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Paper Details

Immunogenetics and Immuno-epidemiological Parameters of COVID-19

Immunogenetics and Immuno-epidemiological Parameters of COVID-19

Attapon Cheepsattayakorn1*, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn2

Journal Title: Journal of Clinical Immunology AND Microbiology

As of February 15, 2020, 51,800 cases of COVID-19 disease, including more than 1,600 COVID-19 related deaths, had been laboratory-confirmed in mainland China, mainly in Hubei province. Additionally, 526 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported across 25 other countries. Approximately, 15% of cases reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) are severe, 3% are critical, and 82% are mild clinical manifestations, whereas the estimated overall case fatality rate is approximately 2% but the figure outside of Hubei province is approximately 0.05% or less, not different from the fatality identified in the seasonal influenza. The mean age of COVID-19 patients is 52.4 years, whereas children and adolescents are the least likely group to be infected with the COVID-19, occurring in only 2 % of cases 19 years of age or younger. When the younger-age group get sick, they will get a mild form of COVID-19 without serious complications, with an average death rate of 0.2 %. Men constitute more than two-thirds of the reported COVID-19 cases (73 % vs. 27 %) and are more than 1.5 times more likely to die from COVID-19 (death rate : 2.8 % vs. 1.7 %). This sexual distinction of the anti-viral immunity between men and women is due to the genetic factors, hormonal factors, and environmental factors. The unanswered questions include the pathophysiology of pulmonary clinical infection, influenza and other viral co-infection, and the rate of bacterial complications. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection has evolved to become a pandemic, in contrast to infections with SARS and MERS, whereas SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has demonstrated having the similarities of genome sequence, receptor affinity, pathogenesis, and disease manifestation. In conclusion, although genomic evidence does not support the belief that COVID-19 is a laboratory construct, currently it is impossible to disprove or prove the theories of its origin. To identify the COVID-19 origin, obtaining virus sequences from immediate non-human animal sources would be the most definite method. In the absence of proper cure of COVID-19, it is necessary to identify the factors that may assist in assessment of the COVID-19 disease severity before rapid progression of the disease.