Nutrition in Disguise: Development, Testing and CostAnalysis of Nutrient-Enhanced Food for Residential Care
Heather Keller, Flavia Lucio Pereira de Paula , Cindy Wei , Alison Duncan4 and Lisa Duizer
Journal Title:Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Food Science
Older adults living in residential care are at risk for micronutrient deficiency and malnutrition. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of micronutrient-enhanced recipes to meet this need. Three phases were used to develop micronutrient-enhanced foods, made with novel ingredients, appropriate for residential care. Nutrients, ingredients and food vehicles to be enhanced were identified through published literature, consultation with providers and nutrient analysis to determine ingredients/foods high in nutrients shown to be low in the diets of residents. 21 recipes were developed by residential chefs of which 10 were taste-tested by residents without (n=18) and with (n=11) cognitive impairment. Liking and sensory appeal were measured using hedonic scale (9 point), a cued facial response scale (9 point), weighing remaining test foods and unprompted facial expressions and comments. A 7-day residential menu was substituted with one or two nutrient-enhanced foods and nutrient analysis and cost were compared to the original menu. Recipes were created for desserts, baked products, soups, quiche and a smoothie. Nutrients enhanced were: vitamin B6 , folate, vitamins B12, D, E and K, calcium, magnesium, selenium and zinc. Taste-testing across persons with and without cognitive impairment identified that desserts and baked products were preferred, although there was no single tasting method that clearly identified preferences for persons living with cognitive impairment. Cost increase was less than 10% and nutrient content increased for one, and two food item substitutions in the residential menu, but differences were not statistically significant. Enhancement of micronutrients through novel ingredient recipes for residential care is a feasible strategy to mitigate micronutrient malnutrition.