Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Relation to Allergic Diseases: A Cross Sectional Study Among Allergic Patients from Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia
Amal A Abbas1,2*, Johara Wajeeh1, Hanan Wajeeh1, Asma Alghamdi1, Shahd Al Sharief1
Journal Title: Journal of Clinical Immunology AND Microbiology
Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence and trend of sensitization to common aeroallergens and food allergens among allergic patients and investigate the relationship between their atopic profile and vitamin D level.
Methods: A total of 918 patients referred to King Fahd General Hospital Immunology Laboratory in Jeddah city; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), with clinical manifestations or suspicion of respiratory and/or food allergies were included in the study. They underwent tests for total and allergen-specific serum IgE (sIgE). Vitamin D data was available for 222 sensitized patients.
Results: Out of 918 patients, 383 cases exhibited positive sIgE to either one or more allergens (41.7%). Indoor allergens were the most common type of aeroallergens followed by grass pollens, molds and tree pollens. The most frequent indoor allergen panel was House Dust Mites (HDM) and cockroach panel. It included Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farina with (31.2 %) and (30.9%) prevalence respectively, then cockroach German (14.2%), followed by cat dander (9.3%) and dog dander (9.2%). The most prevalent grass pollen allergen was Bermuda grass (7.7%), while the commonest mold allergen was Candida albicans (7.1 %). The top food allergens were shrimp (16%), cod fish (8.3%) and peanut (6%) followed by milk (5.7%) and soybean (5.2%). The majority of the patients had vitamin D deficiency (74.7%) and (12.6 %) had vitamin D insufficiency. Patients with vitamin D deficiency are more liable to have allergic sensitization to different allergens, both food and aeroallergens among all grades than those with insufficient or sufficient levels, especially in high reactivity group (grade 6) in which 95% of patients had vitamin D deficiency.
Conclusion: Sensitization to HDM, cockroach German and cat dander showed an increased prevalence amongst studied patients. The most frequent food allergens were shrimp and codfish. Vitamin D deficiency is significantly noticeable among allergic patients.