PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF THE LEAVES OF SOLANUM TORVUM SWARTZ (SOLANACEAE) - THE ASSESMENT OF ITS QUALITY
Dr. K. Periyanayagam*, Gokila S and K. G. Balasubramaniam
Journal Title:World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Objective: To study in detail micromorphology and physiochemical analysis of Solanum torvum Swartz leaves Solanaceae family. Method: Macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical studies and other WHO recommended parameters for the standardization were performed. Result: Leaves are simple, alternate, broadly ovate elliptic, variable in size, 10-15 cm long, 8-10 cm wide, margins with broad lobes, deeply cut in juvenile phases, shallow in mature leaves, apex acute to obtuse, base somewhat sagittate to auriculate, equal or oblique, petioles 2-5 cm long. Microscopical studies of both light and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the presence of anisocytic and anomocytic stomata on both surfaces but more in lower surface, collenchyma, single layer of
palisade and spongy parenchyma, xylem, phloem, fibres, calcium oxalate crystals and stellate trichomes. Vein islet, vein termination, stomatal number & index, palisade ratio, and physiochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value, loss on drying were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids,solanum alkaloid, glycoside, proteins and amino acid, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and sterols. Volatile oil, fixed oil and mucilage were found to be absent. Conclusion: The microscopical and histological identification, microscopic constant and other physiochemical examination of the leaves of Solanum torvum Swartz (sundaikai), can be used as rapid, inexpensive botanical identification technique and its useful standardization, hence would be immense value in authentication of leaf.