Cytokine Storming in COVID-19
Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn.
Journal Title:Acta Scientific Microbiology
During viral infection, cytokines play an important role in immunopathology with the first line of defense against viral infection via rapid and well-coordinated innate immune response. In vitro studies reveal that delayed release of cytokines and chemokines occurs in respiratory epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) at the early stage of severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, including COVID-19 infection. At the later stage of infection, these cells secrete low levels of the antiviral factors-interferons (IFNs) and high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and chemokines (C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL-2, CCL-3 and CCL-5. SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 infects human airway epithelial cells, DCs, human peripheral blood monocyte (HPBM)-derived macrophages, and THP-1 cells (a monocyte cell line) and elevates levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines