Transesterification of Cotton Seed Oil to Biodiesel using Nanoparticles of Bentonite Clay Catalysed Reaction
Journal Title:Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries
This work focuses on optimizing various process parameters involved in transesterification of cotton seed oil to biodiesel by bentonite clay catalyzed reaction. The various process paramaters studied include temperature, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time and amount of catalyst to improve the yield of biodiesel. The various properties of biodiesel produced such as calorific value, Cetane index, flash point and pour point were determined. The aim of applying nano-catalysis in the present project is to produce catalysts with improved selectivity, extremely high activity, low energy consumption, and long lifetime. This can be achieved only by precisely controlling the size, shape, spatial distribution, surface composition and electronic structure, and thermal and chemical stability of the individual nano-components. Cotton seed oil is extracted from the seeds of cotton plants (Gossypium herbaceum, G. barbadense and G. hirsutum) and other related species of Gossypium. Current production technology for the extraction of cotton seed oil generally relies on crushing with solvent extraction. The clay used in this work is calcium bentonite clay from North-eastern Nigeria. The biodiesel produced is characterized using FT-IR spectral analysis and GC-MS analysis to ascertain the various functional groups and compounds present. The major finding is that genotype differences in characteristics of cotton seed oil exist under field conditions. Highest oil content and amount of tocopherol is obtained from Funtua, while the highest oleic and linoleic acid content is found in Zaria and Funtua cotton species respectively. It is desirable to use non-edible oils, particularly those which can be grown on non-fertile or waste lands unfit for growing food crops. This will help in not only utilization of waste land but also create jobs for the rural poor.