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Paper Details

MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN INSECT RESEARCH

MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN INSECT RESEARCH

Diganggana Talukdar

Journal Title:INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Abstract


To meet the growing demand for food it is essential to increase the production of food. Insect pests are major constraints to global production for food and fibre that can be reduced utilizing modern biotechnological tools. In insect research field, the biotechnological tools have been applied to study various issues such as insect identification, insect control and insect genetic relationships. It has a significant role in improving efficacy, cost-effectiveness and in expanding the markets for the bio insecticides. Molecular techniques employed for identifying and monitoring establishment and dispersal of specific biotypes of natural enemies. Production, formulation and storage of entomopathogenic fungi can be dramatically improved through biotechnology and genetic engineering. Proteinaceous insect toxins (scorpion toxin, mite toxin, trypsin inhibitor), hormones (eclosion hormone, diuretic hormone) and metabolic enzymes (juvenile hormone esterase) introduced into NPV and GV genome virus to increase its efficacy to kill insect. Genetic manipulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes encoding for proteins toxic to insects offers an opportunity to produce genetically modified strains with more potent and transgenic plant expressing Bt toxin. In 2011, planting of Bt cotton in India surpassed the historical milestone of 10 million hectare for the first time and occupied 88% of the recorded 12.1 million hectare cotton crops. However, field resistance of Bt crops to various insects have been noticed and to combat this problem two approaches namely refuge and pyramiding were recently introduced. The development of cryobiological method for preserving embryos of insects can significantly save the rearing costs, and the valuable collection of insect natural enemies could be maintained indefinitely. RNAi technology enables engineering of a new generation of pest-resistant GM crops. Insect control strategies that integrate advance knowledge in biotechnology with traditional wisdom and technology will contribute to the sustainability of agriculture.

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