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Sending Engineering Students And Officers To Germany For The Purpose Of Training In The Ottoman State



In 18th Century, there were great developments in Europe in terms of iron, steel industry and technology. The fast development in technology and the changes that depended on these changes showed their influences in the field of education as well as in many other fields. It was noticed with these changes in Europe that the traditional education system was disrupted and reform movements started. The most important movement among these was establishing engineering schools to provide modern technical education. The engineering schools started to send students to Europe in order to observe and follow the developments after they graduated or when they were still students. In 1903, an education agreement was signed between Germany and Ottoman State, and students were sent to Germany to be trained as engineers and officers for the military. When the students were being selected, the criterion was their status in educations being well. When the number of the students demanding to be sent to Germany was more than necessary, they were subjected to take an exam. Investigators and teachers were assigned for the duty of preparing them. They continued to keep the students under control during their educations in Germany. Before the students were sent to Germany, they received preparatory training in Istanbul. The travel and training expenses of the students were covered by the Government. When there were unsuccessful students, they had to repay the expenses made by the Government. The students were subject to some laws and military rules when they started training. They had a preparatory period for six months, and they received military training. They were given training in engineering schools and in factories to receive technological developments. After the training in Germany, the students had to serve in the military for ten years. With the increasing number of the engineers trained in Germany, the number of the engineers supplied from other countries decreased. Some of these students were assigned to important duties, and had successful works. The students who were assigned to important duties in the Army after they graduated from their schools in Germany ensured that the western mentality was imposed to the Ottoman State. The problem of the scarcity of engineers was overcome, and the engineers who were brought from Europe by paying excessive salaries were replaced by the Turkish engineers. The selection and placement processes of the students and officers sent to Germany for engineering training will be explained in the following sections.