KARAGÖZ NEWSPAPER AND THE TOMB OF KARAGÖZ
İbrahim İmran ÖZTAHTALI
Journal Title:INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND ART RESEARCHES
Technological developments made itself felt in every field following the Renaissance and industrial revolution. One of these effects was on periodicals with the invention of the printing press. Although the concept of printing and journalism occurred in the Ottoman society long after its time, it had the opportunity to follow the developments more closely as the Ottomans' direction returned to Europe. With the printing house established by Müteferrika, despite the low literacy rate compared to Europe, the printing began to increase. The rapidly growing number of printing presses enabled the printed books and periodicals to become widespread. Publications, which were limited until Tanzimat, were often published in state-run printing presses, forming the state's official media organ. The number of periodicals also increased with Tanzimat. The real increase was lived with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy II. More than two hundred newspapers and magazines were published in three months following the announcement in 1908. One of them was the Karagöz Newspaper. The publication, which was founded by Ali Fuat Bey by borrowing money, is one of the few newspapers issued until 1955 without interval. Karagöz, which started to appear as a humor newspaper, was based on the main character of one of the leading arts of traditional Turkish theatre, shadow play, and carried Karagöz from the stage into the social and political life. The newspaper, which brought humor to the peak with the caricatures of Ali Fuat Bey, was once among the highest publications in circulation. In a copy of the newspaper published in 1909, a documentary about the tomb of Karagöz in Bursa was shared. It was stated that the tomb inscription was fragmented in this document. According to the rumor in Bursa, the Greek soldier ruined the epitaph while leaving the city during the Bursa invasion. The incorrectness of this rumor was also revealed by this document. Additionally, the existence of the tomb of Hacıvat - Haci İvaz was also mentioned while giving information about the tomb of Karagöz, in the cover of a copy of the newspaper named Fevâid, published by Murat Emri Efendi. Karagöz, one of the most famous plays of traditional Turkish theater, has maintained a continuity based on the master-apprentice relationship for centuries. It was especially widespread in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent. An important reason for this is the love of the Sultan's Karagöz. Some nights he had karagöz performances in the Kanuni Palace and watched with his princes. He also brought the dream to the palace in the circumcision festivities of his princes and watched them together with his princes. Karagöz, which became very common in Istanbul in the 1540s, was also the subject of some gossip. Some of the Ulema have asked Karagöz not to comply with the sharia and not to be played due to the obscene communications in its content. Suleiman the Magnificent invites Ebussuud Efendi, the sheik of Islam of the time, to ask for a fatwa whether Karagöz is in accordance with the law. After a while, Ebussuud Efendi gave a fatwa that Karagöz conforms to the sharia, and Karagöz was saved from being erased from the historical scene. This fatwa was included in the work of Mustafa Ali, who came from Gallipoli, gathering fatwas of the period. The work is still in Beyazıt Library. Whether it is real people or imaginary, Karagöz is an essential brand and essential brand of our culture and Bursa, regardless of Hacıvat. The fact that Karagöz has been moved from the screen to newspaper pages is a registered document of the subtle humor of the Turkish people. Ali Fuad Bey, II. With the experiences he gained from the political and administrative structure during the reign of Abdulhamid, he was able to get along well with the existing governments, and therefore his newspaper was never closed during his entire broadcasting life. The Karagöz newspaper, which has been published for 47 years, expects to be examined in libraries and private collectors and to shed light on the political and social tendencies of the period, with both Ottoman copies and copies printed in new letters after 1928.