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Congenital Syphilis Simulating Bone Neoplasm in 2-Month Old Infant – Case Report

Luciana Friedrich1 *, Júlia Lima Vieira2 , Cintia Junges3 , Veronica Indicatti Fiamenghi3 , Daniela Dias Morales3 and Jiseh Loss4

Journal Title:Medical & Clinical Research

Introduction: Congenital Syphilis (CS) occurs through the transplacental transmission of Treponema pallidum in inadequately treated or non-treated pregnant women, and is capable of severe consequences such as miscarriage, preterm birth, congenital disease and/or neonatal death. CS has been showing an increasing incidence worldwide, with an increase of 208% from 2009 to 2015 in Brazil. Case report: 2-month old infant receives care in emergency service due to edema of right lower limb with pain in mobilization. X-ray with osteolytic lesion in distal fibula. Infant was sent to the Pediatrics Oncology clinic. Perinatal data: 7 prenatal appointments, negative serology at 10 and 30 weeks of gestation. End of pregnancy tests were not examined and tests for mother’s hospital admission were not requested. Mother undergone elective cesarean section at 38 weeks without complications. During the pediatric oncologist appointment, patient showed erythematous-squamous lesions in neck and other scar-like lesions in upper body. A new X-ray of lower limbs showed lesions in right fibula with periosteal reaction associated with aggressive osteolytic lesion compromising distal diaphysis, with cortical bone rupture and signs of pathological fracture, suggestive of eosinophilic granuloma. She was hospitalized for a lesion biopsy. Laboratory tests: hematocrit: 23.1 / hemoglobin 7.7 / leukocytes 10,130 (without left deviation) / platelets 638,000 / Negative Cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM and Toxoplasmosis IgG and IgM / VDRL 1:128. Congenital syphilis diagnosis with skin lesions, bone alterations and anemia. Lumbar puncture: glucose 55 / total proteins 26 / VDRL non reagent / 13 leukocytes (8% neutrophils; 84% monomorphonuclear; 8% macrophages) and 160 erythrocytes / negative VDRL and culture. X-ray of other long bones, ophthalmological evaluation and abdominal ultrasound without alterations. Patient was hospitalized for 14 days for treatment with Ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/day, due to the lack of Crystalline Penicillin in the hospital. She is now under outpatient follow-up. Discussion: CS is responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. The ongoing increase of cases of this pathology reflects a severe health issue and indicates failures in policies for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, with inadequate follow-up of prenatal and maternity protocols.