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Paper Details

Smartphone and Musculoskeletal Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

Vahedi Z, Hajizadeh L and Garosi E*

Journal Title:Ergonomics International Journal

Background: Smartphones (SPs) are one of the newest technologies that influence users’ daily lives. These technologies have both improved and exerted negative effects on our ways of living. With this issue in mind, we conducted a systematic review of studies on how SPs are used and its effects on muscle activity and joint motion in people’s upper extremities. Objective: This systematic review was aimed at surveying the effects of different tasks and typing styles by SP on SP user musculoskeletal disorders. Method: Articles on the level of muscular activity and the kinematics of neck, upper extremities, and wrist during SP use were searched over Google Scholar, PubMed, Research Gate, and Science Direct. The search yielded 513 articles, out of which 18 were selected on the basis of inclusion and eligibility criteria. Result: The reviewed articles showed that muscle activity and joint movement in the neck, wrist, and fingers were highly associated with the manner by which SP features were used. Two-handed and one-handed grips required different degrees of extension in the wrist and thumb. Conclusion: Although the reviewed studies provided various recommendations for the healthy and appropriate use of SPs, there continues to be a lack of research that establishes precise guidelines on working correctly with these devices. Such guidelines are important considering that the functions and applications of SPs are being rapidly developed.