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Paper Details

Geometric Overview of Iznik Green Mosque Tiles

Hülya Bozyokuş


Architect Hacı Musa built Bursa Iznik Green Mosque in 1391. The construction of the mosque was started by Çandarlı Halil Hayrettin Pasha, and after his death, his son Ali Pasha continued and completed it. The mosque was named as Green Mosque because of the tile decorations in its minaret. Although the mosque can be handled in many ways, the geometric shapes in the structure of the mosque are very important. On the square base of the minaret in the northwest corner of the main room, its body starts as a polygonal prism, continues with a round body, and is completed with a single cheer and a conical cone. The minaret is decorated in a row of semi-hexagonal marble with semi-hexagonal shapes. Between the bracelet part of the cylindrical minaret and the stone decorations, embellishments made of frieze and dark blue tiles were placed. In the middle of these, the six-pointed stars follow each other. Geometric shapes, ornaments, triangles, pentagons, hexagons, octagons, star polygons, motifs, and patterns in the Iznik Green Mosque, harmony in the color and texture of the tiles, the harmony created with symmetry, zigzag crossings, the transformation of stone mastery into art, are worth seeing. Iznik Yeşil Mosque is one of the important works representing the architectural features of the Seljuk period in Anatolia both historically and structurally, but its geometrical motifs in interior and exterior tile decorations are extraordinarily beautiful. Since the earliest times in history, since human beings need to embellish the environment they live in and the things they use, they have been used in functional forms and inspired by the environment they live in. Geometric motifs are also a universal form of decoration, and geometric forms have been used in symbolic motifs as a result of the necessity of expressing experiences, feelings, desires, and thoughts indirectly, as it forms the lifestyles and traditions of societies in every civilization throughout human history. A wide variety of compositions can be made in geometrical shapes, Turkish Islamic monuments, with the combination of broken and straight lines, stars, polygons, and other forms that use architecture as a decorative style. It is suggested that the first application of geometric ornaments in architecture in Turks began in the 11th century with Karahanli and Great Seljuks. It is stated that it started from the Iran Khorasan region and reached Anatolia through Azerbaijan. It is in this period that geometric compositions became a distinctive, continuous and consistent feature. You can enter the place of worship of the Iznik Yesil Mosque through a platform with three steps. This rectangular plan is divided into three sections, with columns and arches. There is an eight-slice dome in the middle. The mosque's square-shaped place of worship is covered with a central dome. Iznik Green Mosque consists of a place of worship with a square plan in the north and south general direction and a congregation place in the east-west direction. The main place of worship with a square plan is covered with a dome that sits on the outer octagonal pulley and provides a transition from the inside with a triangular belt. The triangles that provide the transition to the base and the body of the Iznik Green Mosque are covered with marble. There are geometrical crossings on both sides of the altar. Iznik Green Mosque has a great splendor with its tile patterns consisting of straight, curved, square, rectangular, pentagonal, hexagonal, circle and triangles, in which geometric shapes are used. Therefore, in this study, geometric shapes in Iznik Green Mosque tiles were examined and tried to be interpreted with a geometric view. Rectangular, square, triangle, circle, pentagonal, hexagonal, star, etc. formed by the geometric shapes, colors, shapes, and patterns in the tiles used in Iznik Green Mosque decorations. Observational research results are described by using qualitative data collection methods such as observation, interview, and document analysis by examining the geometric patterns formed by the combination of tiles. The evaluation of the tiles used in the mosque's interior and minaret with a geometric view will be useful in conveying the historical texture of that period to the next generations.