A Critical Review on the Concept of Swabhavoparamvad in Relation with ‘Apoptosis’ and ‘Homeostasis’ w.s.r. to ‘Jara’ (Physiological Aging)
Khagen Basumatary and Hasina Ferdouse
Journal Title:International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Acharya Charak while mentioning ‘Jara’ said that, it is a Swabhavajavyadhi and is Nishpratikriya. The same follows the concept of ‘Swabhavoparamvad’. Here, Swabhava means natural and the meaning of uparam is destruction, so the word swabhavoparam stands for natural destruction. After birth, growth and senility ultimately leading to death are inevitable process. It is correctly stated that aging begins before birth and continues throughout life at different rates, in different races for different individuals and for different tissues of the body. It involves two opposite processes that simultaneously come into operation i.e. growth and atrophy. In an organism, aging represents structural and functional changes over its entire life span. It is a universal phenomenon characterized by progressive deterioration of cells and organs due to accumulation of macromolecular and organelle damage. The continuous removal of worn out components and replacement with new synthesized one ensures cellular homeostasis and delays aging process. While, apoptosis is, without question, critical for homeostasis, it is conceivable that even normal apoptotic processes might, over-time lead to normal aging phenotypes or agerelated pathologies. So, here in this review I am going to establish the fact that homeostasis and apoptosis are important for normal maintenance of health as well as healthy aging, in Ayurvedic point of view as both the terms ‘homeostasis’ and ‘apoptosis’ comes under the definition of ‘swabhavoparam’.