Is Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Associated with Health among Chinese in the Netherlands? A Cross-sectional Study
Ping Wai Man , Irene M. van der Meer , Wenzhi Lin , Ron Wolterbeek , Mattijs E. Numans , Annemieke C. Heijboer, Paul Lips , Barend J. C. Middelkoop
Journal Title:Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Food Science
Background: Little is known about the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and health outcomes of Chinese people residing in the Netherlands. Objective: The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to explore the associations between 25(OH)D and bone health, cardio metabolicrelated outcomes, and physical performance. Methods: In a sample of Chinese people living in the Netherlands, 416 men and women aged ≥18 years with a Chinese background, serum 25(OH)D concentrations, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and physical performance were measured. Bone health was measured by means of quantitative ultrasound of the heel. Physical activity, sunlight exposure, calcium intake, and use of vitamin D supplements and drugs were self-reported by means of questionnaires. Results: At the cut-off point of 25(OH)D for vitamin D adequacy as defined by the Health Council of the Netherlands (HCN), fasting blood glucose was higher when serum 25(OH)D was <30 nmol/L (or <50 nmol/L for persons aged ≥70 years) both unadjusted (0.340 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.059 to 0.621) and adjusted for age, sex and use of vitamin D supplements and glucose-lowering drugs (0.284 mmol/L;95% CI, 0.033 to 0.536). Other associations at the HCN cut-off point were not found. At the cut-off points of 25(OH)D of 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L no associations between 25(OH)D and health outcomes were found. Conclusion: Although this study provides some insights into detectable associations between vitamin D and some health outcomes, further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to confirm our findings.