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Paper Details

Middle Ear Effusion in Preschool Children in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

Middle Ear Effusion in Preschool Children in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

Enica Richard Massawe; Daudi Cheche Ntunaguzi;Ndeserua Moshi and Kassim Babu Mapondella.

Journal Title:Acta Scientific Otolaryngology
Abstract


Background: Otitis media with effusion is a common disorder in children, which may either resolve spontaneously or cause undesir-able complications especially if associated with persistent hearing loss.Otitis media with effusion contributes to hearing loss, poor speech acquisition and learning difficulties. There has not been any retrievable study done to show the magnitude of otitis media with effusion and its complication in our country.Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of otitis media with effusion among preschool children in Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam in Tanzania among 541 preschool children aged 2 to 6 years. Random sampling method was used. Otoscopic examination was done by the principal investigator using pneu-matic otoscope. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was reached by findings of the ear drum with exclusion of features of acute otitis media. Tympanometry was conducted by research assistant and type B curve was regarded as diagnostic for otitis media with effusion.EPI-INFO version 6.04d computer program was used to analyze the data and relationships were tested at 5% tolerable error.Results: Out of 541 preschool children screened, 24% had otitis media with effusion in one or both ears. Fifteen percent had bilat-eral otitis media with effusion while 4.8% had right and 4.3% had left otitis media with effusion respectively. Of the screened female children, 26.5% had otitis media with effusion which was slightly higher than males (21.7%). The prevalence of otitis media with effusion was higher (24.5%) among children aged 5 to 6 years as compared to prevalence of 22.5% among children aged 2-4 years. Both pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry detected otitis media with effusion in 17.8% of children aged 2 to 4 years while 14.3% of children aged 5 to 6 years were detected by pneumatic otoscopy and 14.1% were detected by tympanometry.The pneumatic otoscopy was found to be as good as tympanometry in diagnosing otitis media with effusion and it’s sensitivity was found to be 97.7% and specificity was 99.5%.Conclusion: The overall prevalence of otitis media with effusion among preschool children in Kinondoni District in Dar es Salaam was noted to be high. The prevalence was higher among children aged 5 to 6 years and in females. Pneumatic otoscopy was as good as tympanometry in diagnosing otitis media with effusion.