Community-Based and Integrated Solid Waste Management: Experiences from Metro Manila’s Tondo District
Zortea M*, Bonis MD, Pupa F, Ripaldi G and Cucculelli F
Journal Title: Open Access Journal of Waste Management & Xenobiotics
An improper solid waste management system creates serious negative impacts both on the environment and on human health. This article analyses as case study the urban main reality of Philippines, Metro Manila, focusing specifically on Tondo District. According to the National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC), in 2016, 40,000 tons of waste was produced daily in Philippines, of which 12,000 remained uncollected, and the country is considered the largest contributor of plastic in the ocean. The World Bank estimated that the production of waste would increase by 165%, doubling in 2025. These data show how the problem of solid waste management and collection in Philippines, especially in urban areas, requires immediate attention and solutions. In addition, in most cases, the waste management (WM) system organized by the Baranguays – the smallest administrative divisions in the country – is inadequate, and integrated by unofficial and in large part not legalized systems, which separate and sell waste to companies who recycle or reuse it. The research conducted in field analyses the waste chain in the Philippines, explaining how a more efficient Urban Solid Waste Management could produce a positive impact on people and on the environment. In Tondo District the presence of unofficial actors, such as cooperatives, under certain conditions could be a valuable supply chain that would reduce the amount of waste in streets and landfills, integrating the work of the most vulnerable groups, such as women and scavengers. The research main finding is that it would be necessary not only to implement LGUs (local government units, including provinces, independent cities, municipalities and Barangays) policies on solid waste management (SWM) but also to adopt a community-based approach in the official waste chain.