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Escalation of Efficacy and Prevention of Chemoresistance in Various Cancer Therapies by the Utilization of Targeting the Crosstalk Amongst MAPK/ERK Along with Hippo/MST Signaling - A Comprehensive Review

Escalation of Efficacy and Prevention of Chemoresistance in Various Cancer Therapies by the Utilization of Targeting the Crosstalk Amongst MAPK/ERK Along with Hippo/MST Signaling - A Comprehensive Review

Kulvinder Kochar Kaur1*, Gautam Allahbadia2 and Mandeep Singh3

Journal Title:Acta Scientific Cancer Biology
Abstract


Earlier having reviewed the treatment of ovarian cancer, endometrial carcinoma, gestational trophoblastic disease ( GTD), along with colorectal cancer, breast cancer etc, here we decided to comprehensively evaluate the crosstalk of various signaling pathway implicated in cancer therapy, in particular how the crosstalk amongst mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK )/extracellular signal -regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling pathway with the Hippo/MST signaling pathway knowledge might impact on the generation of newer therapies by getting insight into the harms of physiology of phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/activator of protein kinase B (AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and combining therapies targeting Hippo/MST signaling pathway might avoid in the generation of chemoresistance. In particular the ERK represents a part of the MAPK signaling pathway that is amarkedly conserved pathway of signal transduction. This MAPK gets constituted by three separate kinases, like RAF/MEK as well as ERK. Im- pairment of the MAPK signaling takes place in a lot of pathophysiological conditions that are inclusive of neurodegenerative diseases, (NGD), Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in addition to lot of cancers. Targeted hampering of the unique kinases belonging to the MAPK signaling pathway with the utilization of certain synthetic agents might work out to be of significant advantage for the treatment of cancer. Interaction of the MAPK signaling pathway with other proteins in addition to signaling pathways possess a key influence on the Clinical results of targeted treatments, besides possessing a significant part at the time of generation of drug resistance In can- cers. Here we have tried to detail the interaction of the MAPK signaling pathway with rest of the signaling pathways specifically its crosstalk with the Hippo/MST signaling pathway, besides detailing how it may prove advantageous on utilization of targeting of these particular pathways In combination in the generation of anticancer treatments that turn out to possess greater efficacy. Keywords: MAPK; ERK; Hippo; MST; PI3K; YAP; Cancer; Caspases; Natural Agents; Apoptosis