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Paper Details

Effect of Smoking and Periodontal Diseases on Salivary Glycoconjugates and Oxidative Stress Markers-A Comparative Study

Effect of Smoking and Periodontal Diseases on Salivary Glycoconjugates and Oxidative Stress Markers-A Comparative Study

Bhagyalekshmi M1*, Seba Abraham2

Journal Title: Journal of Dental Health and Oral Research
Abstract


Background and Objectives: The most important feature in periodontal disease is degradation of extracellular matrix, resulting in elevated levels of various salivary biomarkers in periodontal diseases. Smoking results in oxidative stress as a result of imbalance between Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and antioxidants. The present study was intendent to assess and compare the levels of salivary glycoconjugates, oxidative stress markers and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF- β1) levels in periodontally healthy and chronic periodontitis subjects with and without smoking habits. Methods: A total of 100 subjects of age between 20 to 60 years were selected and equally divided among the four groups. The four groups were group 1 (periodontally healthy non-smokers), group 2 (periodontally healthy smokers), group 3 (chronic periodontitis non-smokers) and group 4 (chronic periodontitis smokers). Saliva samples were collected from all the four groups. The biochemical parameters assessed include Free Sialic Acid, Protein Bound Sialic Acid, L-Fucose, Total proteins, Total hexose, Superoxide Dismutase, Malondialdehyde and Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 (TGF-β1). Results: The analysis of variance showed that there exists a statistically significant differences in the mean value of salivary total proteins (p<0.05), total hexose (p<0.01), Superoxide Dismutase (p<0.01), Malondialdehyde (p<0.05), Transforming Growth Factor β1 (p <0.01) among the four groups. Conclusions: The present study highlights the need for incorporating smoking cessation programs in routine periodontal therapy. The alterations in the levels of glycoconjugates are observed in other pathological conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, cirrhosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases. These potent biomarkers mapped way for screening other inflammatory conditions too.