Morphopathological Changes of Dendrites in the Edematous Human Cerebral Cortex
Orlando J. Castejón*
Journal Title:Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research
Swollen and beaded dendrites exhibit fragmentation of limiting plasma membrane, cytomembranes and cytoskeletal structures. The swollen dendrites show vacuolization, dense residual bodies, enlarged rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and edematous clear and dark mitochondria. The multifactorial processes associated with brain edema and brain ischemia, such as calcium overload, activation of calcium-dependent proteolitic enzymes, protein aggregation, glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, release of lysosomal enzymes, deficit of ATP, stress oxidative and lipid peroxidation have been considered in relation with pathological dendritic changes. Dendrotoxicity due to brain edema and brain ischemia seems to be the fundamental pathogenetic mechanism underlying the dendritic damage.