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The Effect of Physical Structure on Balance Performance  

Cemre Can AKKAYA, Hakan TAN, Bergün Meriç BİNGÜL  


In the human body, muscle, joint diameter, bone lengths, adipose tissue, body circumference measurements are determined by anthropomeetric measurements. Anthropometric measurement methods consist of bone length measurements of the individual or groups of athletes, low cost and practical applications used in determining physical properties. The ones used more than the measurement variables are the mass and length. The measurements used in determining the physical structure; diameter, circumference, length and skin fold thickness. Thanks to anthropometric measurements, the general density of the human body, the subcutaneous fat ratio and body muscle mass calculations are made. In order to make these calculations, body weight, height, joint diameter and muscle circumference measurements are taken. Muscle circumference and joint diameter measurement rates enable us to obtain lean body mass, but muscle circumference measurements can be said to be related to subcutaneous fat level. As a result, we can say that environmental measurements explain the body's rate of fat and lean muscle. In order to achieve an effective performance in all sports branches, it is considered that a physical structure suitable for the sports branch was made first. It has been observed in the literature that the genetic existing physical structure of the individual has a decisive role on the level of activity or the tendency of the individual to a specific branch, as well as branch-specific changes in the physical appearance as a result of continuous physical activities. In the researches, different somatotype features are seen in athletes in different sports branches, the physical properties of the athlete have an important effect on the somatotype structure, the sportsman intake and success of the branch, the balance ability and these factors are closely related with body mass index and muscle flexibility, and the balance feature increases mobility with flexibility. Is thought to be effective in reducing the risk of muscle damage due to physical activities. It has been observedinthestudiesthatphysicalfitnessandmobility levels are effective in the performance of competitors and sedentary sportsmen. Our aim is to determine the anthropometric and somatotype densities of Hayrettin Gürsoy Sports High School students and to determine their effect levels on balance properties by determining their body ratio levels with formulas. A total of 30 volunteer sports high school students, 11 women (age 16.27 ± 0.46 years, height 163.55 ± 2.60 cm body weight 53.88 ± 8.75) and 19 men (age 16.55 ± 0.51 height 171.8 ± 4.85 body weight 65.45 ± 7.23), participated. Among the research groups, muscle, bone, joint measurements and ratio indices (subcutaneous fat levels, bone length diameter and circumference measurements) and flamingo individual foot balance test measurements were applied. Heath- Carter formula was used to determine the somatotype characters. Anthropometric ratio indices (hip index, cormique index, acromi-iliacus index, martin index, chest circumference index) were calculated with formulas. SPSS 22.0 Package program was used to analyze the data and multivariate correlational method analysis was performed to determine the relationship between indexes and balance levels. Somatotype characters of female athletes were calculated as 3-3-3 (balanced somatotype), and somatotype average of male athletes were calculated as 2-4-3 (balanced mesomorph). The literature shows that different sports branches have different somatotype structures. Different ratio indices of male athletes in different sports branches, and variations in balance and physical fitness levels were determined. These variations are thought to arise from the difference of different physical structures and training methods required by different branches. Separately, it was analyzed that height, weight and BMI affect each other with different fitness parameters in different sports branches. It is recommended that club officials and coaches measure physical physical parameters and anthropometric ratio index levels at the point of directing physical education teachers in schools to children, young people and students. In our study, no relation was found between somatotype structures and balance properties in both men and women (p> 0.05). When looking at the relationship between other physical fitness parameters and balance performance, a statistically significant relationship was found between foot length and nondominant foot balance performance in women (p <0.05). Considering that studies related to the relationship between balance performance and physical structure show different results in the literature, it can be said that more comprehensive research is needed.