Anatomical Changes in the Body Related to Galagaṇḍa
Teena Jain, Anil Kumar Joshi and Sunil Kumar Yadav
Journal Title:International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck below the Adam’s apple. It is part of a complex network of glands called the endocrine system, which is regulates nearly all body functions, including metabolic, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, nervous, and reproductive systems either directly or indirectly. The thyroid gland manufactures hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism (the process of creating and using energy). Thyroid problems are among the most common endocrine disorders presently seen worldwide. Patients with thyroid disorders suffer either from hypofunctioning or from hyperfunctioning of the gland. Whereas the former leads to a decrease in the concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones, the latter increases the same. These two dysfunctions are commonly referred as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, respectively. Hypothyroidism is a clinical syndrome resulting from a deficiency of thyroid hormones, which in turn results in a generalized slowing down of metabolic processes. In the pride of India i.e. Āyurveda there is no clear-cut evidence of hypothyroidism, but on the basis of its clinical presentation, it can be explained under the heading of Galagaṇḍa. Ācārya says that, Vāta and Kapha aggravated in the neck and having accumulated in Manyā and along with Meda produce glandular enlargement with their characteristic symptoms. It is known as Galagaṇḍa. Galagaṇḍa has been defined as the swelling, big or small, which hangs like scrotum in the neck.