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Paper Details

Nanoparticle Delivery of siRNAs in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Nanoparticle Delivery of siRNAs in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Hakmin Mun1* and Helen Townley1

Journal Title:Acta Scientific Cancer Biology

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most fatal gynaecologi- cal cancer with a 5-year survival rate of only 46% [1]. Since most symptoms in the initial stage of EOC are uncertain and effective early detection techniques have not been developed, approxi- mately 75% of EOC cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage [2]. The fast-spreading metastatic cancer cells require urgent and ef- fective therapy, but the current treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery are not efficacious enough to cure EOC com- pletely. Surgical debulking of ovarian tumours followed by pacli- taxel and platinum-based chemotherapy is considered as a stan- dard therapy, but this still results in recurrence in the majority of cases [3]. Oligonucleotide-based therapy employing RNA interfer- ence (RNAi) holds great promise as a therapy for metastatic EOC. During RNAi processes, microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can bind to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) with com- plementary sequences and then neutralize the binding mRNAs, leading to prevention of the gene expression. SiRNA molecules are double-stranded oligonucleotides with 20 to 25 base pairs in length, and upon cellular entry they split into single-stranded RNAs, which further guide a ribonucleoprotein, RNA-induced si- lencing complex (RISC), to degrade the complementary mRNAs. The efficient gene-silencing potential of siRNAs provides an option to treat many diseases which are caused by the unusual expression of single or multiple genes [4].