Residual effect of organic manures on growth, yield and economics of greengram in maize- sunflower-greengram system
K. TEJESWARA RAO*, A. UPENDRA RAO AND D. SRINIVASULA REDDY
Journal Title:International Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive years (2003-04 and 2004-2005) at S.V. Agricultural college farm (ANGRAU),
Tirupati , Southern plateau and Hills zone of India on red sandy soils consisting Greengram was raised as residual crop during summer in a
sequence of maize sown in Kharif and sunflower sown in Rabi with the imposition of the treatments to the first two crops of the sequence.
Six different sources of nitrogen viz., farm yard manure, vermicompost, neem leaf, poultry manure, pig manure and fertilizer to supply
recommended dose of nitrogen on equalent nitrogen basis and one absolute control were applied to first two crops in the cropping system.
Various parameters of greengram were influenced differently by varied manurial practices tried. However, during both the years of investigation,
all the growth and yield attributes, yield (seed as well as haulm), harvest index, gross returns, net returns and benefit-cost ratio of green gram
were at their best with the residual effect of poultry manure either with or without the use of Panchagavya. The uptake of nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium by greengram crop and protein content of seed was significantly higher with the residual effect of various organic
sources either with or without the use of Panchagavya than with fertilizer either with or without the use of Panchagavya. The highest
phosphorus uptake of greengram was recorded with the residual effect of poultry manure either with or without the spray of Panchagavya,
while the potassium uptake was the highest with vermicompost either with or without the spray of Panchagavya. Gross returns, net returns
and benefit-cost ratio of greengram were significantly lesser with the residual effect of fertilizer than with any of the organic sources tried. All
the growth and yield attributes, yield, nutrient uptake, harvest index, protein content of the seed and economic returns of greengram were at
their lowest with the residual effect of non-manuring through any source to either maize or sunflower, which were statistically similar to those
with foliar application of Panchagavya alone to the preceding two crops.