An Overview and Approach towards Intellectual Disability and its Management in Ayurveda
R.C.Harinkhede,D. B. Chavan, P.L. Patil and V.U.Gawai
Journal Title:International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Intellectual disability (formerly called mental retardation) refers to a group of disorders that have in common deficits of adaptive and intellectual function and an age of onset before maturity is reached. Three criteria must be met to establish the diagnosis of intellectual disability: significantly sub average intellectual function, significant impairments in adaptive function, and onset before 18 yrs of age. Though Ayurvedic literature does not describe it clearly as a separate disease entity but it throws light on the aetiopathogenesis, presentation, along with prophylactic and some specific measures for management of such disorders. After summarizing scattered references on intellectual disability, it is clear that genetic factors (beejadosha), improper diet (apathya), suppression of natural urges (vegadharana) and gynecological disorders (yonidosha) during pregnancy play important role in the development of fetal disorders (garbhavikrati) and mental disorder (manasikvikara). Currently available treatment in conventional system of medicine is palliative while in Ayurveda medhya drugs (memory boosters and enhancers) are described for such disorders which are quite safe and free from side effect. In the present review article author did an effort not only to highlight etiopathology but also management of intellectual disability supported by various studies in the field of Ayurveda.