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Paper Details


Mr. Vijay Kumar Singh*, Utkarsh Singh, Ashutosh Mishra, Dinesh Chandra, Rajesh Sahu

Journal Title:World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

Hi storically, t he oral route of drug administ ration has been the one used most f or both convent ional as well as novel drug deliver y . The reasons for thi s pref erence a re obvi ous because of the ease of administration and widespread acceptance by pat ients. Drugs taken orally for syst emic effects have variable absorption rates and variable serum concent rations which may be unpredi ctable. This has led to the development of sustained rel ease and controlled-release systems. The high acid content and ubiquitous di gest ive enzymes of t he digest ive tract can degrade some drugs well bef ore they reach the si te of absorption into the bl oodstream. This i s a particular problem f or ingested proteins. Therefore, thi s route has limi tat ions f or administration of bi ot echnol ogy products. Many macromolecules and polar compounds cannot effect ively t raverse the cells of the epi thelial membrane in the small intestines to reach the bloodstream. Their use is limi ted to l ocal effect in the gastrointestinal tract. Many drugs become insoluble at the low pH levels encountered in the digest ive tract. Since only t he soluble f orm o f the drug can be absorbed into the bl oodstream, the transi t ion of the drug to the insoluble f orm can significantly reduce bioavailabili t y. The drug may be inact ivated in the liver on i ts way to the systemic circulat ion. An example of thi s i s the inact ivat ion of glycer yl t rini trate by hepat ic monoxygenase enzymes during the fi rst pass metabolism. Some drugs i rri tate the gastrointest inal tract and thi s is partially counteracted by coating. Oral route may not be suitable f or drugs targeted to specific organs. Despi te disadvantages, the oral route remains the pref erred route of drug deliver y. Several improvements have taken place in the f ormulat i on of drugs for oral deliver y f or improving their action.