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Paper Details

Never underestimate the power of the sandwiched: Middle leaders and school culture

Norma Ghamrawi

Journal Title:Basic Research Journal of Education Research and Review

The purpose of this study was to investigate any relationship existing between the leadership styles exhibited by middle leaders, particularly subject leaders, and school climate. The sample was comprised of 250 teachers from 31 private K-12 schools in Beirut, Lebanon. The Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (5X) was employed in order to collect data pertaining to the leadership styles of subject leaders as perceived by teachers, while the School Culture Survey utilized to secure a profile for the prevailing culture of the participating schools. Additionally, participants responded to a single question- whom do you think is more influential in shaping school culture: subject leaders or the school principal? Explain. SPSS 18.0 was used to calculate Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients to detect the relationship between leadership styles of subject leaders and school culture. Findings indicate a strong positive relationship existing between the two variables. Besides, 87.61% of participant teachers considered their subject leaders to be more effective in shaping school culture by virtue of being sandwiched between senior leadership from one side and teachers, students and parents from the other side. Through the sandwich model, subject leaders play six critical roles which enable them to shape school culture. Roles include subject leaders as: (1) communicators; (2) curriculum designers; (3) liaisons; (4) event organizers; (5) role models; and (6) change agents. Keywords: School culture- leadership styles subcultures- middle leadership- subject leadership