Light and Electron Microscopic Study of Degeneration of Central Myelinated Axons in Human Traumatic Brain Injuries
Orlando J. Castejón*
Journal Title:Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research
In traumatic brain injuries of human edematous cerebral cortex degenerated myelinated axons in the gray matter underwent varicose fiber swelling, clear and dark types of axonal degeneration, myelin sheath vacuolization and distortion, formation of myelin ovoids, invagination and retraction of axoplasm, rupture of axolemma, cytoskeletal disruption featured by increased or reduced number of neurofilaments and fragmentation of microtubules, retraction of axoplasm, enlargement of periaxonal space, and partial or total disappearance of axoplasmic organelles. Phagocytosis of degenerated myelinated axons by reactive oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglial cells, and non-nervous professional phagocytes is observed in mild and severe traumatic brain edema. Some biochemical events are postulated underlying myelinated axonal degeneration.