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Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Epidemiology, Causes, Pathophysiology, Diagnostic Approaches, Preventive Interventions, and Treatment Challenges/Opportunities – (An Evidence-Based Narrative Literature Review)

Article by Khalid Rahman  

Journal Title:Texila International Journal of Clinical Research
Abstract


Background: MDR-TB (Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis) reportedly proves to be the greatest public health issue on a global scale. The mutation tendency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis substantially elevates its resistance against the recommended pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Limited information on the MDR-TB diagnostic approaches and treatment options is primarily responsible for its extensive progression across resource-limited regions. The frequently reported adverse effects of the standard therapies barricade their long-term use by the MDR-TB patients. Aim: The presented narrative review attempts to consolidate and strengthen the clinical evidence for improving the MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment decisions in health care settings. Methods: The author performed an evidence-based analysis of the causative factors, pathophysiology, diagnostic techniques, and treatment options/challenges for MDR-TB through the systematic exploration of databases including Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline, and Cochrane Library. The utilization of these databases was effectively undertaken to explore the peer-reviewed MDR-TB-related articles based on meta-analysis, systematic review, retrospective study, randomized controlled trial, and narrative literature reviews. Findings: The study findings revealed MDR-TB epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic approaches, preventive measures, pathogenesis, treatment adversities, and therapeutic potential in the context of controlling the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis and related comorbidities. Conclusion: The study findings advocate the need for improving the overall MDR-TB investigation and treatment process to control the elevated prevalence of MDR-TB among the suspected patients. The study outcomes advocate the requirement of multidisciplinary coordination between clinicians and researchers to effectively improve the medical decision-making quality for enhancing the therapeutic outcomes of MDR-TB patients. Keywords: MDR-TB, Drug-resistant, tuberculosis, diagnosis, pathophysiology, treatment.  

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