Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation for COVID-19
Attapon Cheepsattayakorn1*, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn2
Journal Title: Journal of Clinical Immunology AND Microbiology
In-vitro, Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) populations with potentials of similar multi-lineage differentiation have been obtained from several Bone Marrow (BM) and non-bone marrow tissues, including umbilical cord, placenta, amniotic fluid, adipose tissue, and peripheral blood [1-10]. The clonogenic BM-human MSCs fraction ranges from 10 to 100 Colony-Forming Unit-Fibroblast (CFU-F) per 106 Marrow Mononuclear Cells (MNCs) . BM-human MCSs are characterized by lacking CD11b, CD14, CD19, D34, CD45, CD79α, and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DR expression; positive expression of surface antigens CD73, CD90, and CD105; multipotency (i.e., chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic); and their adherence to plastic . By the year 2000, clinicians increasingly had become interested in intravenously applied MSC therapy . A previous study demonstrated that both human and murine MCSs can induce immune suppression by attracting and killing auto reactive T cells via FasL, therefore stimulating Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) production by macrophages and generation of regulatory T cells . The dying T cells that is caused by the interaction involving the MSC-induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion in turn activate macrophages to produce TGF-β, then stimulating regulatory T cells and promoting immune tolerance . The capacity of MSCs for in-vivo differentiation and engraftment and by their efficacy in promoting wound healing highlighted its clinical relevance [15-21].