concentration of Sarttol was 3%. A number of survival colonies after treated with high concentration of Calarodone and Sarttol were investigated for their susceptibility to antibiotics, using standard disc diffusion method. Results indicated that these colonies of P. aeruginosa resisted antibiotics they were sensitive to before treatment. So it can be concluded that using Claradone and sarttol can make the pathogenic bacterium (P. aeruginosa) resist some antibiotics.
7 Content of Carrageenan, Chlorophyll a and Carotenoid of Kappaphycus alvarezii Cultivated in Different Seawater Depth Laikang Village, District of Mangarabombang, Takalar Regency, Akmal, Rajuddin Syam, Dody Dh Trijuno, Rahmi, Darmawati
The objective of the study is to analyze the content of carrageenan, chlorophyll a and carotenoid of seaweed K. alvarezii cultivated in different seawater depth. The research consists of 5 treatments of different sea level, which are 20 cm; 100 cm; 200 cm; 300 cm and 400 cm, each treatment consists of three re trials, then there will be 15 trial test. The method used is by randomly hanging seaweed in vertical order. Variance analysis is performed at the rate of 95%. The findings show significant difference of depths for cultivation towards carrageenan content and insignificant difference towards chlorophyll a and carotene content of seaweed. The highest carrageenan content is in the depth of 20 cm (56,31%) and the lowest is in the 400 cm (17,10%). Chlorophyll a and carotenoid content is relatively high in the depth of 100 cm (respectively 0,013 mg/g-1 and 0,299 mg/g-1) and the lowest is in the depth of 20 cm (respectively 0,006 mg/g-1 dan 0,163 mg/g-1).
8 Organic Matter Degradation in Lobster Culture System and Their Effect on Waters Quality in Ekas Bay, Indonesia, Muhammad Junaidi, Sri Andayani, Muhamad Mahmudi, Aida Sartimbul
Feed degradation testing was carried out by feed incubation placed in nylon bags sunk in the sea for 50 days. During incubation was done the content analysis of C, N and P of feed periodicly. Waters quality determination of Ekas Bay was carried out by using STORET system. The result showed that feed decomposition rate was quickly occurred until the twenty ninth period of incubation, then continued to be slowly with the composition rate constant of k1 and k2 found to be 0.043 and 0.026, respectively. Nutrient releasing (dried weight/day) of C, N and P of feed was 0.326 C/g, 0.177 N/g and 0.073 P/g, respectively. Waters quality status of Ekas Bay was in C class (moderate fouled) with standard quality over parameters were ammoniac (0.3 mg/L), nitrate (0.008 mg/L) and phosphate (0.015 mg/L). Therefore, to anticipate the availability decreasing of habitat and its effect on culture aquatic environment is need to search efforts which can decrease waste removal rate of ammoniac, nitrate and phosphate to culture environment to minimize the effect of culture activity.
9 Efficient Expression of Recombinant L-phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase From Rhodosporidium toruloides using Escherichia coli, Alexander Yu. Prosekov, Olga O. Babich, Vadim S. Pokrovsky, Svetlana A. Ivanova, Marina V. Novoselova
We explored simple and cost effective method to obtain recombinant PAL of Rhodosporidium toruloides using E. coli expression system. E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) was transformed by pET28 plasmid containing L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene from Rhodosporidium toruloides and cultured in different conditions. To assess the physiological activity of microbial cells, we studied the growth kinetics in a series of batch fermentation and changes in its activity after the induction. The kinetics of the process of cultivation of recombinant E. coli strain was studied by the Ludeking-Paire model. A growth and induction regimen was established for use in bioreactor which results in the accumulation of 1,9 g l-1 of recombinant PAL. The point of maximum activity of the PAL produced was determined at 38.0-38.5 h after induction. The optimum concentration of inducer (IPTG) was 2 mM, we recommend to add the inducer at OD540=1.3. This simple and cost effective production process could be recruited for large scale production of PAL.