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Mycobacterial Infection in Children at the Chu Hospital Du Mali: A Series of 12 Cases

Mycobacterial Infection in Children at the Chu Hospital Du Mali: A Series of 12 Cases

Bréhima Traoré1*, Abou Coulibaly1, Bourama Kané2, Lassina G Timbiné1, Abdoul Karim Sangré1, Judicaël Ouedraogo1, Bourema Kouriba1

Journal Title: Journal of Clinical Immunology AND Microbiology

Introduction: Mycobacterial infections include infections with M. tuberculosis complex, M. leprae, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Mycobacteria can cause a wide variety of infection. Diagnosis of these infections is challenging especially in children because of low availability of clinical and laboratory services particularly in low-resource settings. Methods: We describe a retrospective case series of mycobacteria infections in children aged 0-15 years at the pediatric department of the Hospital du Mali between January and December 2017. The diagnosis was based on clinical assessment, microbiology (microscopy, culture, PCR); histopathology findings; and radiology evidences. Results: During the study period, 11354 children were seen in consultation among them 60 children had suspicion of Tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacteria infection was retained in 12 children. 66.7% were male and the average age was 8 years. Ten children (83.3%) were BCG vaccinated and 16.7% had history of TB contact. The most common symptoms were cough (83.3%), fever (75%), general state altered (75%) and dyspnea (50%). The locations were Lung (58.3%), miliary (16.7%), multifocal (8.3%), pericarditis (8.3%) and pleural (8.3%). The Tuberculin Skin Tests (TST) was negative in 58.3%. All children (100%) were seen more than a month after the onset of the symptoms. Other comorbidities were malaria (25%), severe malnutrition (25%), HIV (16.7%) and hypertension (16.7%). Conclusion: Combination of clinical, microbiological, histopathological and radiological examinations enabled us to better explore tuberculosis in children.