Nanoparticle Delivery of siRNAs in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Treatment
Hakmin Mun1* and Helen Townley1
Journal Title:Acta Scientific Cancer Biology
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most fatal gynaecologi-
cal cancer with a 5-year survival rate of only 46% . Since most
symptoms in the initial stage of EOC are uncertain and effective
early detection techniques have not been developed, approxi-
mately 75% of EOC cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage .
The fast-spreading metastatic cancer cells require urgent and ef-
fective therapy, but the current treatments such as chemotherapy,
radiation, and surgery are not efficacious enough to cure EOC com-
pletely. Surgical debulking of ovarian tumours followed by pacli-
taxel and platinum-based chemotherapy is considered as a stan-
dard therapy, but this still results in recurrence in the majority of
cases . Oligonucleotide-based therapy employing RNA interfer-
ence (RNAi) holds great promise as a therapy for metastatic EOC.
During RNAi processes, microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering
RNAs (siRNAs) can bind to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) with com-
plementary sequences and then neutralize the binding mRNAs,
leading to prevention of the gene expression. SiRNA molecules
are double-stranded oligonucleotides with 20 to 25 base pairs
in length, and upon cellular entry they split into single-stranded
RNAs, which further guide a ribonucleoprotein, RNA-induced si-
lencing complex (RISC), to degrade the complementary mRNAs.
The efficient gene-silencing potential of siRNAs provides an option
to treat many diseases which are caused by the unusual expression
of single or multiple genes .